Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.ConjunctivitisPemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Conjunctival DiseasesConjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Pemphigoid, Bullous: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).New JerseyEgypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.LondonWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Antistatic Agents: Chemical compounds applied to materials to reduce their retention of an electrostatic charge.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalChromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Criminology: The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.FloridaStudents: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Denture, Partial, Temporary: A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.Compact Disks: Computer disks storing data with a maximum reduction of space and bandwidth. The compact size reduces cost of transmission and storage.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.

Adjuvant-guided type-1 and type-2 immunity: infectious/noninfectious dichotomy defines the class of response. (1/209)

Traditionally, protein Ags have been injected in CFA (oil with inactivated mycobacteria) to induce immunity and with IFA (oil alone) to induce tolerance. We report here that injection of hen eggwhite lysozyme, a prototypic Ag, in CFA-induced and IFA-induced pools of hen eggwhite lysozyme-specific memory T cells of comparable fine specificity, clonal size, and avidity spectrum, but with type-1 and type-2 cytokine signatures, respectively. This adjuvant-guided induction of virtually unipolar type-1 and type-2 immunity was observed with seven protein Ags and in a total of six mouse strains. Highly polarized type-1 and type-2 immunity are thus readily achievable through the choice of adjuvant, irrespective of the genetic bias of the host and of the nature of the protein Ag. This finding should have far-reaching implications for the development of vaccines against infectious and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, our demonstration that Ag injected with IFA is as strongly immunogenic for T cells as it is with CFA shows that the presence of the mycobacteria determines not the priming of naive T cells through the second-signal link but the path of downstream differentiation toward CD4 memory cells that express either type-1 or type-2 cytokines.  (+info)

Humoral response suppression observed with CD23 transgenics. (2/209)

CD23, also known as the low affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRII), has been hypothesized to have a role in IgE regulation. A new CD23 transgenic mouse was generated using the MHC class I promoter and IgH enhancer to further test the hypothesis that CD23 plays a role in the down-regulation of IgE. Study of three founder lines by FACS showed overexpression to varying extents on both B and T lymphocytes. No alterations in lymphocyte populations was observed. All three founder lines exhibited strong suppression of IgE in response to DNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin/alum and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection compared with that in parental or littermate controls. The founder line exhibiting the highest level of suppression also was less susceptible to Ag-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Overall, the data support the concept that enhancing CD23 levels can be used to suppress IgE-mediated disease. The mechanism involves decreased IgE synthesis, because the serum half-life of IgE was not altered in transgenics, and enzyme-linked immunospot analysis demonstrated lower IgE-producing cells stimulated by injection of anti-IgD. Transgenics also exhibited significantly decreased IgG1 responses and exhibited lower levels of all Ig isotypes, although this was more variable in different founder lines.  (+info)

Effects of aluminum potassium sulfate on learning, memory, and cholinergic system in mice. (3/209)

AIM: To study the relationship between aluminum potassium sulfate (APS) and memory deficits of mice. METHODS: 30, 60, or 90 d after the mice were given daily APS i.g., the step-through latency (STL) was determined with a passive avoidance task. Aluminum (Al) contents in brain and blood were assayed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Acetylcholine (ACh) content in brain was determined with chemiluminescent method and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was measured radiochemically. RESULTS: APS 1 g.kg-1 increased blood-Al only after 30 d. After 60 d, STL, ACh content and ChAT activity decreased by 46.4%, 8.5%, and 22.6%, respectively. These parameters decreased by 50%, 11.1%, and 27.8%, respectively, with increased Al in blood and brain, after 90 d. APS 0.25 g.kg-1 had no effects on mice except blood-Al. In ethylcholine mustard aziridium chloride (AF64A) treated mice, APS 1 g.kg-1 only increased blood and brain-Al. CONCLUSION: The intake of APS 1 g.kg-1.d-1 for 60 d induced learning and memory deficits in mice.  (+info)

Disturbance of cerebral function in people exposed to drinking water contaminated with aluminium sulphate: retrospective study of the Camelford water incident. (4/209)

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether people exposed to drinking water contaminated with 20 tonnes of aluminium sulphate in the Camelford area of Cornwall in the south west of England in July 1988 had suffered organic brain damage as opposed to psychological trauma only. DESIGN: Retrospective study of affected people. PARTICIPANTS: 55 affected people and 15 siblings nearest in age to one of the group but who had not been exposed to the contaminated water were studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Various clinical and psychological tests to determine medical condition and anxiety levels in affected people. Assessment of premorbid IQ (pFSIQ) with the national adult reading test, a computerised battery of psychomotor testing, and measurement of the difference in latencies between the flash and pattern visual evoked potentials in all participants. RESULTS: The mean (SE) pFSIQ was above average at 114.4 (1.1). The most sensitive of the psychomotor tests for organic brain disease was the symbol digit coding (SDC) test (normal score 100, abnormal <85). PARTICIPANTS performed less well on this test (54.5 (6.0)) than expected from their pFSIQ (P<0.0001) and a little less poorly on the averaged less discriminating tests within the battery (86.1 (2.5), P<0.0001). In a comparison with the 15 sibling pairs (affected people's age 41.0 (3.3) years v sibling age of 42.7 (3.1) years (P=0.36) the exposed people had similar pFSIQ (114.7 (2.1)) to their siblings (116.3 (2.1), (P=0.59) but performed badly on the symbol digit coding test (51.8 (16.6)) v (87.5 (4.9) for siblings, P=0.03). The flash-pattern differences in exposed people were greater than in 42 unrelated control subjects of similar age (27.33 (1.64) ms v 18. 57 (1.47) ms, P=0.0002). The 15 unexposed siblings had significantly better flash-pattern differences than their affected siblings (13.4 (2.4) ms v 29.6 (2.9) ms, P=0.0002). No effect of anxiety could be shown on these measurements from the analysis of the anxiety scores of exposed people. CONCLUSION: People who were exposed to the contaminated water at Camelford suffered considerable damage to cerebral function, which was not related to anxiety. Follow up studies would be required to determine the longer term prognosis for affected individuals.  (+info)

Protective immunity using recombinant human IL-12 and alum as adjuvants in a primate model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (5/209)

Protection from cutaneous leishmaniasis, a chronic ulcerating skin lesion affecting millions, has been achieved historically using live virulent preparations of the parasite. Killed or recombinant Ags that could be safer as vaccines generally require an adjuvant for induction of a strong Th1 response in murine models. Murine rIL-12 as an adjuvant with soluble Leishmania Ag has been shown to protect susceptible mice. We used 48 rhesus macaques to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a vaccine combining heat-killed Leishmania amazonensis with human rIL-12 (rhIL-12) and alum (aluminum hydroxide gel) as adjuvants. The single s.c. vaccination was found to be safe and immunogenic, although a small transient s.c. nodule developed at the site. Groups receiving rhIL-12 had an augmented in vitro Ag-specific IFN-gamma response after vaccination, as well as increased production of IgG. No increase in IL-4 or IL-10 was found in cell culture supernatants from either control or experimental groups. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions were not predictive of protection. Intradermal forehead challenge infection with 107 metacyclic L. amazonensis promastigotes at 4 wk demonstrated protective immunity in all 12 monkeys receiving 2 microgram rhIL-12 with alum and Ag. Partial efficacy was seen with lower doses of rhIL-12 and in groups lacking either adjuvant. Thus, a single dose vaccine with killed Ag using rhIL-12 and alum as adjuvants was safe and fully effective in this primate model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study extends the murine data to primates, and provides a basis for further human trials.  (+info)

Archaeosome vaccine adjuvants induce strong humoral, cell-mediated, and memory responses: comparison to conventional liposomes and alum. (6/209)

Ether glycerolipids extracted from various archaeobacteria were formulated into liposomes (archaeosomes) possessing strong adjuvant properties. Mice of varying genetic backgrounds, immunized by different parenteral routes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) entrapped in archaeosomes ( approximately 200-nm vesicles), demonstrated markedly enhanced serum anti-BSA antibody titers. These titers were often comparable to those achieved with Freund's adjuvant and considerably more than those with alum or conventional liposomes (phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylglycerol-cholesterol, 1. 8:0.2:1.5 molar ratio). Furthermore, antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgG2b isotype antibodies were all induced. Association of BSA with the lipid vesicles was required for induction of a strong response, and >80% of the protein was internalized within most archaeosome types, suggesting efficient release of antigen in vivo. Encapsulation of ovalbumin and hen egg lysozyme within archaeosomes showed similar immune responses. Antigen-archaeosome immunizations also induced a strong cell-mediated immune response: antigen-dependent proliferation and substantial production of cytokines gamma interferon (Th1) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (Th2) by spleen cells in vitro. In contrast, conventional liposomes induced little cell-mediated immunity, whereas alum stimulated only an IL-4 response. In contrast to alum and Freund's adjuvant, archaeosomes composed of Thermoplasma acidophilum lipids evoked a dramatic memory antibody response to the encapsulated protein (at approximately 300 days) after only two initial immunizations (days 0 and 14). This correlated with increased antigen-specific cell cycling of CD4(+) T cells: increase in synthetic (S) and mitotic (G(2)/M) and decrease in resting (G(1)) phases. Thus, archaeosomes may be potent vaccine carriers capable of facilitating strong primary and memory humoral, and cell-mediated immune responses to the entrapped antigen.  (+info)

Impaired affinity maturation in Cr2-/- mice is rescued by adjuvants without improvement in germinal center development. (7/209)

Cr2-/- mice have an impairment in humoral immunity, as shown by the decrease in the Ab titers against T cell-dependent Ags and abnormalities in germinal center formation. Germinal centers are present, but they are decreased in size and number, indicating problems in their development. In this study, we investigated whether this abnormality in germinal center development is associated with problems in the establishment of optimal affinity maturation and the generation of memory B cells, processes closely related to the germinal center reaction. We immunized the Cr2-/- animals with different Ags with or without adjuvants. We showed that, when immunized without adjuvants, complement receptors are absolutely required for optimal affinity maturation. Although limited affinity maturation is elicited in the Cr2-/- Ab response, it is decreased as compared with normal animals. Memory B cell generation is also impaired. In the presence of adjuvants, germinal center development in the Cr2-/- mice is still abnormal, as demonstrated by their decreased size and number. Surprisingly, adjuvants establish optimal affinity maturation and partially restore the amount of Ab produced during the primary response and memory B cell generation. However, adjuvants cannot improve the ability of follicular dendritic cells to retain Ags in the form of immune complexes. These observations indicate that immunization with inflammatory Ags offset some of the immunological abnormalities found in the Cr2-/- mice and show that optimal affinity maturation in the Cr2-/- mice can be achieved in the absence of normal germinal centers.  (+info)

Calcium phosphate nanoparticle adjuvant. (8/209)

Vaccination to protect against human infectious diseases may be enhanced by using adjuvants that can selectively stimulate immunoregulatory responses. In a murine model, a novel nanoparticulate adjuvant composed of calcium phosphate (CAP) was compared with the commonly used aluminum (alum) adjuvants for its ability to induce immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Results indicated that CAP was more potent as an adjuvant than alum, elicited little or no inflammation at the site of administration, induced high titers of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) antibody and neutralizing antibody, and facilitated a high percentage of protection against HSV-2 infection. Additional benefits of CAP include (i) an insignificant IgE response, which is an important advantage over injection of alum compounds, and (ii) the fact that CAP is a natural constituent of the human body. Thus, CAP is very well tolerated and absorbed. These studies were performed with animal models. By virtue of the potency of this CAP adjuvant and the relative absence of side effects, we believe that this new CAP formulation has great potential for use as an adjuvant in humans.  (+info)

  • To date, the only adjuvants licensed for use in human vaccines are compounds of alum - complex salts of aluminum. (bioworld.com)
  • This mineral salts (Alum) fights with the bacteria that cause the odor. (iherb.com)
  • While sindoor was the ancient name given to the very toxic, red, mercury oxide, as a cosmetic its most common base is turmeric powder which becomes red when mixed with lime juice or lime powder (calcium compound), moistened in water, or with alum, iodine and camphor, or with oil and sea shell powder (calcium salts), or aguru, chandan and kasturi. (hinduismtoday.com)
  • Alum is made up of a variety of mineral salts which, when combined, form an entirely new mineral compound. (healthy.co.nz)
  • When it comes to personal care products, read the labels on the following products: Body lotions, face creams, anti-perspirants, crystal style deodorants (alum salts), commercial soaps, most cosmetics, shampoos/conditioners, lip balms, and almost all suntan lotions and sun screen or sunblock products. (herbalix.com)
  • Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. (hindawi.com)
  • To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. (nih.gov)
  • Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. (nih.gov)
  • Aluminium adjuvants, typically referred to as 'alum', are the most commonly used adjuvants in human and animal vaccines worldwide, yet the mechanism underlying the stimulation of the immune system by alum remains unknown. (nature.com)
  • For example, unlike the other alkali metals the smallest one, lithium , does not form alums, and there is only one known sodium alum. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Due to the abundance of saline water on-board, performance of sodium chloride/ calcium silicate as a coagulant for oily waste water was determined and compared with that of alum/ calcium carbonate. (uwo.ca)
  • [ citation needed ] From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, it appears that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain salty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale , and which consists chiefly of sulfates of iron and aluminium. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Native alumen from Melos appears to have been a mixture mainly of alunogen (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .17H 2 O) with alum and other minor sulfates [ 4 ] . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Remember, backers who pledge for a copy of Compounded (CHEMISTRY 101 pledge level and above) receive ALL stretch goals - so pledge early and rest easy in knowing you'll never have to upgrade your pledge to get more goodies. (kickstarter.com)
  • In addition, by installing the feed sensor, Suez can quickly verify the exact amount of alum injected into the application, and that information is automatically sent to the SCADA system. (wwdmag.com)
  • At present, a new type of polymer coagulant, poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) is widely used for coagulation and sedimentation in water supply plants locally and internationally, and produce a large amount of alum sludge every year. (iwaponline.com)
  • A team from HAB Aquatic Solutions prepares to apply alum at Pinto Lake in Watsonville, California, in 2017. (kqed.org)
  • If you apply alum paste on your hair and then wash it, it will help you to get rid of lice. (artofhealthandbeauty.online)
  • Other bromine compounds of significance include hydrogen bromide (HBr), a colourless gas used as a reducing agent and a catalyst in organic reactions. (britannica.com)
  • They certainly knew how to produce alum from alunite , as this process is archaeologically attested on the island Lesbos [ 3 ] . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The typical alum operation mined alunite, a mineral found in volcanic areas, then heated the rocks in a kiln and repeatedly poured water over them until they formed a paste. (reason.com)
  • NSI-189 is the first in a class of compounds that Neuralstem is developing into orally administered drugs, according to the company. (tbilaw.com)
  • Alum) is an inorganic salt with white, odorless and sweet tasted crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in most organic solvents. (rohloff-hls.de)
  • Activated Carbon - A form of elemental carbon whose particles have large surface area with adsorptive qualities, primarily used to remove chlorine, objectionable tastes and odors and numerous toxic organic compounds from water. (femyers.com)
  • OSPW is a complex mixture of suspended solids, various suspended and dissolved organic compounds. (uwo.ca)
  • Alum and natural coagulant Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) were used as the coagulants, and the process was optimized to improve the removal of turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). (uwo.ca)
  • Applied to the humoral response in mice sensitized with BLG adsorbed on alum, these assays proved to be a very useful tool for monitoring high IgE-responder mice following BLG immunization, and for an immunotherapy directed at polarizing the immune response. (nih.gov)
  • Areas covered: In this review the author reviews the literature and registered ongoing trials using GAD-alum put in relation to the high number of published different immune interventions. (nih.gov)
  • However, the contribution of IL-1 to alum-induced innate and adaptive immune responses is controversial and the role of IL-1α following alum injection has not been addressed. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Although alum is known to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro , it has been repeatedly demonstrated that alum does not require intact Toll-like receptor signalling to activate the immune system 1 , 2 . (nature.com)
  • Despite its long record of successful use in human vaccines, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of alum are not fully understood. (qub.ac.uk)
  • This study shows that IL-1 is dispensable for alum-induced antibody and CD8 T cell responses to ovalbumin. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Potassium alum is formed by large, transparent crystals that are used in different products like food or drugs as a buffer, neutralizing or forming agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • 2. To introduce the lesson, display the crystals you have grown, along with saucers or petri dishes of salt, sugar, and alum granules. (iit.edu)
  • Alum powder, found in the spice section of many grocery stores, may be used in pickling recipes as a preservative to maintain fruit and vegetable crispness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia antibacteriana in vitro del alumbre napolitano, adquirido en una herbolaria de la ciudad de Trujillo, sobre cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (bvsalud.org)
  • Resultados: Los mayores promedios de diámetros en halos de inhibición se encontraron en las soluciones de alumbre napolitano con concentraciones al 100%, en el caso de Staphylococcus aereus (18.7±3.2 mm) y 75% en cepas de Pseudomona aeruginosa (15.0±1.8 mm). (bvsalud.org)
  • Almost 93% of the oil was recovered at the top and bottom when 100 mg alum/L and 1 g calcium carbonate/L was used, and a very clear effluent was produced in the middle section of the treatment vessel. (uwo.ca)
  • The formation of alum ions neutralize the charges on plasma proteins, causing the blood to coagulate. (drugbank.ca)
Category:Alum - Wikimedia Commons
Category:Alum - Wikimedia Commons (commons.wikimedia.org)
Alphabetical Browse | Britannica
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Investigation on proteolysis and formation of volatile compounds of Lighvan cheese during ripening | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
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Eugenol triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells through E2F1/survivin down-regulation | BMC Cancer | Full Text (bmccancer.biomedcentral.com)
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Archiv: Floudas, George; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ngai, Kai; Paluch, Marian Molecular Dynamics of Glass-Forming Systems Effects of... (buchfreund.de)
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Little penguin - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
US6790568B2 - Photosensitive transfer material and color filter 
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US6790568B2 - Photosensitive transfer material and color filter - Google Patents (patents.google.com)
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Tamir Eshel, Author at Defense Update: - Page 3 of 126 (defense-update.com)
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Israel was a training ground for refugee learning to fight for Sudan - CSMonitor.com (csmonitor.com)
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Aluminum-free and Natural Deodorants Even Skeptics Will Love | Travel + Leisure (travelandleisure.com)
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Items where Year is 1996 - Enlighten: Theses (theses.gla.ac.uk)