Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Chemical compounds applied to materials to reduce their retention of an electrostatic charge.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.
Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.
Computer disks storing data with a maximum reduction of space and bandwidth. The compact size reduces cost of transmission and storage.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.

Adjuvant-guided type-1 and type-2 immunity: infectious/noninfectious dichotomy defines the class of response. (1/209)

Traditionally, protein Ags have been injected in CFA (oil with inactivated mycobacteria) to induce immunity and with IFA (oil alone) to induce tolerance. We report here that injection of hen eggwhite lysozyme, a prototypic Ag, in CFA-induced and IFA-induced pools of hen eggwhite lysozyme-specific memory T cells of comparable fine specificity, clonal size, and avidity spectrum, but with type-1 and type-2 cytokine signatures, respectively. This adjuvant-guided induction of virtually unipolar type-1 and type-2 immunity was observed with seven protein Ags and in a total of six mouse strains. Highly polarized type-1 and type-2 immunity are thus readily achievable through the choice of adjuvant, irrespective of the genetic bias of the host and of the nature of the protein Ag. This finding should have far-reaching implications for the development of vaccines against infectious and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, our demonstration that Ag injected with IFA is as strongly immunogenic for T cells as it is with CFA shows that the presence of the mycobacteria determines not the priming of naive T cells through the second-signal link but the path of downstream differentiation toward CD4 memory cells that express either type-1 or type-2 cytokines.  (+info)

Humoral response suppression observed with CD23 transgenics. (2/209)

CD23, also known as the low affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRII), has been hypothesized to have a role in IgE regulation. A new CD23 transgenic mouse was generated using the MHC class I promoter and IgH enhancer to further test the hypothesis that CD23 plays a role in the down-regulation of IgE. Study of three founder lines by FACS showed overexpression to varying extents on both B and T lymphocytes. No alterations in lymphocyte populations was observed. All three founder lines exhibited strong suppression of IgE in response to DNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin/alum and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection compared with that in parental or littermate controls. The founder line exhibiting the highest level of suppression also was less susceptible to Ag-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Overall, the data support the concept that enhancing CD23 levels can be used to suppress IgE-mediated disease. The mechanism involves decreased IgE synthesis, because the serum half-life of IgE was not altered in transgenics, and enzyme-linked immunospot analysis demonstrated lower IgE-producing cells stimulated by injection of anti-IgD. Transgenics also exhibited significantly decreased IgG1 responses and exhibited lower levels of all Ig isotypes, although this was more variable in different founder lines.  (+info)

Effects of aluminum potassium sulfate on learning, memory, and cholinergic system in mice. (3/209)

AIM: To study the relationship between aluminum potassium sulfate (APS) and memory deficits of mice. METHODS: 30, 60, or 90 d after the mice were given daily APS i.g., the step-through latency (STL) was determined with a passive avoidance task. Aluminum (Al) contents in brain and blood were assayed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Acetylcholine (ACh) content in brain was determined with chemiluminescent method and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was measured radiochemically. RESULTS: APS 1 g.kg-1 increased blood-Al only after 30 d. After 60 d, STL, ACh content and ChAT activity decreased by 46.4%, 8.5%, and 22.6%, respectively. These parameters decreased by 50%, 11.1%, and 27.8%, respectively, with increased Al in blood and brain, after 90 d. APS 0.25 g.kg-1 had no effects on mice except blood-Al. In ethylcholine mustard aziridium chloride (AF64A) treated mice, APS 1 g.kg-1 only increased blood and brain-Al. CONCLUSION: The intake of APS 1 g.kg-1.d-1 for 60 d induced learning and memory deficits in mice.  (+info)

Disturbance of cerebral function in people exposed to drinking water contaminated with aluminium sulphate: retrospective study of the Camelford water incident. (4/209)

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether people exposed to drinking water contaminated with 20 tonnes of aluminium sulphate in the Camelford area of Cornwall in the south west of England in July 1988 had suffered organic brain damage as opposed to psychological trauma only. DESIGN: Retrospective study of affected people. PARTICIPANTS: 55 affected people and 15 siblings nearest in age to one of the group but who had not been exposed to the contaminated water were studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Various clinical and psychological tests to determine medical condition and anxiety levels in affected people. Assessment of premorbid IQ (pFSIQ) with the national adult reading test, a computerised battery of psychomotor testing, and measurement of the difference in latencies between the flash and pattern visual evoked potentials in all participants. RESULTS: The mean (SE) pFSIQ was above average at 114.4 (1.1). The most sensitive of the psychomotor tests for organic brain disease was the symbol digit coding (SDC) test (normal score 100, abnormal <85). PARTICIPANTS performed less well on this test (54.5 (6.0)) than expected from their pFSIQ (P<0.0001) and a little less poorly on the averaged less discriminating tests within the battery (86.1 (2.5), P<0.0001). In a comparison with the 15 sibling pairs (affected people's age 41.0 (3.3) years v sibling age of 42.7 (3.1) years (P=0.36) the exposed people had similar pFSIQ (114.7 (2.1)) to their siblings (116.3 (2.1), (P=0.59) but performed badly on the symbol digit coding test (51.8 (16.6)) v (87.5 (4.9) for siblings, P=0.03). The flash-pattern differences in exposed people were greater than in 42 unrelated control subjects of similar age (27.33 (1.64) ms v 18. 57 (1.47) ms, P=0.0002). The 15 unexposed siblings had significantly better flash-pattern differences than their affected siblings (13.4 (2.4) ms v 29.6 (2.9) ms, P=0.0002). No effect of anxiety could be shown on these measurements from the analysis of the anxiety scores of exposed people. CONCLUSION: People who were exposed to the contaminated water at Camelford suffered considerable damage to cerebral function, which was not related to anxiety. Follow up studies would be required to determine the longer term prognosis for affected individuals.  (+info)

Protective immunity using recombinant human IL-12 and alum as adjuvants in a primate model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (5/209)

Protection from cutaneous leishmaniasis, a chronic ulcerating skin lesion affecting millions, has been achieved historically using live virulent preparations of the parasite. Killed or recombinant Ags that could be safer as vaccines generally require an adjuvant for induction of a strong Th1 response in murine models. Murine rIL-12 as an adjuvant with soluble Leishmania Ag has been shown to protect susceptible mice. We used 48 rhesus macaques to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a vaccine combining heat-killed Leishmania amazonensis with human rIL-12 (rhIL-12) and alum (aluminum hydroxide gel) as adjuvants. The single s.c. vaccination was found to be safe and immunogenic, although a small transient s.c. nodule developed at the site. Groups receiving rhIL-12 had an augmented in vitro Ag-specific IFN-gamma response after vaccination, as well as increased production of IgG. No increase in IL-4 or IL-10 was found in cell culture supernatants from either control or experimental groups. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions were not predictive of protection. Intradermal forehead challenge infection with 107 metacyclic L. amazonensis promastigotes at 4 wk demonstrated protective immunity in all 12 monkeys receiving 2 microgram rhIL-12 with alum and Ag. Partial efficacy was seen with lower doses of rhIL-12 and in groups lacking either adjuvant. Thus, a single dose vaccine with killed Ag using rhIL-12 and alum as adjuvants was safe and fully effective in this primate model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study extends the murine data to primates, and provides a basis for further human trials.  (+info)

Archaeosome vaccine adjuvants induce strong humoral, cell-mediated, and memory responses: comparison to conventional liposomes and alum. (6/209)

Ether glycerolipids extracted from various archaeobacteria were formulated into liposomes (archaeosomes) possessing strong adjuvant properties. Mice of varying genetic backgrounds, immunized by different parenteral routes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) entrapped in archaeosomes ( approximately 200-nm vesicles), demonstrated markedly enhanced serum anti-BSA antibody titers. These titers were often comparable to those achieved with Freund's adjuvant and considerably more than those with alum or conventional liposomes (phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylglycerol-cholesterol, 1. 8:0.2:1.5 molar ratio). Furthermore, antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgG2b isotype antibodies were all induced. Association of BSA with the lipid vesicles was required for induction of a strong response, and >80% of the protein was internalized within most archaeosome types, suggesting efficient release of antigen in vivo. Encapsulation of ovalbumin and hen egg lysozyme within archaeosomes showed similar immune responses. Antigen-archaeosome immunizations also induced a strong cell-mediated immune response: antigen-dependent proliferation and substantial production of cytokines gamma interferon (Th1) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (Th2) by spleen cells in vitro. In contrast, conventional liposomes induced little cell-mediated immunity, whereas alum stimulated only an IL-4 response. In contrast to alum and Freund's adjuvant, archaeosomes composed of Thermoplasma acidophilum lipids evoked a dramatic memory antibody response to the encapsulated protein (at approximately 300 days) after only two initial immunizations (days 0 and 14). This correlated with increased antigen-specific cell cycling of CD4(+) T cells: increase in synthetic (S) and mitotic (G(2)/M) and decrease in resting (G(1)) phases. Thus, archaeosomes may be potent vaccine carriers capable of facilitating strong primary and memory humoral, and cell-mediated immune responses to the entrapped antigen.  (+info)

Impaired affinity maturation in Cr2-/- mice is rescued by adjuvants without improvement in germinal center development. (7/209)

Cr2-/- mice have an impairment in humoral immunity, as shown by the decrease in the Ab titers against T cell-dependent Ags and abnormalities in germinal center formation. Germinal centers are present, but they are decreased in size and number, indicating problems in their development. In this study, we investigated whether this abnormality in germinal center development is associated with problems in the establishment of optimal affinity maturation and the generation of memory B cells, processes closely related to the germinal center reaction. We immunized the Cr2-/- animals with different Ags with or without adjuvants. We showed that, when immunized without adjuvants, complement receptors are absolutely required for optimal affinity maturation. Although limited affinity maturation is elicited in the Cr2-/- Ab response, it is decreased as compared with normal animals. Memory B cell generation is also impaired. In the presence of adjuvants, germinal center development in the Cr2-/- mice is still abnormal, as demonstrated by their decreased size and number. Surprisingly, adjuvants establish optimal affinity maturation and partially restore the amount of Ab produced during the primary response and memory B cell generation. However, adjuvants cannot improve the ability of follicular dendritic cells to retain Ags in the form of immune complexes. These observations indicate that immunization with inflammatory Ags offset some of the immunological abnormalities found in the Cr2-/- mice and show that optimal affinity maturation in the Cr2-/- mice can be achieved in the absence of normal germinal centers.  (+info)

Calcium phosphate nanoparticle adjuvant. (8/209)

Vaccination to protect against human infectious diseases may be enhanced by using adjuvants that can selectively stimulate immunoregulatory responses. In a murine model, a novel nanoparticulate adjuvant composed of calcium phosphate (CAP) was compared with the commonly used aluminum (alum) adjuvants for its ability to induce immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Results indicated that CAP was more potent as an adjuvant than alum, elicited little or no inflammation at the site of administration, induced high titers of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) antibody and neutralizing antibody, and facilitated a high percentage of protection against HSV-2 infection. Additional benefits of CAP include (i) an insignificant IgE response, which is an important advantage over injection of alum compounds, and (ii) the fact that CAP is a natural constituent of the human body. Thus, CAP is very well tolerated and absorbed. These studies were performed with animal models. By virtue of the potency of this CAP adjuvant and the relative absence of side effects, we believe that this new CAP formulation has great potential for use as an adjuvant in humans.  (+info)

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Potassium aluminium sulphate, commonly known as Alum is one of a group of chemicals known as a mordant. A mordant acts like a bridge between fibre and dye and fixes the dye to the fibre. It deepens and enriches the colours for most dyes and improves light and washfastness. Alum is the safest mordant to use but I recommend that gloves are worn to protect the hands when using a mordant bath.. . A standard recipe for wool and silk is 10% of the Weight of Fibres (WoF) in Alum and 8% WoF Cream of Tartar, which acts as an assistant. Mordant baths can be reused. Just add half as much again of Alum and cream of tartar.. For cotton and other cellulose fibres Alum is part of a two or three day process combined with washing soda. For more information on how to use Alum read my book Colours of the Earth Natural Dye recipes now available as digital download.. Spent mordant baths can be disposed of down the sink or around acid loving plants such as hydrangeas .. ...
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Aluminium sulphate has zero basicity whereas that of the polymerized aluminium salts varies from about 50% for Al 2 (OH) 3 Cl 3 (i.e. 10% w/w Al 2 O 3) to about 85% for ACH (24% w/w Al 2 O 3). The H + ions produced by aluminium sulphate, PACl (10% w/w Al 2 O 3) and ACH are 6, 3 and 1, respectively. High basicity coagulants therefore depress the pH of the treated water less than aluminium ...
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Aluminum sulphate (Al-2(SO4)(3)) is used as a coagulant in treatment of water in many areas of the world. However, careful evaluation of the effects of aluminium compounds on health is necessary. With this aim, two doses of Al-2(SO4)(3) (10 and 20 mu g/mL) were used in human blood cultures. Apple, kiwi, melon, pear, rose hip, strawberry, tomato and watermelon juices were used as examples of foods (1 and 2 mg/mL) and their effectiveness were assessed in vitro following exposure to Al-2(SO4)(3) for the first time. ...
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Thus we questioned whether IL-4-producing CD8 T cells would be induced in vivo in response to primary immunization with alum-precipitated protein. The approach has been to compare the polarization of transgenic naïve ovalbumin-specific CD4 (OTII) and CD8 (OTI) T cells during their response to alum-precipitated ovalbumin (alumOVA). By addressing this question we have obtained further insight into the way early Th2-features are acquired by CD4 T cells in vivo in response to alum-precipitated protein.. Although both CD4 and CD8 OVA-specific T cells proliferate (30) in response to alumOVA, the acquisition of Th2-features, such as IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA up-regulation, is exclusively confined to CD4 T cells (Fig. 2). In addition, we confirm that mRNA specific for IL-17RB is strongly induced in vivo in alumOVA-responding OTII cells, but not in OTI cells responding to the same antigen (Fig. 2).. Conclusions. These findings indicate that the induction of IL-17RB expression is a selective feature of CD4 T ...
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By carefully studying the kinetics and distribution of the innate and adaptive T cell immune response after i.p. injection of OVA in alum, we have uncovered a previously unappreciated role for monocyte-derived DCs in mediating the adjuvant effects of alum on cellular and humoral immunity. This is underscored by the fact that inflammatory monocytes and DCs were attracted to the peritoneum after injection of OVA-alum; that they took up and processed the Ag on their way to the MLNs; that they acquired a functional phenotype of mature DCs once in the LN; and, finally, that removal of CD11c+ DCs abolished T cell proliferation in OVA-alum-immunized mice, an effect that was restored by adoptive transfer of Ly6Chi monocytes.. One of the aspects of our study that allowed us to uncover this new mechanism of action of alum was the assessment of the precise localization where Ag presentation occurred after i.p. injection. The peritoneal route is easily accessible and often used as a site for immunization to ...
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Abstract. Aluminum-based adjuvants (aluminum salts or alum) are widely used in human vaccination, although their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here we report that, in mice, alum causes cell death and the subsequent release of host cell DNA, which acts as a potent endogenous immunostimulatory signal mediating alum adjuvant activity. Furthermore, we propose that host DNA signaling differentially regulates IgE and IgG1 production after alum-adjuvanted immunization. We suggest that, on the one hand, host DNA induces primary B cell responses, including IgG1 production, through interferon response factor 3 (Irf3)-independent mechanisms. On the other hand, we suggest that host DNA also stimulates canonical T helper type 2 (TH2) responses, associated with IgE isotype switching and peripheral effector responses, through Irf3-dependent mechanisms. The finding that host DNA released from dying cells acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern that mediates alum adjuvant activity may ...
Alum, any of a group of hydrated double salts, usually consisting of aluminum sulfate, water of hydration, and the sulfate of another element. 12H 2 O are considered to be an alum. How to use alumnus in a sentence. Meaning of Alum. The Latin term for a former school is alma mater, meaning nourishing mother; therefore, an alumnus can be seen as the foster son (pupil) of the nourishing mother (the school). 12H 2 O.Other alums are named after the monovalent ion, such as sodium alum and ammonium alum. Alumnus or Alumna? Alum (Fitkari) is an amazing ingredient with wonderful uses. Sometimes alum is seen in its crystalline form, although it is most often sold as a powder. ni A male graduate or former student of a school, college, or university. Alumni is a plural noun referring either to a group male graduates or to a group of both male and female graduates. Alumni and Alumnae A group of male graduates are alumni and a group of female graduates are formally called alumnae. A double sulfate of ...
res in response to alumOVA in vivo. The responding cells were analyzed for cytokine production after ex vivo restimulation. CD4 T cells were induced to produce Th2 cytokines by this antigen. A subset of 2% of OTII cells differentiating into IL-4-producing effector cells in responses to alumOVA (Fig. 2). This is consistent with other studies assessing the proportion of IL-4-containing OTII cells in response to the same antigen (8, 11, 12). On the other hand, neither IL-4, nor IL-13 and nor IL-5 was induced in vivo in OTI cells responding to alumOVA in LN. Nevertheless, the OTI cells did respond to alumOVA by proliferating and producing IFN-g -a classical feature of Th1 immune responses. These results show that OTI cells responding to alumOVA in vivo fail to mimic the Th2 response of OTII cells responding to this same antigen, but acquire Th1-related features.. Conclusions. The study shows that the Th2-cytokines ‑ IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 (mRNA and/or protein) ‑ as well as the transcription factor ...
Define alum. alum synonyms, alum pronunciation, alum translation, English dictionary definition of alum. n. Any of various double sulfates of a trivalent metal such as aluminum, chromium, or iron and a univalent metal such as potassium or sodium, especially...
Aluminium (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that is potentially toxic to the brain. Its effects on other fundamental organs are not completely understood. This morphological in vivo study sought to compare sublethal hepatotoxic changes and Al deposition in adult mice that orally ingested Al sulphate daily for 10 months, in age matched control mice that drank tap water and in senescent mice (24 months old). Livers were examined for collagen deposition using Sirius red and Masson, for iron accumulation using Perls stain. Light, electron microscopy and morphometry were used to assess fibrosis and vascular changes. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and EDX microanalysis were used to detect in situ elemental Al. Iron deposition, transferrin receptor expression were significantly altered following Al exposure and in the aged liver but were unaffected in age matched control mice. In Al treated mice as in senescent ...
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al 2 (SO 4) 3.It is soluble in water and is mainly used as a coagulating agent (promoting particle collision by neutralizing charge) in the purifi ion of drinking water and waste water treatment plants, and also in paper manufacturing.. The anhydrous form occurs naturally as a rare mineral millosevichite, found e.g. in volcanic ... ...
There is disclosed a continuous process for the manufacture of aluminum sulfate by the reaction of sulfuric acid with an alumina-containing solid in an aqueous suspension. The reaction stream is passed into a continuous flow reaction zone that is maintained at a temperature controlled from 225° to 260° F. and under superatmospheric pressure. ...
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well, its a bit nitpicky and just depends on naming but it could be either depending on how you define 1 molecule of potassium alum and how exactly the right side of the equation is written. If potassium alum is defined as [tex]2KAl(SO_{4})_{2} * 12H_{2}O[/tex] then it would be 2 moles of aluminum equating with 1 mole of potassium alum. If potassium alum is defined as [tex]KAl(SO_{4})_2*12H_{2}O[/tex] then it would be 2 moles of aluminum equating with 2 moles of potassium alum ...
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Cytokines have important roles in the control of bacterial and viral infections such as HIV-1. Interleukin 17 which is secreted by Th17 is one of these cytokines with a special role in controlling microbial infections. In the present study, adjuvant activity of Alum and Naloxone mixture has been studied on immune responses, especially IL-17 cytokine. Naloxone and Alum adjuvant are mixed with 10 µg of recombinant vaccine HIV-1-gag-pol-tat-env. Experimental groups, consisting of 36 inbred male Balb/c mice divided into six groups, were injected subcutaneouslyat days 0, 14 and 28 with total volume of 200 µl. 2 weeks after final injection, mouse spleens were removed in sterile conditions and used to prepare suspensions. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were evaluated with Brdu test and evaluation of cytokines IL-4, IL-17 and INF-γ were completed using ELISA kit, plus total antibody and antibody isotopes IgG1 and IgG2a using ELISA test. All results show that the mixture of Alum with Naloxone
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The immune system represents a promising novel target for prevention of atherosclerosis. Several pilot vaccines that reduce atherosclerosis in experimental animals have been developed. The aluminum hydroxide adjuvant Alum has been shown to have antiatherogenic properties in itself, suggesting that it may be a suitable adjuvant in possible future atherosclerosis vaccines. To characterize the immune pathways mediating this protection, we treated wild-type C57BL/6 and Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice with Alum or PBS. Analyses of splenocytes isolated from 12-week-old mice demonstrated that Alum increased the presence of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells and downregulated the expression of T cell activation markers CD28 and ICOS in Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice but not in C57BL/6 wild-type mice. A similar immunosuppressive phenotype was found also in 25-week-old Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice and was associated with reduced atherosclerosis. Alum precipitates recovered from the injection site of Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice contained ...
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environmental potash feldspar impact crusher in Torino, Aug 26, 2019·Potash feldspar crushersinclude jawcrusher, conecrusher, andimpact crusher. Potassium rock crushing process The raw materials are fed into the silo via a dump truck, and the materials are evenly fed into the jawcrusherthrough a vibrating feeder to prevent the material from impacting the crushing cavity to cause damage to the equipment.potash feldspar powder jaw crusher for gold ore, Crusher Machine For FeldsparCrusher Machine For Feldspar. Feldspar processing equipment used mainly for large ore milling, production yield, low investment cost Potash Feldspar Powder Tin Ore Crusher Mining Heavy We have potash feldspar powder tin ore ...equipment used in a potash plant, equipment potash flotation - Mineral Processing EPC 2018-5-3 Iron Ore Processing Plant Gold Mining Equipment Main Equipments potash feldspar jaw crusher used jaw crusher for sale complete processing plant Quotation More Air Classifier Air ClassifierPotash Feldspar ...
Potash (especially potassium carbonate) has been used in bleaching textiles, making glass, and making soap, since about AD 500. Potash was principally obtained by leaching the ashes of land and sea plants. Beginning in the 14th century potash was mined in Ethiopia. One of the worlds largest deposits, 140 to 150 million tons, is located in the Tigrays Dallol area.[16] Potash was one of the most important industrial chemicals. It was refined from the ashes of broadleaved trees and produced primarily in the forested areas of Europe, Russia, and North America. The first U.S. patent of any kind was issued in 1790 to Samuel Hopkins for an improvement in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process.[17] Pearl ash was a purer quality made by calcination of potash in a reverberatory furnace or kiln. Potash pits were once used in England to produce potash that was used in making soap for the preparation of wool for yarn production. As early as 1767, potash from wood ashes was ...
Vaccines are frequently administered together with an adjuvant, a compound that boosts the immune response to the vaccines active ingredient. One of the most popular adjuvants is aluminium hydroxide, or alum, which has been used for 80 years or so, because it works. How it works was not known - until now. Aluminium salts are shown to activate the Nalp3 inflammasome, an intracellular innate immune response system active in macrophages. Understanding how this widely used adjuvant acts could help in the design of more powerful, more specific adjuvants working in the same way. The mechanism by which the widely used vaccine adjuvant alum acts on the immune system has been unclear to-date. This paper shows that alum-mediated stimulation of the adaptive immune response requires activation of the Nalp3 inflammasome in antigen presenting cells. Aluminium adjuvants, typically referred to as alum, are the most commonly used adjuvants in human and animal vaccines worldwide, yet the mechanism underlying the
http://ca.reuters.com/. RANKFURT (Reuters) - Shares in German potash miner K+S SDFGn.DE leapt almost 40 percent on Friday after a takeover proposal from Canadas Potash Corp POT.TO which sources close to the matter said was worth more than 7 billion euros ($7.8 billion).. K+S, which would become the first German blue-chip firm in a decade to be bought by a foreign company, said it was assessing its options after announcing the approach late Thursday. Two sources close to the matter said K+S would likely reject the proposal as too low.. K+S believes Potash Corp wants to take capacity out of an over-supplied market to boost its profitability, the sources said, adding the Canadian firm might also look to close some of K+Ss high cost German mines and sell its salt business.. Potash Corp is currently operating well below full capacity because of weak potash prices.. The sources said Potash Corp proposed to pay just over 40 euros a share, a 38 percent premium to K+Ss closing price on Thursday and 44 ...
Project Profile on Ferric Alum - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Project Profile on Ferric Alum How to prepare ferric alum & financial reports
Este estudo avaliou a redução da taxa de kerma no ar, o espectro de energia dos raios X e alterações na qualidade da imagem radiográfica. Comparações com várias espessuras do filtro de liga de alumínio-cobre em três diferentes porcentagens foram feitas com o filtro de alumínio. Os experimentos foram feitos utilizando-se um aparelho de raios X odontológico convencional, obtendo radiografias com auxílio de um fantoma de segmento de mandíbula e de uma escala de densidade confeccionada com alumínio laminado. Dependendo da espessura da filtração da liga de alumínio-cobre, o feixe de raios X pôde ser endurecido em relação ao filtro de alumínio. O uso do filtro de liga de alumínio-cobre resultou em 8,40% a 47,33% de redução da taxa média de kerma no ar e indicou contraste da imagem radiográfica sem alteração, quando comparado com a filtração de alumínio, mostrando que os filtros de liga de alumínio-cobre tornam-se alternativas aceitáveis em relação aos filtros de ...
There are no studies available on terrestrial plants for the registered substance reaction mass of aluminium hydroxide and aluminium nitrate and aluminium sulphate. Nevertheless, aluminium is the most abundant metallic element in the Earths crust. Based on its ubiquitous occurrence the present natural background concentration far outweighs anthropogenic contributions of aluminium to the terrestrial environment. As detailed in the endpoint summary on terrestrial toxicity in general further toxicity testing on terrestrial organisms is considered unjustified and waiving based on exposure consideration is applied. However, for reasons of completeness existing data on the terrestrial toxicity of aluminium are provided in addition and summerised here. Kinraide & Parker (1987) in a test with Triticum aestivum determined an EC50 of 1.2 µM referring to the inhibition of root elongation of shoots after 2 days exposure. In a study investigating the same effect but using Alium cepa as test organism and a ...
Various receptors transduce signals in immune cells by associating with G proteins, and the signals modulate cellular motility (e.g., S1P and chemokine receptors; refs. 12, 13). PTX from Bordetella pertussis is an ADP-ribosylating toxin that prevents G protein-coupled receptor activation and consequently disrupts the signal transduction cascade for lymphocyte egress (14, 15). In order to clarify whether G protein-coupled receptors are involved in the migration of lymphocytes from aLNs to peripheral lymphoid tissues in SCID mice, aLNs were produced in BALB/c mice that had been immunized with alum-precipitated NP-OVA. The aLNs were then cultured in vitro for 3 hours in medium containing PTX before transplantation into SCID mice. After 2 i.v. immunizations with NP-OVA as described above, aLNs, spleens, and BM cells of recipient mice were collected. The number of IgG1 NP-specific AFCs in aLNs was greatly increased by treatment with PTX before transfer into SCID mice (Figure 8A). Conversely, the ...
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Medication and surgery simply treats the symptoms not the root cause of the condition, which is rarely cured. Surgeons are usually paid hansomely for each operation they perform. Therefore it would be wise to get another opinion before you accept surgery! - * * * * * The Pharmaceutical industry is slow to change, even under pressure, and will continue to use the cheapest ingredients if you let them. It was recently reported in the Irish Independent newspaper an 11-year-old girls experiment went tragically wrong, when she died right after sniffing her mothers deodorant while playing in the bed room. - It is a well-known fact that some odours can cause respiratory asphyxiation, nevertheless it is not generally known that antiperspirant deodorants contain aluminium sulphate, which can gradually poison the bodys lymphatic system and increase the risk of breast cancer - see toxic toiletries article. - Discomfort killers: If youre such as many people who suffer with chronic pain - from ...
Stops scratching instantly. Contains no toxic chemicals, aluminium sulphate, papain or hydrocortisone. 100% natural and herbal. Safe for children. Reapply as often as needed.
Alum is the most common mordant. If you are not sure what you want to do, mordant with alum, and use the others as additives. Order aluminum sulfate today.
Alum is the most common mordant. If you are not sure what you want to do, mordant with alum, and use the others as additives. Order aluminum sulfate today.
Yes. Multiply the weight of a gallon of water by the specific gravity of your wanna be alum solution to get the weight of a gallon of 48% w/w alum sulfate. Multiply that by. 48 and multiply that answer by 8000 ...
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From cleaning supplies to bath-and-body goodies, Alum Rock Pharmacy in San Jose satisfies all your drugstore needs.When you are commuting to this store by car, take advantage of the nearby parking options. When you live a life in the fast lane, you deserve a store that can keep up with you. Pick up your basic home goods with efficiency and quality at Alum Rock Pharmacy in San Jose.
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TORONTO--(Marketwired - Jun 11, 2013) - IC Potash Corp. (ICP or the Company) (TSX: ICP) (OTCQX: ICPTF) today announced that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) has issued the Company a Jurisdictional Determination confirming that there are no Waters of the United States on the Ochoa Sulphate of Potash...
Continued good demand for potash and magnesium products, the further stabilisation of potash prices on a low level and a positive special item of about € 30 million characterised the business development of the K+S Group from April to June 2014. EBIT I for the quarter was only slightly below the figure of a year ago, but down significantly when adjusted for the extraordinary effect.. Giving the starting position on global potash markets, we had a solid first half of the year, says Norbert Steiner, chairman of the Board of Executive Directors of K+S Aktiengesellschaft. The good salt business in North America and the positive development of our fertilizer specialties were particularly pleasing. We are making good progress on Fit for the Future and our Legacy Project.. In the first half of the year, the K+S Group saw revenues fall by about 8% to € 1.97 billion. Higher sales volumes in the Salt business unit in the wake of the severe winter in North America could only partially offset ...
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We are very encouraged with the results from the Phase 1 resource delineation drilling at Mariana that confirmed our belief in the potential of this multi-commodity potash-lithium-boron brine project. The observed extent of high grade potash brine encountered provides ILC the support and confidence to continue to advance our plans towards development. The objective for the next stage of exploration is to complete the remaining 10 to 12 holes needed for delineation drilling in conjunction with hydrogeological testing required to produce a reportable resource. Drilling will be designed to test structures that may control higher grade potash, lithium or boron zones states Kirill Klip, President of the Company.The Company has received analytical results for Phase 1 of the Resource Delineation drilling program at the Companys 100% owned Mariana potash-lithium-boron brine project. Four (4) widely spaced drill holes (totalling 444 metres), were positioned approximately 5 km apart to characterize the ...
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View Notes - Discussion 1 from ECON 4428 at Drew. In this lab, scraps of aluminum foil were turned into common alum. This is a common process that industries use, in which aluminum is chemically
Double-Blind Randomized Efficacy Field Trial of Alum Precipi¬tated Autoclaved Leishmania major (Alum-ALM) Vaccine Mixed With BCG Plus Imiquimod Vs. Placebo Control Group
A kinetic study of the dehydrations of the alums KCr(SO4)2. 12H2O and KAl(SO4)2. 12H2O in water vapour atmospheres is reported. The product-yield-time data are described by the Avrami-Erofeev (n = 2) and contracting cube equations. The observed kinetic behaviour differed from expectation for this reaction, which is known to proceed through the growth of three-dimensional nuclei. The retention of the volatile product (water) in the vicinity of the reactant solid influences the course of interface generation and development during the early stages of dehydration. Later there is a first order approach to the establishment of equilibrium between water vapour and the solid reactant/product mixture. This pattern of kinetic behaviour is confirmed by a parallel thermal analysis (DSC) study in dry nitrogen. Evidence was obtained that an appreciable quantity of water was retained by the solids throughout these reactions. This is consistent with the view that water, temporarily retained at the active ...
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Heuchera maxima (Island Alum Root) is a rhizomatous perennial, up to 3 feet (90 cm) tall, growing a broad patch of large, up to 3 inches (7.5 cm) wide…. ...
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4 ± 88.4 (log10 2.45 ± 1.95). YC-Brij700chitosan-gp140 but not YC-SDS-gp140 nor YC-NaMA-gp140 promoted significant specific-gp140 IgA titers (P < 0.05) after three immunizations (90 days). Such effect was comparable to that of Alum at the same time point (P < 0.05). However, the effect of NP as a whole on serum specific-gp140 IgA after i.d. immunization was low because the kinetics and magnitude of specific-gp140 IgA responses promoted by Alum after the first boost (60 days) was significantly superior to those of NP ( Fig. 4C). To test whether YC-wax NP modulated T-helper cell responses, the gp140 specific IgG1/IgG2a. ratio was also determined by ELISA. Of note, gp140 alone induced an IgG response that was biased selleck screening library towards a Th2 phenotype. Such a response did not appear to be modulated by Alum, YC-wax NaMA or YC-wax Brij700-chitosan (Fig. 4D). However, YC-wax SDS appeared to induce a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. (Fig. 4D). To test whether NP were also capable of ...
PBS (Gibco). Alhydrogel (Alum; InvivoGen, vac-alu-250). Shake well before use. OVA (InvivoGen, vac-pova-100). Dissolve the OVA power in PBS (2 mg/ml) to make the OVA-Alum solution (below). A solution of 20 μg/ml OVA in PBS will be needed for the ELISA. OVA-Alum solution. *** Always make OVA solution fresh the day of the injection***. Mix equal parts the OVA solution and Alum. For example, for one mouse mix 100 μl OVA solution (2 mg/ml) and 100 μl of the Alum together. Mix well by pipetting up and down for at least 5 minutes.. Goat anti-IgE antibody HRP conjugated (SouthernBiotech, 1110-05). 1 ml Syringes (BD). 96 wells plate (Thermo). 1.5 ml tubes (Fisher). Lanset. ELISA washing buffer (0.1% TWEEN 20 in PBS). ELISA blocking buffer (0.1% Tween 20+1% BSA in PBS). TMB SureBlue reagent (KPL, 52-00-01). TMB Stop Solution (KPL, 50-85-05). Recombinant OVA-specific IgE (Biolegend, CST-090514JI-UTS). Mouse IgE ELISA Ready-SET-Go! (eBiocience, 88-50460-77). ...
To prepare the crystals of the given substances (Copper sulphate,Potash alum ,Benzoic acid) form their impure samples through crystallization.
To prepare the crystals of the given substances (Copper sulphate,Potash alum ,Benzoic acid) form their impure samples through crystallization.
The separate effects of size dependent growth and size dispersion can be evaluated from batch crystallization tests using seeds with a bimodal size distribution. Size dependency of growth is evaluated from the separation of the means of each peak, and size dispersion by the spreading of the peaks. Results are given for sucrose and potash alum ...
I had a 1.094g of mystery Alum. AB(SO4)c. dH2O (I assume that that the Alum is KAl(SO4)2-12H2O but we dont know A B c or d, we do know that mass percent of water is 51.9) After processing the alum (Ba(NO3)2 and HNO3 through a gooch ...
Sulphate of Potash - Granular is mainly used for high value horticultural crop production where the extra benefits of low salt index and sulphate supply offset the higher cost compared to Potassium Chloride.
... alum' - compound substances with chemical structures containing aluminium; production technologies alum and areas of their ... Basic data on the structure of aluminium atoms; different compounds containing aluminium; chemical and physical properties; ...
5, where a brief allusion appears under the appellation of Compound Alum Powder. Dr. F. R. Squibb, however, in a letter to the ...
To remove phosphorus compounds from the liquor, aluminium sulfate (alum) is often added during this period. It reacts to form ... non-soluble compounds, which settle into the sludge in the next stage. The settling stage is usually the same length in time as ...
However, in the 19th century more effective chemical compounds were developed, and alum ceased to be a profitable mining ... Historically, alum was employed in a range of medicinal products, as a food preservative, to clarify water and to finish cloth ... In the first chamber, information is presented about the history of the mine - in the 16th to 19th centuries an alum shale mine ...
Inorganic compounds: potassium alum, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate, calcium phosphate hydroxide Oils: paraffin oil, ... A second mechanism depends on alum killing immune cells at the injection site although researchers aren't sure exactly how alum ... Alum can trigger dendritic cells and other immune cells to secrete Interleukin 1 beta (IL‑1β), an immune signal that promotes ... Alum was the first aluminium salt used for this purpose, but has been almost completely replaced by aluminium hydroxide and ...
The alum compounds studied had the general formula A.B.(SO4)2.12H2O, where A was a monovalent metallic ion (NH4+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ ... Because the alum crystals were largely isomorphous when the heavy atoms were changed out, they could be phased by isomorphous ... replacement in crystallography came in 1927 with a paper reporting the x-ray crystal structures of a series of alum compounds ... The crystal structure of some of the alums". The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. 4 ...
... a class of compounds involving double sulfates of aluminum. The use of various types of alum in medicines and dyes is mentioned ... Calcium compounds and aluminium compounds do not have that problem, though, since calcium compounds that deprotonate twice are ... Cooks also needed less alum-based baking powder to produce a comparable effect. As a result alum-based baking powders were ... However, the actual composition of alum was not determined until 1798, when Louis Vauquelin demonstrated that common alum is a ...
It is a calcined formulation of regular calcium sulfate plaster with an alum admixture. The compound gives a hard finish that ...
Let it remain in the sun till most of the fat is dried out of it, then rub with a compound of powdered alum, salt, and pepper ...
Alum (chemical compound) Alum-(K) (IMA2007 s.p., 1951, 77 CE) 7.CC.20 [282] [283] [284] (IUPAC: potassium aluminium disulfate ... dodecahydrate) Alum-(Na) (IMA2007 s.p., 1951, 77 CE) 7.CC.20 [285] [286] [287] (IUPAC: sodium aluminium disulfate dodecahydrate ...
Alum, chemical compound This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Alam. If an internal link led you ...
... alum compounds MeSH D01.875.800.800.850.050 - ammonium sulfate MeSH D01.875.800.800.850.075 - barium sulfate MeSH D01.875. ...
Compounds of chromium(V) are rather rare; the oxidation state +5 is only realized in few compounds but are intermediates in ... such as in chrome alum and alum. Chromium(III) tends to form octahedral complexes. Commercially available chromium(III) ... This red brown compound is stable at room temperature but decomposes spontaneously at 150-170 °C. Compounds of chromium(IV) are ... Such compounds are susceptible to disproportionation reactions and are not stable in water. Most chromium(I) compounds are ...
Related compounds. See Alum Supplementary data page Structure and. properties. Refractive index (n),. Dielectric constant (εr ... Aluminium sulfate is sometimes called alum or papermaker's alum in certain industries. However, the name "alum" is more ... From alum schists[edit]. The alum schists employed in the manufacture of aluminium sulfate are mixtures of iron pyrite, ... "Compound Summary for CID 24850 - Aluminum Sulfate Anhydrous". PubChem.. *^ Ilje Pikaar; Keshab R. Sharma; Shihu Hu; Wolfgang ...
Potash Alum - K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3·24H2O ... Aluminium potassium sulfate - AlK(SO4)2 potassium alum. NH3/4[ ... Although most compounds are referred to by their IUPAC systematic names (following IUPAC nomenclature), "traditional" names ... Inorganic Molecules made thinkable, an interactive visualisation showing inorganic compounds for an array of common metal and ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_inorganic_compounds&oldid=907095066" ...
... or iron alum, is a double salt in the class of alums, which consists of compounds with the general formula AB(SO4)2 · 12 H2O. ... "On the Cause of the Amethyst Color of Ferric Alum and of Mixed Crystals of Ferric and Manganic Alum". Chem. Lab. Roy. Vet. Agr ... Bonnell, Jane; Philip Perman, Edgar (1921). "CCXXIX.-The colour of iron alum". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 119: 1994-1997. doi: ... with some ascribing it to impurities in the compound, and others claiming it to be a property of the crystal itself. FAS is ...
... may refer to: Alum rock, specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds. Alum Rock, California, United ... California Alum Rock, Birmingham, an area in the United Kingdom, two miles east of Birmingham's city centre Alum Rock (ward) ... States, formerly a town, now a neighborhood of San Jose, California Alum Rock Park in San Jose, ...
The sands are coloured due to oxidised iron compounds formed under different conditions. Alum Bay Chine begins as a small ... Alum Bay: Geology of the Isle of Wight. Internet site: www.soton.ac.uk/~imw/Alum-Bay.htm. School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, ... It is possible that Alum Bay was once fed by a Chine by this name, which has long since eroded away. Alum Bay sand includes ... Sand Shop Archived 7 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Needles Park website The Alum in Alum Bay Archived 15 May 2008 at the ...
The compound is the most important member of the generic class of compounds called alums, and is often called simply alum. ... Roman alum, Levant alum, British alum and alum manufactured by himself, confirming Vauquelin's results. Potassium alum ... Potassium alum, potash alum, or potassium aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound: the double sulfate of potassium and ... "alum , chemical compound". Britannica.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. "What is Alum?". About.com. ...
Alums, such as KAl(SO4)2.12H2O, are another series of isomorphous compounds, though there are three series of alums with ... form a series of isomorphous compounds which were important in the nineteenth century in establishing the correct atomic ...
An alum (/ˈæləm/) is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula ... The most important alums are Potassium alum, KAl(SO 4) 2·12H, also called "potash alum" or simply "alum". Sodium alum, NaAl(SO ... Roman alum, Levant alum, British alum and alum manufactured by himself, confirming Vauquelin's result. Some alums occur as ... Other alums are named after the monovalent ion, such as sodium alum and ammonium alum. The name "alum" is also used, more ...
... alicyclic compound aliphatic compound Alkali Alkali metal Alkaline earth alkane alkene Allingite allotrope Allotropy alloy Alum ... Chemical compounds are listed separately at list of organic compounds, list of inorganic compounds or list of biomolecules. ... of elements named after places List of inorganic compounds List of inorganic compounds by element List of organic compounds ... Octane Odd Hassel Oganesson ohm Olivine Opal Optical isomerism Organic chemistry organic compound Organic nomenclature Organic ...
硫酸铝,有时又被称为造纸矾(Papermaker's Alum),是一种在工业上常被误称为矾的物质。 Although reference to this compound as alum is quite common in industrial ... Potassium alum is the common alum of commerce, although soda alum, ferric alum, and ammonium alum are manufactured. ... does not form alums, and there is only one known sodium alum. In some cases, solid solutions of alums occur. ... Alum is an ingredient in some recipes for homemade modeling compounds intended for use by
"Aluminum Compounds, Inorganic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007 ... also known as ammonium alum or just alum (though there are many different substances also called "alum"), is a white ... Ammonium alum is not a major industrial chemical or a particularly useful laboratory reagent, but it is cheap and effective, ... Ammonium alum is made from aluminium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. It forms a solid solution with potassium ...
The main use is as a precursor to potassium chrome alum, used in leather tanning. Like other chromium(VI) compounds (chromium ... As with other Cr(VI) compounds, potassium dichromate is carcinogenic. The compound is also corrosive and exposure may produce ... There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... Chromium VI and compounds fact sheet NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards IARC Monograph "Chromium and Chromium compounds" ...
... such as the alums and vitriols (i.e., sulfates), that had been previously excluded. In order to incorporate this extended ... but also to an increasing ability to distinguish between sodium and potassium compounds, and to a generalization of the concept ...
... and in production of other aluminium compounds.[131] Two kinds of alum, ammonium alum and potassium alum, were formerly used as ... The nature of alum remained unknown. Around 1530, Swiss physician Paracelsus suggested alum was a salt of an earth of alum.[62] ... The word "alumina" comes from "alum", the mineral from which it was collected. The word "alum" comes from alumen, a Latin word ... The history of aluminium has been shaped by usage of alum. The first written record of alum, made by Greek historian Herodotus ...
Hexaaquo complexes in the solid state Tutton's salts are crystalline compounds with the generic formula (NH4)2M(SO4)2·(H2O)6 (M ... V2+, Cr2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+). Alums, MM′(SO4)2(H2O)12, are also double salts. Both sets of salts contain hexaaquo ... Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand. These complexes are the ... compounds. With chromium(VI) and manganese (VII) only oxyanions are known. Some reactions considereed fundamental to the ...
Compounds with the group 13 elementsEdit. The intermetallic compounds of the alkali metals with the heavier group 13 elements ( ... which yields pure rubidium alum after approximately 30 recrystallisations.[190][191] The limited applications and the lack of a ... CompoundsEdit. The alkali metals form complete series of compounds with all usually encountered anions, which well illustrate ... Caesium compounds are rarely encountered by most people, but most caesium compounds are mildly toxic. Like rubidium, caesium ...
Aqua regia, alum, dan garam dan spirits merkuri: Dipisahkan oleh Geber.[8] ... Kochmann, W. (2004). "Nanowires in ancient Damascus steel". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 372: L15-L19. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Yemeni alum") dan (thalj al-Sīn, atau "salji China," oleh kerana umat Islam mendapatkan orenya dari China, di kalangan tempat ...
Related compounds Other anions Aluminium fluoride. Aluminium bromide. Aluminium iodide Other cations Boron trichloride. Gallium ... Alums. *(NH4)Al(SO4)2. *KAl(SO4)2. *NaAl(SO4)2 ...
Organoaluminium(III) compounds. *(Al(CH3)3)2. *(Al(C2H5)3)2 ... Alums. *(NH4)Al(SO4)2. *KAl(SO4)2. *NaAl(SO4)2 ...
Most commercial crustaceans are decapods, that is they have ten legs, and have compound eyes set on stalks. Their shell turns ... The umbrella and oral arms are then treated with a mixture of table salt and alum, and compressed. Processing reduces ... a highly toxic organic compound of mercury. Species of fish that are high on the food chain, such as shark, swordfish, king ...
Toxic compounds can make their way up the food chain, resulting in animal mortality.[31] Freshwater algal blooms can pose a ... alum, aluminium sulfate,[65]) minerals, natural clays and local soils, industrial waste products, modified clays (e.g. ... Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability. Phosphorus is often regarded as the ... because plants have high nitrogen requirements so that additions of nitrogen compounds will stimulate plant growth. Nitrogen is ...
... , also known as ammonium alum or just alum, is a white crystalline double sulfate usually encountered ... "Aluminum Compounds, Inorganic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007 ... "Alum", The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.), Ithaca, NY: Columbia University Press, 2004, retrieved 2009-11-23. . ... Ammonium alum is made from aluminium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. It forms a solid solution with potassium ...
"Experiments on the Combustion of Alum with Phlogistic Substances, and on the Changes effected on Air in which the Pyrophorus ... Who was the first to classify materials as "compounds"? - Fred Senese. *Cornell University's Lavoisier collection ...
... adsorbs many compounds including many toxic compounds. Water passing through activated carbon is commonly used in municipal ... The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (or alum) or iron (III) salts such as iron(III) chloride cause ... with respect to perchlorate and chloride compounds, has seen success as perchlorate compounds are highly soluble making it ... Iron (III) hydroxides can form over a larger pH range including pH levels lower than are effective for alum, typically: 5.0 to ...
Such problems were compounded by poor ecological practices that caused a degradation of common resources (such as excessive use ... "The use of lime, gypsum, alum and potassium permanganate in water quality management" (PDF). Aquaculture Asia. 2 (2): 12-14. ...
radius 50 pm), and they can replace each other in some compounds, such as in chrome alum and alum. ... Because chromium compounds were used in dyes, paints, and leather tanning compounds, these compounds are often found in soil ... Uses of compoundsEdit. *Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2) is a magnetic compound. Its ideal shape anisotropy, which imparts high ... Compounds of chromium(V) are rather rare; the oxidation state +5 is only realized in few compounds but are intermediates in ...
Seven vitriols (AL-ZAJAT) : alum (al-shabb الشب), and white (qalqadis القلقديس), black, red (suri السوري), and yellow (qulqutar ... He also discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and sulfuric acid.[12][13] ... Gilding and silvering of other metals (alum, calcium salts, iron, copper, and tutty) are also described, as well as how colors ...
... and alum: dry each and combine simultaneously; distill off the water [i.e., liquid]. That [distillate] is nothing else than ... as it appears to us that they are still better explained by regarding oxygenated muriatic acid as a compound body.") For a full ...
In the compounding, no fire is required. All that needs to be done is to have the mixture in a Hua Ch'ih (Flower Pond) for the ... and alum; Ware 1966:273) and huizhi 灰汁 "limewater". The description of one process deserves special discussion, for it ... The compounding of the Gold Fluid is much easier. There the only thing which is difficult is to get the gold. One pound in the ... Furthermore, in the compounding of the medicines, the fires should be tended for tens of days and nights with industrious ...
In such compounds the eg orbitals involved in the degeneracy point directly at the ligands, so distortion can result in a large ... Van Vleck, J. H. (1939). "On the Magnetic Behavior of Vanadium, Titanium and Chrome Alum". J. Chem. Phys. 7 (1): 61-71. Bibcode ... Cs3C60 can be superconducting at temperatures up to 38K under applied pressure,[35] whereas compounds of the form A4C60 are ... Kanamori, J. (1960). "Crystal Distortion in Magnetic Compounds". J. Appl. Phys. 31 (5): S14-S23. Bibcode:1960JAP....31S..14K. ...
Related compounds. See Alum Supplementary data page Structure and. properties. Refractive index (n),. Dielectric constant (εr ... Aluminium sulfate is sometimes called alum or papermaker's alum in certain industries. However, the name "alum" is more ... The product can be applied as a granular product or as "Liquid Alum" which is water + dissolved ALum (48.6% Alum dry basis). pH ... From alum schistsEdit. The alum schists employed in the manufacture of aluminium sulfate are mixtures of iron pyrite, aluminium ...
This fog is caused by the vegetation exhaling volatile organic compounds, chemicals that have a high vapor pressure and easily ... and a peregrine falcon eyrie is known to have existed near Alum Cave Bluffs throughout the 1930s.[33] Red-tailed hawks, the ...
They took on jobs at Harvard's Quad Studios, where R&B producer and fellow Harvard Alum Ryan Leslie also got his start.[6] ... "Out At The Compound," their yet-to-be-released remix of Lady Gaga's "Love Game" and "What A World," the Common song produced by ...
... dan mereka dapat saling menggantikan dalam beberapa senyawa seperti dalam krom alum dan alum. Jika sejumlah renik Cr3+ ... Methods to Develop Inhalation Cancer Risk Estimates for Chromium and Nickel Compounds. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. ... Alum krom adalah kromium(III) kalium sulfat dan digunakan sebagai mordan (yaitu zat fiksasi) untuk pewarna kain dan penyamakan. ... 2005), "Chromium Compounds", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_067 ...
... compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color.[38] Rubidium has also been considered for use ... The fractional crystallization of a rubidium and caesium alum (Cs,Rb)Al(SO4)2·12H2O yields after 30 subsequent steps pure ... Chemical compound. Precautions and biological effects[edit]. Rubidium reacts violently with water and can cause fires. To ... 2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed ...
Precursor to Al compoundsEdit. Aluminium hydroxide is a feedstock for the manufacture of other aluminium compounds: speciality ... Aluminium hydroxide is sometimes called "alum", a term generally reserved for one of several sulfates.[citation needed] ... This compound is also used to control hyperphosphatemia (elevated phosphate, or phosphorus, levels in the blood) in people and ... These compounds together are the major components of the aluminium ore bauxite. ...
New elements and compoundsEdit. In addition to his joint recognition for the discovery of oxygen, Scheele is argued to have ... Silica, Alumina, and Alum. *Urinary Calculi. *(1777) Chemical Treatise on Air and Fire ... While Scheele's experiments generated substances which have long since been found to be hazardous, the compounds and elements ... as well as several chemical compounds, including citric acid,[11] lactic acid,[12] glycerol,[13] hydrogen cyanide (also known, ...
About 15000 chlorine-containing compounds are commercially traded, including such diverse compounds as chlorinated methanes and ... and alum: dry each and combine simultaneously; distill off the water [i.e., liquid]. That [distillate] is nothing else than ... Chemistry and compounds. Halogen bond energies (kJ/mol)[30] X XX HX BX3 AlX3 CX4 ... and related compounds. Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra-chloro compounds ...
... but such compounds are still used in industrial settings.[20] Organic lead compounds, which cross the skin and respiratory ... "Alum Wins Investigative Reporting Award with Post Team". University of Maryland. February 25, 2005. Archived from the original ... Some lead compounds are colorful and are used widely in paints,[93] and lead paint is a major route of lead exposure in ... Grant, L.D. (2009). "Lead and compounds". In Lippmann, M. Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects ( ...
Electron-dense compounds of heavy metals are typically used.. Phosphotungstic acid[edit]. Phosphotungstic acid is a common ... Carmine is an intensely red dye used to stain glycogen, while Carmine alum is a nuclear stain. Carmine stains require the use ... The other eosin compound is eosin B (eosin bluish or imperial red); it has a very faint bluish cast. The two dyes are ... Hoechst is a bis-benzimidazole derivative compound that binds to the minor groove of DNA. Often used in fluorescence microscopy ...
Major compounds include: *Gypsum, the natural mineral form of hydrated calcium sulfate, is used to produce plaster. About 100 ... Alum, a double sulfate of potassium and aluminium with the formula K2Al2(SO4)4·24H2O, figured in the development of the ... Organic sulfate esters, such as dimethyl sulfate, are covalent compounds and esters of sulfuric acid. The tetrahedral molecular ... However, the bonding representation of Pauling for sulfate and other main group compounds with oxygen is still a common way of ...
... chemical compound (en) alumbres (es); 白礬, Alum (yue); ကျောက်ချဥ် (my); Kalialun, Alumen, Aluminiumkaliumsulfat, E 522, ... alum (ca); Alaun (de); زاج (fa); สารส้ม (th); 矾 (zh-hans); alum (sco) composto chimico (it); terme générique désignant les ... Media in category "Alum". The following 38 files are in this category, out of 38 total. ... Sandsend Alum Workings - geograph.org.uk - 218000.jpg 640 × 480; 95 KB. ...
Make research projects and school reports about alum easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... or potash alum, KAl(SO4)2·12H2O, a colorless-to-white, crystalline compound. It is used in water purification, leather tanning ... alum (ăl´əm), any one of a series of isomorphous double salts that are hydrated sulfates of a univalent cation (e.g., potassium ... Aluminum sulfate, Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, is also called alum. A pseudoalum is a double sulfate salt of a divalent cation (e.g., ...
potash alum (chemical compound). alum: …aluminum sulfate, also known as potassium alum or potash alum, has a molecular formula ... potassium alum (chemical compound). alum: …aluminum sulfate, also known as potassium alum or potash alum, has a molecular ... potassium hexachloroplatinate (chemical compound). coordination compound: History of coordination compounds: …of a sparingly ... potassium cyanoaurate (chemical compound). gold: Compounds: Potassium cyanoaurate, K[Au(CN)2], is the basis for most gold- ...
Applied to the humoral response in mice sensitized with BLG adsorbed on alum, these assays proved to be a very useful tool for ... Alum Compounds * Animals * Antibody Specificity* * Cattle * Disease Models, Animal* * Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods* ...
Alum Compounds / chemistry * Clinical Trials as Topic * Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology ... Expert opinion: GAD-alum treatment is safe, tolerable and easy for the patients and healthcare. It seems probable that ... Areas covered: In this review the author reviews the literature and registered ongoing trials using GAD-alum put in relation to ... Keywords: GAD65-alum; Type 1 diabetes; children; combination therapy; immune intervention; intra-lymphatic treatment; ...
Alum Compounds. Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used ...
Alum (pronounced /ˈæləm/) is both a specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds. The specific compound is the ... Potassium alum is the common alum of commerce, although soda alum, ferric alum, and ammonium alum are manufactured. ... Soon after, J.A. Chaptal published the analysis of four different kinds of alum, namely, Roman alum, Levant alum, British alum ... Alum solubility. The solubility of the various alums in water varies greatly, sodium alum being readily soluble in water, while ...
Process for producing purified cesium compound from cesium alum. US6017856 *. Dec 4, 1998. Jan 25, 2000. Verdugt B.V.. Well ... The anionic portions of the compounds are non-reactive with clays, are non-toxic and do not form insoluble compounds with ... Process for producing a predetermined cesium compound. US6484821 *. Nov 10, 2000. Nov 26, 2002. M-I L.L.C.. Shale hydration ... Other potassium compounds such as potassium carbonate and potassium bicarbonate have been utilized in well treatment fluids, ...
Aluminum was named for one its most important compounds, alum. Alum is a compound of potassium, aluminum, sulfur, and oxygen. ... No one is sure when alum was first used by humans. The ancient Greeks and Romans were familiar with the compound alum. It was ... Aluminum was named for one of its most important compounds, alum, a compound of potassium, aluminum, sulfur, and oxygen. The ... formation on the type of magnesia, potassa, soda for the earth of alum, aluminium oxide. f. L. alūmen, alūmin- ALUM.. So ...
... alum - compound substances with chemical structures containing aluminium; production technologies alum and areas of their ... Basic data on the structure of aluminium atoms; different compounds containing aluminium; chemical and physical properties; ...
Alum is a chemical compound. It is a hydrated double sulfate of aluminum and potassium used to remove turbidity. When used ... However, there had been concern that the amount of pressure needed to inject the alum is too high for use with M-3 peristaltic ... In addition, by installing the feed sensor, Suez can quickly verify the exact amount of alum injected into the application, and ... Suez Water Treatment Plant in Toms River needed to precisely meter a low concentration of alum at a high pressure. ...
Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunological adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to ... the sole factor that can solubilize alum particles. Brain translocation of alum particles is linked to a Trojan horse mechanism ... Biopersistence of alum may be linked to its lysosome-destabilizing effect, which is likely due to direct crystal-induced ... To examine whether these compounds might contribute to neuronal deficits associated with GWI, an animal model for examining the ...
Alum Compounds(1). *Anti-Blocking Agent(14). *Anti-Floating Agent(1). *Anti-Flooding Agent(2) ...
It forms many compounds, among them oxides, hydroxides, halides, alums, and numerous organometallic compounds. Gallium arsenide ...
... and inorganic compounds such as chromium alum, chromium acetate, etc.. Depending on the number of amino groups in the gelatin ... Compound (11) (invention) A A26 Compound (14) (invention) A A27 Compound A (comparison) A D28 Compound B (comparison) A D29 ... Compound (11) (invention) A A35 Compound (14) (invention) A A36 Compound A (comparison) A D37 Compound B (comparison) A D38 ... Compound (4) (invention) A A15 Compound (8) (invention) A B16 Compound (13) (invention) A A17 Compound A (comparison) B D18 ...
5, where a brief allusion appears under the appellation of Compound Alum Powder. Dr. F. R. Squibb, however, in a letter to the ...
Potash Alum - K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3·24H2O ... Aluminium potassium sulfate - AlK(SO4)2 potassium alum. NH3/4[ ... Although most compounds are referred to by their IUPAC systematic names (following IUPAC nomenclature), "traditional" names ... Inorganic Molecules made thinkable, an interactive visualisation showing inorganic compounds for an array of common metal and ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_inorganic_compounds&oldid=907095066" ...
You need a compound called alum. Amazon sell it as Fatakdi powder, potassium Suphate. It has quite a few uses apart from ... Yes, Ive used the alum each time. Im beginning to think after watching some shows on smoking sausage that I might be cooking ...
The best known remedies for these purposes are, calcined alum and m... ... A clarifying powder or compound is employed for separating and precipitating the resinous matter of essential oils or essences ... Alum and magnesia appear frequently combined as " Double Clarifying Powder or Compound". Finely powdered calcined alum has an ... Calcined alum is prepared by melting the commercial alum; it loses thereby its water of crystallization, expands, and then ...
alum synonyms, alum pronunciation, alum translation, English dictionary definition of alum. n. Any of various double sulfates ... alum. (ˈæləm) n. 1. (Elements & Compounds) Also called: potash alum a colourless soluble hydrated double sulphate of aluminium ... alum - a white crystalline double sulfate of aluminum: the ammonium double sulfate of aluminum. ammonia alum, ammonium alum ... alum - a white crystalline double sulfate of aluminum: the potassium double sulfate of aluminum. potash alum, potassium alum ...
Alum is a name for a group of compounds with the general ... Results and Discussion: Aluminum was converted into alum. ... Results and Discussion: Aluminum was converted into alum. Alum is a name for a group of compounds with the general formula MM( ... In this experiment the alum was specifically potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate (KAl(SO 4 ) 2 . 12H 2 O). 1. 50ml of KOH ... This is due to the fact that when the alum was massed there was still a lot of ...
What is Alum? and Application areas of Alum.(10 points) Alums are iconic compounds cons ... Kamel 1 Rachel Kamel Professor Ozlem Yavuz-Petrowski CHM1045L 13 October 2016 Experiment 6: Synthesis of Alum 1. ... The surface contains lots of iron oxide, the same compound that gives blood and ru ...
Alum is both a specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds. The specific compound is the hydrated potassium ... The wider class of compounds known as alums have the related empirical formula, AB2.12H2O.-Chemical properties:Alums are... ...
Peleg H, Bodine KK, Noble AC (1998) The influence of acid on astringency of alum and phenolic compounds. Chem Senses 23:371-378 ...
Potassium alum is formed by large, transparent crystals that are used in different products like food or drugs as a buffer, ... Potassium alum is considered by the FDA as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance.It is an inorganic salt, also called ... Inorganic compounds. Super Class. Mixed metal/non-metal compounds. Class. Post-transition metal oxoanionic compounds. Sub Class ... What is alum? [Link] External Links. PubChem Compound. 24856. PubChem Substance. 310265014. ChemSpider. 23239. ChEBI. 86463. ...
... as alums in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. They are also found in consumer products such as ... Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for example, ... Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for example, as ... alums in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. They are also found in consumer products such as ...
Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for example, as alums in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace ... Aluminum (in compounds combined with other elements) has been found in at least 596 of the 1,699 National Priority List (NPL) ...
Dyes are typically organic compounds that contain double bonds where electrons can be delocalized, such as a benzene ring or ... One or more mordants-copper sulfate, tin(II) chloride, alum (available in grocery stores), or any other polyvalent metal ... Aluminum: 2g alum and 1g cream of tartar in 100 ml water ...
In Elements and Compounds What is pseudo alum? A pseudo alum is a double sulfate of the typical formula ASO4·B2(SO4)3·22H2O, ... i.e. class of alums in which the usual monovalent metal of a true alum is replaced by a bivalent metal ... halotrichite or feather alum), and B is a trivalent metal ion. ...
Use a series of reactions to synthesize a coordination compound, potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate (alum), and calculate ... Students synthesize a coordination compound, potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate (alum), and calculate the theoretical and ... Home / Products / Lab Manuals / College Chemistry Instructor Guide / Synthesis of a Coordination Compound ... Carrying out a series of reactions that result in the synthesis of alum. ...
  • The name alum commonly refers to potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate, or potash alum, KAl(SO 4 ) 2 ·12H 2 O, a colorless-to-white, crystalline compound. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Potash, various potassium compounds, chiefly crude potassium carbonate. (britannica.com)
  • alum: …aluminum sulfate, also known as potassium alum or potash alum, has a molecular formula of K2(SO4)·Al2(SO4)3·24H2O or KAl(SO4)2·12H2O. (britannica.com)
  • potash alum a colourless soluble hydrated double sulphate of aluminium and potassium used in the manufacture of mordants and pigments, in dressing leather and sizing paper, and in medicine as a styptic and astringent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aluminum potassium sulfate is an inorganic salt that has several names such as aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate, potash alum, potassium alum, and kalinite. (naturalpedia.com)
  • The chemical compound can be mined and purified to acquire potash alum, where the minerals are available. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Potash alum is also used in the paper-making industry. (naturalpedia.com)
  • It is also known as aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate, potash alum, potassium alum, and kalinite. (naturalpedia.com)
  • In vitro antimicrobial activity of potash alum. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study reports the bactericidal activity of potash alum when added to water , against various epidemic causing enteric pathogens like Vibrio cholerae 01, V. cholerae 0139 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 by lowering the pH of water (from 6.0 to 4.0). (bvsalud.org)
  • Growth of the enteric pathogens was monitored in vitro by inoculating broth cultures of the different organisms in distilled water containing increasing concentrations of potash alum and quantitatively determining the concentration of viable organisms over a 48 h period by the standard plate count method . (bvsalud.org)
  • Controls constituted cultures of each organism grown in the absence of potash alum . (bvsalud.org)
  • Potash alum was found to inhibit growth (10(5) viable count per ml) of most of the organisms examined, particularly V. cholerae 01 and V. cholerae 0139 in a dose dependent fashion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sodium aluminum sulfate, or soda alum, NaAl(SO 4 ) 2 ·12H 2 O, is also used in baking powder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To date, the only adjuvants licensed for use in human vaccines are compounds of alum - complex salts of aluminum. (bioworld.com)
  • This mineral salts (Alum) fights with the bacteria that cause the odor. (iherb.com)
  • While sindoor was the ancient name given to the very toxic, red, mercury oxide, as a cosmetic its most common base is turmeric powder which becomes red when mixed with lime juice or lime powder (calcium compound), moistened in water, or with alum, iodine and camphor, or with oil and sea shell powder (calcium salts), or aguru, chandan and kasturi. (hinduismtoday.com)
  • Alum is made up of a variety of mineral salts which, when combined, form an entirely new mineral compound. (healthy.co.nz)
  • The main functions of potassium alum in drugs are as an astringent, antiseptic or adjuvant agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Pulendran says for almost a century, scientists relied on a compound called alum to act as an adjuvant. (wunc.org)
  • As an adjuvant it may elicit stronger antibody and cellular responses than alum. (bioworld.com)
  • Many molecules have been considered for use as an adjuvant, including mineral compounds (e.g. (immunology.org)
  • Authors: Romain Kroum Gherardi*, Housam Eidi, Guillemette Crépeaux, François Jerome Authier and Josette Cadusseau Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunological adjuvant of vaccines. (sanevax.org)
  • Alum has been used as an adjuvant to increase the efficacy of vaccines since the 1920s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. (nih.gov)
  • Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolic Profiling and Compound-Class Identification Reveal Alterations in Serum Triglyceride Levels in Mice Immunized with Human Vaccine Adjuvant Alum. (gu.se)
  • Ammonium aluminum sulfate, or ammonia alum, NH 4 Al(SO 4 ) 2 ·12H 2 O, is used in tanning, in dyeing and fireproofing textiles, in vegetable glues and porcelain cements, and in water purification. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chromium potassium sulfate, or chrome alum, KCr(SO 4 ) 2 ·12H 2 O, is used as a mordant in dyeing, in tanning, and in photographic fixing baths to harden gelatin films and plates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Aluminum sulfate, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·18H 2 O, is also called alum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • a colorless astringent compound, AlK(SO 4 ) 2 .12H 2 O, a hydrated double sulfate of aluminum and potassium, used in solution medicinally and in dyeing and tanning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Aluminium sulfate is sometimes called alum in informal contexts, but this usage is not regarded as technically correct. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A pseudo alum is a double sulfate of the typical formula ASO4·B2(SO4)3·22H2O, where A is a divalent metal ion, such as cobalt (wupatkiite), manganese (apjohnite), magn … esium (pickingerite) or iron (halotrichite or feather alum), and B is a trivalent metal ion. (answers.com)
  • Use a series of reactions to synthesize a coordination compound, potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate (alum), and calculate the theoretical and percent yields. (pasco.com)
  • Students synthesize a coordination compound, potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate (alum), and calculate the theoretical and percent yields. (pasco.com)
  • It belongs to the family of compounds known as the alums, which refers to a double salt that consists of aluminum, the sulfate group (SO 4 ), and one other metal. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Other compounds that belong to alums include aluminum ammonium sulfate and aluminum sodium sulfate. (naturalpedia.com)
  • On the other hand, if the minerals are not available, the chemical compound can be produced synthetically by mixing together aqueous aluminum sulfate with aqueous potassium sulfate. (naturalpedia.com)
  • These two compounds react with each other in solution to form the aluminum potassium sulfate that can be extracted through allowing the solutions to evaporate and and crystallize. (naturalpedia.com)
  • The body organs that can be harmed by aluminum potassium sulfate are minimal - negative effects to the body are mostly due to contact with the chemical compound. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Aluminum potassium sulfate is a chemical compound that is odorless and crystallized. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Aluminum is a metal that makes up 8% of the planet's crust in a compound called alum or potassium aluminum sulfate. (workawesome.com)
  • A chemical compound, potassium aluminum sulfate that was once used for pickling to add crispness. (gourmetsleuth.com)
  • Aluminum Sulfate(Alum) is a widely-used and versatile industrial chemical, playing an important role in the production of many essentials seen and used every day in the home and industry. (rohloff-hls.de)
  • Aluminum Sulfate- The Chemical Company.Description.Aluminum sulfateis a water-soluble, odorless, white crystalline compound with the chemical formula Al 2 (SO 4) 3 and CAS 10043-01-3. (rohloff-hls.de)
  • Alum is a natural crystal made up of the hydrated double sulfate salt compound of potassium and potassium aluminum sulfate. (energybalance.com)
  • That means that alum contains a natural aluminum sulfate compound, which, however, is not harmful like aluminum chloride. (energybalance.com)
  • The alum schists employed in the manufacture of aluminium sulfate are mixtures of iron pyrite, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium, and Scotland. (skrineperfekt.cz)
  • Aluminum Sulfate: Formula, Properties and Uses He aluminum sulfate Is a chemical compound of formula 2 (SO4) 3 Prone to hydrolyzing. (skrineperfekt.cz)
  • Alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium. (zdravnitza.com)
  • Alum, a potassium or aluminum sulfate, is the most important mordant. (reason.com)
  • Potassium alum is the common alum of commerce, although soda alum , ferric alum , and ammonium alum are manufactured. (thefullwiki.org)
  • It is a naturally occurring compound and one of the most abundant substances on earth, just behind oxygen and silicon. (beautynaturals.com)
  • Potassium alum is found in its dodecahydrate form that produces a very large molecule. (drugbank.ca)
  • This chemical compound occurs in the form of the dodecahydrate, which means that each molecule of the compound is linked with twelve molecules of water. (naturalpedia.com)
  • In the mid-1700s, German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (1709-82) claimed to have found a new " earth " called alumina in alum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for example, as alums in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. (cdc.gov)
  • [ citation needed ] From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, it appears that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain salty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale , and which consists chiefly of sulfates of iron and aluminium. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Native alumen from Melos appears to have been a mixture mainly of alunogen (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .17H 2 O) with alum and other minor sulfates [ 4 ] . (thefullwiki.org)
  • These early people used alum as an astringent and as a mordant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alum (pronounced /ˈæləm/ ) is both a specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Alum is a chemical compound. (wwdmag.com)
  • The chemical properties of alum we described at length, also its application for the purification of water , in Part First . (chestofbooks.com)
  • The chemical compound is also used as a food additive to control the acidity of a product, in manufacturing matches, for waterproofing of fabrics, tanning of leather, to add hardness and toughness to cement, and in the production of fireworks. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Aluminum alloy is a chemical compound consisting of other elements to increase its strength and durability. (workawesome.com)
  • In this experiment we will perform a series of chemical reactions which lead to the synthesis of the ionic compound potassium alum. (wardsci.com)
  • In chemistry, a compound is a substance created when atoms from chemical elements join together. (vocabulary.com)
  • Aluminum chloride is a chemical compound that is used primarily in making aluminum metal, but it has other uses, as well. (skrineperfekt.cz)
  • The money pays for chlorine and alum (the latter is a chemical compound used since Roman times to purify water), pump operators like Ms Nansubuga, who get 10% of sales, and contributes to a savings account designed to provide maintenance for the next 20 years. (pulitzercenter.org)
  • Conversely, topoisomerase inhibitors are chemical compounds that induce strand breaks. (thevarsity.ca)
  • Its use as a tanning chemical has largely been superseded by chrome alum and other agents. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Compounded is a game about building chemical compounds through careful management of elements, a fair bit of social play and trading, and just a bit of luck. (kickstarter.com)
  • By the Middle Ages, alum mining, production, and trade were big businesses-the first international chemical industry. (reason.com)
  • A chemical compound commonly used in water purification. (watercorporation.com.au)
  • For example, unlike the other alkali metals the smallest one, lithium , does not form alums, and there is only one known sodium alum. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 2. (Elements & Compounds) any of a group of isomorphic double sulphates of a monovalent metal or group and a trivalent metal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Potassium alum is formed by large, transparent crystals that are used in different products like food or drugs as a buffer, neutralizing or forming agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • 2. To introduce the lesson, display the crystals you have grown, along with saucers or petri dishes of salt, sugar, and alum granules. (iit.edu)
  • Alum) is an inorganic salt with white, odorless and sweet tasted crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in most organic solvents. (rohloff-hls.de)
  • Chemistry therefore examines the conditions and general laws of the interactions of elements and compounds. (google.co.in)
  • Remember, backers who pledge for a copy of Compounded (CHEMISTRY 101 pledge level and above) receive ALL stretch goals - so pledge early and rest easy in knowing you'll never have to upgrade your pledge to get more goodies. (kickstarter.com)
  • In addition, by installing the feed sensor, Suez can quickly verify the exact amount of alum injected into the application, and that information is automatically sent to the SCADA system. (wwdmag.com)
  • At present, a new type of polymer coagulant, poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) is widely used for coagulation and sedimentation in water supply plants locally and internationally, and produce a large amount of alum sludge every year. (iwaponline.com)
  • As a test, make up an aluminum solution by adding a piece of styptic pencil or a crystal of alum to a tumbler of water. (modernmechanix.com)
  • Chemically, the adjuvants are a highly heterogenous group of compounds with only one thing in common: their ability to enhance the immune response - their adjuvanticity. (inoz.com)
  • Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. (hindawi.com)
  • To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. (nih.gov)
  • Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. (nih.gov)
  • They certainly knew how to produce alum from alunite , as this process is archaeologically attested on the island Lesbos [ 3 ] . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The typical alum operation mined alunite, a mineral found in volcanic areas, then heated the rocks in a kiln and repeatedly poured water over them until they formed a paste. (reason.com)
  • For the colloquial term "alum" meaning "graduate", see Alumnus . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Over time, chemists gradually began to realize that alum might contain a new element. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, it was not until the 19th century that chemists recognized that alum was a variety of compounds of alum. (naturalpedia.com)
  • 1993) showed that the antitoxin response to tetanus and diphtheria was increased by injection of these vaccines, together with other compounds such as agar, tapioca, lecithin, starch oil, saponin or even breadcrumbs. (inoz.com)
  • Aluminum compounds like powder and salt are also used in medicine to treat ulcers, kidney infections, and in various vaccines. (workawesome.com)
  • Despite its long record of successful use in human vaccines, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of alum are not fully understood. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Alum sludge is the sludge discharged from a sedimentation tank in a drinking water treatment plant when polymerized with poly-aluminum chloride (PAC). (iwaponline.com)
  • it loses thereby its water of crystallization, expands, and then crystallizes as a white, light and porous mass, which is called calcined alum, and is but slowly and with difficulty soluble in water. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Other bromine compounds of significance include hydrogen bromide (HBr), a colourless gas used as a reducing agent and a catalyst in organic reactions. (britannica.com)
  • Dyes are typically organic compounds that contain double bonds where electrons can be delocalized, such as a benzene ring or nitro group, called chromophores . (exploratorium.edu)
  • Due to controversial discussions concerning deodorants containing alum, EnergyBalance decided to make organic deodorants that do not contain crystal alum. (energybalance.com)
  • Activated Carbon - A form of elemental carbon whose particles have large surface area with adsorptive qualities, primarily used to remove chlorine, objectionable tastes and odors and numerous toxic organic compounds from water. (femyers.com)
  • Not much was done to advance the applications of the 274 atomic theory, after Newton, until in the early years of the present century Dalton made a serious attempt to determine the conditions under which the atoms of elementary bodies unite to form the atoms of compound bodies. (google.co.in)
  • Alum powder, found in the spice section of many grocery stores, may be used in pickling recipes as a preservative to maintain fruit and vegetable crispness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminum occurs naturally only in compounds, never as a pure metal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The western desert of Egypt was a major source of alum substitutes in antiquity. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Applied to the humoral response in mice sensitized with BLG adsorbed on alum, these assays proved to be a very useful tool for monitoring high IgE-responder mice following BLG immunization, and for an immunotherapy directed at polarizing the immune response. (nih.gov)
  • Areas covered: In this review the author reviews the literature and registered ongoing trials using GAD-alum put in relation to the high number of published different immune interventions. (nih.gov)
  • However, the contribution of IL-1 to alum-induced innate and adaptive immune responses is controversial and the role of IL-1α following alum injection has not been addressed. (qub.ac.uk)
  • The alumen of the ancients, then, was not always the same as the alum of the moderns. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The formation of alum ions neutralize the charges on plasma proteins, causing the blood to coagulate. (drugbank.ca)