Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.
The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.
The informal or formal organization of a group of people based on a network of personal relationships which is influenced by the size and composition, etc., of the group.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
Persons who donate their services.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Sexual activities of humans.
Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.

Participation in breast cancer susceptibility testing protocols: influence of recruitment source, altruism, and family involvement on women's decisions. (1/473)

OBJECTIVES: We offered education, counseling, and family-based BRCA1/2 testing to women at increased risk of breast cancer and assessed (a) their reasons for participating and (b) whether source of recruitment, desire to help research (altruism), and the need to communicate with their affected relative about testing distinguish those who did and those who did not complete each phase of our protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sent invitations to 403 women who had completed a questionnaire on BRCA1/2 testing, 178 of whom were considered high risk because they had more than one relative on the same side of the family with early-onset breast cancer. RESULTS: Among the 132 high-risk respondents from the mid-Atlantic states (where testing was offered), 36% (n = 47) were interested in counseling. Those who actually attended counseling were more likely to have some college education, a higher perceived risk of breast cancer, and a greater fear of stigma and were less likely to have a daughter than those who did not attend. The reasons for attending that were rated "very important" were to learn about the test (80%), to have the test (43%), and to help research (38%). High-risk women were eligible for testing only if their affected relative was willing to be tested and tested positive. After the session, 83% intended to ask their affected relative to be tested, but only half of the affected relatives actually came for pretest counseling. The proportion of participants who ultimately involved an affected relative was 2.5 times higher among women from a clinical population (25%) than among those from a registry population (10%); in this latter population, an altruistic desire to help research was a greater motivator for participation than interest in being tested. CONCLUSIONS: Source of recruitment influences both motivations to attend education and counseling and actual testing behavior. These results have implications for interpretation of findings from studies in research settings as well as for informed consent and decision-making in the context of family-based testing.  (+info)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan. (2/473)

Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY.  (+info)

Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999. (3/473)

This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.  (+info)

Lessons on humanitarian assistance. (4/473)

Conflict almost completely destroyed Rwanda's infrastructure in 1994. Natural disasters, as well as disasters caused by humans, have severely challenged humanitarian aid available within the country. In this study, we have analysed the experiences of nongovernmental organizations since the summer of 1994 to evaluate how these difficulties may be overcome. One of the problems identified has been restrictions on the ability to introduce effective health planning due to the poor quality of available local information. The implementation of effective plans that show due consideration to the environment and society is clearly necessary. Effective monitoring and detailed observation are identified as being essential to the continuity of existing humanitarian assistance.  (+info)

Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. (5/473)

The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs".  (+info)

Photographic memory, money, and liposuction: survey of medical students' wish lists. (6/473)

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether medical students made fewer altruistic wishes and more money oriented wishes in later years of the medical course than students in earlier years. DESIGN: Anonymous questionnaire survey. SETTING: Auckland University School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: 520 medical students from 6 years of the course responded to the questionnaire item "If you had three wishes what would you wish for?" MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of wishes in various categories. RESULTS: The three most popular categories of wishes were happiness (34% of students), money (32%), and altruistic wishes (31%). Rates of altruistic wishes (odds ratio=1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.18; P=0.36) and wishes for money (odds ratio=0.96, 0.86 to 1.08; P=0.52) did not vary over the years of the course. Female medical students were more likely than males to make altruistic wishes (36% v 26%; chi(2)=5.68, P=0. 02), intimacy wishes (25% v 18%; chi(2)=3.74, P=0.05), and happiness wishes (42% v 26%; chi(2)=18.82, P=0.0001). Men were more likely than women to make sexual wishes (5% v 0.8%; chi(2)=7.34, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that students were less altruistic and more money oriented in the later years of the medical course.  (+info)

Altruism, blood donation and public policy: a reply to Keown. (7/473)

This is a continuation of and a development of a debate between John Keown and me. The issue discussed is whether, in Britain, an unpaid system of blood donation promotes and is justified by its promotion of altruism. Doubt is cast on the notions that public policies can, and, if they can, that they should, be aimed at the promotion and expression of altruism rather than of self-interest, especially that of a mercenary sort. Reflections upon President Kennedy's proposition, introduced into the debate by Keown, that we should ask not what our country can do for us but what we can do for our country is pivotal to this casting of doubt. A case is made for suggesting that advocacy along the lines which Keown presents of an exclusive reliance on a voluntary, unpaid system of blood donation encourages inappropriate attitudes towards the provision of health care. Perhaps, it is suggested, and the suggestion represents, on my part, a change of mind as a consequence of the debate, a dual system of blood provision might be preferable.  (+info)

Cooperation through image scoring in humans. (8/473)

The "tragedy of the commons," that is, the selfish exploitation of resources in the public domain, is a reason for many of our everyday social conflicts. However, humans are often more helpful to others than evolutionary theory would predict, unless indirect reciprocity takes place and is based on image scoring (which reflects the way an individual is viewed by a group), as recently shown by game theorists. We tested this idea under conditions that control for confounding factors. Donations were more frequent to receivers who had been generous to others in earlier interactions. This shows that image scoring promotes cooperative behavior in situations where direct reciprocity is unlikely.  (+info)

Altruism allows doing for others as one would be done by. Unlike reaction formation, which also gives to the object what the self desires, altruism leaves the self at least partly gratified. Unlike reaction formation, altruism tempers asceticism with pleasure. Unlike passive aggression and martyrdom, altruism allows the object to feel blessed and not afflicted. Altruism attracts people to the user; martyrdom repels them even as it holds them close in chains.. *: Altruism is a behaviour of an individual that benefits another at its own expense....She decided to investigate what motivates ants to undertake these dangerous missions, where they risk getting trapped themselves or, worse, eaten by predatory antlion larvae, which dig pits and lurk, semi-concealed, at the bottom with their jaws wide open. Such apparently selfless rescue behaviour is seen by many as one of the purest forms of altruism....Being nice to relatives is not pure altruism because they share your genes so, by helping them, you ...
An act of altruism confers a fitness advantage on others, which is strong altruism if the actor incurs a net fitness cost, and otherwise weak altruism [1,2]. The conferred advantage expresses a transferral of fitness from altruist to beneficiary, although the magnitude of the altruists loss may differ from the magnitude of the beneficiarys gain. A parasitic act involves a costly transferral of fitness by the donor to a beneficiary, just as in strong altruism, with the crucial difference that the actor is the beneficiary and not the donor. The role of population structure in sustaining these net-cost transferrals of fitness depends entirely on whether the individual driving the interaction is the donor or the beneficiary. Strongly altruistic acts of fitness transferral from donor to beneficiary can only be sustained by assorting mechanisms that cause the benefits of altruism to be visited disproportionately on other altruists or its costs to be cancelled by other indirect benefits [3-6]. In ...
Inclusive fitness theory, also known as kin selection theory, describes when a trait will be favoured by natural selection [1]. Applied to altruistic traits, inclusive fitness theory explains that an altruist gene is selected for if it is altruistic (assists another at a cost to itself) towards relatives when the cost of altruism is less than its benefit diluted by the chance that the beneficiary does not have the altruist gene [1]. In its more general form, inclusive fitness theory holds that any gene that directs a net benefit towards other copies of itself will be favoured by selection, even if the altruistic and beneficiary genes do not share common descent [1-7]. Altruist genes can, with varying degrees of reliability, identify carriers of the altruism gene in nature in three ways: (i) by recognizing kin, who are likely to share the altruist gene, (ii) in viscous populations, where surrounding organisms are often related, and (iii) by directly sensing the presence of the altruist gene ...
Extraordinary acts of altruism towards strangers represent puzzling phenomena not easily explained by dominant biological models of altruism, such as kin selection and reciprocity1-3. These theories stipulate that genetically or socially close others should be the beneficiaries of costly generosity4,5. Extraordinary altruists exhibit increased empathic sensitivity and a fast, intuitive decision-making style6,7, but no clear explanation yet exists for the most perplexing feature of these altruists, which is that they incur significant risks to benefit strangers5. Here, we considered two related proximal mechanisms-social discounting (valuational) and social distancing (perceptual)-that have been proposed to explain why costly help is preferentially given to close others. We hypothesized that variations in one or both mechanisms drive costly altruism towards distant others. We show that extraordinary altruists exhibit reduced social discounting, with altruists discounting the subjective value of outcomes
Eric Gibson, the editor of the Leisure & Arts page of The Wall Street Journal, once wrote that Anonymity is the truest expression of altruism. I do agree with this statement but, from my point of view, altruism is much more than that. It is to help a stranger in need even at the expense of your own well-being. A true act of greatness! Altruism, unfortunately, can neither be learnt nor taught, but rather stems directly from the individuals heart. To make it even simpler, altruism is a behavior that opposes egoism, and is generally understood to be an act that benefits others at a personal cost. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines altruism as feelings and behavior that show a desire to help other people and a lack of selfishness. Coined in the late eighteen hundreds by French sociologist Auguste Comte, the term refers to those social acts that are an expression of an unselfish desire to live for others (Comte, as cited in Batson and Shaw, 1991).. I just read on the digital edition of the ...
Evolved true altruistic behavior among non-relatives in non-social animals. What I mean by true altruistic behavior is the observation of an individual sacrificing its reproductive output for the benefit of individuals to which it is either unrelated or from whom it does not expect to receive return benefits. In this true altruism your genes give benefits to others and get nothing back, and this shouldnt evolve under natural selection. And, indeed, we dont see such altruism in nature. There are reports that vampire bats regurgitate blood to other individuals in the colony to whom theyre unrelated, but those need confirmation, and there may also be reciprocal altruism, so that individuals regurgitate blood to those from whom, one day, they expect a return meal. Such cooperation can evolve by normal natural selection. [bold added ...
Agents exhibit pure intergenerational altruism if they care not just about the consumption utility experienced by future generations, but about their total wellbeing. If all generations are altruistic, each generations wellbeing depends on the wellbeing of its descendants. Thus pure intergenerational altruism causes generations preferences to be interdependent. While existing models study the relationship between pure intergenerational altruism and conventional time preferences, they assume that altruistic preferences are homogeneous across society. In effect, agents impose their own preferences on future generations, whether they share them or not. By contrast, we study pure intergenerational altruism when agents preferences are heterogeneous and fully non-paternalistic, i.e. they evaluate the wellbeing of future agents according to their own sovereign intergenerational preferences. We demonstrate that homogeneous models of intergenerational altruism over (under) estimate the weight an agent ...
Kinship selection - our favoring of relatives or those most like us - is a fundamental part of evolutionary theory. It is best understood by considering altruistic behavior, which here means self-sacrifice behavior performed of the benefit of others. If I exhibit altruistic behavior for my offspring - be they chicks or children - then these offspring are more likely to survive and breed. In this way, my altruistic behavior has increased the chances of my genes being carried on to my descendants - which is all that evolution cares about. If I dont exhibit altruistic behavior and just focus on my own needs, I may leave my offspring more vulnerable, and hence less likely to survive. In this way, altruistic behavior, or better, the genes for altruistic behavior, are passed on and give those individuals who demonstrate it a competitive advantage over others. This idea is also true for my siblings and my cousins, who, after all, share some, or a lot, of my DNA. A great example of this are the ...
Posted By Rebecca White on Nov 21, 2013. A Seton Hall alum who graduated in 2001 is releasing a book, Motivation, Altruism, Personality and Social Psychology: The Coming Age of Altruism, on Dec. 4.. Dr. Michael Babula, MBA, Ph.D. and researcher, said he was inspired by some of his experiences at Seton Hall that led to an interest in altruism. Two specific events at Seton Hall, Babula said, had a profound impact on his studies of altruism. One was when professor Richard Hunter organized a trip to Poland to visit Auschwitz, where Babula was quite moved. The other was after the attacks on Sept. 11, where the response of students was overwhelming. Babula was intrigued by the actions of people that moved beyond self-interest because psychology typically teaches that people are driven by self-interest and arent as interested in helping others.. I had opportunities [at Seton Hall] where I started questioning where peoples higher motivations were, Babula said. I very much enjoyed my time ...
Parochial altruism is manifested in the most violent of conflicts. Although it makes evolutionary sense for kin, many non-kin groups also behave parochially altruistically in response to threat from out-groups. It is possible that such non-kin groups share a sense of fictive kinship which encourages them to behave parochially altruistically for each others benefit. Our findings show that individuals not directly involved in a conflict approved of parochial altruism enacted by an in-group against an out-group more when the out-group posed a threat to the in-group; however, this effect was greater when the in-group members expressed fictive kinship by addressing each other using kinship metaphors such as brothers. Furthermore, although males approved of parochial altruism more than females, as the male warrior hypothesis would suggest, the effects of threat and kinship metaphor on approval of parochial altruism applied to both genders. These findings were replicated in an honour (Lebanon) and ...
In 1971 Robert Trivers[18] introduced his reciprocal altruism theory to explain the evolution of helping at the nest of an unrelated breeding pair of birds. He argued that an individual might act as a helper if there was a high probabilistic expectation of being helped by the recipients at some later date. If, however, the recipients did not reciprocate when it was possible to do so, the altruistic interaction with these recipients would be permanently terminated. But if the recipients did not cheat then the reciprocal altruism would continue indefinitely to both parties advantage.[19] This model was considered by many (e.g. West-Eberhard[20] and Dawkins[21]) to be evolutionarily unstable because it is prone to invasion by cheats for the same reason that cooperative hunting can be invaded and replaced by cheats. However, Trivers did make reference to the Prisoners Dilemma Game which, 10 years later, would restore interest in Trivers reciprocal altruism theory, but under the title of ...
In October, I had the honor of participating in a public discussion at Princeton University with philosopher Peter Singer, Professor of Ethics and author of The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically (Yale University Press).. Effective altruism, writes Peter Singer, is based on a very simple idea: we should do the most good we can. […] Living a minimally acceptable ethical life involves using a substantial part of our spare resources to make the world a better place. Living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good we can.. He rightly points out that Philanthropy is a very large industry, receiving a total of approximately $300 billion a year in the United States alone, but that most of that huge amount is given on the basis of emotional responses to images of the people, animals, or forests that the charity is helping.. Singer states, Effective altruism seeks to change that by providing incentives for charities to demonstrate their ...
Altruism (also called the ethic of altruism, moralistic altruism, and ethical altruism) is an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary, at the sacrifice of self interest. An action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the ...
My dear friend Matt Leathwood sent me this response to my Selfish Altruism post:. Does anyone do anything for free? Doing something for someone else makes most of us feel good about ourselves….. The pay off is the apparent altruism. Its the true sign of goodness when we do things for other people without the bells and whistles of praise…. Silent givers are indeed kings amongst men.. Touche, Matt! Whats interesting is the role habit plays in all this as well. If we get on a roll of being altruistic, perhaps it becomes our default and we can, without ego, make that our lifes preset.. But more so than FREE, like Matt says, its about doing good because its good, not because you will be praised for it. We can all do a lot worse than feeling good about doing good.. If praise for altruism makes altruism your default setting, well all take it over the alternative.. P.s. If you ever have a thought, critique, idea, or contribution, after reading my posts - hit reply! Hell, I might even share ...
Kinship, altruism and selfishness are interactions in populations. Altruism evolves in related individuals where members sacrifice for the sake of species.
A/51/172 E/1996/77 GENERAL ASSEMBLY ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Fifty-first session Substantive session of 1996 Item 21 (a) of the preliminary Item 5 of the provisional list* agenda** STRENGTHENING OF THE COORDINATION OF SOCIAL, HUMANITARIAN AND HUMANITARIAN AND DISASTER RELIEF HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS: ASSISTANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS, REPORTS OF SUBSIDIARY INCLUDING SPECIAL ECONOMIC BODIES, CONFERENCES AND ASSISTANCE: STRENGTHENING OF THE RELATED QUESTIONS COORDINATION OF EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE OF THE ** E/1996/100. UNITED NATIONS * A/51/50. Report of the Secretary-General CONTENTS Paragraphs Page I. INTRODUCTION ..................................... 1 - 4 3 II. THE CONTEXT OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ........... 5 - 20 4 III. FOLLOW-UP TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1995/56: REVIEW OF UNITED NATIONS CAPACITY TO RESPOND TO HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES .......................21 - 62 7 A. Follow-up by United Nations organizations to resolution 1995/56 ...
The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoners dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in
Humans are unusually cooperative and prosocial, sharing resources with kin and non-kin others. At the same time, they engage in violent intergroup conflict and discriminate against members of other groups. How can we explain this apparent inconsistency? Building on Darwin (Darwin, 1871), it has been proposed that self-sacrificing prosociality toward the in-group and hostility toward the out-group may have co-evolved (Choi & Bowles, 2007; García & van den Bergh, 2011). Research on so-called parochial altruism, i.e., the motivation to benefit in-group members at personal cost, while not benefitting or even harming out-group members, recently received much attention in psychology and beyond (for reviews see, De Dreu, Balliet, & Halevy, 2014; Rusch, 2014; Yamagishi & Mifune, 2016). Empirical studies aiming to support the parochial altruism hypothesis yielded mixed results, though. For instance, whereas some studies provided support for the parochial altruism hypothesis (e.g., Abbink, Brandts, Herrmann, &
So, granted that this is a quite artificial situation, and that I am no expert in the field, what this paper does is to establish inter-group selection as plausible and quantifiable mechanism in accounting for trait-based altruism in the form of warrior behavior and sacrifice. The empirical boundaries seem plausible, while some of the mathematical simplifications seem less so (in this model, each conflict results in extermination of one group and doubling of the other, for instance. On the other hand, all non-altruists get to survive if their group wins a war, while altruist warriors die with 20% probability). Specifically, the right-ward parts of the curves indicate that given realistic rates of death (delta) from conflict, altruism could be selected for despite substantial costs (c) and modest group benefits (L). There are many other possible rationales for selection of in-group altruism traits, so this setting of warfare should not be seen as exhaustive ...
So, granted that this is a quite artificial situation, and that I am no expert in the field, what this paper does is to establish inter-group selection as plausible and quantifiable mechanism in accounting for trait-based altruism in the form of warrior behavior and sacrifice. The empirical boundaries seem plausible, while some of the mathematical simplifications seem less so (in this model, each conflict results in extermination of one group and doubling of the other, for instance. On the other hand, all non-altruists get to survive if their group wins a war, while altruist warriors die with 20% probability). Specifically, the right-ward parts of the curves indicate that given realistic rates of death (delta) from conflict, altruism could be selected for despite substantial costs (c) and modest group benefits (L). There are many other possible rationales for selection of in-group altruism traits, so this setting of warfare should not be seen as exhaustive ...
While science has made great strides in treating pathologies of the human mind, far less research exists to date on positive qualities of the human mind including compassion, altruism and empathy. Yet these prosocial traits are innate to us and lie at the very centerpiece of our common humanity. Our capacity to feel compassion has ensured the survival and thriving of our species over millennia. For this reason, the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE) at Stanford University School of Medicine was founded in 2008 with the explicit goal of promoting, supporting, and conducting rigorous scientific studies of compassion and altruistic behavior. Founded and directed by Dr. James Doty, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, CCARE is established within the Department of Neurosurgery. To date, CCARE has collaborated with a number of prominent neuroscientists, behavioral scientists, geneticists and biomedical researchers to closely examine the physiological and psychological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-recognition, color signals, and cycles of greenbeard mutualism and altruism. AU - Sinervo, Barry. AU - Chaine, Alexis. AU - Clobert, Jean. AU - Calsbeek, Ryan. AU - Hazard, Lisa. AU - Lancaster, Lesley. AU - McAdam, Andrew G.. AU - Alonzo, Suzanne. AU - Corrigan, Gwynne. AU - Hochberg, Michael E.. PY - 2006/5/9. Y1 - 2006/5/9. N2 - Altruism presents a challenge to evolutionary theory because selection should favor selfish over caring strategies. Green beard altruism resolves this paradox by allowing cooperators to identify individuals carrying similar alleles producing a form of genic selection. In side-blotched lizards, genetically similar but unrelated blue male morphs settle on adjacent territories and cooperate. Here we show that payoffs of cooperation depend on asymmetric costs of orange neighbors. One blue male experiences low fitness and buffers his unrelated partner from aggressive orange males despite the potential benefits of defection. We show that recognition ...
In psychological research on altruism, studies often observe altruism as demonstrated through prosocial behaviors such as helping, comforting, sharing, cooperation, philanthropy, and community service.[25] Research has found that people are most likely to help if they recognize that a person is in need and feel personal responsibility for reducing the persons distress. Research also suggests that the number of bystanders witnessing distress or suffering affects the likelihood of helping (the Bystander effect). Greater numbers of bystanders decrease individual feelings of responsibility.[23][29] However, a witness with a high level of empathic concern is likely to assume personal responsibility entirely regardless of the number of bystanders.[23] A feeling of personal responsibility or - moral norm - has also strongly been associated with other pro-social behaviors such as charitable giving.[30]. Many studies have observed the effects of volunteerism (as a form of altruism) on happiness and ...
The humanitarian crisis in northern Syria is on the verge of becoming a COVID-19 catastrophe. A decade of conflict has left the healthcare system in ruins-and millions of displaced people in Idlib province were already suffering due to a lack of shelter and sanitation. This policy briefing delves into roots of the humanitarian crisis in Idlib, details the current capacity of the exhausted healthcare system amid the ongoing conflict, and examines what these constraints mean for mounting a response to the spread of the coronavirus. ...
Animals learn altruism for many reasons, but all of them derive from the success of their continued existence, either as individuals or as a group. Surrounding oneself by friends is a more univironmentally stable act than being surrounded by enemies. Social animals devise ways of instilling and enforcing group loyalty, with religion, the military, and football being familiar examples. Survival of the individual microcosm is highly dependent on survival of the group microcosm. Generally, what works best for the group works best for the individual. Thus, it is a mistake to consider the individual as a solitary microcosm without considering all the interactions with others that formed its propensity to act. Dawkins wraps these propensities in little bundles call genes, which as you suggested, cannot be solely responsible for altruism. A common mistake in understanding altruism is to select the wrong microcosm. For instance, a worker bee sacrifices its life for the colony by stinging an intruder. ...
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English examples for altruism - This term is sometimes associated with other terms such as true altruism. In these cases most individuals far from showing altruism actually take money. This altruism does not appear to be limited to their own species.
Background: Psychological factors play an important role in well-being of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as increasing risk of CVD in normal population. Because of the lack of research on comparing emotion regulation, psychological capital and altruism between CVD patients and healthy population, the aim of this study was to assess these factors in a case-control study. Methods: The 100 non-randomly included participants were categorized into two groups: 50 patients with CVD with age range of 30-60, and 50 paired-matched healthy persons. Three instruments of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-P), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) and Altruistic Behavior Scale were used. Data was analyzed using the paired and independent t-test statistical analysis. Findings: Significant differences were seen between case and control groups with respect to their cognitive emotion regulation (t=-2.27; p,0.025), psychological capital (t=9.03; p,0.001) and altruism (t=7.52; ...
Downloadable! We examine subjects behavior in sender-receiver games where there are gains from trade and alignment of interests in one of the two states. We elicit subjects beliefs, risk and other-regarding preferences. Our design also allows us to examine the behavior of subjects in both roles, to determine whether the behavior in one role is the best response to the subjects own behavior in the other role. The results of the experiment indicate that 60 percent of senders adopt deceptive strategies by sending favorable message when the true state of the nature is unfavorable. Nevertheless, 67 percent of receivers invest conditional upon a favorable message. The investing behavior of receivers cannot be explained by risk preferences or as a best response to subjects own behavior in the senders role. However, it can be rationalized by accounting for elicited beliefs and other-regarding preferences. Finally, the honest behavior of some senders can be explained by other-regarding preferences. Thus we
Why would a person or animal choose to commit a seemingly selfless act that is disadvantageous to their own survival? Biological altruism is defined as the behavioral tendency of organisms to promote the survival of another organism (usually of the...
Funder: Mellon Foundation This grant supports teaching and research activities related to refugees and humanitarian emergencies. Through this grant and others, ISIM offers a Certificate in Refugee and Humanitarian Emergencies at the Masters level. Georgetown students take six courses related to humanitarian issues, forced migration, human rights and conflict prevention and resolution. This grant also […]
Why do people commonly go out of their way to do something nice for another person, even when it comes at a cost to themselves-and how could such altruistic behavior have evolved? The answer may not just be in our genes, but also in our microbes. © Lewin-Epstein et al. Nature Communications(Left) The payoff matrix and
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One of the problems with being an avowed altruist is that its hard to talk about it with other people without coming across like youre trying to claim youre better than them.. One of the problems with being an aspiring effective altruist is that its hard to talk about it with other people without coming across like youre trying to claim youre better than everyone else, including other avowed altruists, and definitely including non-altruistic plebes.. (This, I think, is something of a barrier to effective altruism becoming a more popular thing, and Id like to see it change.). But if I cant write about this in the locus of the interval between Thanksgiving and Christmas, I cant write about it at all, and that would be really quite sad for me, so here goes.. ...
This brief presents key findings from a Kaiser Family Foundation review and analysis of the policy and financing landscape where U.S. humanitarian assistance and global health assistance meet. It also summarizes a July 2013 roundtable discussion convened by the Foundation focusing on opportunities, challenges, and potential next steps for more effective coordination between humanitarian assistance and global health programs.
Altruism isnt Generosity Tibor R. Machan A big error has haunted humanity for centuries: its the equivocation between generosity and altruism. The former is a virtue any decent human being will practice: it asks of one to reach out to deserving others in times of dire need. The latter is a policy of devoting oneself…
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Theres an interesting post over at the BBC today that asks a deceptively simple question; why do people help each other?. The question is key for any business working in social media, collaboration technology or sharing economy. And so is the answer.. The BBC post explains the selfish gene theory of altruism - our minds are wired to get a chemical buzz out of helping people who share the same genes as us (or at least appear to share those genes through similar physical traits); particularly close kin. If you can help a number of people who collectively appear to have more of your genetic material in them than you do as an individual, then youll help even if it costs you. From a genes-eye perspective, laying down your life for a number (but not one) of immediate kin is enlightened self-interest, not selfless altruism - since it increases the overall inclusive fitness (reproductive chances) of your shared genes. Theres even an equation (Hamiltons Rule) to predict when people will (and ...
New York, 14 November 2016 - The international medical humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) welcomes Pfizers decision to lower the price of its pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) for children caught in humanitarian emergencies. For seven years, MSF urged Pfizer and GSK - the only two manufacturers producing the pneumonia vaccine - to offer the lowest global price to humanitarian organisations, but they refused until September, when GSK announced that it was finally reducing the price of its pneumonia vaccine for humanitarian situations. Now with its announcement on Friday, Pfizer is following GSKs footsteps.. Its good to see that Pfizer is now finally reducing the price of its life-saving vaccine for children in emergencies, says Dr Joanne Liu, MSFs international president. With Pfizer and GSKs price reductions, humanitarian organisations will be better able to protect children against this deadly disease.. Pneumonia is the leading cause ...
Here are just a couple examples of dogs displaying altruistic behavior. There are many documented cases of chimpanzees, elephants, dolphins and dogs performing altruistic acts. Many religious people state that altruism only exists in humans and is evidence that we are created by a god, which is simply not true. Regardless, these are amazing stories. Particularly the second one. The dog tries to pull the injured dog off the highway and instead of using its teeth, it uses its paws, so as to
Downloadable! This paper analyzes the way in which men and women are expected to behave differently in an experimental situation. To do so, we concentrate on a single topic: altruism. Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. Our results are substantial: men and women are expected to behave differently and both believe that women are more generous. These two premises affect their behavior.
Wietse Tol and colleagues lay out a a consensus-based research agenda for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings.
The argument that altruism in sterile ants which work for the benefit of their community can be explained by kin selection has been overturned by mathematical analysis by Martin Nowak, author of Evolutionary Dynamics, in a paper published in Nature. Instead, altruism turns out to be a thoroughly naturally selected affair. Read more here ...
Lets tackle this from another angle and change our perspective - consider the situation from the level of individual cells. A multicellular organism such as a human is composed of billions of cells that are born and die, most of which are non-reproductive. So we may easily consider eusocial species to operate as a super-organism, as the single organism and the single insect colony are largely similar. Kin selection operates within my body just as it does clearly in the insect colony. If an animal cannot physically reproduce, how is it any different from a non-reproductive cell within my body? Each, colony and human, operates as the basic unit of sexual reproduction. E.O. Wilson earlier made this same comparison. Are my body cells therefore altruistic, just like the soldier termite? I think so. This analogy allows me to make the following proposition: altruism as an end in itself is something that primarily occurs within the basic unit of sexual reproduction, whereas altruism as a means to ...
In solving major world problems, altruism and compassion can help. Altruism is a fundamental mental state involving a specific kind of intention and motivation.
In his quest to understand altruism, Price inevitably dissected such complex and timeless concepts as self-sacrifice and kindness, and eventually became so vexed by the selfish reasoning for kindness embedded in his own mathematical theory of altruism that he set out to prove the theory wrong by committing a seemingly endless number of random acts of kindness to complete strangers. He spent the latter part of his life helping alcoholics and the homeless, often inviting them to live in his home and, though he had most of his belongings stolen, he went undeterred until he was forced to move out of his house due to a construction issue. Unable to help the homeless any longer, he went into a deep depression. On January 6, 1975, Price committed suicide using a pair of nail scissors to cut his own carotid artery.. ...
Altruism vs. Aggression - Is It in Our DNA?. Ive been thinking a lot about altruism lately. With everything going on in the world, its hard not to. Hurricane Irene stormed into our lives right before Labor Day and wiped out many communities near me. No one expected a hurricane to inflict such punishment on little villages in the Catskill Mountains of New York but thats what happened.. At our house, we tried to tough it out but we surrendered as the winds picked up and we realized that way too many trees were leaning longingly toward our roof. We packed up four cats and took shelter in a Holiday Inn about fifteen minutes away. What we found there was a 21st century Noahs Ark. Dogs grinned at us from balconies on the second floor. Cats peered out of windows into the courtyard. And the people, local evacuees mingled with shellshocked refugees from Long Island, Staten Island and Brooklyn, huddled together sharing whatever updates we had. And we shared what we had.. Phyllis, whose home was ...
This thesis examines the significance of sociobiology within Wesleyan ethics. In addition to investigating how sociobiological altruism connects to Wesleyan holiness, it argues that John Wesley capitalized on the biological and environmental constraints on human action, creating a particular setting that nurtured altruism in his followers through the cultivation of holiness. Of the main chapters, Chapter 2 helps the reader understand basic and current sociobiological explanations of altruistic behavior-a behavior that has been a stumbling block for evolutionary theorists who have attempted, unsuccessfully, to explain why or how it exists. To address the presence of altruism among humans, this chapter elucidates kin selection theory, group selection theory (also called multilevel selection theory), and game theory, seeking to provide clarification of current research within the field of sociobiology. Chapter 3 offers a critique of the sociobiological explanations of altruism and examines the ...
Publication date: 2018. Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=zrhm21 Reproductive Health Matters An international journal on sexual and reproductive health and rights ISSN: 0968-8080 (Print) 1460-9576 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/zrhm20 The 2018 Inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in humanitarian settings: revising the global standards Angel M. Foster, Dabney P. Evans, Melissa Garcia, Sarah Knaster, Sandra Krause, Therese McGinn, Sarah Rich, Meera Shah, Hannah Tappis & Erin Wheeler To cite this article: Angel M. Foster, Dabney P. Evans, Melissa Garcia, Sarah Knaster, Sandra Krause, Therese McGinn, Sarah Rich, Meera Shah, Hannah Tappis & Erin Wheeler (2017) The 2018�Inter-agency�field�manual�on�reproductive�health�in�humanitarian�settings: revising the global standards, Reproductive Health Matters, 25:51, 18-24, DOI: 10.1080/09688080.2017.1403277 To ...
Altruism, the selfless concern for the well-being of others, is a core virtue in many societies and religions. But ever since Darwin wrote about cooperation and altruism, scientists have had a love/hate relationship with these behaviors. Warren Holmes, University of Oregon psychology professor, explores the paradox of cooperative behavior in The Evolution of Cooperation and the Paradox of Altruism. It was the second talk in a UO lecture series celebrating the life and work of Charles Darwin given on Tuesday, Feb. 10 2009.. ...
Very sweet but not altruism - altruism would imply the dog made a conscious choice to foster the kittens. It is in fact rather common for animals that have lost their off-spring (her puppies were adopted) to adopt other young animals, including those of other species (although sometimes they need a little trickery - horse breeders will often wrap an orphan foal in the hide of a mares dead foal to get bonding - however, as soon as the orphan can suckle, this will trigger hormone release that leads to bonding so the hide can be removed soon; and not all mares need the trick, they will accept the foal). Dogs have in fact been used as foster mothers for zoo animals that could not be nursed by their biological mother. Here in Oz we have a german shepherd who fostered a tiger cub, for instance. Cross-species nurturing, in short, is not uncommon, and more due to the loss of own offspring and the need to nurse offspring, ie, having lots of milk left. To call it altruism is anthropomorphic. Actually, ...
Very sweet but not altruism - altruism would imply the dog made a conscious choice to foster the kittens. It is in fact rather common for animals that have lost their off-spring (her puppies were adopted) to adopt other young animals, including those of other species (although sometimes they need a little trickery - horse breeders will often wrap an orphan foal in the hide of a mares dead foal to get bonding - however, as soon as the orphan can suckle, this will trigger hormone release that leads to bonding so the hide can be removed soon; and not all mares need the trick, they will accept the foal). Dogs have in fact been used as foster mothers for zoo animals that could not be nursed by their biological mother. Here in Oz we have a german shepherd who fostered a tiger cub, for instance. Cross-species nurturing, in short, is not uncommon, and more due to the loss of own offspring and the need to nurse offspring, ie, having lots of milk left. To call it altruism is anthropomorphic. Actually, ...
The French-born Tibetan Buddhist monk Matthieu Ricard gave up molecular genetics almost 50 years ago to dedicate himself fully to Buddhist practice. Dubbed the happiest man in the world, hes since authored several books from Shechen Monastery in Nepal, the most recent being Altruism: The Power of Compassion to Change Yourself and the World, published by Little, Brown and Company in June. In this wide-ranging, 30-minute interview filmed during Ricards most recent visit to New York, contributing editor Joan Duncan Oliver speaks to Ricard about some of the most pressing issues currently facing humanity-climate change, species extinction, and inequality-and how altruism can solve them. -Eds.. ...
Data-Driven Learning Guides are a collection of instructional exercises that can be used to enhance teaching of core concepts in the social sciences. This learning guide investigates some of the factors that may influence altruistic behavior -- the act of helping that is intended to provide aid to someone else with no expectations of getting something in return. Research questions that can be explored using this learning guide include: what are the factors that motivate one person to help another, how costs and rewards, or empathy influence helping and altruism, the impact that cultural norms and roles may have on helping behavior, and whether characteristics of the person needing help influence helping behavior and if so, how. Crosstabulations are used for the analyses.. ...
I came across Effective Altruism in 2015, joining a MeetUp in Berlin, and I immediately felt at home. Talking about improving the world, deeply thinking together which are the causes more close to our heart and which one are the most pressing in our society.. As long as I donated and actively looking for great charities and cool social projects, Effective Altruism movement opened my eyes to look more carefully to what is really effective. Now Im involved in spreading the word in Italy too and getting active and aware of the social entrepreneurship realm.. Heres my profile https://eahub.org/user/stefania even if Im still a beginner I love to aim to become a great philanthropist.. Articles and videos ...
There is no shortage of evidence to suggest that we are fundamentally, and all but irreparably, characterized by selfishness. If reports of consumptive greed and callous disregard for the obvious distress of others does not clinch the point, the representations of science, particularly the portrayals of sociobiology, confirm that impression beyond any reasonable doubt. This emerging discipline endevers to show how altruism is fundamentally unnatural, an aberration that runs directly counter to the natural flow of life.. The Impossibility of Natural Altruism. For modern life sciences, altruism represents an anomaly that elicits drastic reactions.. The Biological Problem of Altruism. From a biological point of view, altruism should not exist. The Darwinian theory of natural selection holds that those organisms survive and reproduce which are best adapted to their environment. They are selected by the natural processes of geography, climate, food supplies, predation, etc. To that extent, any ...
At Inside NGOs recent Food Aid Roundtable, Matthew Nims, acting director of Food for Peace (FFP), spoke about the future of the USAID offices programs. He said something during his presentation that resonated with me: This is an era of conflict.. Last year, it was El Niño. This year, we are witnessing a different kind of international crisis-that of 20 million people at risk of starvation in South Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Nigeria. 2017 has been labeled as having the worst humanitarian crisis since 1945 for its rising number of refugees. Nims also emphasized the ongoing challenge of stabilizing and addressing growing problems in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, and Chad before the crisis spreads. However, an enormous funding gap of $4.4 billion for response teams and food supplies only makes matters worse.. During the event, industry experts questioned how implementing partners, or entities that implement programs in line with the goals of larger ...
The Yemen Petroleum Company (YPC) urges the United Nations (UN) to take action to prevent an imminent humanitarian crisis as a Saudi-led coalition continues to seize ships carrying necessary oil products to the country.
Humanitarian emergencies and infectious diseases have a mutually negative impact on one another. Crisis settings like refugee camps, war zones and communities
Parochial altruism refers to altruism that is directed in a preferential manner towards members of ones own social group.[20] In order to examine this effect, a study examined the outcomes of TP-DG experiments carried out in between two Papua New Guinea indigenous groups. The games had 4 conditions, which included: players A (dictator), B (recipient), and C (observer) all from the same group; only A and B from the same group; only A and C from the same group; only B and C from the same group.[6] Current behavioral theories state that norms are emergent from interactions within groups,[21] and therefore, outsiders dont obey the norm nor benefit from the altruistic behavior the norm enforces. This theory would therefore predict that no punishment will occur in any of the cases except for the ABC treatment condition. However, it was found that punishment was qualitatively similar in all 4 conditions, which suggests that egalitarian sharing norms exist within-groups and also ...
I weighed in on the topic posted, and replied to the question, do altruism & benevolence exist, yes & yes. As I sorted through my mind, I realized, my belief has changed. When did I become an optimist? Before James died, I didnt believe people could change, I never had faith in strangers, believed staunchly in bystander apathy and had begun to work hard to suppress my own instincts to help others. Wow, reflecting on this, I was living a dark, unenlightened path for more reasons then I am willing to delve into here but sad all the same. Then, my life was shattered, everything I believed, all the life lessons learned, everything I had worked for, demolished when James died. Then came the choices no parent wants to ever have to make. The ones that we have all made, second guessed, regretted & wished could have been different. And then, in the midst of the darkness came the light. The kindness of those who I had all but sold out, strangers. Strangers from every corner bursting with compassion, ...
Effective altruism helps donors to understand the most effective use of their money, by emphasizing the potential impact of their charity.
Category 1: Biological and evolutionary basis of dishonesty. From a quick-and-dirty comparison of the evolutionary basis for symbiotic altruism and the cognitive neuroscience of dishonesty, one might conclude that altruism is to be found almost nowhere in the animal kingdom, whereas dishonesty exists almost everywhere in the human brain. The cases of altruism among that Trivers (1971) describes are few and far between, ranging from symbiotic cleaning between wrasse and grouper to warning calls in birds. In humans, altruism is elicited by rather extreme circumstances such as helping in times of danger and helping the sick, the wounded, or the very young and old (in addition to more commonplace but less costly exchanges of food, tools, and information). By contrast, Abe (2011) reports a widespread array of brain structures important for supporting deception, including the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and basal ganglia. Intriguingly, Trivers posits that deception has ...
The Key West Art & Historical Society maintains the culture of the Florida Keys through exhibits and education programs. Read our post, Society Celebrates Fantasy Fest Altruism and the Candidates Behind it.
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Cross-posted to the Enthea site. Griffiths et al. 2017 was published recently; it had some impressive findings. The study looked at psilocybin administration al
If asked at the wars outset in 1939 what was its least likely outcome, Nazi Overlords would have undoubtedly named their own military defeat. Since Hitlers democratic takeover in 1933 Germany had developed the strongest military force the modern world had ever known. Its standing army appeared indomitable. Its
Contrasting Charles Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection, UC Berkeley psychologist, Dacher Keltner and other social scientists are building the case that humans are successful because of our nurturing, altruistic and compassionate traits.. Human beings have survived as a species because we have evolved the capacities to care for those in need and to cooperate, states Keltner, author of Born to Be Good: The Science of a Meaningful Life.. As Darwin long ago surmised, sympathy is our strongest instinct, he says.. While many studies indicate that bonding and seeking out social connections are intrinsic in a healthier, more meaningful life, the larger question is how these traits actually ensure our survival and enhance our status among our peers? According to UC Berkeley social psychologist Robb Willer, the more generous we are, the more respect and influence we wield.. Regarding a recent study by Willer and his team published in American Sociological Review, he writes: The ...
This was the third call under 3ies Humanitarian Assistance Thematic Window. The first call was for impact evaluation of humanitarian assistance interventions in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the second call was for an impact evaluation of the cash versus electronic vouchers pilot programme for Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon.. While there is considerable evidence of the effectiveness of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) treatment interventions in optimal conditions, there is insufficient and equivocal understanding of how effectiveness varies in crisis and post-crisis conditions. There is also insufficient evidence on the difference in impact of MAM treatment programmes when prevention interventions are also present. The proposal will be for a rigorous impact evaluation of completed, ongoing or planned initiatives that aim to prevent and/or treat MAM in humanitarian situations.. For more information about this call, please read the Request for Qualifications (727.6 KB) This call is ...
Humanitarian Assistance Remains Vital. An estimated 731,000 people remain in crisis and emergency, according to the latest findings from the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit for Somalia (FSNAU). People belonging to these households require urgent lifesaving humanitarian assistance to help meet immediate food needs, including critical nutrition and health support for those acutely malnourished, particularly children.. A further 2.3 million additional people are classified as stressed, meaning they are struggling to meet their minimum daily food needs. Households belonging to this group remain highly vulnerable to major shocks, such as drought or floods, which could easily push them back into food security crisis.. As a result, lifesaving humanitarian assistance and livelihood support remain vitally important throughout2015 to help food insecure populations meet their immediate food needs, protect livelihoods and build resilience.. Malnutrition Rates Remain High. An estimated ...
Humanitarian Assistance Remains Vital. An estimated 731,000 people remain in crisis and emergency, according to the latest findings from the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit for Somalia (FSNAU). People belonging to these households require urgent lifesaving humanitarian assistance to help meet immediate food needs, including critical nutrition and health support for those acutely malnourished, particularly children.. A further 2.3 million additional people are classified as stressed, meaning they are struggling to meet their minimum daily food needs. Households belonging to this group remain highly vulnerable to major shocks, such as drought or floods, which could easily push them back into food security crisis.. As a result, lifesaving humanitarian assistance and livelihood support remain vitally important throughout2015 to help food insecure populations meet their immediate food needs, protect livelihoods and build resilience.. Malnutrition Rates Remain High. An estimated ...
ATLANTA - Researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, have shown chimpanzees have a significant bias for prosocial behavior. This, the study authors report, is in contrast to previous studies that positioned chimpanzees as reluctant altruists and led to the widely held belief that human altruism evolved in the last six million years only after humans split from apes. The current study findings are available in the online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. According to Yerkes researchers Victoria Horner, PhD, Frans de Waal, PhD, and their colleagues, chimpanzees may not have shown prosocial behaviors in other studies because of design issues, such as the complexity of the apparatus used to deliver rewards and the distance between the animals. I have always been skeptical of the previous negative findings and their over-interpretation, says Dr. de Waal. This study confirms the prosocial nature of chimpanzees with a different test, better adapted to the ...
More than 5,000 civilians have been killed and 9,000 injured in the conflict in Yemen over the last three years. Although more than 70% of the population (21 million Yemenis) need emergency aid, the blockade imposed on 6th November 2017 has aggravated an already disastrous humanitarian situation[1], preventing the entry of foodstuffs, medical supplies and humanitarian aid. Seven million people are on the brink of famine. Arnaud Pont, Yemen emergency desk officer at Handicap International (HI), explains the gravity of the situation:
Humanitarian Exchange Magazine http://odihpn.org/magazine/the-humanitarian-consequences-of-violence-in-central-america/ Number 70 October 2017 Special Feature: The Lake Chad Basin: an overlooked crisis? by Humanitarian Practice Network October 2017 The 70th edition of Humanitarian Exchange, co-edited with Joe Read, focuses on the humanitarian crisis in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin. The violence perpetrated by Boko Haram and the counter-insurgency campaign…
While the humanitarian crisis in the Middle East is one of the most devastating of our era according to Antonio Guterres, UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), humanitarian aid approaches its limits. This paper will look into one of those limits: the challenges of addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in humanitarian interventions. First, the development of humanitarian health interventions, and the changing nature and contexts of emergencies are described. Second, the specific con...
Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG), in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup) or were fans of other teams (outgroups) that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers ...
DAKAR February 3, 2020 - The number of people facing a critical lack of food and vital livelihood opportunities in the Central Sahel has spiked in one year due to rising insecurity and climatic shocks. The situation may further deteriorate unless the international community acts now, three United Nations agencies warned today.. Despite an overall satisfactory agricultural production, 3.3 million people need immediate assistance in the Central Sahel, according to the latest Cadre Harmonisé food security analyses, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) said. Experts forecast that close to 4.8 million people in the Central Sahel will be at risk of food insecurity during the lean season (June-August 2020) if no appropriate actions are taken urgently.. The unprecedented escalation of humanitarian needs in the Central Sahel is a major factor for the alarming situation that the ...
Results Yemen is water scarce, and repeated airstrikes damaged water systems, risking widespread infection. Since a cholera preparedness and response plan was absent, on detection, the humanitarian cluster system rapidly developed response plans. The initial plans did not prioritise key actions including community-directed WASH to reduce transmission, epidemiological analysis and laboratory monitoring. Coordination was not harmonised across the crisis-focused clusters and epidemic-focused incident management system. The health strategy was crisis focused and was centralised on functional health facilities, underemphasising less accessible areas. As vaccination was not incorporated into preparedness, consensus on its use remained slow. At the second wave peak, key actions including data management, community-directed WASH and oral rehydration and vaccination were scaled-up. ...
Negotiations for access are crucial for the success of humanitarian operations. They also occur in contexts of armed conflict and violence that typically entrench gender identities. Building on the vast research showing that gender affects the conduct and outcome of negotiations, this paper explores gender dynamics in a humanitarian setting. After outlining its methodology and surveying the relevant literature, this paper sketches out the ways 21 practitioners at the International Committee of the Red Cross see gender dynamics affecting their work in the field. These interviews support previous findings on men and womens diverging conceptions of genders impact and relevance, as well as on the cross-cultural consistency of gender dynamics in war. In a context where, unlike in many corporate settings, womens work as humanitarian actors is congruent with prescriptive gender stereotypes, this study shows that they can be perceived as more legitimate because they are thought of as selfless ...
Sure, its better to do an altruistic act for a co-ethnic than a foreigner. But its better in the sense that you lose less if you help a co-ethnic than a foreigner. Your genes dont gain anything in either case. Altruism is adaptive for your close kin. Altruism for your co-ethnics or foreigners is (usually) a strictly lose or lose-more proposition ...
The Australian government formally closed the Manus Regional Processing Centre on 31 October. The MRPC was an offshore immigration detention facility at a naval base on Manus Island in northern Papua New Guinea, which held around 750 people at its last official count. Refugee solidarity groups across Australia have long called for it to close, along with camps in Nauru and elsewhere. But last weeks developments are no cause for celebration.. About 600 male refugees are left on the decommissioned site, which had its water and electricity supplies cut off ten days ago. There have been reports of missionaries with food and other necessities being prevented from accessing the camp, and as many as 20 per cent of the men are thought to require medication for mental health conditions. The UNHCR has described the situation as an unfolding humanitarian emergency.. According to the Australian government, the refugees have been offered accommodation in the town of Lorengau, ten miles away. UN observers ...
The humanitarian situation in Somalia remains fragile, as a result of continued armed conflict, flooding, desert locust infestation and COVID-19. Access to health care, including skilled birth attendance, is limited, and women and girls face serious protection concerns, including gender-based violence. GBV survivors face fear of reprisals, stigmatization and difficulty accessing safe and appropriate services. UNFPA coordinates the GBV sub-cluster as well as the reproductive health working group in Somalia.
EU humanitarian aid focuses on providing food, safe drinking water and sanitation, primary health care, shelter, livelihoods support, protection, and education.. In response to the coronavirus pandemic, EU-funded humanitarian projects in Cameroon are adopting measures to help beneficiaries and staff keep safe. They also continue to provide life-saving assistance to support vulnerable communities.. Actions already focusing on the health sector and providing access to clean water and sanitation are helping taking into account the new needs brought about by COVID-19, in line with the countrys response plan.. The EU also contributed funding in support of the WHOs actions in the country on early detection and response, and on having adequate expertise on the ground.. Immediate humanitarian assistance to refugees remains crucial especially to newly displaced people. However, given the protracted nature of the displacement (especially of CAR refugees), aid efforts are also being directed at improving ...
Increasing Humanitarian Need. The number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in the five aforementioned countries, currently estimated at about 16 million, has increased by about 30 per cent since late 2016. In Somalia, almost half of the total population is food insecure, the UN specialised body reported. Timely humanitarian assistance has averted famine so far but must be sustained. Conditions across the region are expected to further deteriorate in the coming months with the onset of the dry season and an anticipated early start of the lean season, it added.. The food security situation for pastoralists is of particular concern, in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia, where animal mortality rates are high and milk production from the surviving animals has declined sharply with negative consequences on food security and nutrition, FAO warned. When we know how critical milk is for the healthy development of children aged under five, and the irreversible damage its lack can create, it is ...
BRAC, UN Women, and New York Universitys Center on International Cooperation (CIC) recently concluded a study of the demographic and socioeconomic changes induced by the unprecedented reverse (urban-to-rural) migration that took place in Bangladesh following the COVID-19 lockdown. This virtual dialogue will provide an opportunity for the research partners to discuss these and other findings, and identify solutions, with regional and migration experts. Additionally, a keynote address will be delivered by Professor Dr. Gowher Rizvi, International Relation Affairs Adviser to the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.. ...
The extreme deprivation and violence endured by millions of Congolese goes virtually unnoticed to the rest of the world. Since mid-November, renewed fighting between the Congolese Army (FARDC) and the Mai-Mai rebels has caused the displacement of tens of thousands of people throughout Katanga province, in southeast Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In one instance in early December, armed men attacked a camp for displaced people in Katanga, forcing some 3,000 people to once again flee for their lives. This spate of violence is just the most recent endured by people in the DRC. More than a decade of war and devastation has collapsed an already weak public health system and caused widespread misery for people throughout the country. During the past year, the northeastern regions of Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu were again the epicenter of violence, with multiple factions fighting for the control of the areas resources, preying on civilians, and committing appalling sexual violence against ...
Pathological altruism[edit]. Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the ... which is the intention of altruism. This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. ... Look up altruism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *. Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Biological Altruism". Stanford Encyclopedia ... The term "pathological altruism" was popularised by the book Pathological Altruism.. Examples include depression and burnout ...
Altruism[edit]. While caregiving by males appears to be altruistic, particularly in cotton-top sires, the costs of infant care ... That is, cooperation in cotton-top tamarins can be better described by mutualism than by true altruism.[31] ... Other studies involving cotton-top tamarins have hinted that positive reciprocity and reciprocal altruism are irrelevant in the ... some studies indicate that cotton-top tamarins have the psychological capacity to participate in reciprocally mediated altruism ...
The kin altruism hypothesis suggests the mothers would preferentially give food to their own offspring. Yet eight of the 11 ... Grooming and support in conflict among primates is considered to be an act of reciprocal altruism. In crab-eating macaques, an ... Schaub, H. (1996). "Testing Kin Altruism in Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in a Food-sharing Experiment". ... These results support the reciprocal altruism theory of grooming in long-tailed macaques.[23] ...
Suicidal altruism[edit]. Further information: Autothysis. An unusual type of predator deterrence is observed in the Malaysian ... Social hymenoptera rely on altruism to protect the entire colony, so the self-destructive acts benefit all individuals in the ...
Kin selection and altruism[edit]. Vespa orientalis live in colonies in which the workers are all daughters of the queen. This ... Social wasps are unusual in their practice of altruism in which non-reproductive individuals work for the benefit of the colony ... When an individual acts in the interests of others and not just itself it is known as altruism. ...
The other points raised by the anonymous editor of the Questions regarding the Danish altruism section do not seem to me to be ... I've taken Questions regarding the Danish altruism out, but the original edit(s) can be found here. - JonRoma 08:31, 15 January ... Questions regarding the Danish altruism[edit]. The recent edit by 192.38.16.190 raises some valid points, but makes rather a ... The points raised in Questions regarding the Danish altruism were therefor in no way valid. They are highly insulting and ...
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. Yale University Press, 2015.[94] ... Singer's ideas have contributed to the rise of effective altruism.[28] He argues that people should try not only to reduce ... He is a board member of Animal Charity Evaluators, a charity evaluator used by many members of the effective altruism community ... he writes about how the effective altruism movement is doing these things more effectively in his 2015 book The Most Good You ...
This is similar to reciprocal altruism in biology. Implications[edit]. The success of the tit-for-tat strategy, which is ... Explaining reciprocal altruism in animal communities[edit]. Studies in the prosocial behaviour of animals have led many ... Reciprocal altruism works in animal communities where the cost to the benefactor in any transaction of food, mating rights, ... The theory also holds that the act of altruism should be reciprocated if the balance of needs reverse. Mechanisms to identify ...
Spite can also be thought of as a type of altruism because harming a non-relative, by taking his resources for example, could ... 7 Altruism and conflict in social insects *7.1 Conflicts in social insects ... It is thought that this unrelated assistance is evidence of altruism in P. dominula.[30] ... West, S.A.; Griffin, A.S.; Gardner, A. (2007b). "Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and ...
Altruism and group selection[change , change source]. Main article: kin selection. Altruism - the willingness of some to ... Altruism is now generally seen as emerging from standard selection.[116][117][118][119][120] The warning note from Ernst Mayr, ... Some biologists have thought that this meant altruism could not evolve by the normal process of selection. Instead a process ...
Nowak, Martin and Roger Highfield (2011). Super Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed. New ... Social complexity theory is applied in studies of social cooperation and public goods; altruism; voting behavior; education; ...
Kin altruism and selfish gene theory are examples of this division. On biological altruism, the Stanford Encyclopedia of ... Nietzsche, rather than rejecting the practice of altruism, warns that despite there being neither much altruism nor equality in ... In this sense, altruism defined Comte's position that all self-regard must be replaced with only the regard for others. While ... "Biological Altruism". In Edward N. Zalta (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy ...
... altruism, sociocracy, and the religion of Humanity. Altruism termed coined by Comte in the 19th century "a theory of conduct ... He may also have coined the word altruisme (altruism). Auguste Comte was born in Montpellier, Hérault on 19 January 1798. After ... "Altruism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gane, Mike (2016). "Journey to Isidore". Revue européenne des ... " ("live for others"), from which comes the word "altruism". Comte was agitated by the fact that no one had synthesized physics ...
Altruism *High scores suggest a person concerned with the well-being of others and show it through generosity, willingness to ...
"The expected value of extinction risk reduction is positive". Effective Altruism. Retrieved 2019-06-20. Kadlec 2008, p. 110. "A ...
... altruism, and [...] acts of sympathy explaining feelings". In response to the motorcycles being negatively depicted on the show ...
She has also spoken at public events such as the Effective Altruism Global conference at Oxford University and Q Commons in ... ". "The Life You Can Save: Peter Singer , Effective Altruism , Philanthropy , Effective Charities: Interview with Kate Grant ...
Theories addressing this have included kin selection, group selection, and reciprocal altruism (both direct and indirect, and ... "Biological Altruism". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.. ...
Some species might be driven to engage in suicidal behavior for the sake of others, which is an example of altruism in animals ... Some species of social insects will commit suicide in an act of altruism through autothysis. These insects will sacrifice ... Samir, Okasha (2003-06-03). "Biological Altruism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. McAllister, Murdoch K.; Roitberg, ...
In the field of positive psychology, empathy has also been compared with altruism and egotism. Altruism is behavior that is ... de Waal FB (2008). "Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy" (PDF). Annual Review of Psychology. 59 ( ... de Waal FB (2008). "Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy". Annual Review of Psychology. 59 (1): ... However, empathy-induced altruism may not always produce pro-social effects. It could lead one to increase the welfare of those ...
One such phenomenon is known as biological altruism. This is a situation in which an organism appears to act in a way that ... This is distinct from traditional notions of altruism because such actions are not conscious, but appear to be evolutionary ... Evolutionary game theory explains this altruism with the idea of kin selection. Altruists discriminate between the individuals ... Okasha, Samir (3 June 2003). "Biological Altruism". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford ...
Alms Altruism Baksheesh Charitable organization Charity badge Charitable trust Charity fraud Dāna Effective altruism ... It is the broad, evidence-based and cause-neutral approach that distinguishes effective altruism from traditional altruism or ... "News: Liv Boeree on Effective Altruism". www.pokerstrategy.com. Retrieved April 11, 2017. "Effective Altruism , Liv Boeree". ... Effective altruism is the use of evidence and reasoning to determine the most effective ways to help others. The word charity ...
Pathological Altruism Eds Barbara Oakley, Ariel Knafo, Guruprasad Madhavan, David Sloan Wilson, Oxford University Press, ... Oakley, Barbara; Knafo, Ariel; Madhavan, Guruprasad; Wilson, David Sloan (5 January 2012). Pathological Altruism. ISBN 978- ... and studies of empathy and altruism. Oakley has co-created (with Professor Terry Sejnowski, a neuroscientist) and teaches ...
However, if altruism were to be selected for through an emphasis on benefit to the group as opposed to relatedness and benefit ... In the 1930s, R.A. Fisher and J.B.S. Haldane proposed the concept of kin selection, a form of altruism from the gene-centered ... The phenotype of altruism relies on recognition of the altruistic behavior by itself. The trait of kindness will be recognized ... 1999). "Altruism". Psychologically Speaking: A Book of Quotations. BPS Books. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-85433-302-5. (see also: ...
Tallinn participates in the effective altruism movement and donated $604,500 to the effective altruism associated Machine ... ". "Jaan Tallinn - Effective Altruism". Effective Altruism. Retrieved 2017-07-03. "Skype inventor Jaan Tallinn wants to use ...
5 January 2012). Pathological Altruism. Oxford University Press. p. 12. Branscombe, Nyla, R.; Bertjan Doosje (2004). Collective ... such as reciprocal altruism. If a person feels guilty when he harms another or fails to reciprocate kindness, he is more likely ...
In words, this equation implies that altruism will develop when the marginal benefit of altruism multiplied by genetic ... is the benefit from altruism and C ( ⋅ ) {\displaystyle C(\cdot )} is the cost of altruism. In the special linear case: w i = w ... Our particular interest is in the development of altruism and when it makes sense to for altruism to flourish, relative to the ... In humans, altruism is both more likely and on a larger scale with kin than with unrelated individuals; for example, humans ...
Parochial altruismEdit. Parochial altruism refers to altruism that is directed in a preferential manner towards members of ... Bernhard, Helen; Urs Fischbacher; Ernst Fehr (2006). "Parochial altruism in humans". Nature. 442 (7105): 912-915. Bibcode: ... Current evolutionary models state that human altruism evolved through the selective (cultural or biological) extinction of ... "The evolutionary interplay of intergroup conflict and altruism in humans: a review of parochial altruism theory and prospects ...
AltruismEdit. See also: Human inclusive fitness. The concept serves to explain how natural selection can perpetuate altruism. ... is the necessary and sufficient condition for selection for altruism. Where B is the gain to the beneficiary, C is the cost to ... If by contrast the altruism allele is more dominant, then the 2 in the above would be replaced by a number smaller than 2. If ... If there is an "altruism gene" (or complex of genes) that influences an organism's behavior to be helpful and protective of ...
The host's altruism is to be explained as benefiting him because of the advantage of being able quickly and repeatedly to ... Others such as Robert Trivers hold that it illustrates mutual selfishness, reciprocal altruism. Others again believe that ... Further information: Reciprocal altruism. In 1971, mathematical biologist Robert Trivers wrote more carefully "Cleaner ...
Pathological altruism[edit]. Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the ... which is the intention of altruism. This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. ... Look up altruism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *. Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Biological Altruism". Stanford Encyclopedia ... The term "pathological altruism" was popularised by the book Pathological Altruism.. Examples include depression and burnout ...
Altruism (et); 利他主義 (zh-hant); Altruizam (sr-el); Altruisme (oc); Altruism (sv); алтруизам (sr-ec); altruïsme (nl); altruísmo ( ... Emergence-of-altruism-behavior-in-army-ant-based-social-evolutionary-system-40064 2014 1412 MOESM1 ESM.ogv 2 min 35 s, 528 × ... Emergence-of-altruism-behavior-in-army-ant-based-social-evolutionary-system-40064 2014 1412 MOESM2 ESM.ogv 1 min 26 s, 416 × ... File nella categoria "Altruism". Questa categoria contiene 17 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 17. ...
Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Ã-rst ... The test results provide supp ort for the theory of revealed altruism.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of ... "Altruism, Cooperation and Trust: Other-regarding Behavior and Collective Actions in Thailand," EEPSEA Research Report ... "Who cooperates in repeated games: The role of altruism, inequity aversion, and demographics," Journal of Economic Behavior & ...

Find local Altruism groups in Baltimore, Maryland and meet people who share your interests. Join a group and attend online or ... Altruism groups in Baltimore Heres a look at some Altruism groups near Baltimore. Join Meetup ...
This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. Kabbalah defines God as the force of ... Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the altruistic person, or well- ... The empathy-altruism hypothesis basically states that psychological altruism does exist and is evoked by the empathic desire to ... The reputational benefits of altruism occur in the future as compared to the immediate costs of altruism in the present. While ...
... Julio J. Rotemberg. NBER Working Paper No. 14302. Issued in September 2008. ... "Attitude-dependent altruism, turnout and voting," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 140(1), pages 223-244, July. citation courtesy ... w15635 Quality Provision, Expected Firm Altruism and Brand Extensions. Schwartz. Gross Dividend and Interest Payments by ... Substantial equilibrium turnout emerges with nontrivial voting costs and modest altruism. The model can explain higher turnout ...
Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most ... Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most ... effective altruismCharity & PhilanthropyPhilanthropySocial PhilanthropyPhilosophyCharityCharity EventsRationality and Reasoning ...
Reciprocal altruism theory also seems to take the altruism out of altruism. Behaving nicely to someone in order to procure ... 1. Altruism and the Levels of Selection. The problem of altruism is intimately connected with questions about the level at ... Strong altruism is the standard notion of altruism in the literature, and was assumed above. To count as weakly altruistic, an ... If by real altruism we mean altruism done with the conscious intention to help, then the vast majority of living creatures ...
... one of the two most common and best understood forms of altruism. The other is reciprocal altruism. Kin altruism occurs because ... In biology, one of the two most common and best understood forms of altruism. The other is reciprocal altruism. Kin altruism ... reciprocal altruism. Dr. Laura Schlessinger. The evolution of altruism. eusocial. Things you learn when a woman moves into your ... Kin Altruism and Homosexuality. Caveat: I believe that human sexuality is a rich spectrum, not binarily hetero or homo. When I ...
Altruism-the sacrifice of self to others. This tied man irrevocably to other men and left him nothing but a choice of pain: his ... Altruism is an instinct weve inherited from the small society where we knew for whom we work, whom we serve. When you pass ... Altruism is a brief phase through which some adolescents must pass. It is rather like acne. Happily, as with acne, only a few ... Altruism is a barbarism. Love is the word. *John Lancaster Spalding, Aphorisms and Reflections (1901), p. 170 ...
Effective altruism is not a complete philosophy of how to live morally, but effective altruism may be relevant for any view ... Effective altruism conferences (called Effective Altruism Global) have been held since 2013. In 2015, Peter Singer published ... "The Importance of the Far Future". Effective Altruism Foundation. Effective Altruism Foundation. August 5, 2016. Archived from ... Muehlhauser, Luke (July 8, 2013). "Four focus areas of effective altruism - Effective Altruism Forum". forum.effectivealtruism. ...
But even "true reality TV" demands that no act of genuine altruism be left unhyped. And so Roberts signaled for a humongous ... Schlock and Awwww: Commercializing Altruism. Every week, Ty Pennington brings the American Dream to a deserving family. What a ...
Altruisms. Could A More Individualistic World Also Be A More Altruistic One?. Individualism is that rugged frontier quality ...
As Wilson well knows, the extant evolutionary explanations of altruism (or cooperation) are manifold. Since altruism has ... If a gene affects altruism in such a way that the altruism is more likely to be directed at close relatives, the gene can ... Does Altruism Exist? Culture, Genes, and the Welfare of Others. By David Sloan Wilson. 192 pp. Yale University/Templeton Press ... And no, it doesnt matter that there is no one gene for kin-directed altruism. There can be hundreds of genes, each with a ...
Four single item measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the adolescent scale: a measure of social behavior (fighting), a measure of health behavior (smoking), a measure of emotional health (adolescent-reported depressive symptoms), and a measure of cognitive development (grades).. Concurrent validity was examined in two ways: with bivariate and multivariate analyses. The table below presents the results of multivariate analyses, which control for: teen gender, teen age, teen race, household income, household size, parental education, parental marital status, parental home ownership, parental employment, and metropolitan area and region of residence. The beta coefficient of the relationship between the constructs scale and outcome is presented.. ...
Altruism is a touchy-feely kind of term. If evolutionary science is to posit it as a viable alternative to that which drives ... Altruism is an alternative to competition as the all-definitive, if not vulgar, expression of the evolutionary principle. The ... Ancient wisdom has indicated for millennia that altruism leads to better health. ...
... Gift Economy. It has long been assumed that there is something beyond economics involved in the proliferation of free ... Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism, hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to ... such as altruism, can develop. Sociobiology: A New Synthesis, Wilsons first attempt to outline the new field of study, was ... and neither is altruism. Efforts and rewards may be valued in intangibles, but, as this paper argues, there is a very tangible ...
To do so, we concentrate on a single topic: altruism. Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying ... altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. Our results ... "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(1 ... "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1951, Iowa State University, ...
Wilson broke with this view, proposing that altruism evolved because it benefits groups, rather than genes. For such "group ... According to Hamiltons rule, apparent acts of altruism - foregoing reproduction to help others, say - are actually self- ... Hughes accepts that there is much more to altruism than simple genetic benefits. ... close genetic relatedness is crucial to the evolution of altruism. ...
Notice that the Altruism seed of the parent is 3/5 = .600, while the childs is .552. Even though altruism is dominating, it is ... Altruism. If you download the NetLogo application, this model is included. (You can also run this model in your browser, but we ... This model is based on a paper by Mitteldorf and Wilson, 2000, Population Viscosity and the Evolution of Altruism, Journal of ... BENEFIT-FROM-ALTRUISM slider --- determines the value of benefit in the above fitness equations. ...
Entries tagged with "Altruism". 5 Simple Practices for Inner Peace. Five simple DIY practices to enrich your body, refresh your ... Roshi Joan Halifax on compassion, women in Buddhism, and altruism. The founder and abbot of Upaya Zen Center in Santa Fe, New ... Study after study confirms that altruism not only makes us happier but actually improves our health. Yet we see a strangers ... Neurons of Compassion: Have we found the basis for empathy and altruism?. Like most great scientific breakthroughs, the ...
One of the projects goals was to teach the future therapists how altruism can have long-term mental health benefits. ... Teaching Healing Through Altruism. Marymount students learn counseling technique by helping U.S. troops. ... One of the projects goals was to teach the future therapists how altruism can have long-term mental health benefits. ... Marymount University professor Lisa Jackson-Cherry, Ph.D., discusses an altruism project with her pastoral counseling class. ...
Altruism - EvoWiki (Site not responding. Last check: ). Altruism may reasonably be defined as acting to benefit others at ones ... Evil_Altruism.html. Altruism is a code of ethics which hold the welfare of others as the standard of "good", and self-sacrifice ... Altruism is the abdication of claims of power over others. The most effective counter to the spread of altruism is the modern ... Altruism is the moral code at the base of socialism. The term "altruism" was coined by the nineteenth century advocate of ...
... Stefano DellaVigna, John A. List, Ulrike Malmendier. NBER ... "Testing for Altruism and Social Pressure in Charitable Giving," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, ... w16373 The Power of Asking: How Communication Affects Selfishness, Empathy, and Altruism. ... due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, e.g., due to social pressure. We ...
They are united in their altruism: they are motivated by the joy of helping create families. And almost as soon as theyve ... Lawyers, ethicists, fertility clinics, psychologists, agencies all profit from the surrogate mothers altruism. Because ...
Although cooperation and altruism are often thought of as ways to attenuate competition and aggression within groups, or are ... This book is about the evolution and nature of cooperation and altruism in social-living animals, focusing especially on non- ... "Origins of Altruism and Cooperation presents an avalanche of information and perspectives that can at times be overwhelming, a ... "The book does three things that many of the other books on this subject dont do: it gives some background about altruism and ...
Altruism in Later Life *Elizabeth Midlarsky - Columbia University School of Law, New York ... Why are the elderly so often perceived as burdensome and unproductive members of our society? Altruism in Later Life explores ... Based on a carefully applied methodological review of research focusing on altruism and the elderly, the results reveal the ... and theoretical trends in gerontology and altruism research. Following a brief but inclusive historical survey of aging ...
How Mark Zuckerbergs Altruism Helps Himself. Zuckerberg set up a limited liability company, which has reaped enormous benefits ...
We hypothesized that variations in one or both mechanisms drive costly altruism towards distant others. We show that ... Extraordinary acts of altruism towards strangers represent puzzling phenomena not easily explained by dominant biological ... models of altruism, such as kin selection and reciprocity1-3. These theories stipulate that genetically or socially close ... de Waal, F. B. M. Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, 279-300 (2008). ...
p.1) Altruism in Humans (p.2) (p.1) Altruism in Humans (p.2) Source:. Altruism in Humans. Publisher:. Oxford University Press. ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ...
  • Local Effective Altruism N. (meetup.com)
  • Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most good you can in the world. (meetup.com)
  • Effective altruism is the use of evidence and reason to determine the most effective ways to benefit others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that advocates the use of evidence and reasoning to determine the most effective ways to benefit others. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who embrace effective altruism are often called effective altruists. (wikipedia.org)
  • While many effective altruists have focused on the nonprofit sector, the philosophy of effective altruism applies more broadly to prioritizing the scientific projects, companies, and policy initiatives which can be estimated to save lives, help people, or otherwise have the biggest benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Philosophers played an important role in creating effective altruism (see § History of the social movement below), and much of the published literature about effective altruism poses philosophical questions about why and how to use evidence and reasoning to determine the most effective ways to benefit others, and then tries to figure out the most plausible answers to those questions, so that people can take action on the basis of those answers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "guiding question" of effective altruism is: How can we, individually and collectively, do the most good? (wikipedia.org)
  • Can everyone practice effective altruism? (wikipedia.org)
  • This minimal philosophical core of effective altruism is likely to be supported by a wide variety of views about morality and meta-ethics. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the moral theory of consequentialism, including utilitarianism, supports the aim of using resources to benefit others as much as possible, but effective altruism is not necessarily, as has sometimes been said, the same as consequentialism. (wikipedia.org)
  • One view says that effective altruism is not a set of normative claims (telling what people "should do") but instead is a project, intellectual and practical, of "trying to figure out how to use resources in whatever way will do the most good with a given unit of resources" and of putting what has been learned into practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to this view, the normative ethical theories of consequentialism, egalitarianism, prioritarianism, contractualism, deontological ethics, virtue ethics, as well as many traditional religious teachings on altruism, can all be compatible with the project of effective altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective altruism is not a complete philosophy of how to live morally, but effective altruism may be relevant for any view that assumes some reason to promote the good and that assumes that the well-being of others is part of the good. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people have reported that the questions and answers posed by the philosophy of effective altruism have helped them learn more about complex problems and gain a deeper sense of meaning as well as a feeling of satisfaction about helping others more effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following subsections describe important ideas that are discussed in the published literature about effective altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the published literature on effective altruism emphasizes impartial or impersonal reasoning and concludes that, all other things being equal, everyone's well-being (and suffering) counts equally, without regard to the individual identities of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The debate on effective altruism continues. (bostonreview.net)
  • We constantly strive to update our beliefs on the basis of new evidence, and so we welcome criticism of both the ideas behind effective altruism as well as the practical matter of which charities we recommend. (bostonreview.net)
  • The main idea of effective altruism is doing more to help others with your life and trying to help as much as possible, using evidence and reason. (bostonreview.net)
  • We're sorry for any failure on the part of Giving What We Can (and the effective altruism community) to communicate more clearly why we recommend the charities we do. (bostonreview.net)
  • If you X-ray "effective altruism", you see a Christian skeleton. (mercatornet.com)
  • Effective altruism is built on the simple but unsettling idea that living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good one can. (coursera.org)
  • and think about how effective altruism can be put into practice in your own life. (coursera.org)
  • Thought provoking and persuasive, this course is both an excellent introduction to the study of ethics and to the growing movement striving for a better world - effective altruism. (coursera.org)
  • Effective altruism goes beyond the personal satisfaction of doing good and feeling good about what I can achieve, Eastern philosophy teaches us that it produces twice the joy of giving than what produces receiving. (coursera.org)
  • I beyond appreciated and looked forward to Professor Singer's weekly lessons on Effective Altruism. (coursera.org)
  • A whole movement has arisen called Effective Altruism which aims to ensure that altruistic acts do as much good as possible. (bioethics.net)
  • How much do you know about effective altruism? (devex.com)
  • Peter Singer - the man behind the viral book "The Life You Can Save," and one of the key figures in the effective altruism movement - describes it as giving using one's heart and mind. (devex.com)
  • Effective altruism: Are you doing good, better? (devex.com)
  • It has been proposed that human altruism is engendered by empathy ( Silka and Housea, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ever since the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York in 1964, social psychologists have taken a great interest in human altruism and prosocial behaviour. (antiessays.com)
  • Interspecific Adoption: Can Evolution Explain Altruism in Animals? (answersingenesis.org)
  • There are many competing theories that explain altruism in nature, namely, group selection, multilevel selection, reciprocal altruism, and kin selection all of which will be discussed here. (hubpages.com)
  • In order to explain altruism, we have to dig deeper. (hubpages.com)
  • According to Hamilton's rule, apparent acts of altruism - foregoing reproduction to help others, say - are actually self-serving, because they benefit the altruist's genes. (newscientist.com)
  • Extraordinary acts of altruism towards strangers represent puzzling phenomena not easily explained by dominant biological models of altruism, such as kin selection and reciprocity 1 - 3 . (nature.com)
  • These successes depend on acts of altruism. (sluggerotoole.com)
  • This note describes the evolution of the notion of alms (and by extension of altruism) from the notion of sacrifice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the science of ethology (the study of animal behaviour), and more generally in the study of social evolution , altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that group selection might explain the evolution of altruism was first broached by Darwin himself. (stanford.edu)
  • In other words, close genetic relatedness is crucial to the evolution of altruism. (newscientist.com)
  • The theory of reciprocal altruism , developed by Trivers (1971), is one attempt to explain the evolution of altruism among non-kin. (factbites.com)
  • Trivers, R. L. The evolution of reciprocal altruism. (nature.com)
  • The resulting study, "A Quantitative Test of Hamilton's Rule for the Evolution of Altruism" was recently published in PLoS Biology . (technologyreview.com)
  • Nonetheless, the notion of group selection is often used in evolutionary discourse, especially for explaining the evolution of altruism or sociality (the tendency to form social groups). (utm.edu)
  • While intraspecific adoption is troublesome for evolution since they must explain altruistic behavior when their dogma predicts a complete lack of altruism, it is possible that an explanation could be postulated based on reproductive benefit for the species or group as a whole. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Altruism and helping: The evolution of a field: The 2008 Cooley-Mead presentation1. (wikipedia.org)
  • But despite Hamilton's speculation about how this could occur ( 3 ), neither the process by which war might have become sufficiently common to support the evolution of altruism nor the possibility that altruism conditioned on group membership might have contributed to the unusually high level of lethal intergroup conflict among humans has been subjected to systematic investigation. (sciencemag.org)
  • To date, the challenge for researchers to test the evolution of altruism has been great, mainly due to the lack of experiments and the fact that too many variables were involved. (phys.org)
  • 2011) A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism. (phys.org)
  • In it, he attempts to explain the evolution of altruism in humans. (hubpages.com)
  • Ayn Rand argued that altruism is the willful sacrifice of one's values, and represents the reversal of morality because only rationally selfish ethics allow one to pursue the values required for human life. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism may reasonably be defined as acting to benefit others at one's expense. (factbites.com)
  • An ultimate motivation of assisting another regardless of one's direct or indirect self-benefit is necessary for it to be altruistic in the ordinary sense ─ for what we might call moral altruism (see psychological egoism ). (utm.edu)
  • Biological altruism is a course of action that enhances the expected fitness of another at the expense of one's own fitness. (utm.edu)
  • Altruism is defined as reducing one's own reproductive output to help others reproduce. (eurekalert.org)
  • Altruism-benefiting fellow group members at a cost to oneself-and parochialism-hostility toward individuals not of one's own ethnic, racial, or other group-are common human behaviors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The intersection of the two-which we term "parochial altruism"-is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective because altruistic or parochial behavior reduces one's payoffs by comparison to what one would gain by eschewing these behaviors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Late 19th-century scientists as diverse as Charles Darwin ( 1 ) and Karl Pearson ( 2 ) recognized war as a powerful evolutionary force that might foster social solidarity and altruism toward the fellow members of one's group. (sciencemag.org)
  • When this is the case, and when the members of the actor's group benefit as a result of one's hostile actions toward other groups, we term the behavior "parochial altruism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Altruism or selflessness is the opposite of selfishness . (wikipedia.org)
  • Every person must decide at some point, whether they will walk in light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness. (wikiquote.org)
  • In an extreme case, altruism may become a synonym of selflessness, which is the opposite of selfishness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The occurrence of altruism is a seeming paradox for Charles Darwin's mechanism of natural selection , because its natural consequence is a sort of universal selfishness . (factbites.com)
  • Excessive altruism and/or selfishness , by contrast, unbalance the giving and getting, inviting resentment. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Altruism is selfishness out with a pair of field glasses and imagination. (finestquotes.com)
  • Can Altruism Save Humans From Becoming Extinct? (socyberty.com)
  • Humans' propensity for altruism can be used for good, or it can be used for evil. (psmag.com)
  • Altruism in humans is well documented. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Humans, like other animals, have a tendency towards altruism. (bioethics.net)
  • Our game-theoretic analysis and agent-based simulations show that under conditions likely to have been experienced by late Pleistocene and early Holocene humans, neither parochialism nor altruism would have been viable singly, but by promoting group conflict, they could have evolved jointly. (sciencemag.org)
  • But parochial altruism could have emerged and proliferated among early humans because our ancestors lived in environments in which competition for resources favored groups with substantial numbers of parochial altruists willing to engage in hostile conflict with outsiders on behalf of their fellow group members. (sciencemag.org)
  • Contrast Theories Explaining Altruism in Humans Altruism according to evolutionary theory is a behaviour that reduces the fitness of the altruistic individual but increases the fitness of the individual receiving help (Okasha, 2008). (antiessays.com)
  • Human Relationships Contrast two theories explaining altruism in humans Altruism refers to the performance of prosocial actions without expectations of benefit for oneself. (antiessays.com)
  • The other is reciprocal altruism . (everything2.com)
  • By definition, altruism is a direct loss of benefit to itself - though it may gain by later return of the favour: but if it does, this is the unrelated phenomenon of reciprocal altruism , which has a different genetic basis. (everything2.com)
  • Other approaches to the evolutionary puzzle of altruism also appeared in the next half-century: the ability to expect and receive reciprocal altruism, the benefits to an individual's reputation, cooperation in games where the cumulative payoff beats defection, and other models. (prospect.org)
  • In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is called "reciprocal altruism" - members of different species or families collaborating with each other for the mutual benefit. (hubpages.com)
  • Rand, D. G. & Epstein, Z. G. Risking your life without a second thought: intuitive decision-making and extreme altruism. (nature.com)
  • Researcher Abigail Marsh tells the tale of her very personal brush with extreme altruism. (the-scientist.com)
  • We can define extreme altruism as an act taken for the benefit of another that involves making large life-altering or life-threatening sacrifices or personal risks. (bioethics.net)
  • Society's approach to extreme altruism is inconsistent. (bioethics.net)
  • It is not clear why extreme altruism should be limited to national emergency. (bioethics.net)
  • We have argued at various points for extreme altruism in medicine. (bioethics.net)
  • We argue that extreme altruism should be allowed in the current pandemic and give examples based on previous work and one novel proposal: the very elderly or infirm, such as nursing home residents, volunteering for risky challenge studies. (bioethics.net)
  • E.O. Wilson defines sociobiology as "the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior," the central theoretical problem of which is the question of how behaviors that seemingly contradict the principles of natural selection, such as altruism , can develop. (jahsonic.com)
  • Altruism is one of the great mysteries of social behavior in animals, as it appears to contradict our understanding of natural selection . (factbites.com)
  • Biologists usually define "altruism" as behavior of an animal that is risky-perhaps deadly-for that animal, but benefits other members of its community . (factbites.com)
  • Although there are differences in opinion, it is generally believed that animal altruism exists and survives as a behavior pattern because there is some reproductive advantage to the group. (factbites.com)
  • People become non-cooperative and express antisocial behavior as a result of faulty or incomplete development of their natural potential for cooperation and altruism. (springer.com)
  • Research questions that can be explored using this learning guide include: what are the factors that motivate one person to help another, how costs and rewards, or empathy influence helping and altruism, the impact that cultural norms and roles may have on helping behavior, and whether characteristics of the person needing help influence helping behavior and if so, how. (umich.edu)
  • Intraspecific adoption is troublesome for evolutionists, since they must explain altruistic behavior when their dogma predicts a complete lack of altruism. (answersingenesis.org)
  • 2. Responder behavior (basically, willingness to punish even when it's expensive to punish) seems about twice as heritable as risk-taking and altruism. (gnxp.com)
  • This area of study is the beginning of a fascinating new argument about altruism-that a branch of our nervous system evolved to support such behavior. (futurismic.com)
  • Religion may be an important source of altruism, yet from a scientific perspective, religion's effects on thought and behavior are not well understood. (templeton.org)
  • Pathological altruism can be conceived as behavior in which attempts to promote the welfare of another, or others, results instead in harm that an external observer would conclude was reasonably foreseeable. (aier.org)
  • Biological Altruism: Theories which Explain the Presence of Altruistic Behavior in Animals. (hubpages.com)
  • Well, according to evolutionary scientists altruism or altruistic behavior promotes the survival of a group. (hubpages.com)
  • From a Darwinian viewpoint, the existence of altruism in nature is at first sight puzzling, as Darwin himself realized. (stanford.edu)
  • The existence of altruism in nature is at first sight puzzling, because altruistic behaviour reduces the likelihood that an individual will reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms can be defined as an individual performing an action which is at a cost to themselves (e.g., pleasure and quality of life, time, probability of survival or reproduction), but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. (wikipedia.org)
  • This biological notion of altruism is not identical to the everyday concept. (stanford.edu)
  • Indeed, some of the most interesting examples of biological altruism are found among creatures that are (presumably) not capable of conscious thought at all, e.g. insects. (stanford.edu)
  • Burnstein, E., Crandall, C. & Kitayama, S. Some neo-Darwinian decision rules for altruism: weighing cues for inclusive fitness as a function of the biological importance of the decision. (nature.com)
  • Miniature robots are helping to solve a longstanding biological puzzle-that of altruism. (technologyreview.com)
  • Why, from a evolutionary biological standpoint, does altruism exist? (technologyreview.com)
  • Thus, they are not part of the meaning of "altruism" in the biological sense. (utm.edu)
  • Connecting biological and moral altruism is typically done without conflating the two, that is, without committing the naturalistic fallacy of "is implies ought. (utm.edu)
  • In order to investigate biological and cognitive explanations for religiously motivated altruism, I will utilize perspectives from psychology and cognitive science (i.e., examining potential cognitive mediators) and techniques from genetics (i.e., measuring predisposition to reward and punishment sensitivity using a multilocus genetic composite of dopamine-related genes) while also considering the social environment (i.e., deservingness of the target of altruism) in a gene-environment interaction. (templeton.org)
  • This research will test a proposed model for how both biological and cognitive perspectives can be integrated to understand why religion increases altruism for certain individuals in particular contexts. (templeton.org)
  • These are the questions that occupied the brilliant and troubled mind of population geneticist and author George Price , who developed what's still regarded as the most accurate mathematical, biological and evolutionary model for altruism before taking his own life at the age of 52. (brainpickings.org)
  • What is Biological Altruism? (hubpages.com)
  • Biological altruism is defined as the behavioral tendency of organisms to promote the survival of another organism (usually of the same species) at the expense of their own survival. (hubpages.com)
  • We hypothesized that variations in social discounting may represent a proximal mechanism supporting this form of altruism. (nature.com)
  • This would seem to run counter to any form of altruism, including adoption of offspring of the same species. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Do testosterone and oestrogen affect our attitudes to fairness, trust, risk and altruism? (scienceblogs.com)
  • In order to understand how they think of altruism and judgmentalism, we're forced to backport a definition from their conclusions and from how they designed the study. (hoboes.com)
  • When you think of altruism, what readily comes to mind? (aier.org)
  • Origins of Altruism and Cooperation presents an avalanche of information and perspectives that can at times be overwhelming, a number of important themes emerge from the diverse material discussed by these many authors. (springer.com)
  • [1] Altruism in this sense is different from the philosophical concept of altruism, in which an action would only be called "altruistic" if it was done with the conscious intention of helping another. (wikipedia.org)
  • One extreme example of altruism is the Stegodyphus spider, with a unique system of matriphagy. (socyberty.com)
  • A puzzling example of altruism in na. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A puzzling example of altruism in nature has been debunked with resear. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A puzzling example of altruism in nature has been debunked with researchers showing that purple-crowned fairy wrens are in reality cunningly planning for their own future when they assist in raising other birds' young by balancing the amount of assistance they give with the benefits they expect to receive in the future. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • To preach egoism is to practise altruism. (wikiquote.org)
  • The word "altruism" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism refers to improving the lives of others-as opposed to egoism, which emphasizes only self-interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • altruism (n .) "unselfishness, opposite of egoism," from French altruisme , coined by French philosopher Auguste Comte in the 1800s. (hubpages.com)
  • This essay will discuss the view that pro social behaviour can be both a selfless and a selfish act and how it is determined by factors such as altruism and empathy/egoism cultural influences and kin selection. (antiessays.com)
  • If selection acts exclusively at the individual level, favouring some individual organisms over others, then it seems that altruism cannot evolve, for behaving altruistically is disadvantageous for the individual organism itself, by definition. (stanford.edu)
  • If altruism is to evolve, it must be the case that the recipients of altruistic actions have a greater than average probability of being altruists themselves. (factbites.com)
  • He even came up with a mathematical equation to describe under what situations altruism was likely to evolve. (technologyreview.com)
  • So kin selection theory predicts that altruism will only evolve to help related individuals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Much debate exists as to whether "true" altruism is possible in human psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Altruism/relationship, maybe for a personal god, maybe for others, seems to take us beyond natural laws of behavioral psychology. (freakonomics.com)
  • Cases of animals helping individuals to whom they are closely related can be explained by kin selection , and are not considered true altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where does true altruism come from? (brainpickings.org)
  • A new study suggests how personality, charitable giving, and aging converge in the brain in a way that reflects "pure" altruism. (psychcentral.com)
  • To isolate pure altruism from other motivations, they triangulated methods from the three fields. (psychcentral.com)
  • It is exciting that the three very different methods converge on a common general benevolence dimension and that we can reliably measure pure altruism. (psychcentral.com)
  • Since general benevolence increases with age, Mayr said, it suggests the possibility that life experiences may plant the seeds of pure altruism in people, allowing them to grow into the desire to contribute to the public good. (psychcentral.com)
  • Does pure altruism exist? (opb.org)
  • Pure" altruism is apparently not enough to guarantee a steady supply of blood, but economic incentives to donate might crowd-out intrinsic motivations. (voxeu.org)
  • But given these alarming shortages, "pure" altruism is apparently not enough to guarantee a steady supply of blood. (voxeu.org)
  • They do not have the mental equipment for an eternal, dangerous and sometimes costly altruism. (wikiquote.org)
  • We hypothesized that variations in one or both mechanisms drive costly altruism towards distant others. (nature.com)
  • Previous evidence does not directly link costly altruism towards strangers to reduced social discounting. (nature.com)
  • New research (earlier, ungated version here ) looks at one factor that may affect altruism in the real world: communication. (freakonomics.com)
  • Across three experiments, this research will examine: 1) whether cognitive mediators, such as concerns about supernatural punishment or reward, explain the effect of religion on altruism, and 2) whether concerns about supernatural punishment and reward affect altruism differently depending on genetic predispositions to be reward- and punishment-sensitive and also depending on the social context. (templeton.org)
  • Yet, like any other adaptation, altruism can have pathological manifestations. (goodreads.com)
  • We have been discussing pathological altruism among Whites quite a bit lately on TOO. (theoccidentalobserver.net)
  • Compare Altruism (ethics) - perception of altruism as self-sacrifice . (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism is an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have an ethical obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self interest. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism is a code of ethics which hold the welfare of others as the standard of " good ", and self-sacrifice as the only moral action. (factbites.com)
  • The unstated premise of the doctrine of altruism is that all relationships among men involve sacrifice. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism is the deliberate sacrifice of a portion of an individual's reproductive capacity in order to increase that of another. (factbites.com)
  • These distinctions between ordinary and technical senses of "altruism" notwithstanding, many scientists often link them in the evolutionary debates over group selection. (utm.edu)
  • While this itself is evidence against evolutionary dogma, when animals exhibit altruism, evolutionary scientists are often left scratching their heads. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Our research and that of other scientists suggests that the vagus nerve may be a physiological system that supports caretaking and altruism. (futurismic.com)
  • For the concept in behavioral ecology, see Altruism (biology) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Is Altruism a Behavioral Disorder? (bigthink.com)
  • Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Authors Elizabeth Midlarsky and Eva Kahana introduce the results of a series of investigations on assistance offered by--rather than to--the elderly, in the context of historical, philosophical, and theoretical trends in gerontology and altruism research. (sagepub.com)
  • How can the existence of altruism be reconciled with basic Darwinian principles? (stanford.edu)
  • The word "altruism" (French, altruisme , from autrui: "other people", derived from Latin alter: "other") was coined by Auguste Comte , the French founder of positivism , in order to describe the ethical doctrine he supported. (factbites.com)
  • President of the Institute for Research on Unlimited Love, he has studied altruism and unselfish love for three decades at the interface of science, philosophy, and world religions. (indigo.ca)
  • Reading the study, it appears that what they mean by altruism is a willingness to be free with other people's resources, a willingness to give to anonymous others without ever finding out who those others are or what they really need. (hoboes.com)
  • To answer these questions, lets look at some theories about altruism, and examine altruistic people's worldview. (hubpages.com)
  • It provided great history on the theories and debates of Altruism, but more importantly it provided tangible, action related learning. (coursera.org)
  • Wilson broke with this view, proposing that altruism evolved because it benefits groups , rather than genes. (newscientist.com)
  • and because altruism via group selection may explain some major evolutionary transitions in the history of life (such as the transition from separate molecules into a gene, from individual genes into a chromosome, from individual cells into a multi-cellular organism, and from multi-cellular organisms turning into a social group). (utm.edu)
  • Altruism-healthy altruism-benefits society in many positive ways and is ingrained in Western philosophy and ethics. (aier.org)
  • So the high relatedness observed in ants, bees and wasps - so-called eusocial species that have a queen and sterile workers - is a consequence, not a cause, of altruism. (newscientist.com)
  • Death through altruism appears to be more common in the world than death through aggression by a member of the same species. (factbites.com)
  • The book does three things that many of the other books on this subject don't do: it gives some background about altruism and cooperation in specific non-human primate species, it reviews the neuroscience behind these behaviors, and it shows the practical applications of altruism and cooperation in such things as education and healthcare. (springer.com)
  • Darwin's idea that more cooperative groups had better survival chances throughout our species' supposedly very violent (pre)history ( Bowles, 2009 ), and that in-group directed altruism and out-group directed hostility could have evolved together seems intuitively plausible. (frontiersin.org)
  • The case that altruism evolves in all social species is surprisingly simple to make. (goodreads.com)
  • This is referred to as "kin altruism" - members of the same species or family preferring or helping each other. (hubpages.com)
  • Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism , hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to identify evolutionary trends and sociobiological characteristics of all animal groups, up to and including man. (jahsonic.com)
  • The meaning of "altruism" in ordinary language is quite different from its use among evolutionary biologists (Sober and Wilson, 1998, pp. 17-18). (utm.edu)
  • From an evolutionary viewpoint, Wilson argues, altruism is inextricably linked to the functional organization of groups. (goodreads.com)
  • Wilson concludes by showing how a social theory that goes beyond altruism by focusing on group function can help to improve the human condition. (goodreads.com)
  • The traits of altruism and cooperation often are assumed to be among humanity's essential and defining characteristics. (springer.com)
  • Neither parochialism nor altruism would seem likely to survive any selection process that favors traits with higher payoffs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Altruism, or benefitting others, can be driven by various kinds of motivation and justification, including impartial or impersonal reasoning and sentiments such as sympathy and compassion. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who have high vagus nerve activation in a resting state, we have found, are prone to feeling emotions that promote altruism-compassion, gratitude, love, happiness. (futurismic.com)
  • By suggesting an evolutionary link between "in-group love" and "out-group hate," though, parochial altruism theory sparked renewed interdisciplinary interest in this topic (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. (frontiersin.org)
  • The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this Research Topic and the variety of methods used in their studies are representative for the current interdisciplinary interest in parochial altruism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, we hope that future theorizing on parochial altruism will be stimulated by the evidence gathered in this Research Topic (also see Everett et al . (frontiersin.org)
  • In the remainder of this editorial, we briefly highlight central findings reported here, which, to us, appear most informative for prospective enhancements of parochial altruism theory. (frontiersin.org)
  • provide some of the first evidence of "unprovoked" parochial altruism in a laboratory setting. (frontiersin.org)
  • But parochial altruism could have evolved if parochialism promoted intergroup hostilities and the combination of altruism and parochialism contributed to success in these conflicts. (sciencemag.org)
  • In biology , one of the two most common and best understood forms of altruism . (everything2.com)
  • In biology , altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms do not practise kin altruism because it is good for the other individual they are benefiting. (everything2.com)
  • In the attempt to understand the influences, which prompt people to help at some occasions, but remain passive at others, there has been plenty of research about prosocial behaviour and the phenomenon of altruism. (antiessays.com)
  • this is a functional definition of altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether altruism occurs depends on several things: on the population's initial conditions, on the definition of "altruism" as absolute or relative fitness reduction ─ that is, whether one suffers a net loss or not (Kerr et al. (utm.edu)
  • In other words, their definition of altruism sounds a lot like paying taxes and being a government bureaucrat. (hoboes.com)
  • Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, altruism is caring about the welfare of other people and acting to help them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In every human society, altruism, a selfless concern for the welfare of others, is considered a noble virtue. (socyberty.com)
  • we simply assume that the altruist cares about the welfare of the beneficiary of his altruism, where that welfare is defined by the beneficiary's preferences. (daviddfriedman.com)
  • So some of my research involves pathologies of altruism and that is sort of this road to hell is sometimes paved by good intentions. (bigthink.com)
  • Pathologies of altruism and empathy not only underlie health issues, but also a disparate slew of humankind's most troubled features, including genocide, suicide bombing, self-righteous political partisanship, and ineffective philanthropic and social programs that ultimately worsen the situations they are meant to aid. (aier.org)
  • The income finding may appear surprising but researchers say it helps to explain that altruism increases with age, and "not simply due to older adults being generally wealthier. (psychcentral.com)
  • Even bacteria exhibit altruism. (socyberty.com)
  • Agents exhibit pure intergenerational altruism if they care not just about the consumption utility experienced by future generations, but about their total wellbeing. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Our approach allowed us to look at commonalities in the different approaches to assess altruism," Mayr said. (psychcentral.com)
  • Batson, C. D. The naked emperor: seeking a more plausible genetic basis for psychological altruism. (nature.com)
  • The 2006 research by Jorge Moll and Jordan Grafman of the National Institutes of Health that used brain imaging and psychological experiments at once challenges centuries-old conviction that has associated altruism with a higher moral faculty. (ohmynews.com)
  • T]he human brain is wired for goodwill,' he argues, 'which propels us toward empathic displays of altruism. (psmag.com)
  • This paper argues that "altruism," as a motive to send money home, would contribute to the stability of these flows. (imf.org)
  • Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. (repec.org)
  • Let us try to teach generosity and altruism, because we are born selfish. (finestquotes.com)
  • Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings or other animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. (wikipedia.org)
  • What would animals reckon if we told them that only the higher primates of the family Hominidae could practice altruism? (socyberty.com)
  • Their goal was to find a sweet spot where altruism is done for the simple joy of seeing others benefit without expecting personal rewards or recognition, said Dr. Ulrich Mayr, lead author on the paper. (psychcentral.com)
  • Hughes accepts that there is much more to altruism than simple genetic benefits. (newscientist.com)
  • living being or group, and next Altruism which refers to an act that is meant to benefit another rather than oneself. (antiessays.com)