Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Commodification: The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.Group Structure: The informal or formal organization of a group of people based on a network of personal relationships which is influenced by the size and composition, etc., of the group.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Bystander Effect: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Theilovirus: A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Patient Education HandoutPhilosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Philosophy, MedicalAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.PoetryPersonhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Paranoid Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Fund Raising: Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Pipidae: A family of the order Anura, distinguished by the lack of a tongue. It includes four living genera of aquatic "toads". Two of the most familiar pipids are the popularly called Surinam "toad" (Pipa pipa) and XENOPUS LAEVIS.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)

Participation in breast cancer susceptibility testing protocols: influence of recruitment source, altruism, and family involvement on women's decisions. (1/473)

OBJECTIVES: We offered education, counseling, and family-based BRCA1/2 testing to women at increased risk of breast cancer and assessed (a) their reasons for participating and (b) whether source of recruitment, desire to help research (altruism), and the need to communicate with their affected relative about testing distinguish those who did and those who did not complete each phase of our protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sent invitations to 403 women who had completed a questionnaire on BRCA1/2 testing, 178 of whom were considered high risk because they had more than one relative on the same side of the family with early-onset breast cancer. RESULTS: Among the 132 high-risk respondents from the mid-Atlantic states (where testing was offered), 36% (n = 47) were interested in counseling. Those who actually attended counseling were more likely to have some college education, a higher perceived risk of breast cancer, and a greater fear of stigma and were less likely to have a daughter than those who did not attend. The reasons for attending that were rated "very important" were to learn about the test (80%), to have the test (43%), and to help research (38%). High-risk women were eligible for testing only if their affected relative was willing to be tested and tested positive. After the session, 83% intended to ask their affected relative to be tested, but only half of the affected relatives actually came for pretest counseling. The proportion of participants who ultimately involved an affected relative was 2.5 times higher among women from a clinical population (25%) than among those from a registry population (10%); in this latter population, an altruistic desire to help research was a greater motivator for participation than interest in being tested. CONCLUSIONS: Source of recruitment influences both motivations to attend education and counseling and actual testing behavior. These results have implications for interpretation of findings from studies in research settings as well as for informed consent and decision-making in the context of family-based testing.  (+info)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan. (2/473)

Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY.  (+info)

Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999. (3/473)

This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.  (+info)

Lessons on humanitarian assistance. (4/473)

Conflict almost completely destroyed Rwanda's infrastructure in 1994. Natural disasters, as well as disasters caused by humans, have severely challenged humanitarian aid available within the country. In this study, we have analysed the experiences of nongovernmental organizations since the summer of 1994 to evaluate how these difficulties may be overcome. One of the problems identified has been restrictions on the ability to introduce effective health planning due to the poor quality of available local information. The implementation of effective plans that show due consideration to the environment and society is clearly necessary. Effective monitoring and detailed observation are identified as being essential to the continuity of existing humanitarian assistance.  (+info)

Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. (5/473)

The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs".  (+info)

Photographic memory, money, and liposuction: survey of medical students' wish lists. (6/473)

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether medical students made fewer altruistic wishes and more money oriented wishes in later years of the medical course than students in earlier years. DESIGN: Anonymous questionnaire survey. SETTING: Auckland University School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: 520 medical students from 6 years of the course responded to the questionnaire item "If you had three wishes what would you wish for?" MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of wishes in various categories. RESULTS: The three most popular categories of wishes were happiness (34% of students), money (32%), and altruistic wishes (31%). Rates of altruistic wishes (odds ratio=1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.18; P=0.36) and wishes for money (odds ratio=0.96, 0.86 to 1.08; P=0.52) did not vary over the years of the course. Female medical students were more likely than males to make altruistic wishes (36% v 26%; chi(2)=5.68, P=0. 02), intimacy wishes (25% v 18%; chi(2)=3.74, P=0.05), and happiness wishes (42% v 26%; chi(2)=18.82, P=0.0001). Men were more likely than women to make sexual wishes (5% v 0.8%; chi(2)=7.34, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that students were less altruistic and more money oriented in the later years of the medical course.  (+info)

Altruism, blood donation and public policy: a reply to Keown. (7/473)

This is a continuation of and a development of a debate between John Keown and me. The issue discussed is whether, in Britain, an unpaid system of blood donation promotes and is justified by its promotion of altruism. Doubt is cast on the notions that public policies can, and, if they can, that they should, be aimed at the promotion and expression of altruism rather than of self-interest, especially that of a mercenary sort. Reflections upon President Kennedy's proposition, introduced into the debate by Keown, that we should ask not what our country can do for us but what we can do for our country is pivotal to this casting of doubt. A case is made for suggesting that advocacy along the lines which Keown presents of an exclusive reliance on a voluntary, unpaid system of blood donation encourages inappropriate attitudes towards the provision of health care. Perhaps, it is suggested, and the suggestion represents, on my part, a change of mind as a consequence of the debate, a dual system of blood provision might be preferable.  (+info)

Cooperation through image scoring in humans. (8/473)

The "tragedy of the commons," that is, the selfish exploitation of resources in the public domain, is a reason for many of our everyday social conflicts. However, humans are often more helpful to others than evolutionary theory would predict, unless indirect reciprocity takes place and is based on image scoring (which reflects the way an individual is viewed by a group), as recently shown by game theorists. We tested this idea under conditions that control for confounding factors. Donations were more frequent to receivers who had been generous to others in earlier interactions. This shows that image scoring promotes cooperative behavior in situations where direct reciprocity is unlikely.  (+info)

Altruism allows doing for others as one would be done by. Unlike reaction formation, which also gives to the object what the self desires, altruism leaves the self at least partly gratified. Unlike reaction formation, altruism tempers asceticism with pleasure. Unlike passive aggression and martyrdom, altruism allows the object to feel blessed and not afflicted. Altruism attracts people to the user; martyrdom repels them even as it holds them close in chains.. *: Altruism is a behaviour of an individual that benefits another at its own expense....She decided to investigate what motivates ants to undertake these dangerous missions, where they risk getting trapped themselves or, worse, eaten by predatory antlion larvae, which dig pits and lurk, semi-concealed, at the bottom with their jaws wide open. Such apparently selfless rescue behaviour is seen by many as one of the purest forms of altruism....Being nice to relatives is not pure altruism because they share your genes so, by helping them, you ...
An act of altruism confers a fitness advantage on others, which is strong altruism if the actor incurs a net fitness cost, and otherwise weak altruism [1,2]. The conferred advantage expresses a transferral of fitness from altruist to beneficiary, although the magnitude of the altruists loss may differ from the magnitude of the beneficiarys gain. A parasitic act involves a costly transferral of fitness by the donor to a beneficiary, just as in strong altruism, with the crucial difference that the actor is the beneficiary and not the donor. The role of population structure in sustaining these net-cost transferrals of fitness depends entirely on whether the individual driving the interaction is the donor or the beneficiary. Strongly altruistic acts of fitness transferral from donor to beneficiary can only be sustained by assorting mechanisms that cause the benefits of altruism to be visited disproportionately on other altruists or its costs to be cancelled by other indirect benefits [3-6]. In ...
Inclusive fitness theory, also known as kin selection theory, describes when a trait will be favoured by natural selection [1]. Applied to altruistic traits, inclusive fitness theory explains that an altruist gene is selected for if it is altruistic (assists another at a cost to itself) towards relatives when the cost of altruism is less than its benefit diluted by the chance that the beneficiary does not have the altruist gene [1]. In its more general form, inclusive fitness theory holds that any gene that directs a net benefit towards other copies of itself will be favoured by selection, even if the altruistic and beneficiary genes do not share common descent [1-7]. Altruist genes can, with varying degrees of reliability, identify carriers of the altruism gene in nature in three ways: (i) by recognizing kin, who are likely to share the altruist gene, (ii) in viscous populations, where surrounding organisms are often related, and (iii) by directly sensing the presence of the altruist gene ...
Eric Gibson, the editor of the Leisure & Arts page of The Wall Street Journal, once wrote that "Anonymity is the truest expression of altruism." I do agree with this statement but, from my point of view, altruism is much more than that. It is to help a stranger in need even at the expense of your own well-being. A true act of greatness! Altruism, unfortunately, can neither be learnt nor taught, but rather stems directly from the individuals heart. To make it even simpler, altruism is a behavior that opposes egoism, and is generally understood to be an act that benefits others at a personal cost. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines altruism as "feelings and behavior that show a desire to help other people and a lack of selfishness." Coined in the late eighteen hundreds by French sociologist Auguste Comte, the term refers to those social acts that are "an expression of an unselfish desire to live for others" (Comte, as cited in Batson and Shaw, 1991).. I just read on the digital edition of the ...
Evolved "true" altruistic behavior among non-relatives in non-social animals. What I mean by "true" altruistic behavior is the observation of an individual sacrificing its reproductive output for the benefit of individuals to which it is either unrelated or from whom it does not expect to receive return benefits. In this "true" altruism your genes give benefits to others and get nothing back, and this shouldnt evolve under natural selection. And, indeed, we dont see such altruism in nature. There are reports that vampire bats regurgitate blood to other individuals in the colony to whom theyre unrelated, but those need confirmation, and there may also be reciprocal altruism, so that individuals regurgitate blood to those from whom, one day, they expect a return meal. Such cooperation can evolve by normal natural selection. [bold added ...
Agents exhibit pure intergenerational altruism if they care not just about the consumption utility experienced by future generations, but about their total wellbeing. If all generations are altruistic, each generations wellbeing depends on the wellbeing of its descendants. Thus pure intergenerational altruism causes generations preferences to be interdependent. While existing models study the relationship between pure intergenerational altruism and conventional time preferences, they assume that altruistic preferences are homogeneous across society. In effect, agents impose their own preferences on future generations, whether they share them or not. By contrast, we study pure intergenerational altruism when agents preferences are heterogeneous and fully non-paternalistic, i.e. they evaluate the wellbeing of future agents according to their own sovereign intergenerational preferences. We demonstrate that homogeneous models of intergenerational altruism over (under) estimate the weight an agent ...
Kinship selection - our favoring of relatives or those most like us - is a fundamental part of evolutionary theory. It is best understood by considering altruistic behavior, which here means "self-sacrifice behavior performed of the benefit of others." If I exhibit altruistic behavior for my offspring - be they chicks or children - then these offspring are more likely to survive and breed. In this way, my altruistic behavior has increased the chances of my genes being carried on to my descendants - which is all that evolution cares about. If I dont exhibit altruistic behavior and just focus on my own needs, I may leave my offspring more vulnerable, and hence less likely to survive. In this way, altruistic behavior, or better, the genes for altruistic behavior, are passed on and give those individuals who demonstrate it a competitive advantage over others. This idea is also true for my siblings and my cousins, who, after all, share some, or a lot, of my DNA. A great example of this are the ...
Posted By Rebecca White on Nov 21, 2013. A Seton Hall alum who graduated in 2001 is releasing a book, "Motivation, Altruism, Personality and Social Psychology: The Coming Age of Altruism," on Dec. 4.. Dr. Michael Babula, MBA, Ph.D. and researcher, said he was inspired by some of his experiences at Seton Hall that led to an interest in altruism. Two specific events at Seton Hall, Babula said, had a profound impact on his studies of altruism. One was when professor Richard Hunter organized a trip to Poland to visit Auschwitz, where Babula was quite moved. The other was after the attacks on Sept. 11, where the response of students was overwhelming. Babula was intrigued by the actions of people that moved beyond self-interest because psychology typically teaches that people are driven by self-interest and arent as interested in helping others.. "I had opportunities [at Seton Hall] where I started questioning where peoples higher motivations were," Babula said. "I very much enjoyed my time ...
Parochial altruism is manifested in the most violent of conflicts. Although it makes evolutionary sense for kin, many non-kin groups also behave parochially altruistically in response to threat from out-groups. It is possible that such non-kin groups share a sense of "fictive" kinship which encourages them to behave parochially altruistically for each others benefit. Our findings show that individuals not directly involved in a conflict approved of parochial altruism enacted by an in-group against an out-group more when the out-group posed a threat to the in-group; however, this effect was greater when the in-group members expressed fictive kinship by addressing each other using kinship metaphors such as "brothers." Furthermore, although males approved of parochial altruism more than females, as the male warrior hypothesis would suggest, the effects of threat and kinship metaphor on approval of parochial altruism applied to both genders. These findings were replicated in an honour (Lebanon) and ...
In 1971 Robert Trivers[18] introduced his reciprocal altruism theory to explain the evolution of helping at the nest of an unrelated breeding pair of birds. He argued that an individual might act as a helper if there was a high probabilistic expectation of being helped by the recipients at some later date. If, however, the recipients did not reciprocate when it was possible to do so, the altruistic interaction with these recipients would be permanently terminated. But if the recipients did not cheat then the reciprocal altruism would continue indefinitely to both parties advantage.[19] This model was considered by many (e.g. West-Eberhard[20] and Dawkins[21]) to be evolutionarily unstable because it is prone to invasion by cheats for the same reason that cooperative hunting can be invaded and replaced by cheats. However, Trivers did make reference to the Prisoners Dilemma Game which, 10 years later, would restore interest in Trivers reciprocal altruism theory, but under the title of ...
In October, I had the honor of participating in a public discussion at Princeton University with philosopher Peter Singer, Professor of Ethics and author of The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically (Yale University Press).. "Effective altruism," writes Peter Singer, "is based on a very simple idea: we should do the most good we can. […] Living a minimally acceptable ethical life involves using a substantial part of our spare resources to make the world a better place. Living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good we can.". He rightly points out that Philanthropy is a very large industry, receiving a total of approximately $300 billion a year in the United States alone, but that most of that huge amount is given on the basis of emotional responses to images of the people, animals, or forests that the charity is helping.. Singer states, "Effective altruism seeks to change that by providing incentives for charities to demonstrate their ...
Altruism (also called the ethic of altruism, moralistic altruism, and ethical altruism) is an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary, at the sacrifice of self interest. An action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the ...
My dear friend Matt Leathwood sent me this response to my Selfish Altruism post:. Does anyone do anything for free? Doing something for someone else makes most of us feel good about ourselves….. The pay off is the apparent altruism. Its the true sign of goodness when we do things for other people without the bells and whistles of praise…. Silent givers are indeed kings amongst men.. Touche, Matt! Whats interesting is the role habit plays in all this as well. If we get on a roll of being altruistic, perhaps it becomes our default and we can, without ego, make that our lifes preset.. But more so than FREE, like Matt says, its about doing good because its good, not because you will be praised for it. We can all do a lot worse than feeling good about doing good.. If praise for altruism makes altruism your default setting, well all take it over the alternative.. P.s. If you ever have a thought, critique, idea, or contribution, after reading my posts - hit reply! Hell, I might even share ...
Kinship, altruism and selfishness are interactions in populations. Altruism evolves in related individuals where members sacrifice for the sake of species.
A/51/172 E/1996/77 GENERAL ASSEMBLY ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Fifty-first session Substantive session of 1996 Item 21 (a) of the preliminary Item 5 of the provisional list* agenda** STRENGTHENING OF THE COORDINATION OF SOCIAL, HUMANITARIAN AND HUMANITARIAN AND DISASTER RELIEF HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS: ASSISTANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS, REPORTS OF SUBSIDIARY INCLUDING SPECIAL ECONOMIC BODIES, CONFERENCES AND ASSISTANCE: STRENGTHENING OF THE RELATED QUESTIONS COORDINATION OF EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE OF THE ** E/1996/100. UNITED NATIONS * A/51/50. Report of the Secretary-General CONTENTS Paragraphs Page I. INTRODUCTION ..................................... 1 - 4 3 II. THE CONTEXT OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ........... 5 - 20 4 III. FOLLOW-UP TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1995/56: REVIEW OF UNITED NATIONS CAPACITY TO RESPOND TO HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES .......................21 - 62 7 A. Follow-up by United Nations organizations to resolution 1995/56 ...
The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoners dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in
Humans are unusually cooperative and prosocial, sharing resources with kin and non-kin others. At the same time, they engage in violent intergroup conflict and discriminate against members of other groups. How can we explain this apparent inconsistency? Building on Darwin (Darwin, 1871), it has been proposed that self-sacrificing prosociality toward the in-group and hostility toward the out-group may have co-evolved (Choi & Bowles, 2007; García & van den Bergh, 2011). Research on so-called parochial altruism, i.e., the motivation to benefit in-group members at personal cost, while not benefitting or even harming out-group members, recently received much attention in psychology and beyond (for reviews see, De Dreu, Balliet, & Halevy, 2014; Rusch, 2014; Yamagishi & Mifune, 2016). Empirical studies aiming to support the parochial altruism hypothesis yielded mixed results, though. For instance, whereas some studies provided support for the parochial altruism hypothesis (e.g., Abbink, Brandts, Herrmann, &
So, granted that this is a quite artificial situation, and that I am no expert in the field, what this paper does is to establish inter-group selection as plausible and quantifiable mechanism in accounting for trait-based altruism in the form of warrior behavior and sacrifice. The empirical boundaries seem plausible, while some of the mathematical simplifications seem less so (in this model, each conflict results in extermination of one group and doubling of the other, for instance. On the other hand, all non-altruists get to survive if their group wins a war, while altruist warriors die with 20% probability). Specifically, the right-ward parts of the curves indicate that given realistic rates of death (delta) from conflict, altruism could be selected for despite substantial costs (c) and modest group benefits (L). There are many other possible rationales for selection of in-group altruism traits, so this setting of warfare should not be seen as exhaustive ...
So, granted that this is a quite artificial situation, and that I am no expert in the field, what this paper does is to establish inter-group selection as plausible and quantifiable mechanism in accounting for trait-based altruism in the form of warrior behavior and sacrifice. The empirical boundaries seem plausible, while some of the mathematical simplifications seem less so (in this model, each conflict results in extermination of one group and doubling of the other, for instance. On the other hand, all non-altruists get to survive if their group wins a war, while altruist warriors die with 20% probability). Specifically, the right-ward parts of the curves indicate that given realistic rates of death (delta) from conflict, altruism could be selected for despite substantial costs (c) and modest group benefits (L). There are many other possible rationales for selection of in-group altruism traits, so this setting of warfare should not be seen as exhaustive ...
While science has made great strides in treating pathologies of the human mind, far less research exists to date on positive qualities of the human mind including compassion, altruism and empathy. Yet these prosocial traits are innate to us and lie at the very centerpiece of our common humanity. Our capacity to feel compassion has ensured the survival and thriving of our species over millennia. For this reason, the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE) at Stanford University School of Medicine was founded in 2008 with the explicit goal of promoting, supporting, and conducting rigorous scientific studies of compassion and altruistic behavior. Founded and directed by Dr. James Doty, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, CCARE is established within the Department of Neurosurgery. To date, CCARE has collaborated with a number of prominent neuroscientists, behavioral scientists, geneticists and biomedical researchers to closely examine the physiological and psychological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-recognition, color signals, and cycles of greenbeard mutualism and altruism. AU - Sinervo, Barry. AU - Chaine, Alexis. AU - Clobert, Jean. AU - Calsbeek, Ryan. AU - Hazard, Lisa. AU - Lancaster, Lesley. AU - McAdam, Andrew G.. AU - Alonzo, Suzanne. AU - Corrigan, Gwynne. AU - Hochberg, Michael E.. PY - 2006/5/9. Y1 - 2006/5/9. N2 - Altruism presents a challenge to evolutionary theory because selection should favor selfish over caring strategies. Green beard altruism resolves this paradox by allowing cooperators to identify individuals carrying similar alleles producing a form of genic selection. In side-blotched lizards, genetically similar but unrelated blue male morphs settle on adjacent territories and cooperate. Here we show that payoffs of cooperation depend on asymmetric costs of orange neighbors. One blue male experiences low fitness and buffers his unrelated partner from aggressive orange males despite the potential benefits of defection. We show that recognition ...
In psychological research on altruism, studies often observe altruism as demonstrated through prosocial behaviors such as helping, comforting, sharing, cooperation, philanthropy, and community service.[25] Research has found that people are most likely to help if they recognize that a person is in need and feel personal responsibility for reducing the persons distress. Research also suggests that the number of bystanders witnessing distress or suffering affects the likelihood of helping (the Bystander effect). Greater numbers of bystanders decrease individual feelings of responsibility.[23][29] However, a witness with a high level of empathic concern is likely to assume personal responsibility entirely regardless of the number of bystanders.[23] A feeling of personal responsibility or - moral norm - has also strongly been associated with other pro-social behaviors such as charitable giving.[30]. Many studies have observed the effects of volunteerism (as a form of altruism) on happiness and ...
The humanitarian crisis in northern Syria is on the verge of becoming a COVID-19 catastrophe. A decade of conflict has left the healthcare system in ruins-and millions of displaced people in Idlib province were already suffering due to a lack of shelter and sanitation. This policy briefing delves into roots of the humanitarian crisis in Idlib, details the current capacity of the exhausted healthcare system amid the ongoing conflict, and examines what these constraints mean for mounting a response to the spread of the coronavirus. ...
Animals learn altruism for many reasons, but all of them derive from the success of their continued existence, either as individuals or as a group. Surrounding oneself by friends is a more univironmentally stable act than being surrounded by enemies. Social animals devise ways of instilling and enforcing group loyalty, with religion, the military, and football being familiar examples. Survival of the individual microcosm is highly dependent on survival of the group microcosm. Generally, what works best for the group works best for the individual. Thus, it is a mistake to consider the individual as a solitary microcosm without considering all the interactions with others that formed its propensity to act. Dawkins wraps these propensities in little bundles call genes, which as you suggested, cannot be solely responsible for altruism. A common mistake in understanding altruism is to select the wrong microcosm. For instance, a worker bee "sacrifices" its life for the colony by stinging an intruder. ...
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English examples for altruism - This term is sometimes associated with other terms such as true altruism. In these cases most individuals far from showing altruism actually take money. This altruism does not appear to be limited to their own species.
Background: Psychological factors play an important role in well-being of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as increasing risk of CVD in normal population. Because of the lack of research on comparing emotion regulation, psychological capital and altruism between CVD patients and healthy population, the aim of this study was to assess these factors in a case-control study. Methods: The 100 non-randomly included participants were categorized into two groups: 50 patients with CVD with age range of 30-60, and 50 paired-matched healthy persons. Three instruments of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-P), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) and Altruistic Behavior Scale were used. Data was analyzed using the paired and independent t-test statistical analysis. Findings: Significant differences were seen between case and control groups with respect to their cognitive emotion regulation (t=-2.27; p,0.025), psychological capital (t=9.03; p,0.001) and altruism (t=7.52; ...
Downloadable! We examine subjects behavior in sender-receiver games where there are gains from trade and alignment of interests in one of the two states. We elicit subjects beliefs, risk and other-regarding preferences. Our design also allows us to examine the behavior of subjects in both roles, to determine whether the behavior in one role is the best response to the subjects own behavior in the other role. The results of the experiment indicate that 60 percent of senders adopt deceptive strategies by sending favorable message when the true state of the nature is unfavorable. Nevertheless, 67 percent of receivers invest conditional upon a favorable message. The investing behavior of receivers cannot be explained by risk preferences or as a best response to subjects own behavior in the senders role. However, it can be rationalized by accounting for elicited beliefs and other-regarding preferences. Finally, the honest behavior of some senders can be explained by other-regarding preferences. Thus we
Why would a person or animal choose to commit a seemingly selfless act that is disadvantageous to their own survival? Biological altruism is defined as the behavioral tendency of organisms to promote the survival of another organism (usually of the...
Why do people commonly go out of their way to do something nice for another person, even when it comes at a cost to themselves-and how could such altruistic behavior have evolved? The answer may not just be in our genes, but also in our microbes. © Lewin-Epstein et al. Nature Communications(Left) The payoff matrix and
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One of the problems with being an avowed altruist is that its hard to talk about it with other people without coming across like youre trying to claim youre better than them.. One of the problems with being an aspiring effective altruist is that its hard to talk about it with other people without coming across like youre trying to claim youre better than everyone else, including other avowed altruists, and definitely including non-altruistic plebes.. (This, I think, is something of a barrier to effective altruism becoming a more popular thing, and Id like to see it change.). But if I cant write about this in the locus of the interval between Thanksgiving and Christmas, I cant write about it at all, and that would be really quite sad for me, so here goes.. ...
This brief presents key findings from a Kaiser Family Foundation review and analysis of the policy and financing landscape where U.S. humanitarian assistance and global health assistance meet. It also summarizes a July 2013 roundtable discussion convened by the Foundation focusing on opportunities, challenges, and potential next steps for more effective coordination between humanitarian assistance and global health programs.
Altruism isnt Generosity Tibor R. Machan A big error has haunted humanity for centuries: its the equivocation between generosity and altruism. The former is a virtue any decent human being will practice: it asks of one to reach out to deserving others in times of dire need. The latter is a policy of devoting oneself…
THE ALTRUISTS is a trademark and brand of Ashley Mazanec. Filed to USPTO On Friday, August 19, 2016, The THE ALTRUISTS covers Compact discs featuring music; Digital music downloadable from the Internet; Downloadable music files. Search for other trademarks at Trademarkia.
Theres an interesting post over at the BBC today that asks a deceptively simple question; why do people help each other?. The question is key for any business working in social media, collaboration technology or sharing economy. And so is the answer.. The BBC post explains the selfish gene theory of altruism - our minds are wired to get a chemical buzz out of helping people who share the same genes as us (or at least appear to share those genes through similar physical traits); particularly close kin. If you can help a number of people who collectively appear to have more of your genetic material in them than you do as an individual, then youll help even if it costs you. From a genes-eye perspective, laying down your life for a number (but not one) of immediate kin is enlightened self-interest, not selfless altruism - since it increases the overall inclusive fitness (reproductive chances) of your shared genes. Theres even an equation (Hamiltons Rule) to predict when people will (and ...
New York, 14 November 2016 - The international medical humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) welcomes Pfizers decision to lower the price of its pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) for children caught in humanitarian emergencies. For seven years, MSF urged Pfizer and GSK - the only two manufacturers producing the pneumonia vaccine - to offer the lowest global price to humanitarian organisations, but they refused until September, when GSK announced that it was finally reducing the price of its pneumonia vaccine for humanitarian situations. Now with its announcement on Friday, Pfizer is following GSKs footsteps.. "Its good to see that Pfizer is now finally reducing the price of its life-saving vaccine for children in emergencies," says Dr Joanne Liu, MSFs international president. "With Pfizer and GSKs price reductions, humanitarian organisations will be better able to protect children against this deadly disease.". Pneumonia is the leading cause ...
Here are just a couple examples of dogs displaying altruistic behavior. There are many documented cases of chimpanzees, elephants, dolphins and dogs performing altruistic acts. Many religious people state that altruism only exists in humans and is evidence that we are created by a god, which is simply not true. Regardless, these are amazing stories. Particularly the second one. The dog tries to pull the injured dog off the highway and instead of using its teeth, it uses its paws, so as to
Downloadable! This paper analyzes the way in which men and women are expected to behave differently in an experimental situation. To do so, we concentrate on a single topic: altruism. Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. Our results are substantial: men and women are expected to behave differently and both believe that women are more generous. These two premises affect their behavior.
Wietse Tol and colleagues lay out a a consensus-based research agenda for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings.
The argument that altruism in sterile ants which work for the benefit of their community can be explained by kin selection has been overturned by mathematical analysis by Martin Nowak, author of Evolutionary Dynamics, in a paper published in Nature. Instead, altruism turns out to be a thoroughly naturally selected affair. Read more here ...
Lets tackle this from another angle and change our perspective - consider the situation from the level of individual cells. A multicellular organism such as a human is composed of billions of cells that are "born" and die, most of which are non-reproductive. So we may easily consider eusocial species to operate as a super-organism, as the single organism and the single insect colony are largely similar. Kin selection operates within my body just as it does clearly in the insect colony. If an animal cannot physically reproduce, how is it any different from a non-reproductive cell within my body? Each, colony and human, operates as the basic unit of sexual reproduction. E.O. Wilson earlier made this same comparison. Are my body cells therefore altruistic, just like the soldier termite? I think so. This analogy allows me to make the following proposition: altruism as an end in itself is something that primarily occurs within the basic unit of sexual reproduction, whereas altruism as a means to ...
In solving major world problems, altruism and compassion can help. Altruism is a fundamental mental state involving a specific kind of intention and motivation.
In his quest to understand altruism, Price inevitably dissected such complex and timeless concepts as self-sacrifice and kindness, and eventually became so vexed by the selfish reasoning for kindness embedded in his own mathematical theory of altruism that he set out to prove the theory wrong by committing a seemingly endless number of random acts of kindness to complete strangers. He spent the latter part of his life helping alcoholics and the homeless, often inviting them to live in his home and, though he had most of his belongings stolen, he went undeterred until he was forced to move out of his house due to a construction issue. Unable to help the homeless any longer, he went into a deep depression. On January 6, 1975, Price committed suicide using a pair of nail scissors to cut his own carotid artery.. ...
Altruism vs. Aggression - Is It in Our DNA?. Ive been thinking a lot about altruism lately. With everything going on in the world, its hard not to. Hurricane Irene stormed into our lives right before Labor Day and wiped out many communities near me. No one expected a hurricane to inflict such punishment on little villages in the Catskill Mountains of New York but thats what happened.. At our house, we tried to tough it out but we surrendered as the winds picked up and we realized that way too many trees were leaning longingly toward our roof. We packed up four cats and took shelter in a Holiday Inn about fifteen minutes away. What we found there was a 21st century Noahs Ark. Dogs grinned at us from balconies on the second floor. Cats peered out of windows into the courtyard. And the people, local evacuees mingled with shellshocked refugees from Long Island, Staten Island and Brooklyn, huddled together sharing whatever updates we had. And we shared what we had.. Phyllis, whose home was ...
When altruism is our dominant state of mind - our default mode - it expresses itself as benevolence toward anyone who might come into the field of our attention and translates itself as goodwill, readiness and willingness to care. When we perceive that others have a pressing need, we develop empathic concern. When the need is related to a yearning for happiness, altruism will foster the realization of that aspiration. When the need is related to suffering, compassion will induce us to remedy the suffering and its causes." ...
In the aftermath of disasters, such as the Grenfell Tower fire in London this week or any number of earthquakes and tsunamis, the global community rallies together. As soon as news and images of the devastation wrought by the freak incident hits our screens, we dig into our pockets. And this is, of course, a wonderful human trait. We want to help those in need. We want to do something to ease the suffering of people whose entire lives have been turned upside down in the blink of an eye. And yet, in many cases, the ways in which we try to help is actually very ineffective. Relief workers have dubbed our altruism the disaster after the disaster and it had happened in London less than 24 hours after the fire broke out. But what is ineffective altruism and how can you donate in an effective way?. Firstly, lets explain what this disaster after a disaster is. Often in the wake of these events, people are left homeless and without access to food, clothing and other basic amenities. The good people ...
Biology has long struggled with the concept of altruism. There is now reasonable agreement that its purpose is partly to be nice to relatives (with whom one shares genes) and partly to permit the exchanging of favours. But how the brain goes about being altruistic is unknown. Dr Marsh therefore wondered if the brains of…
Summary:. Workers remittances have been playing an increasingly important role in the balance of payments of many countries and can significantly contribute to the strength of their external positions. Assessing the likely stability of remittance flows could be a valuable input to the analysis of their external vulnerabilities. This paper argues that "altruism," as a motive to send money home, would contribute to the stability of these flows. Using a simple framework that relates workers remittances to agricultural GDP, which is used as an indicator of economic "hardship" in the home country, evidence suggests that altruism could have played an important role in the flow of remittances to Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan, and Tunisia in recent years.. ...
Cramped Altruism Other Peoples Children - NYTimes.com Ive noticed this thing quite a lot in American life lately - this sort of cramped vision of altruism in which its considered perfectly acceptable to support only those causes that are directly good for you and yours. We even have a tendency to view it as…
Pathological altruism[edit]. Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the ... which is the intention of altruism. This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. ... Look up altruism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *. Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Biological Altruism". Stanford Encyclopedia ... The term "pathological altruism" was popularised by the book Pathological Altruism.. Examples include depression and burnout ...
Altruism[edit]. While caregiving by males appears to be altruistic, particularly in cotton-top sires, the costs of infant care ... That is, cooperation in cotton-top tamarins can be better described by mutualism than by true altruism.[31] ... Other studies involving cotton-top tamarins have hinted that positive reciprocity and reciprocal altruism are irrelevant in the ... some studies indicate that cotton-top tamarins have the psychological capacity to participate in reciprocally mediated altruism ...
Suicidal altruism[edit]. Further information: Autothysis. An unusual type of predator deterrence is observed in the Malaysian ... Social hymenoptera rely on altruism to protect the entire colony, so the self-destructive acts benefit all individuals in the ...
Kin selection and altruism[edit]. Vespa orientalis live in colonies in which the workers are all daughters of the queen. This ... Social wasps are unusual in their practice of altruism in which non-reproductive individuals work for the benefit of the colony ... When an individual acts in the interests of others and not just itself it is known as altruism. ...
The other points raised by the anonymous editor of the Questions regarding the Danish altruism section do not seem to me to be ... I've taken Questions regarding the Danish altruism out, but the original edit(s) can be found here. - JonRoma 08:31, 15 January ... Questions regarding the Danish altruism[edit]. The recent edit by 192.38.16.190 raises some valid points, but makes rather a ... The points raised in Questions regarding the Danish altruism were therefor in no way valid. They are highly insulting and ...
This is similar to reciprocal altruism in biology. Implications[edit]. The success of the tit-for-tat strategy, which is ... Explaining reciprocal altruism in animal communities[edit]. Studies in the prosocial behaviour of animals have led many ... Reciprocal altruism works in animal communities where the cost to the benefactor in any transaction of food, mating rights, ... The theory also holds that the act of altruism should be reciprocated if the balance of needs reverse. Mechanisms to identify ...
Spite can also be thought of as a type of altruism because harming a non-relative, by taking his resources for example, could ... 7 Altruism and conflict in social insects *7.1 Conflicts in social insects ... It is thought that this unrelated assistance is evidence of altruism in P. dominula.[30] ... West, S.A.; Griffin, A.S.; Gardner, A. (2007b). "Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and ...
Altruism and group selection[change , change source]. Main article: kin selection. Altruism - the willingness of some to ... Altruism is now generally seen as emerging from standard selection.[116][117][118][119][120] The warning note from Ernst Mayr, ... Some biologists have thought that this meant altruism could not evolve by the normal process of selection. Instead a process ...
Altruism *High scores suggest a person concerned with the well-being of others and show it through generosity, willingness to ...
The host's altruism is to be explained as benefiting him because of the advantage of being able quickly and repeatedly to ... Others such as Robert Trivers hold that it illustrates mutual selfishness, reciprocal altruism. Others again believe that ... Further information: Reciprocal altruism. In 1971, mathematical biologist Robert Trivers wrote more carefully "Cleaner ...
"altruism (n .)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 August 2013.. *^ "Rencontre avec Annie Petit "Auguste Comte"". ...
Parochial altruismEdit. Parochial altruism refers to altruism that is directed in a preferential manner towards members of ... Bernhard, Helen; Urs Fischbacher; Ernst Fehr (2006). "Parochial altruism in humans". Nature. 442 (7105): 912-915. Bibcode: ... Current evolutionary models state that human altruism evolved through the selective (cultural or biological) extinction of ... "The evolutionary interplay of intergroup conflict and altruism in humans: a review of parochial altruism theory and prospects ...
AltruismEdit. See also: Human inclusive fitness. The concept serves to explain how natural selection can perpetuate altruism. ... is the necessary and sufficient condition for selection for altruism. Where B is the gain to the beneficiary, C is the cost to ... If by contrast the altruism allele is more dominant, then the 2 in the above would be replaced by a number smaller than 2. If ... If there is an "altruism gene" (or complex of genes) that influences an organism's behavior to be helpful and protective of ...
altruism dutifulness self-consciousness activity actions compliance achievement striving impulsiveness excitement seeking ideas ...
Effective Altruism Foundation. "Projects". Retrieved January 8, 2017.. *^ "Sentience Politics wird ein unabhängiger Verein!". ... Sentience Politics was established as a project of the Effective Altruism Foundation, whose other projects include Raising for ...
Altruism and Political Participation *. Fowler, J. H. (August 2006). "Altruism and Turnout" (PDF). Journal of Politics. 68 (3 ... with related work on altruism, overconfidence,[34] and political participation.[35] ... "Beyond the Self: Altruism, Social Identity, and Political Participation" (PDF). Journal of Politics. 69 (3): 811-825. doi ...
altruism, history of the concept. *altruism in experiments. *ambiguity and ambiguity aversion ...
In particular, altruism, self-sacrificing behaviour, would die out unless something such as kin or group selection maintains it ... He noted Wilson's statement that altruism is the central problem of sociobiology, and remarks that Wilson's account in fact ... For instance, Mazur argued that Wilson's claim that altruism has evolved in most social species is untestable: Mazur denied ... as an attempt to explain the evolutionary mechanics behind social behaviour such as altruism, aggression, and the nurturing of ...
"Happiness and altruism are intertwined...happiness helps spur kindness and generosity."[2] ... altruism, and empathy and included stories of compassion in action, providing a bridge between social scientists and parents, ...
Similarly, Robert Trivers, thinking in terms of the gene-centred model, developed the theory of reciprocal altruism, whereby ... including altruism) that gene-based selection cannot satisfactorily explain. The philosopher Mary Midgley, with whom Dawkins ... "The evolution of reciprocal altruism". Quarterly Review of Biology. 46 (1): 35-57. doi:10.1086/406755 ... particularly sceptical about the practical possibility or importance of group selection as a basis for understanding altruism.[ ...
... particularly in the study of kin selection and the evolution of reciprocal altruism.[106][107] ... "The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 46 (1): 35-57. doi:10.1086/406755. JSTOR 2822435 ...
Fehr, Ernst; Fischbacher, Urs (23 October 2003). "The nature of human altruism". Nature. 425 (6960): 785-791. Bibcode:2003Natur ...
As a behavior, altruism is not evaluated in moral terms, but rather as a consequence of an action for reproductive fitness. It ... Altruism, in the biological sense, refers to a behavior performed by an individual that increases the fitness of another ... Oxytocin is a peptide hormone known to help express social emotions such as altruism, which in turn provides a positive ... Social grooming is considered a behavior of facultative altruism- the behavior itself is a temporary loss of direct fitness ( ...
Trivers, Robert L. (March 1971). "The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism". The Quarterly Review of Biology. Chicago, IL. 46 (1): ... particularly in the study of kin selection and the evolution of reciprocal altruism.[105][106] ...
Kin selection and reciprocal altruism models of food-sharing are based upon evolutionary concepts of kin selection and altruism ... model of reciprocal altruism. Following Trivers' ideas, reciprocal altruism models of food-sharing generate expectations of ... In addition to expanding the ideas of Hamilton and kin-based altruism, Saul Feinman[13] also theorized food-sharing based on ... Several types of food-sharing models have been developed, including kin selection, reciprocal altruism, tolerated theft, group ...
Pathological altruism[edit]. Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the ... which is the intention of altruism. This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. ... Look up altruism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *. Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Biological Altruism". Stanford Encyclopedia ... The term "pathological altruism" was popularised by the book Pathological Altruism.. Examples include depression and burnout ...
This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. Kabbalah defines God as the force of ... The empathy-altruism hypothesis basically states that psychological altruism does exist and is evoked by the empathic desire to ... Compare Altruism (ethics) - perception of altruism as self-sacrifice. Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. In the ... The reputational benefits of altruism occur in the future as compared to the immediate costs of altruism in the present. While ...
Altruism (et); 利他主義 (zh-hant); Altruizam (sr-el); Altruisme (oc); Altruism (sv); алтруизам (sr-ec); altruïsme (nl); altruísmo ( ... Emergence-of-altruism-behavior-in-army-ant-based-social-evolutionary-system-40064 2014 1412 MOESM1 ESM.ogv 2 min 35 s, 528 × ... Emergence-of-altruism-behavior-in-army-ant-based-social-evolutionary-system-40064 2014 1412 MOESM2 ESM.ogv 1 min 26 s, 416 × ... File nella categoria "Altruism". Questa categoria contiene 17 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 17. ...
Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Ã-rst ... The test results provide supp ort for the theory of revealed altruism.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of ... "Altruism, Cooperation and Trust: Other-regarding Behavior and Collective Actions in Thailand," EEPSEA Research Report ... "Who cooperates in repeated games: The role of altruism, inequity aversion, and demographics," Journal of Economic Behavior & ...

"Four focus areas of effective altruism - Effective Altruism Forum". effective-altruism.com. Retrieved 2017-06-01. "A list of ... It is the broad, evidence-based approach that distinguishes effective altruism from traditional altruism or charity. While a ... "News: Liv Boeree on Effective Altruism". www.pokerstrategy.com. Retrieved 2017-04-11. "Effective Altruism , Liv Boeree". www. ... "The Importance of the Far Future". Effective Altruism Foundation. Effective Altruism Foundation. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 11 ...
... Julio J. Rotemberg. NBER Working Paper No. 14302. Issued in September 2008. ... "Attitude-dependent altruism, turnout and voting," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 140(1), pages 223-244, July. citation courtesy ... w15635 Quality Provision, Expected Firm Altruism and Brand Extensions. Schwartz. Gross Dividend and Interest Payments by ... Substantial equilibrium turnout emerges with nontrivial voting costs and modest altruism. The model can explain higher turnout ...
Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most ... Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most ... effective altruismCharity & PhilanthropyPhilanthropySocial PhilanthropyPhilosophyCharityCharity EventsRationality and Reasoning ...
Reciprocal altruism theory also seems to take the altruism out of altruism. Behaving nicely to someone in order to procure ... 1. Altruism and the Levels of Selection. The problem of altruism is intimately connected with questions about the level at ... Strong altruism is the standard notion of altruism in the literature, and was assumed above. To count as weakly altruistic, an ... If by real altruism we mean altruism done with the conscious intention to help, then the vast majority of living creatures ...
But even "true reality TV" demands that no act of genuine altruism be left unhyped. And so Roberts signaled for a humongous ... Schlock and Awwww: Commercializing Altruism. Every week, Ty Pennington brings the American Dream to a deserving family. What a ...
Altruisms. Could A More Individualistic World Also Be A More Altruistic One?. Individualism is that rugged frontier quality ...
As Wilson well knows, the extant evolutionary explanations of altruism (or cooperation) are manifold. Since altruism has ... If a gene affects altruism in such a way that the altruism is more likely to be directed at close relatives, the gene can ... Does Altruism Exist? Culture, Genes, and the Welfare of Others. By David Sloan Wilson. 192 pp. Yale University/Templeton Press ... And no, it doesnt matter that there is no one gene for kin-directed altruism. There can be hundreds of genes, each with a ...
Four single item measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the adolescent scale: a measure of social behavior (fighting), a measure of health behavior (smoking), a measure of emotional health (adolescent-reported depressive symptoms), and a measure of cognitive development (grades).. Concurrent validity was examined in two ways: with bivariate and multivariate analyses. The table below presents the results of multivariate analyses, which control for: teen gender, teen age, teen race, household income, household size, parental education, parental marital status, parental home ownership, parental employment, and metropolitan area and region of residence. The beta coefficient of the relationship between the constructs scale and outcome is presented.. ...
Altruism is a touchy-feely kind of term. If evolutionary science is to posit it as a viable alternative to that which drives ... Altruism is an alternative to competition as the all-definitive, if not vulgar, expression of the evolutionary principle. The ... Ancient wisdom has indicated for millennia that altruism leads to better health. ...
... Gift Economy. It has long been assumed that there is something beyond economics involved in the proliferation of free ... Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism, hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to ... such as altruism, can develop. Sociobiology: A New Synthesis, Wilsons first attempt to outline the new field of study, was ... and neither is altruism. Efforts and rewards may be valued in intangibles, but, as this paper argues, there is a very tangible ...
To do so, we concentrate on a single topic: altruism. Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying ... altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. Our results ... "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(1 ... "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1951, Iowa State University, ...
This article appeared in the The Americas section of the print edition under the headline Policy, not altruism ... Policy, not altruism. How global ambitions are helping to modernise the army ...
Notice that the Altruism seed of the parent is 3/5 = .600, while the childs is .552. Even though altruism is dominating, it is ... Altruism. If you download the NetLogo application, this model is included. (You can also run this model in your browser, but we ... This model is based on a paper by Mitteldorf and Wilson, 2000, Population Viscosity and the Evolution of Altruism, Journal of ... BENEFIT-FROM-ALTRUISM slider --- determines the value of benefit in the above fitness equations. ...
One of the projects goals was to teach the future therapists how altruism can have long-term mental health benefits. ... Teaching Healing Through Altruism. Marymount students learn counseling technique by helping U.S. troops. ... One of the projects goals was to teach the future therapists how altruism can have long-term mental health benefits. ... Marymount University professor Lisa Jackson-Cherry, Ph.D., discusses an altruism project with her pastoral counseling class. ...
Altruism - EvoWiki (Site not responding. Last check: ). Altruism may reasonably be defined as acting to benefit others at ones ... Evil_Altruism.html. Altruism is a code of ethics which hold the welfare of others as the standard of "good", and self-sacrifice ... Altruism is the abdication of claims of power over others. The most effective counter to the spread of altruism is the modern ... Altruism is the moral code at the base of socialism. The term "altruism" was coined by the nineteenth century advocate of ...
... Stefano DellaVigna, John A. List, Ulrike Malmendier. NBER ... "Testing for Altruism and Social Pressure in Charitable Giving," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, ... w16373 The Power of Asking: How Communication Affects Selfishness, Empathy, and Altruism. ... due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, e.g., due to social pressure. We ...
WASHINGTON - The U.S. public rejects the idea that the United States should revert to a more isolationist foreign policy, but expresses dissatisfaction with the current role of the U.S. in the world and the destabilising effect it is having, concludes a compilation of recent public opinion polls.. "People have the impression that public opinion data gives highly discrepant results and thats really not true. If you take all of the polling data its really quite coherent," PIPA director and WPO editor Steven Kull told IPS. "We dont look at polling as a one shot thing, but accumulating a body of knowledge where every piece of data is useful."The compilation, conducted by the Programme on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) and World Public Opinion (WPO), found that a majority of U.S. citizens support the existence of U.S. military bases in the territory of traditional allies but support is weak for the ongoing military presence in the Middle East.. In July 2006, a Chicago Council on Global ...
How Mark Zuckerbergs Altruism Helps Himself. Zuckerberg set up a limited liability company, which has reaped enormous benefits ...
Our doctors wouldnt be prescribing meds for no reason at all, would they? Could there possibly be another way of looking at depression?
p.1) Altruism in Humans (p.2) (p.1) Altruism in Humans (p.2) Source:. Altruism in Humans. Publisher:. Oxford University Press. ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ...
... Grill, Kalle Department of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology. ...
  • E.O. Wilson defines sociobiology as "the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior," the central theoretical problem of which is the question of how behaviors that seemingly contradict the principles of natural selection, such as altruism , can develop. (jahsonic.com)
  • Altruism is one of the great mysteries of social behavior in animals, as it appears to contradict our understanding of natural selection . (factbites.com)
  • Biologists usually define "altruism" as behavior of an animal that is risky-perhaps deadly-for that animal, but benefits other members of its community . (factbites.com)
  • Although there are differences in opinion, it is generally believed that animal altruism exists and survives as a behavior pattern because there is some reproductive advantage to the group. (factbites.com)
  • Research questions that can be explored using this learning guide include: what are the factors that motivate one person to help another, how costs and rewards, or empathy influence helping and altruism, the impact that cultural norms and roles may have on helping behavior, and whether characteristics of the person needing help influence helping behavior and if so, how. (umich.edu)
  • Intraspecific adoption is troublesome for evolutionists, since they must explain altruistic behavior when their dogma predicts a complete lack of altruism. (answersingenesis.org)
  • While intraspecific adoption is troublesome for evolution since they must explain altruistic behavior when their dogma predicts a complete lack of altruism, it is possible that an explanation could be postulated based on reproductive benefit for the species or group as a whole. (answersingenesis.org)
  • 2. Responder behavior (basically, willingness to punish even when it's expensive to punish) seems about twice as heritable as risk-taking and altruism. (gnxp.com)
  • The intersection of the two-which we term "parochial altruism"-is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective because altruistic or parochial behavior reduces one's payoffs by comparison to what one would gain by eschewing these behaviors. (sciencemag.org)
  • When this is the case, and when the members of the actor's group benefit as a result of one's hostile actions toward other groups, we term the behavior "parochial altruism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Religion may be an important source of altruism, yet from a scientific perspective, religion's effects on thought and behavior are not well understood. (templeton.org)
  • Pathological altruism can be conceived as behavior in which attempts to promote the welfare of another, or others, results instead in harm that an external observer would conclude was reasonably foreseeable. (aier.org)
  • Biological Altruism: Theories which Explain the Presence of Altruistic Behavior in Animals. (hubpages.com)
  • Well, according to evolutionary scientists altruism or altruistic behavior promotes the survival of a group. (hubpages.com)
  • The ecological context of altruism in social aphids has been shown to be quite intricate since it is now clear that colony defense is not the only costly behavior that they perform: they also have vital roles in keeping the colony clean, migrating to new colonies, and repairing their nest. (springer.com)
  • Signs of pure altruism and behavior that converge in the brain and increase with age have been identified by researchers at University of Oregon. (medindia.net)
  • In order to understand how they think of altruism and judgmentalism, we're forced to backport a definition from their conclusions and from how they designed the study. (hoboes.com)
  • When you think of altruism, what readily comes to mind? (aier.org)
  • We usually think of altruism as coming at a cost to the giver, but our findings suggest that when children forgo self-gain to help people who are less fortunate, they may get something back in the form of higher vagal tone," Miller explained. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Altruism in this sense is different from the philosophical concept of altruism, in which an action would only be called "altruistic" if it was done with the conscious intention of helping another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of altruism, or disinterested concern for another's welfare, has been discussed by everyone from theologians to psychologists to biologists. (ovid.com)
  • Can Altruism Save Humans From Becoming Extinct? (socyberty.com)
  • Humans' propensity for altruism can be used for good, or it can be used for evil. (psmag.com)
  • Altruism in humans is well documented. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Humans, like other animals, have a tendency towards altruism. (bioethics.net)
  • Our game-theoretic analysis and agent-based simulations show that under conditions likely to have been experienced by late Pleistocene and early Holocene humans, neither parochialism nor altruism would have been viable singly, but by promoting group conflict, they could have evolved jointly. (sciencemag.org)
  • But despite Hamilton's speculation about how this could occur ( 3 ), neither the process by which war might have become sufficiently common to support the evolution of altruism nor the possibility that altruism conditioned on group membership might have contributed to the unusually high level of lethal intergroup conflict among humans has been subjected to systematic investigation. (sciencemag.org)
  • But parochial altruism could have emerged and proliferated among early humans because our ancestors lived in environments in which competition for resources favored groups with substantial numbers of parochial altruists willing to engage in hostile conflict with outsiders on behalf of their fellow group members. (sciencemag.org)
  • In it, he attempts to explain the evolution of altruism in humans. (hubpages.com)
  • Contrast Theories Explaining Altruism in Humans Altruism according to evolutionary theory is a behaviour that reduces the fitness of the altruistic individual but increases the fitness of the individual receiving help (Okasha, 2008). (antiessays.com)
  • Human Relationships Contrast two theories explaining altruism in humans Altruism refers to the performance of prosocial actions without expectations of benefit for oneself. (antiessays.com)
  • To address the presence of altruism among humans, this chapter elucidates kin selection theory, group selection theory (also called multilevel selection theory), and game theory, seeking to provide clarification of current research within the field of sociobiology. (bl.uk)
  • Ayn Rand argued that altruism is the willful sacrifice of one's values, and represents the reversal of morality because only rationally selfish ethics allow one to pursue the values required for human life. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism may reasonably be defined as acting to benefit others at one's expense. (factbites.com)
  • An ultimate motivation of assisting another regardless of one's direct or indirect self-benefit is necessary for it to be altruistic in the ordinary sense ─ for what we might call moral altruism (see psychological egoism ). (utm.edu)
  • Altruism is defined as reducing one's own reproductive output to help others reproduce. (eurekalert.org)
  • Altruism-benefiting fellow group members at a cost to oneself-and parochialism-hostility toward individuals not of one's own ethnic, racial, or other group-are common human behaviors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Late 19th-century scientists as diverse as Charles Darwin ( 1 ) and Karl Pearson ( 2 ) recognized war as a powerful evolutionary force that might foster social solidarity and altruism toward the fellow members of one's group. (sciencemag.org)
  • When empathy was heightened by putting allocators 'in the receivers shoes,' altruism appeared as if recipients had been able to ask, even when they were silent. (freakonomics.com)
  • Pfaff does acknowledge that empathy, or altruism, can be restricted to particular in-groups. (psmag.com)
  • Pathologies of altruism and empathy not only underlie health issues, but also a disparate slew of humankind's most troubled features, including genocide, suicide bombing, self-righteous political partisanship, and ineffective philanthropic and social programs that ultimately worsen the situations they are meant to aid. (aier.org)
  • One explanation of human altrusion comes from the empathy-altruism hypothesis. (antiessays.com)
  • There are some studies which support the empathy-altruism hypothesis. (antiessays.com)
  • This essay will discuss the view that pro social behaviour can be both a selfless and a selfish act and how it is determined by factors such as altruism and empathy/egoism cultural influences and kin selection. (antiessays.com)
  • In The Price of Altruism: George Price and the Search for the Origins of Kindness , Oren Harman tells the fascinating story of Price's life and his tireless quest, intersecting it with the seminal work of iconic psychiatrist B. F. Skinner , renowned Darwinist Bill Hamilton , and father of population genetics J. B. S. Haldene . (brainpickings.org)
  • From the blurb of The Price of Altruism: George Price and the Search for the Origins of Kindness (Norton 2010): 'Since the dawn of time man has contemplated the mystery of altruism, but it was Darwin who posed the question most starkly. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • Set against the sweeping tale of 150 years of scientific attempts to explain kindness, The Price of Altruism tells for the first time the moving story of the eccentric American genius George Price (1922-1975), as he strives to answer evolution's greatest riddle. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new biography of the theorical biologist George Price by Oren Harman that situates Price's contribution in the history of biological ideas about altruism from Darwin and Kropotkin to Hamilton and Maynard-Smith has received raving reviews ( here is Frans de Waal's in the New York Times). (cognitionandculture.net)
  • By suggesting an evolutionary link between "in-group love" and "out-group hate," though, parochial altruism theory sparked renewed interdisciplinary interest in this topic (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. (frontiersin.org)
  • We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this Research Topic and the variety of methods used in their studies are representative for the current interdisciplinary interest in parochial altruism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, we hope that future theorizing on parochial altruism will be stimulated by the evidence gathered in this Research Topic (also see Everett et al . (frontiersin.org)
  • In the remainder of this editorial, we briefly highlight central findings reported here, which, to us, appear most informative for prospective enhancements of parochial altruism theory. (frontiersin.org)
  • provide some of the first evidence of "unprovoked" parochial altruism in a laboratory setting. (frontiersin.org)
  • But parochial altruism could have evolved if parochialism promoted intergroup hostilities and the combination of altruism and parochialism contributed to success in these conflicts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. (frontiersin.org)
  • First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. (frontiersin.org)
  • By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. (frontiersin.org)
  • A new study suggests how personality, charitable giving, and aging converge in the brain in a way that reflects "pure" altruism. (psychcentral.com)
  • To isolate pure altruism from other motivations, they triangulated methods from the three fields. (psychcentral.com)
  • It is exciting that the three very different methods converge on a common general benevolence dimension and that we can reliably measure pure altruism. (psychcentral.com)
  • Since general benevolence increases with age, Mayr said, it suggests the possibility that life experiences may plant the seeds of pure altruism in people, allowing them to grow into the desire to contribute to the public good. (psychcentral.com)
  • Does pure altruism exist? (opb.org)
  • Pure" altruism is apparently not enough to guarantee a steady supply of blood, but economic incentives to donate might crowd-out intrinsic motivations. (voxeu.org)
  • But given these alarming shortages, "pure" altruism is apparently not enough to guarantee a steady supply of blood. (voxeu.org)
  • To isolate pure altruism from other motivations, researchers triangulated methods from the fields of psychology, behavioral economics and neuroscience. (medindia.net)
  • Ever since the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York in 1964, social psychologists have taken a great interest in human altruism and prosocial behaviour. (antiessays.com)
  • New research (earlier, ungated version here ) looks at one factor that may affect altruism in the real world: communication. (freakonomics.com)
  • Across three experiments, this research will examine: 1) whether cognitive mediators, such as concerns about supernatural punishment or reward, explain the effect of religion on altruism, and 2) whether concerns about supernatural punishment and reward affect altruism differently depending on genetic predispositions to be reward- and punishment-sensitive and also depending on the social context. (templeton.org)
  • If selection acts exclusively at the individual level, favouring some individual organisms over others, then it seems that altruism cannot evolve, for behaving altruistically is disadvantageous for the individual organism itself, by definition. (stanford.edu)
  • If altruism is to evolve, it must be the case that the recipients of altruistic actions have a greater than average probability of being altruists themselves. (factbites.com)
  • He even came up with a mathematical equation to describe under what situations altruism was likely to evolve. (technologyreview.com)
  • So kin selection theory predicts that altruism will only evolve to help related individuals. (eurekalert.org)
  • In order to investigate biological and cognitive explanations for religiously motivated altruism, I will utilize perspectives from psychology and cognitive science (i.e., examining potential cognitive mediators) and techniques from genetics (i.e., measuring predisposition to reward and punishment sensitivity using a multilocus genetic composite of dopamine-related genes) while also considering the social environment (i.e., deservingness of the target of altruism) in a gene-environment interaction. (templeton.org)
  • Their goal was to find a sweet spot where altruism is done for the simple joy of seeing others benefit without expecting personal rewards or recognition, said Ulrich Mayr, head of the UO Department of Psychology and lead author on a paper online ahead of print in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General . (medindia.net)
  • The term altruism was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme , for an antonym of egoism. (wikipedia.org)
  • altruism (n .) "unselfishness, opposite of egoism," from French altruisme , coined by French philosopher Auguste Comte in the 1800s. (hubpages.com)
  • If egoism will begin to work in the right partnership with altruism and they complete each other, there will only be benefit from it. (laitman.com)
  • From a Darwinian viewpoint, the existence of altruism in nature is at first sight puzzling, as Darwin himself realized. (stanford.edu)
  • How can the existence of altruism be reconciled with basic Darwinian principles? (stanford.edu)
  • The word "altruism" (French, altruisme , from autrui: "other people", derived from Latin alter: "other") was coined by Auguste Comte , the French founder of positivism , in order to describe the ethical doctrine he supported. (factbites.com)
  • Reading the study, it appears that what they mean by altruism is a willingness to be free with other people's resources, a willingness to give to anonymous others without ever finding out who those others are or what they really need. (hoboes.com)
  • To answer these questions, lets look at some theories about altruism, and examine altruistic people's worldview. (hubpages.com)
  • Compare Altruism (ethics) - perception of altruism as self-sacrifice . (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism is an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have an ethical obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self interest. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism is a code of ethics which hold the welfare of others as the standard of " good ", and self-sacrifice as the only moral action. (factbites.com)
  • The unstated premise of the doctrine of altruism is that all relationships among men involve sacrifice. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism is the deliberate sacrifice of a portion of an individual's reproductive capacity in order to increase that of another. (factbites.com)
  • Selfish-gene theory allowed, however, for an explanation of altruism that arose in the 1960s and became known as "kin selection. (prospect.org)
  • Altruism is not about the suppression of basic selfish urges but rather, evolutionary speaking, "basic to the brain, hard-wired and pleasurable. (ohmynews.com)
  • Let us try to teach generosity and altruism, because we are born selfish. (finestquotes.com)
  • Chapter 3 offers a critique of the sociobiological explanations of altruism and examines the inability of sociobiology to adequately explain altruism while providing evidence for the reductionist tendencies of prominent sociobiologists such as E. O. Wilson and Richard Dawkins. (bl.uk)
  • In biology , altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intergroup hostility and aggression are similar to altruism in that an individual adopting these behaviors incurs mortal risks or foregoes beneficial opportunities for coalitions, co-insurance, and exchange, thereby incurring a fitness loss by comparison to those who eschew hostility toward other groups. (sciencemag.org)
  • The income finding may appear surprising but researchers say it helps to explain that altruism increases with age, and "not simply due to older adults being generally wealthier. (psychcentral.com)
  • It provided great history on the theories and debates of Altruism, but more importantly it provided tangible, action related learning. (coursera.org)
  • This research will test a proposed model for how both biological and cognitive perspectives can be integrated to understand why religion increases altruism for certain individuals in particular contexts. (templeton.org)
  • Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. (repec.org)
  • In simple terms, altruism is caring about the welfare of other people and acting to help them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In every human society, altruism, a selfless concern for the welfare of others, is considered a noble virtue. (socyberty.com)
  • we simply assume that the altruist cares about the welfare of the beneficiary of his altruism, where that welfare is defined by the beneficiary's preferences. (daviddfriedman.com)
  • Their goal was to find a sweet spot where altruism is done for the simple joy of seeing others benefit without expecting personal rewards or recognition, said Dr. Ulrich Mayr, lead author on the paper. (psychcentral.com)
  • Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism , hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to identify evolutionary trends and sociobiological characteristics of all animal groups, up to and including man. (jahsonic.com)
  • and because altruism via group selection may explain some major evolutionary transitions in the history of life (such as the transition from separate molecules into a gene, from individual genes into a chromosome, from individual cells into a multi-cellular organism, and from multi-cellular organisms turning into a social group). (utm.edu)
  • In order to explain altruism, we have to dig deeper. (hubpages.com)
  • Even bacteria exhibit altruism. (socyberty.com)
  • Agents exhibit pure intergenerational altruism if they care not just about the consumption utility experienced by future generations, but about their total wellbeing. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Darwin's idea that more cooperative groups had better survival chances throughout our species' supposedly very violent (pre)history ( Bowles, 2009 ), and that in-group directed altruism and out-group directed hostility could have evolved together seems intuitively plausible. (frontiersin.org)
  • The empirical importance of both altruism and hostility to members of other groups is well established. (sciencemag.org)
  • President of the Institute for Research on Unlimited Love, he has studied altruism and unselfish love for three decades at the interface of science, philosophy, and world religions. (indigo.ca)
  • Death through altruism appears to be more common in the world than death through aggression by a member of the same species. (factbites.com)
  • This would seem to run counter to any form of altruism, including adoption of offspring of the same species. (answersingenesis.org)
  • This is referred to as "kin altruism" - members of the same species or family preferring or helping each other. (hubpages.com)
  • In addition to investigating how sociobiological altruism connects to Wesleyan holiness, it argues that John Wesley capitalized on the biological and environmental constraints on human action, creating a particular setting that nurtured altruism in his followers through the cultivation of holiness. (bl.uk)
  • Carolyn Schwartz, Sc.D.: Altruism and Subjective Well-Being: Conceptual Model and Empirical Support3. (indigo.ca)
  • Neither parochialism nor altruism would seem likely to survive any selection process that favors traits with higher payoffs. (sciencemag.org)
  • T]he human brain is wired for goodwill,' he argues, 'which propels us toward empathic displays of altruism. (psmag.com)
  • This paper argues that "altruism," as a motive to send money home, would contribute to the stability of these flows. (imf.org)