Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Bystander Effect: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.Fund Raising: Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Theilovirus: A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.PoetryPersonhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)HumanitiesBeginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Patient Education HandoutPhilosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Philosophy, MedicalSelection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.EncyclopediasNobel PrizeEuropean Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)History of MedicineHuman Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Awards and PrizesWriting: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.BangladeshParanoid Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Refusal to Participate: Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Consent Forms: Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Presumed Consent: An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.United StatesFood Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Antlers: The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.

Participation in breast cancer susceptibility testing protocols: influence of recruitment source, altruism, and family involvement on women's decisions. (1/473)

OBJECTIVES: We offered education, counseling, and family-based BRCA1/2 testing to women at increased risk of breast cancer and assessed (a) their reasons for participating and (b) whether source of recruitment, desire to help research (altruism), and the need to communicate with their affected relative about testing distinguish those who did and those who did not complete each phase of our protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sent invitations to 403 women who had completed a questionnaire on BRCA1/2 testing, 178 of whom were considered high risk because they had more than one relative on the same side of the family with early-onset breast cancer. RESULTS: Among the 132 high-risk respondents from the mid-Atlantic states (where testing was offered), 36% (n = 47) were interested in counseling. Those who actually attended counseling were more likely to have some college education, a higher perceived risk of breast cancer, and a greater fear of stigma and were less likely to have a daughter than those who did not attend. The reasons for attending that were rated "very important" were to learn about the test (80%), to have the test (43%), and to help research (38%). High-risk women were eligible for testing only if their affected relative was willing to be tested and tested positive. After the session, 83% intended to ask their affected relative to be tested, but only half of the affected relatives actually came for pretest counseling. The proportion of participants who ultimately involved an affected relative was 2.5 times higher among women from a clinical population (25%) than among those from a registry population (10%); in this latter population, an altruistic desire to help research was a greater motivator for participation than interest in being tested. CONCLUSIONS: Source of recruitment influences both motivations to attend education and counseling and actual testing behavior. These results have implications for interpretation of findings from studies in research settings as well as for informed consent and decision-making in the context of family-based testing.  (+info)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan. (2/473)

Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY.  (+info)

Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999. (3/473)

This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.  (+info)

Lessons on humanitarian assistance. (4/473)

Conflict almost completely destroyed Rwanda's infrastructure in 1994. Natural disasters, as well as disasters caused by humans, have severely challenged humanitarian aid available within the country. In this study, we have analysed the experiences of nongovernmental organizations since the summer of 1994 to evaluate how these difficulties may be overcome. One of the problems identified has been restrictions on the ability to introduce effective health planning due to the poor quality of available local information. The implementation of effective plans that show due consideration to the environment and society is clearly necessary. Effective monitoring and detailed observation are identified as being essential to the continuity of existing humanitarian assistance.  (+info)

Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. (5/473)

The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs".  (+info)

Photographic memory, money, and liposuction: survey of medical students' wish lists. (6/473)

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether medical students made fewer altruistic wishes and more money oriented wishes in later years of the medical course than students in earlier years. DESIGN: Anonymous questionnaire survey. SETTING: Auckland University School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: 520 medical students from 6 years of the course responded to the questionnaire item "If you had three wishes what would you wish for?" MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of wishes in various categories. RESULTS: The three most popular categories of wishes were happiness (34% of students), money (32%), and altruistic wishes (31%). Rates of altruistic wishes (odds ratio=1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.18; P=0.36) and wishes for money (odds ratio=0.96, 0.86 to 1.08; P=0.52) did not vary over the years of the course. Female medical students were more likely than males to make altruistic wishes (36% v 26%; chi(2)=5.68, P=0. 02), intimacy wishes (25% v 18%; chi(2)=3.74, P=0.05), and happiness wishes (42% v 26%; chi(2)=18.82, P=0.0001). Men were more likely than women to make sexual wishes (5% v 0.8%; chi(2)=7.34, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that students were less altruistic and more money oriented in the later years of the medical course.  (+info)

Altruism, blood donation and public policy: a reply to Keown. (7/473)

This is a continuation of and a development of a debate between John Keown and me. The issue discussed is whether, in Britain, an unpaid system of blood donation promotes and is justified by its promotion of altruism. Doubt is cast on the notions that public policies can, and, if they can, that they should, be aimed at the promotion and expression of altruism rather than of self-interest, especially that of a mercenary sort. Reflections upon President Kennedy's proposition, introduced into the debate by Keown, that we should ask not what our country can do for us but what we can do for our country is pivotal to this casting of doubt. A case is made for suggesting that advocacy along the lines which Keown presents of an exclusive reliance on a voluntary, unpaid system of blood donation encourages inappropriate attitudes towards the provision of health care. Perhaps, it is suggested, and the suggestion represents, on my part, a change of mind as a consequence of the debate, a dual system of blood provision might be preferable.  (+info)

Cooperation through image scoring in humans. (8/473)

The "tragedy of the commons," that is, the selfish exploitation of resources in the public domain, is a reason for many of our everyday social conflicts. However, humans are often more helpful to others than evolutionary theory would predict, unless indirect reciprocity takes place and is based on image scoring (which reflects the way an individual is viewed by a group), as recently shown by game theorists. We tested this idea under conditions that control for confounding factors. Donations were more frequent to receivers who had been generous to others in earlier interactions. This shows that image scoring promotes cooperative behavior in situations where direct reciprocity is unlikely.  (+info)

*Altruism

This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. Kabbalah defines God as the force of ... The empathy-altruism hypothesis basically states that psychological altruism does exist and is evoked by the empathic desire to ... Compare Altruism (ethics) - perception of altruism as self-sacrifice. Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. In the ... The reputational benefits of altruism occur in the future as compared to the immediate costs of altruism in the present. While ...

*Pathological Altruism

Oakley defines pathological altruism as "altruism in which attempts to promote the welfare of others instead result in ... Altruism Taranto, James (2013-06-14). "Best of the Web Today: Pathological Altruism". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-11-10 ... altruism The development and underlying brain processes of pathological altruism Synthesis of views on pathological altruism ... of pathological altruism Psychiatric implications of pathological altruism Societal implications of pathological altruism ...

*Altruism (biology)

Altruism in this sense is different from the philosophical concept of altruism, in which an action would only be called " ... "Altruism". Reference.com. Retrieved July 20, 2013. Stoel, Amanda (2012). "The meme of altruism and degrees of personhood" (PDF ... There are other forms of altruism in nature other than risk-taking behavior, such as reciprocal altruism. This biological ... foreshadowed by Robert Triver's reciprocal altruism theory) is a robust strategy which promotes altruism. In "tit-for-tat" both ...

*Altruism (ethics)

Altruism (also called the ethic of altruism, moralistic altruism, and ethical altruism) is an ethical doctrine that holds that ... a genuine utilitarian will inevitably end up practicing altruism or a form of altruism. Effective altruism is a philosophy and ... Altruism may be seen as similar to utilitarianism, however an essential difference is that the latter prescribes acts that ... Altruism ultimately depends on non-rational 'rationales,' on mysticism in some form..." Furthermore, he holds that there is a ...

*Competitive altruism

The theory of competitive altruism also helps one connect such behavior to the handicap principle. With competitive altruism, ... Altruism as a handicap: the limitations of kin selection and reciprocity. J. Avian Biol. 26 (1): 1-3. Hardy, C. & Van Vugt, M ... Competitive altruism: from reciprocity to the handicap principle. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B 265: 429-430. McNamara, J., Z. Barta, ... To explain competitive altruism, Roberts uses the example of preening among birds. Because certain birds cannot reach parasites ...

*Empathy-altruism

... is a form of altruism based on feelings for others. The social exchange theory states that altruism does not ... The prime actors in this debate are Daniel Batson arguing for empathy-altruism and Robert Cialdini arguing for self-interest. ... The results confirmed the empathy-altruism hypothesis: those in the high empathy group were almost equally as likely to help ... The key ingredient to helping is "empathic concern". According to his 'empathy-altruism hypothesis', if someone feels empathy ...

*Reciprocal altruism

Altruism (biology) Competitive altruism Psychological egoism Enlightened self-interest Evolutionary models of food sharing Gene ... The concept of "reciprocal altruism", as introduced by Trivers, suggests that altruism, defined as an act of helping another ... The first two conditions are necessary for altruism as such, while the third is distinguishing reciprocal altruism from simple ... This strategy is one type of reciprocal altruism. Vampire bats also display reciprocal altruism, as described by Wilkinson. The ...

*Effective altruism

"Four focus areas of effective altruism - Effective Altruism Forum". effective-altruism.com. Retrieved 2017-06-01. "A list of ... It is the broad, evidence-based approach that distinguishes effective altruism from traditional altruism or charity. While a ... "News: Liv Boeree on Effective Altruism". www.pokerstrategy.com. Retrieved 2017-04-11. "Effective Altruism , Liv Boeree". www. ... "The Importance of the Far Future". Effective Altruism Foundation. Effective Altruism Foundation. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 11 ...

*Effective Altruism Global

"Centre for Effective Altruism Announces Lineup for Effective Altruism Global 2015". Pitchengine. Centre for Effective Altruism ... Centre for Effective Altruism. Retrieved 7 September 2016. EA Global website Centre for Effective Altruism. ... Centre for Effective Altruism. Retrieved 4 April 2016. Pitney, Nico (July 16, 2015). "Elon Musk To Address 'Nerd Altruists' At ... Effective Altruism Global, abbreviated EA Global, is a series of philanthropy conferences that focuses on the effective ...

*Altruism theory of voting

The altruism theory of voting is a model of voter behavior which states that if citizens in a democracy have "social" ... In his paper "Altruism and Turnout," James H. Fowler explained how the altruistic theory modified the calculus of voting: ... Fowler, James H. "Altruism and Turnout." The Journal of Politics 68.3 (2006): 673-83. JSTOR. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. Riker, William ... "Unequal Altruism and the Voting Paradox." George Mason University Law and Economics Research Paper Series. 12-36 (2012): n. ...

*Reciprocal altruism in humans

Comte's altruism describes the nature of human and ethical significances, but it's completely different from the altruism in ... altruism″ in biology arose from the debate of ″the Problem of Altruism″ in Natural Selection. Charles Darwin suggested that ... reciprocal altruism″ to explain the evolution of cooperation. The idea of reciprocal altruism is almost the same as kin ... Blackmore insisted that memes are the medium of the spread of altruism. The transmission of altruism has been carried out ...

*Flemish Altruism (Constituent Parts 1993-1996)

... is A Minor Forest's first studio album. It was recorded in 1995 by Steve Albini ...

*Helpfulness

Empathy-Altruism Theory. According to the empathy-altruism theory, helpfulness is seen in those who have empathy with the ... Modeling altruism. It's better not to publicize rampant tax cheating, littering and teen drinking, and instead to emphasize - ... doi:10.1037/a0018064 Altruism Bystander effect Diffusion of responsibility Guilt Little Miss Helpful Obedience Self-image https ... Stürmer, S., & Snyder, M. (2010). Helping 'us' versus 'them': Towards a group-level theory of helping and altruism within and ...

*Evolutionary ethics

Theories addressing this have included kin selection, group selection, and reciprocal altruism (both direct and indirect, and ... "Biological Altruism". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ...

*Barbara Oakley

Pathological Altruism Eds Barbara Oakley, Ariel Knafo, Guruprasad Madhavan, David Sloan Wilson, Oxford University Press, ... "Pathological Altruism". ISBN 0199738572. Missing or empty ,url= (help) Oakley, Barbara. Cold-Blooded Kindness. ISBN 161614419X ... and studies of empathy and altruism. Oakley has co-created (with Professor Terry Sejnowski, a neuroscientist) and teaches ...

*JW3

Neuberger, Julia (15 November 2008). "Altruism works". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 January 2014. Mitzvah Day Are you ready for ...

*Kin selection

In humans, altruism is both more likely and on a larger scale with kin than with unrelated individuals; for example, humans ... Kin altruism is altruistic behaviour whose evolution is driven by kin selection. Kin selection is an instance of inclusive ... 1999). "Altruism". Psychologically Speaking: A Book of Quotations. BPS Books. p. 10. ISBN 1-85433-302-X. (see also: Haldane's ... Altruism occurs where the instigating individual suffers a fitness loss while the receiving individual experiences a fitness ...

*Daniel Batson

Social cognition Altruism Empathy Empathic concern Empathy-altruism Psychology of religion Social neuroscience Social ... He is best known for his contributions to three fields: the social psychology of altruism, empathic concern, and psychology of ... Batson has become well known for the empathy-altruism hypothesis, which states that "feeling empathy for [a] person in need ... Cambridge University press Batson, C.D.; Shaw, L.L. (1991). "Evidence for Altruism: Toward a Pluralism of Prosocial Motives". ...

*Jim Greenbaum

In 2013, he watched a TED talk by Peter Singer about effective altruism, The why and how of effective altruism, and began ... "Jim Greenbaum". Effective Altruism Hub. Retrieved August 9, 2015. Williams, Tate (July 31, 2014). "One Funder's Mission to Take ...

*David Sloan Wilson

Pathological Altruism (2011) co-edited with Barbara Oakley, Ariel Knafo, and Guruprasad Madhavan. Does Altruism Exist?: Culture ... Wilson and his co-author E. O. Wilson have become well known[citation needed] for the quote, "Selfishness beats altruism within ... Wilson also co-edited Pathological Altruism published by Oxford University Press in November 2011 with Barbara Oakley, Ariel ...

*Behavioral economics

"Altruism in experiments". in Palgrave Young, H. Peyton. "Social norms". in Palgrave Camerer, Colin (1997). "Progress in ... testing deviations from typical simplifications of economic theory such as the independence axiom and neglect of altruism, ... ", "inequity aversion", and "reciprocal altruism", weakening the neoclassical assumption of "perfect selfishness". This work is ...

*Ethical egoism

Egoism, utilitarianism, and altruism are all forms of consequentialism, but egoism and altruism contrast with utilitarianism, ... Egoism and altruism both contrast with ethical utilitarianism, which holds that a moral agent should treat one's self (also ... Philosopher Ayn Rand is quoted as writing that, "[i]f a man accepts the ethics of altruism, his first concern is not how to ... However, most notable anarchists in history have been less radical, retaining altruism and a sense of the importance of the ...

*Seth Baum

Global catastrophic risk "I am Seth Baum, AMA! - Effective Altruism Forum". effective-altruism.com. Retrieved 2016-09-02. " ...

*Scientific Charity Movement

Effective altruism Kaufman, Jeff (July 23, 2016). "Scientific Charity Movement". Effective Altruism Forum. Effective Altruism ... Jeff Kaufman wrote a blog post comparing elements of the Scientific Charity Movement to those of effective altruism, a more ...

*George Levinger

Levinger, G. (1965). Altruism in marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 27, 32-33. Levinger, G., & Sonnheim, M. (1965). ...
Altruism allows doing for others as one would be done by. Unlike reaction formation, which also gives to the object what the self desires, altruism leaves the self at least partly gratified. Unlike reaction formation, altruism tempers asceticism with pleasure. Unlike passive aggression and martyrdom, altruism allows the object to feel blessed and not afflicted. Altruism attracts people to the user; martyrdom repels them even as it holds them close in chains.. *: Altruism is a behaviour of an individual that benefits another at its own expense....She decided to investigate what motivates ants to undertake these dangerous missions, where they risk getting trapped themselves or, worse, eaten by predatory antlion larvae, which dig pits and lurk, semi-concealed, at the bottom with their jaws wide open. Such apparently selfless rescue behaviour is seen by many as one of the purest forms of altruism....Being nice to relatives is not pure altruism because they share your genes so, by helping them, you ...
An act of altruism confers a fitness advantage on others, which is strong altruism if the actor incurs a net fitness cost, and otherwise weak altruism [1,2]. The conferred advantage expresses a transferral of fitness from altruist to beneficiary, although the magnitude of the altruists loss may differ from the magnitude of the beneficiarys gain. A parasitic act involves a costly transferral of fitness by the donor to a beneficiary, just as in strong altruism, with the crucial difference that the actor is the beneficiary and not the donor. The role of population structure in sustaining these net-cost transferrals of fitness depends entirely on whether the individual driving the interaction is the donor or the beneficiary. Strongly altruistic acts of fitness transferral from donor to beneficiary can only be sustained by assorting mechanisms that cause the benefits of altruism to be visited disproportionately on other altruists or its costs to be cancelled by other indirect benefits [3-6]. In ...
Inclusive fitness theory, also known as kin selection theory, describes when a trait will be favoured by natural selection [1]. Applied to altruistic traits, inclusive fitness theory explains that an altruist gene is selected for if it is altruistic (assists another at a cost to itself) towards relatives when the cost of altruism is less than its benefit diluted by the chance that the beneficiary does not have the altruist gene [1]. In its more general form, inclusive fitness theory holds that any gene that directs a net benefit towards other copies of itself will be favoured by selection, even if the altruistic and beneficiary genes do not share common descent [1-7]. Altruist genes can, with varying degrees of reliability, identify carriers of the altruism gene in nature in three ways: (i) by recognizing kin, who are likely to share the altruist gene, (ii) in viscous populations, where surrounding organisms are often related, and (iii) by directly sensing the presence of the altruist gene ...
Eric Gibson, the editor of the Leisure & Arts page of The Wall Street Journal, once wrote that "Anonymity is the truest expression of altruism." I do agree with this statement but, from my point of view, altruism is much more than that. It is to help a stranger in need even at the expense of your own well-being. A true act of greatness! Altruism, unfortunately, can neither be learnt nor taught, but rather stems directly from the individuals heart. To make it even simpler, altruism is a behavior that opposes egoism, and is generally understood to be an act that benefits others at a personal cost. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines altruism as "feelings and behavior that show a desire to help other people and a lack of selfishness." Coined in the late eighteen hundreds by French sociologist Auguste Comte, the term refers to those social acts that are "an expression of an unselfish desire to live for others" (Comte, as cited in Batson and Shaw, 1991).. I just read on the digital edition of the ...
Evolved "true" altruistic behavior among non-relatives in non-social animals. What I mean by "true" altruistic behavior is the observation of an individual sacrificing its reproductive output for the benefit of individuals to which it is either unrelated or from whom it does not expect to receive return benefits. In this "true" altruism your genes give benefits to others and get nothing back, and this shouldnt evolve under natural selection. And, indeed, we dont see such altruism in nature. There are reports that vampire bats regurgitate blood to other individuals in the colony to whom theyre unrelated, but those need confirmation, and there may also be reciprocal altruism, so that individuals regurgitate blood to those from whom, one day, they expect a return meal. Such cooperation can evolve by normal natural selection. [bold added ...
Downloadable! Economic research examining how educational intervention programs affect primary and secondary schooling focuses largely on test scores although the interventions can affect many other outcomes. This paper examines how an educational intervention, a voucher program, affected students altruism. The voucher program used a lottery to allocate scholarships among low-income applicant families with children in K-8th grade. By exploiting the lottery to identify the voucher effects, and using experimental economic methods, we measure the effects of the intervention on childrens altruism. We also measure the voucher programs effects on parents altruism and several academic outcomes including test scores. We find that the educational intervention positively affects students altruism towards charitable organizations but not towards their peers. We fail to find statistically significant effects of the vouchers on parents altruism or test scores.
Agents exhibit pure intergenerational altruism if they care not just about the consumption utility experienced by future generations, but about their total wellbeing. If all generations are altruistic, each generations wellbeing depends on the wellbeing of its descendants. Thus pure intergenerational altruism causes generations preferences to be interdependent. While existing models study the relationship between pure intergenerational altruism and conventional time preferences, they assume that altruistic preferences are homogeneous across society. In effect, agents impose their own preferences on future generations, whether they share them or not. By contrast, we study pure intergenerational altruism when agents preferences are heterogeneous and fully non-paternalistic, i.e. they evaluate the wellbeing of future agents according to their own sovereign intergenerational preferences. We demonstrate that homogeneous models of intergenerational altruism over (under) estimate the weight an agent ...
Kinship selection - our favoring of relatives or those most like us - is a fundamental part of evolutionary theory. It is best understood by considering altruistic behavior, which here means "self-sacrifice behavior performed of the benefit of others." If I exhibit altruistic behavior for my offspring - be they chicks or children - then these offspring are more likely to survive and breed. In this way, my altruistic behavior has increased the chances of my genes being carried on to my descendants - which is all that evolution cares about. If I dont exhibit altruistic behavior and just focus on my own needs, I may leave my offspring more vulnerable, and hence less likely to survive. In this way, altruistic behavior, or better, the genes for altruistic behavior, are passed on and give those individuals who demonstrate it a competitive advantage over others. This idea is also true for my siblings and my cousins, who, after all, share some, or a lot, of my DNA. A great example of this are the ...
Posted By Rebecca White on Nov 21, 2013. A Seton Hall alum who graduated in 2001 is releasing a book, "Motivation, Altruism, Personality and Social Psychology: The Coming Age of Altruism," on Dec. 4.. Dr. Michael Babula, MBA, Ph.D. and researcher, said he was inspired by some of his experiences at Seton Hall that led to an interest in altruism. Two specific events at Seton Hall, Babula said, had a profound impact on his studies of altruism. One was when professor Richard Hunter organized a trip to Poland to visit Auschwitz, where Babula was quite moved. The other was after the attacks on Sept. 11, where the response of students was overwhelming. Babula was intrigued by the actions of people that moved beyond self-interest because psychology typically teaches that people are driven by self-interest and arent as interested in helping others.. "I had opportunities [at Seton Hall] where I started questioning where peoples higher motivations were," Babula said. "I very much enjoyed my time ...
Altruism-benefiting fellow group members at a cost to oneself-and parochialism-hostility toward individuals not of ones own ethnic, racial, or other group-are common human behaviors. The intersection of the two-which we term "parochial altruism"-is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective because altruistic or parochial behavior reduces ones payoffs by comparison to what one would gain by eschewing these behaviors. But parochial altruism could have evolved if parochialism promoted intergroup hostilities and the combination of altruism and parochialism contributed to success in these conflicts. Our game-theoretic analysis and agent-based simulations show that under conditions likely to have been experienced by late Pleistocene and early Holocene humans, neither parochialism nor altruism would have been viable singly, but by promoting group conflict, they could have evolved jointly. ...
In October, I had the honor of participating in a public discussion at Princeton University with philosopher Peter Singer, Professor of Ethics and author of The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically (Yale University Press).. "Effective altruism," writes Peter Singer, "is based on a very simple idea: we should do the most good we can. […] Living a minimally acceptable ethical life involves using a substantial part of our spare resources to make the world a better place. Living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good we can.". He rightly points out that Philanthropy is a very large industry, receiving a total of approximately $300 billion a year in the United States alone, but that most of that huge amount is given on the basis of emotional responses to images of the people, animals, or forests that the charity is helping.. Singer states, "Effective altruism seeks to change that by providing incentives for charities to demonstrate their ...
Altruism (also called the ethic of altruism, moralistic altruism, and ethical altruism) is an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary, at the sacrifice of self interest. An action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the ...
My dear friend Matt Leathwood sent me this response to my Selfish Altruism post:. Does anyone do anything for free? Doing something for someone else makes most of us feel good about ourselves….. The pay off is the apparent altruism. Its the true sign of goodness when we do things for other people without the bells and whistles of praise…. Silent givers are indeed kings amongst men.. Touche, Matt! Whats interesting is the role habit plays in all this as well. If we get on a roll of being altruistic, perhaps it becomes our default and we can, without ego, make that our lifes preset.. But more so than FREE, like Matt says, its about doing good because its good, not because you will be praised for it. We can all do a lot worse than feeling good about doing good.. If praise for altruism makes altruism your default setting, well all take it over the alternative.. P.s. If you ever have a thought, critique, idea, or contribution, after reading my posts - hit reply! Hell, I might even share ...
Altruism is when we act to promote someone elses welfare, even at a risk or cost to ourselves. Though some believe that humans are fundamentally self-interested, recent research suggests otherwise: Studies have found that peoples first impulse is to cooperate rather than compete; that toddlers spontaneously help people in need out of a genuine concern for their welfare; and that even non-human primates display altruism. Evolutionary scientists speculate that altruism has such…
Altruism is when we act to promote someone elses welfare, even at a risk or cost to ourselves. Though some believe that humans are fundamentally self-interested, recent research suggests otherwise: Studies have found that peoples first impulse is to cooperate rather than compete; that toddlers spontaneously help people in need out of a genuine concern for their welfare; and that even non-human primates display altruism. Evolutionary scientists speculate that altruism has such…
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This study investigates how intergenerational altruism affects the possibility of the transfer paradox occurring in a two-country, one-sector overlapping generations model. We derive the conditions under which the transfer paradox occurs in our model where a generation within each country has altruism toward the subsequent generation. Contrary to earlier results in the literature, we find that altruism does not enter the conditions under which the transfer paradox occurs in the steady state. Moreover, we show that although altruism affects the condition of the transfer paradox along the transition path, its effect on this condition vanishes as the economy converges to the steady state.
Kinship, altruism and selfishness are interactions in populations. Altruism evolves in related individuals where members sacrifice for the sake of species.
A/51/172 E/1996/77 GENERAL ASSEMBLY ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Fifty-first session Substantive session of 1996 Item 21 (a) of the preliminary Item 5 of the provisional list* agenda** STRENGTHENING OF THE COORDINATION OF SOCIAL, HUMANITARIAN AND HUMANITARIAN AND DISASTER RELIEF HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS: ASSISTANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS, REPORTS OF SUBSIDIARY INCLUDING SPECIAL ECONOMIC BODIES, CONFERENCES AND ASSISTANCE: STRENGTHENING OF THE RELATED QUESTIONS COORDINATION OF EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE OF THE ** E/1996/100. UNITED NATIONS * A/51/50. Report of the Secretary-General CONTENTS Paragraphs Page I. INTRODUCTION ..................................... 1 - 4 3 II. THE CONTEXT OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ........... 5 - 20 4 III. FOLLOW-UP TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1995/56: REVIEW OF UNITED NATIONS CAPACITY TO RESPOND TO HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES .......................21 - 62 7 A. Follow-up by United Nations organizations to resolution 1995/56 ...
Humans are unusually cooperative and prosocial, sharing resources with kin and non-kin others. At the same time, they engage in violent intergroup conflict and discriminate against members of other groups. How can we explain this apparent inconsistency? Building on Darwin (Darwin, 1871), it has been proposed that self-sacrificing prosociality toward the in-group and hostility toward the out-group may have co-evolved (Choi & Bowles, 2007; García & van den Bergh, 2011). Research on so-called parochial altruism, i.e., the motivation to benefit in-group members at personal cost, while not benefitting or even harming out-group members, recently received much attention in psychology and beyond (for reviews see, De Dreu, Balliet, & Halevy, 2014; Rusch, 2014; Yamagishi & Mifune, 2016). Empirical studies aiming to support the parochial altruism hypothesis yielded mixed results, though. For instance, whereas some studies provided support for the parochial altruism hypothesis (e.g., Abbink, Brandts, Herrmann, &
So, granted that this is a quite artificial situation, and that I am no expert in the field, what this paper does is to establish inter-group selection as plausible and quantifiable mechanism in accounting for trait-based altruism in the form of warrior behavior and sacrifice. The empirical boundaries seem plausible, while some of the mathematical simplifications seem less so (in this model, each conflict results in extermination of one group and doubling of the other, for instance. On the other hand, all non-altruists get to survive if their group wins a war, while altruist warriors die with 20% probability). Specifically, the right-ward parts of the curves indicate that given realistic rates of death (delta) from conflict, altruism could be selected for despite substantial costs (c) and modest group benefits (L). There are many other possible rationales for selection of in-group altruism traits, so this setting of warfare should not be seen as exhaustive ...
So, granted that this is a quite artificial situation, and that I am no expert in the field, what this paper does is to establish inter-group selection as plausible and quantifiable mechanism in accounting for trait-based altruism in the form of warrior behavior and sacrifice. The empirical boundaries seem plausible, while some of the mathematical simplifications seem less so (in this model, each conflict results in extermination of one group and doubling of the other, for instance. On the other hand, all non-altruists get to survive if their group wins a war, while altruist warriors die with 20% probability). Specifically, the right-ward parts of the curves indicate that given realistic rates of death (delta) from conflict, altruism could be selected for despite substantial costs (c) and modest group benefits (L). There are many other possible rationales for selection of in-group altruism traits, so this setting of warfare should not be seen as exhaustive ...
While science has made great strides in treating pathologies of the human mind, far less research exists to date on positive qualities of the human mind including compassion, altruism and empathy. Yet these prosocial traits are innate to us and lie at the very centerpiece of our common humanity. Our capacity to feel compassion has ensured the survival and thriving of our species over millennia. For this reason, the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE) at Stanford University School of Medicine was founded in 2008 with the explicit goal of promoting, supporting, and conducting rigorous scientific studies of compassion and altruistic behavior. Founded and directed by Dr. James Doty, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, CCARE is established within the Department of Neurosurgery. To date, CCARE has collaborated with a number of prominent neuroscientists, behavioral scientists, geneticists and biomedical researchers to closely examine the physiological and psychological ...
In psychological research on altruism, studies often observe altruism as demonstrated through prosocial behaviors such as helping, comforting, sharing, cooperation, philanthropy, and community service.[25] Research has found that people are most likely to help if they recognize that a person is in need and feel personal responsibility for reducing the persons distress. Research also suggests that the number of bystanders witnessing distress or suffering affects the likelihood of helping (the Bystander effect). Greater numbers of bystanders decrease individual feelings of responsibility.[23][29] However, a witness with a high level of empathic concern is likely to assume personal responsibility entirely regardless of the number of bystanders.[23] A feeling of personal responsibility or - moral norm - has also strongly been associated with other pro-social behaviors such as charitable giving.[30]. Many studies have observed the effects of volunteerism (as a form of altruism) on happiness and ...
Animals learn altruism for many reasons, but all of them derive from the success of their continued existence, either as individuals or as a group. Surrounding oneself by friends is a more univironmentally stable act than being surrounded by enemies. Social animals devise ways of instilling and enforcing group loyalty, with religion, the military, and football being familiar examples. Survival of the individual microcosm is highly dependent on survival of the group microcosm. Generally, what works best for the group works best for the individual. Thus, it is a mistake to consider the individual as a solitary microcosm without considering all the interactions with others that formed its propensity to act. Dawkins wraps these propensities in little bundles call genes, which as you suggested, cannot be solely responsible for altruism. A common mistake in understanding altruism is to select the wrong microcosm. For instance, a worker bee "sacrifices" its life for the colony by stinging an intruder. ...
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English examples for altruism - This term is sometimes associated with other terms such as true altruism. In these cases most individuals far from showing altruism actually take money. This altruism does not appear to be limited to their own species.
Why would a person or animal choose to commit a seemingly selfless act that is disadvantageous to their own survival? Biological altruism is defined as the behavioral tendency of organisms to promote the survival of another organism (usually of the...
Why do people commonly go out of their way to do something nice for another person, even when it comes at a cost to themselves-and how could such altruistic behavior have evolved? The answer may not just be in our genes, but also in our microbes. © Lewin-Epstein et al. Nature Communications(Left) The payoff matrix and
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One of the problems with being an avowed altruist is that its hard to talk about it with other people without coming across like youre trying to claim youre better than them.. One of the problems with being an aspiring effective altruist is that its hard to talk about it with other people without coming across like youre trying to claim youre better than everyone else, including other avowed altruists, and definitely including non-altruistic plebes.. (This, I think, is something of a barrier to effective altruism becoming a more popular thing, and Id like to see it change.). But if I cant write about this in the locus of the interval between Thanksgiving and Christmas, I cant write about it at all, and that would be really quite sad for me, so here goes.. ...
The purpose of this document is to clearly describe the proposed research questions and methodology for an evidence synthesis on practices to identify and prioritize vulnerable populations affected by urban humanitarian emergencies. This protocol outlines the reasons for this evidence synthesis, how the review will be conducted, plans for critical appraisal of included studies, and methods of synthesis. The aim of the synthesis is to consolidate the practices (including tools, methods, and metrics) reported by practitioners and academics to identify and prioritize vulnerable people, households or communities within populations affected by humanitarian emergencies, including those displaced within and to urban areas. ...
Altruism isnt Generosity Tibor R. Machan A big error has haunted humanity for centuries: its the equivocation between generosity and altruism. The former is a virtue any decent human being will practice: it asks of one to reach out to deserving others in times of dire need. The latter is a policy of devoting oneself…
THE ALTRUISTS is a trademark and brand of Ashley Mazanec. Filed to USPTO On Friday, August 19, 2016, The THE ALTRUISTS covers Compact discs featuring music; Digital music downloadable from the Internet; Downloadable music files. Search for other trademarks at Trademarkia.
A number of recent publications have promoted the idea that the high levels of prosociality and violent intergroup conflict observed in humans might result from a joint evolution of behavioral traits causing cooperativeness and altruism among members of the same group (in-group love) and spite and aggression between different groups (out-group hate). This hypothesis, dating back to Darwin (1871), has been dubbed parochial altruism (Choi and Bowles, 2007; also see: de Dreu et al., 2014; Rusch, 2014a; Yamagishi and Mifune, 2016).Research on group conditional pro- and antisocial behaviors has a long tradition in psychology (see e.g., Tajfel, 1982; Yamagishi and Mifune, 2009). By suggesting an evolutionary link between in-group love and out-group hate, though, parochial altruism theory sparked renewed interdisciplinary interest in this topic (e.g., Bernhard et al., 2006; Ockenfels and Werner, 2014; de Dreu et al., 2010; Abbink et al., 2012; García and van den Bergh, 2011).Darwins idea that more
Get a full overview of Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism Book Series. Most recent Volume: Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity
The theoretical problem of helping an unrelated sick or dying individual is that altruistic behavior that helps another but which causes the actor to incur a cost would not promote the actors reproductive success (making it less likely that genes promoting this behavior would be widely spread through the population). Hamilton proposed a solution with his kin selection theory which is what Dawkins was referring to when he discussed human altruism in The Selfish Gene. The idea is that any gene that promoted altruism wouldnt spread through the population if it didnt enhance an individuals fitness. But if it benefitted a close kin member such genes would still have a good chance of spreading more widely. Dawkins argued that these altruistic genes evolved in our hominin ancestors who lived in small communities composed of close kin and dont realize that many of us now live in societies composed mostly of strangers. Trivers proposed an alternative explanation with his reciprocal altruism theory ...
The theoretical problem of helping an unrelated sick or dying individual is that altruistic behavior that helps another but which causes the actor to incur a cost would not promote the actors reproductive success (making it less likely that genes promoting this behavior would be widely spread through the population). Hamilton proposed a solution with his kin selection theory which is what Dawkins was referring to when he discussed human altruism in The Selfish Gene. The idea is that any gene that promoted altruism wouldnt spread through the population if it didnt enhance an individuals fitness. But if it benefitted a close kin member such genes would still have a good chance of spreading more widely. Dawkins argued that these altruistic genes evolved in our hominin ancestors who lived in small communities composed of close kin and dont realize that many of us now live in societies composed mostly of strangers. Trivers proposed an alternative explanation with his reciprocal altruism theory ...
Theres an interesting post over at the BBC today that asks a deceptively simple question; why do people help each other?. The question is key for any business working in social media, collaboration technology or sharing economy. And so is the answer.. The BBC post explains the selfish gene theory of altruism - our minds are wired to get a chemical buzz out of helping people who share the same genes as us (or at least appear to share those genes through similar physical traits); particularly close kin. If you can help a number of people who collectively appear to have more of your genetic material in them than you do as an individual, then youll help even if it costs you. From a genes-eye perspective, laying down your life for a number (but not one) of immediate kin is enlightened self-interest, not selfless altruism - since it increases the overall inclusive fitness (reproductive chances) of your shared genes. Theres even an equation (Hamiltons Rule) to predict when people will (and ...
... The conflict between self-sacrificial and self-interest motives in professional conduct is investigated. Engineering risk appears to be a link between the competing philosophical theories of altruism and egoism. Professional codes of ethics are not insensitive to egoistic motives, especially when judged from the standpoint of the profession or of engineers in a collective sense. Ethical decision problems faced by engineers are shown to be value conflicts in which altruistic and egoistic motives must be weighed, with engineering risk being the weighting function. The competing moral obligations in cases involving whistle-blowing and kickbacks are dicussed, and the implications for engineering education are investigated.
Here are just a couple examples of dogs displaying altruistic behavior. There are many documented cases of chimpanzees, elephants, dolphins and dogs performing altruistic acts. Many religious people state that altruism only exists in humans and is evidence that we are created by a god, which is simply not true. Regardless, these are amazing stories. Particularly the second one. The dog tries to pull the injured dog off the highway and instead of using its teeth, it uses its paws, so as to
Wietse Tol and colleagues lay out a a consensus-based research agenda for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings.
Wietse Tol and colleagues lay out a a consensus-based research agenda for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings.
The argument that altruism in sterile ants which work for the benefit of their community can be explained by kin selection has been overturned by mathematical analysis by Martin Nowak, author of Evolutionary Dynamics, in a paper published in Nature. Instead, altruism turns out to be a thoroughly naturally selected affair. Read more here ...
Lets tackle this from another angle and change our perspective - consider the situation from the level of individual cells. A multicellular organism such as a human is composed of billions of cells that are "born" and die, most of which are non-reproductive. So we may easily consider eusocial species to operate as a super-organism, as the single organism and the single insect colony are largely similar. Kin selection operates within my body just as it does clearly in the insect colony. If an animal cannot physically reproduce, how is it any different from a non-reproductive cell within my body? Each, colony and human, operates as the basic unit of sexual reproduction. E.O. Wilson earlier made this same comparison. Are my body cells therefore altruistic, just like the soldier termite? I think so. This analogy allows me to make the following proposition: altruism as an end in itself is something that primarily occurs within the basic unit of sexual reproduction, whereas altruism as a means to ...
In solving major world problems, altruism and compassion can help. Altruism is a fundamental mental state involving a specific kind of intention and motivation.
In his quest to understand altruism, Price inevitably dissected such complex and timeless concepts as self-sacrifice and kindness, and eventually became so vexed by the selfish reasoning for kindness embedded in his own mathematical theory of altruism that he set out to prove the theory wrong by committing a seemingly endless number of random acts of kindness to complete strangers. He spent the latter part of his life helping alcoholics and the homeless, often inviting them to live in his home and, though he had most of his belongings stolen, he went undeterred until he was forced to move out of his house due to a construction issue. Unable to help the homeless any longer, he went into a deep depression. On January 6, 1975, Price committed suicide using a pair of nail scissors to cut his own carotid artery.. ...
Topic: The study of altruism-when one individual helps another and incurs a cost for doing so-has a long history that originates with Darwins confusion about how it might fit into his theory of natural selection. As evolutionary theory has matured, so has the study of altruism. In simple terms, an organism is more likely to help another when the two individuals are more related genetically or when there is some other high benefit in comparison to the cost. Helping each other has many social implications-about morality, social organization, economics, and the idea of fairness. Dr. Dugatkin will discuss recent and historic experiments that remain relevant to current discussions about the evolution, animal behavior, neuroscience, and psychology of altruism ...
Altruism vs. Aggression - Is It in Our DNA?. Ive been thinking a lot about altruism lately. With everything going on in the world, its hard not to. Hurricane Irene stormed into our lives right before Labor Day and wiped out many communities near me. No one expected a hurricane to inflict such punishment on little villages in the Catskill Mountains of New York but thats what happened.. At our house, we tried to tough it out but we surrendered as the winds picked up and we realized that way too many trees were leaning longingly toward our roof. We packed up four cats and took shelter in a Holiday Inn about fifteen minutes away. What we found there was a 21st century Noahs Ark. Dogs grinned at us from balconies on the second floor. Cats peered out of windows into the courtyard. And the people, local evacuees mingled with shellshocked refugees from Long Island, Staten Island and Brooklyn, huddled together sharing whatever updates we had. And we shared what we had.. Phyllis, whose home was ...
When altruism is our dominant state of mind - our default mode - it expresses itself as benevolence toward anyone who might come into the field of our attention and translates itself as goodwill, readiness and willingness to care. When we perceive that others have a pressing need, we develop empathic concern. When the need is related to a yearning for happiness, altruism will foster the realization of that aspiration. When the need is related to suffering, compassion will induce us to remedy the suffering and its causes." ...
In the aftermath of disasters, such as the Grenfell Tower fire in London this week or any number of earthquakes and tsunamis, the global community rallies together. As soon as news and images of the devastation wrought by the freak incident hits our screens, we dig into our pockets. And this is, of course, a wonderful human trait. We want to help those in need. We want to do something to ease the suffering of people whose entire lives have been turned upside down in the blink of an eye. And yet, in many cases, the ways in which we try to help is actually very ineffective. Relief workers have dubbed our altruism the disaster after the disaster and it had happened in London less than 24 hours after the fire broke out. But what is ineffective altruism and how can you donate in an effective way?. Firstly, lets explain what this disaster after a disaster is. Often in the wake of these events, people are left homeless and without access to food, clothing and other basic amenities. The good people ...
Biology has long struggled with the concept of altruism. There is now reasonable agreement that its purpose is partly to be nice to relatives (with whom one shares genes) and partly to permit the exchanging of favours. But how the brain goes about being altruistic is unknown. Dr Marsh therefore wondered if the brains of…
Summary:. Workers remittances have been playing an increasingly important role in the balance of payments of many countries and can significantly contribute to the strength of their external positions. Assessing the likely stability of remittance flows could be a valuable input to the analysis of their external vulnerabilities. This paper argues that "altruism," as a motive to send money home, would contribute to the stability of these flows. Using a simple framework that relates workers remittances to agricultural GDP, which is used as an indicator of economic "hardship" in the home country, evidence suggests that altruism could have played an important role in the flow of remittances to Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan, and Tunisia in recent years.. ...
Cramped Altruism Other Peoples Children - NYTimes.com Ive noticed this thing quite a lot in American life lately - this sort of cramped vision of altruism in which its considered perfectly acceptable to support only those causes that are directly good for you and yours. We even have a tendency to view it as…
Effective Altruism from Princeton University. Effective altruism is built on the simple but unsettling idea that living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good one can. In this course you will examine this ideas philosophical ...
What has been missing from memorialization? Recognition that perpetrator atrocities and also forbidden high-risk care were inseparable aspects of the same complicated reality. Both belong in an accurate and nuanced account of the European Jewish experience. In her 2006 memoir, The End of Days, Helen Sendyk recalls with warm admiration the behavior (aka stealth altruism) of a young Jewish…
Altruism in the Beatport top: Altruisms tracks and releases, with the history in the beatport top, and all kind of statistics on his progression.
The basic idea of kin selection is simple. Imagine a gene which causes its bearer to behave altruistically towards other organisms, e.g. by sharing food with them. Organisms without the gene are selfish-they keep all their food for themselves, and sometimes get handouts from the altruists. Clearly the altruists will be at a fitness disadvantage, so we should expect the altruistic gene to be eliminated from the population. However, suppose that altruists are discriminating in who they share food with. They do not share with just anybody, but only with their relatives. This immediately changes things. For relatives are genetically similar-they share genes with one another. So when an organism carrying the altruistic gene shares his food, there is a certain probability that the recipients of the food will also carry copies of that gene. (How probable depends on how closely related they are.) This means that the altruistic gene can in principle spread by natural selection. The gene causes an ...
State of the World s Mothers 2014 Saving Mothers and Children in Humanitarian Crises Contents 3 Introduction 5 Executive Summary: Key Findings and Recommendations 11 Saving Mothers and Children in Humanitarian
Their expectations were that in regards to the evolution of altruism kin selection should be inferior to genetic similarity which should be inferior to the green-beard effect. The reasoning is straightforward, as you progress across these sequence of dynamics the false positive rate of aiding those without the altruism conferring gene should decrease. That is not what they found, at least not initially.. What was happening is that they were focusing on the wrong parameters in framing their expectations. Thats why you run the model: human intuition often fails. Green-bearding is very precise as a dichotomous indicator of whether an individual carries a particular gene identical-by-descent, but mutation could produce variation in levels of altruism. What they found was that when green-bearding was dichotomous the levels of altruism tended to converge upon a lower equilibrium as individuals were focused on being just altruistic enough to count as real altruists and so gain advantages from those ...
Researchers tested the assumption that self-interest is a universal trait of CEOs, showed that too much altruism can harm company performance, revealed the dark, self-destructive tendencies of some entrepreneurs and family-owned businesses and provided a way to measure and correlate greed, arrogance and company performance ...
Long-sighted reciprocal altruism is key to human cooperation and to the development of societies in which people take care of each other. However, there is huge variation in who counts in the relevant population and what they should receive as gifts and when. The existence of reciprocal altruism does not arbitrate these questions. Indeed, the expectation of reciprocity can both reduce and even undermine altruism. It may limit gift giving only to the in-group where such obligations exist. Perhaps if we stay only in the realm of group fitness (or, for that matter, tribalism), such behavior might still be considered ethical. But if we are trying to build an enduring and encompassing ethical society, tight boundaries around deserving beneficiaries of altruistic acts becomes problematic. If we accept such boundaries, we are quickly in the realm of wars and terrorism in which some populations are considered non-human or, at least, non-deserving of beneficence. ...
What were the top eight humanitarian crises of 2015? Find out what they were and what World Vision and people like you did to help.
This has proven to be quite an important idea, generating valuable insights and correcting misconceptions, such as earlier ideas about group selection. "Group selection" is the idea that certain behaviours have evolved for the good of the group (or species); although its been discredited amongst evolutionary biologists, the idea still has currency with the wider public (and even among biologists in other fields). However attractive it might be, this idea is simply wrong. Altruistic behaviours cant evolve simply as a result of the benefit to the group because there will always be cheaters and free-loaders who take advantage of the altruistic behaviour, thereby undermining the group; this is an example of a more general problem known as the tragedy of the commons. In order for altruism to be evolutionarily stable, there has to be some benefit to the altruistic individuals. The gene-centred approach resolves this problem by refocusing our attention on the level of the gene. From the gene-centred ...
(Cross-posted from my blog, with a few edits.) Many of the effective altruists Ive known were first introduced to EA through some kind of interpersonal connect
(Cross-posted from my blog, with a few edits.) Many of the effective altruists Ive known were first introduced to EA through some kind of interpersonal connect
ARTECONI, S., Hales, D., & Babaoglu, O. (2007). Greedy Cheating Liars and the Fools Who Believe Them. In S. A. Brueckner, S. Hassas, M. Jelasity & D. Yamins (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th international conference on engineering self-organising systems (ESOA06 ) (pp. 161-175). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. [doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69868-5_11] AXELROD, R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books. BOWLES, S. (2006). Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science, 314(5805), 1569-1572. [doi:10.1126/science.1134829] BUSCHINGER, A. (2009). Social parasitism among ants: a review (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News, 12, 219-235. COHEN, M. D., Riolo, R. L., & Axelrod, R. (1999). The emergence of social organization in the prisoners dilemma: How context preservation and other factors promote cooperation. Working paper 99-01-002. Santa Fe Institute. Santa Fe, New Mexico. COHEN, M. D., Riolo, R. L., & Axelrod, R. (2001). The role ...
Are you an egoist or an altruist? Take the Egoism/Altruism Test to check whether your egoism is a problem or you are taking altruistic behavior too far! Egoism and altruism - where do you stand?
From UCtelevision: Explore the variety of approaches being used to understand the evolution of human altruism, how the mammalian brain contributes to the development of social behaviors and how the concepts of trade and markets apply to understanding the development of cooperation in humans. Related Situationist posts: Psychology of Inequality The Political Situation of the Economic Inequality…
From UCtelevision: Explore the variety of approaches being used to understand the evolution of human altruism, how the mammalian brain contributes to the development of social behaviors and how the concepts of trade and markets apply to understanding the development of cooperation in humans. Related Situationist posts: Psychology of Inequality The Political Situation of the Economic Inequality…
Placing Accountability at the Heart of Humanitarian Assistance: Lessons from the Listen Learn Act Project (DanChurchAid, Save the Children & Ground Truth Solutions, April 2017) [text via ReliefWeb ...
Healthyaddict also attempts to tackle the dilemma of altruism. Why do humans do things that are a cost to them and a benefit to others? It doesnt make any sense according to evolution where everything is measured only by its survival benefit. Healthyaddict suggests altruism is a sort of reverse to the "dont kill and you wont be killed" principle; altruism is a "do this and theyll do it back to you" strategy. She gives the example of chimps picking bugs off other chimps. They do it in the hope that later, some chimp will pick bugs off them. I think healthyaddict needs to look up the definition of altruism. If you are expecting something in return, then it isnt altruism by definition. When people give money to starving children in third world countries, they never expect the children to someday repay them. Neither does the giver imagine that someday he might find himself in a third world country and will need some, middle class Westerner to give him food. ...
By Deepak Chopra, M.D., FACP There are increasing signs that selfishness is winning out over altruism in this society. The trend isnt hidden. The backlash over Obamacare comes down to the fully insured resenting the call to provide for the uninsured. […]. ...
Millions go to work each day at a non-profit organization. By taking a more rigorous, calculated approach to charity, we can learn how to do dramatically more good. We can learn how to truly change the world. This book shows you how ...
All this disagreement creates the impression of a field in massive disarray. In reality, many of the players involved are arguing at cross purposes. Nowak and his colleagues, for instance, have developed a mathematical model that they claim provides a more direct way to calculate the evolutionary dynamics of a social trait such as altruism…However, they overlook the fact that inclusive fitness theory explains what organisms are trying to maximize. It is not just a tool for calculating when a social trait will evolve.. Likewise, in arguing that ecological factors, rather than kinship, are key to the evolution of social-insect colonies, Wilson is imposing a false dichotomy…To fully understand how these colonies evolve, researchers need to consider ecological factors and relatedness. Whether they stress the importance of one over the other will depend on the question they are asking. For example, relatedness has proved crucial to understanding conflicts between the queen and her workers over ...
The charter will be accompanied by an action plan to help signatories put it into practice.. An estimated 20 million people with disabilities are currently affected by humanitarian crises. Often marginalized in their communities of origin, people with disabilities can also find it more difficult than people without disabilities to flee affected areas and to access humanitarian aid. Their rights and needs are often not taken into account. According to a survey, Disability In Humanitarian Context, conducted by Handicap International in the first half of 2015: three quarters of people with disabilities affected by a humanitarian crisis and who responded to the survey reported that they did not have adequate access to basic assistance such as water, shelter, food, or health care services. Half of respondents reported that they did not have access to specific care such as rehabilitation and assistive devices.. "We invite all NGOs, States and humanitarian funding bodies to sign the Charter on ...
is believed to be the worlds first "domino" three-way kidney transplant involving an altruistic, non-directed living donor. Prior to the surgeries, transplant specialists searched their wait list of recipients for the best possible "matches" for kidney donors and discovered that a domino-effect could be achieved by including an altruistic donor who was willing to give his kidney to anyone who needed it.. "The shortage of donor kidneys for patients who need kidney transplantation is a national public health problem," says Robert A. Montgomery, M.D., Ph.D., lead surgeon on the case and director of Comprehensive Transplant Center at Johns Hopkins. "In this case, an altruistic donors gift allowed three transplants to take place where none would have been possible and all three recipients received the most compatible kidney from someone they had never met. All three transplanted kidneys are working well and the six donors and recipients are recovering quickly," added Montgomery.. The other five ...
1,045 living donor kidney transplants were carried out accounting for more than a third of all kidney transplants. Non-directed living donor transplants (also known as altruistic donor transplants) and paired and pooled donations contributed more than 60 kidney transplants between them ...
Altruism is a real mystery for those who believe in a world ruled by survival of the fittest. If perpetuation of ones genes is a biological imperative, why would any creature sacrifice its resources or even its life in order to help others? And yet the natural world offers many examples of just this kind of behavior.. As summarized by biologists Marcy Uyenoyama and Marcus Feldman in the book Keywords in Evolutionary Biology, The evolution by natural selection of any trait requires that it increase the contribution of its carriers to future generations.1 Therefore, if an individual helps others contribute to the next generation at the expense of itself, it cannot participate in evolution because it fails to meet natural selections requirement.. People can show genuine altruism, as in the case of American soldiers who give up their lives to protect other Americans freedom to live (and pass on their genes). A recent study even found altruistic behavior in tiny plant-eating aphids, some of ...
I know, I know. You think I am drunk-blogging. Hold on, Ill explain.. "Self-interested volunteering" seems generally at odds with everything weve come to believe about volunteering. Right? "Self-interested volunteers." Isnt that an oxy-moron? What about altruism and the greater good?. In Realized Worth training sessions we raise this controversial point and discuss two reasons why self-interest is an essential aspect of an outstanding volunteer experience. Both reasons have to do with motivation. (Well be exploring these reasons in our upcoming seminar in Portland, Oregon). First, as my partner Angela Parker will tell you with great conviction, "We all do what we want." Meaning, there is always some kind of motivation and pay-off for the choices we make. When it comes to motivation, the discussion can get pretty complicated. Very rarely (if at all) will someone make a choice with singular motivation. Usually there are multiple motivators, each compelling the other. (Test this by evaluating ...
HOUSEHOLD AND COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT. Assessing the impact of a humanitarian crisis on households requires information on; losses, coping strategies, income status, and immediate live saving and livelihood needs. Ideally, information that includes sex and age-related data on who has lost what etc. to meet individual needs. Similarly, information on damages to critical household and community infrastructure (such as farm land, irrigation systems, village to market roads etc.) pave the way for planning rehabilitation and rebuilding activities. Household and community assessment should be based on discussions with the local communities, and specifically men, women, elderly, and youth groups to consider their specific needs.. MARKET ASSESSMENT. Deciding the type of humanitarian intervention (in kind/commodities or cash/vouchers) requires an in-depth assessment to know if markets are functional, key basic items are available on reasonable prices, and assessing the pipeline of resupply as food and other ...
List all words that contain tru… abstruse abstrusely abstruseness abstrusenesses abstruser abstrusest abstrusities abstrusity altruism altruisms altruist altruistic altruistically altruists anestrus anestruses antitrust antitruster antitrusters antrum antrums awestruck centrum centrums chetrum chetrums citrulline citrullines citrus citruses citrusy claustrum colostrum colostrums construable construct constructed constructible constructing construction constructional constructionally constructionist constructionists constructions constructive constructively constructiveness constructivenesses…
1 Humanitarian assistance: standards, skills, training, and experience . Marion Birch, Simon Miller.. 2 Natural disasters .. Anthony D Redmond.. 3 Needs assessment of humanitarian crises .. Anthony D Redmond.. 4 Public health in the aftermath of disasters .. Eric K Noji.. 5 Military approach to medical planning in humanitarian operations .. Martin C M Bricknell, Tracey MacCormack.. 6 Principles of war surgery .. Steve J Mannion, Eddie Chaloner.. 7 The special needs of children and women .. John Seaman, Sarah Maguire.. 8 Displaced populations and long term humanitarian assistance .. Maria Kett.. 9 Psychological aspects of providing medical humanitarian aid .. Ian Palmer.. 10 Conflict recovery and intervening in hospitals .. James M Ryan, Peter F Mahoney, Cara Macnab.. 11 Approaches to conflict resolution .. Ewan W Anderson.. 12 Weapons of mass destruction - threats and responses .. Christine Gosden, Derek Gardener.. Index ...
Every year, 90 percent of Americans give money to charities. Is such generosity necessarily welfare enhancing for the giver? We present a theoretical framework that distinguishes two types of motivation: individuals like to give, e.g., due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, e.g., due to social pressure. We design a door-to-door fund-raising drive in which some households are informed about the exact time of solicitation with a flyer on their door-knobs; thus, they can seek or avoid the fund-raiser. We find that the flyer reduces the share of households opening the door by 10 to 25 percent and, if the flyer allows checking a `Do Not Disturb box, reduces giving by 30 percent. The latter decrease is concentrated among donations smaller than $10. These findings suggest that social pressure is an important determinant of door-to-door giving. Combining data from this and a complementary field experiment, we structurally estimate the model. The ...
The goal of the conference is to initiate creative thinking towards stimulating and promoting excellence in research into the phenomenon and interpretation of altruistic love. The approach is highly integrative, linking the biological and social sciences with philosophical, ethical, and religious themes. Love includes a variety of concepts, and in particular the John Templeton Foundation and the Fetzer Institute are interested in genuine generosity and self-giving love. Many religious perspectives affirm in various and diverse ways that love is at the heart of being and that the ultimate reality or ultimate purpose of things is related to love. To explore this topic fully there needs to be an inclusion in the discussion and research of a broad range of concepts, including altruism, attachment, bonding, empathy, and others. One aim of resulting research would be to better understand under what conditions, attitudes as well as behavior centered on the good of others might be fostered. The ...
Written by Kevin Kruse.. Can caring be a competitive advantage?. Oftentimes leaders feel as though they have to have a disciplinary hand when it comes to dealing with employees. There is a fear that to give compassion means risking being taken advantage of. But what if utilizing compassion effectively made a better workplace and a more productive team? What if compassion, on a scientific level, created a better workforce?. Monica Worline is the founder and CEO of EnlivenWork, an organization that teaches businesses ways to tap into courageous thinking, compassionate leadership, and curiosity to bring their best work to life. Shes also a research scientist at Stanford Universitys Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education and her new book is Awakening Compassion at Work: The Quiet Power that Elevates People and Organizations. I recently interviewed Monica for The LEADx Podcast to uncover the facts behind compassionate leadership and its effect on the workplace.. To read the full ...
UNITED NATIONS, Jan 27 (IPS) - As the global refugee crises continues to worsen by the hour, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is quick to point out that when he took office in January 2007, the international appeal for funds for humanitarian emergencies was only about 4.0 billion dollars annually.
All about Caring Economics: Conversations on Altruism and Compassion, Between Scientists, Economists, and the Dalai Lama by Tania Singer. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers
AbeBooks.com: Altruism - The Power of Compassion to Change Yourself and the World: BRAND NEW Audiobook on CD Rom - Unabridged A Brand New Quality Audiobook from a Full-Time Veteran Owned Bookshop in business since 1992!
Fechter, Anne-Meike (2012) Living well while doing good? (missing) debates on altruism and professionalism in aid work. Third World Quarterly, 33 (8). pp. 1475-1491. ISSN 0143-6597 Full text: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09700161.2012.698133 Abstract This paper takes at its starting point public criticism of international aid workers who appear to be doing well out of poverty. Based on fieldwork in Cambodia, the paper…
Effective altruism is a movement that applies evidence and reason to this problem. While all true charitable endeavors by definition do good, are they all equal? Do some charities do more good for a given donation than others? Can we actually measure how much good is done by a charity? These are all questions well be talking about over the next few months, and we know you care to. We challenge you to take a moment to think about how you give. Could you be doing good better? Could TIME be doing good better? Wed love to know what you think ...
Ants are good citizens: they place group interests first. - Clarence Day Social responsibility is ultimately our obligation if equity of opportunity is to be realised. I suspect it starts from altruism and, whatever the motivation of an organisation to build internal social structures and social strategic partnerships, ultimately the true test of CSR is…
In my opinion, Cheri is correct in saying that being unbiased in distributing the tossed ball, even to virtual players who dont reciprocate, is not definitively indicative of altruism. I have autism and I do believe in fairness and promoting equity in endeavors. Life, however, has shown me that sometimes I run into people who do believe in taking advantage of me. As far as the reason for those autistics who played fair in this video game? It could be that they were very obedient and believed in following the rules without question. I agree with you that the game-playing which the autistics presented is a virtuous character trait to possess. It is sad for me to see that this study endorses being greedy and self-serving as accepted & typical human traits, rather than base, animalistic behaviors. This study points out to me that the researchers began this study with the intent of re-forming autistics into more socially-accepted individuals. It is a great wish of mine that each person (whether ...
In my opinion, Cheri is correct in saying that being unbiased in distributing the tossed ball, even to virtual players who dont reciprocate, is not definitively indicative of altruism. I have autism and I do believe in fairness and promoting equity in endeavors. Life, however, has shown me that sometimes I run into people who do believe in taking advantage of me. As far as the reason for those autistics who played fair in this video game? It could be that they were very obedient and believed in following the rules without question. I agree with you that the game-playing which the autistics presented is a virtuous character trait to possess. It is sad for me to see that this study endorses being greedy and self-serving as accepted & typical human traits, rather than base, animalistic behaviors. This study points out to me that the researchers began this study with the intent of re-forming autistics into more socially-accepted individuals. It is a great wish of mine that each person (whether ...
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Social behavior: Behavior that relates to interactions with other members of the population. Pros/cons of group living. ,Society, a group of individuals of the same species that is organized in a cooperative manner extending beyond sexual and parental care.. Group Living, altruism, coorperative behaviors may emerge if genes for such characteristics are favored. This may occur under different circumstances. Egoistic solutions: selfish herd; Mutualism although the behaviour may seem altruistic, individuals benefit directly (e.g. living in a group and co-operating with others directly benefits the individual because of the general advantages of group living). Reciprocal altruism where the benefits accrued to the individual exceed the costs it incurs Kin selection when behavior sufficiently enhances the fitness of related individuals (i.e., carrying similar genes) leading to an increased representation of genes being passed on to the next generation Eusociality: an extreme form of altruism where ...
Is It Really More Blessed to Give than to Receive?: Emerging Questions in the Evolution of Radical Altruism. Elliott Sober, Ph.D. ...
Brain cells that fire only when monkeys act unselfishly may provide clues to the neural basis of altruism, according to a new study. In the study, the cell...
Preston, Anne, Sandy Baum, and Linda Kamas. "Altruism in Anonymous and Social Settings: Whats Gender Got to Do With It?" Feminist Economics, volume 14, no. 3, pp. 23-50, 2008.. ...
EFFECTIVE ALTRUISM is applying reason and evidence to the goal of improving the world, with the aim of doing the most good we can.. We have super friendly people and interesting discussions about assorted topics. Bring any questions you may have about how to effectively make a significant positive difference to the world we will do our best to answer them or least point you to the best resources.. ...
Brain cells that fire only when monkeys act unselfishly may provide clues to the neural basis of altruism, according to a new study.
This thesis examines the significance of sociobiology within Wesleyan ethics. In addition to investigating how sociobiological altruism connects to Wesleyan holiness, it argues that John Wesley capitalized on the biological and environmental constraints on human action, creating a particular setting that nurtured altruism in his followers through the cultivation of holiness. Of the main chapters, Chapter 2 helps the reader understand basic and current sociobiological explanations of altruistic behavior-a behavior that has been a stumbling block for evolutionary theorists who have attempted, unsuccessfully, to explain why or how it exists. To address the presence of altruism among humans, this chapter elucidates kin selection theory, group selection theory (also called multilevel selection theory), and game theory, seeking to provide clarification of current research within the field of sociobiology. Chapter 3 offers a critique of the sociobiological explanations of altruism and examines the ...
U.S. Senator Kirsten Gillibrand spoke on the Senate Floor this afternoon to urge her colleagues to provide desperately needed disaster relief to the people of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Gillibrand spoke on the Senate floor in response to the growing humanitarian crisis in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands caused by Hurricane Maria.. Below are Senator Gillibrands remarks as delivered:. Mr. President, I rise to speak about the humanitarian crisis in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.. This is one of the worst disasters our country has ever seen.. The men and women and children who live on these islands are American citizens. Do not forget that.. They are suffering and they need our help.. They have no food to eat. No water to drink. No power. No refrigeration.. If we dont give them help now, then many more people there will die - far more than those who were killed during the hurricane itself.. I urge my colleagues here to think about our fellow American citizens in ...
This is fast becoming one of the most serious humanitarian crises this region has seen in many years, and urgent action is needed to meet the growing needs of millions of people affected by these devastating floods," Faller said.. "Millions of people across Nepal, Bangladesh, and India face severe food shortages and disease caused by polluted flood waters," he added.. According to officials, more than 400 people have died in the three countries over the last seven days, with India accounting for 239 fatalities, 128 dying in Nepal, and 39 in Bangladesh.. Flood levels had already reached record highs in Bangladesh. Flooding of major rivers such as the Jamuna surpassed levels from 1988, the year of the deadliest floods the country has ever faced, the humanitarian agency said.. READ MORE: Floods kill more than 300, fears rise for 600 missing "More than one-third of Bangladesh and Nepal have been flooded and we fear the humanitarian crisis will get worse in the days and weeks ahead," Faller ...
Sahrawi refugees live in a desert area near the town of Tindouf, where living conditions are extremely harsh and they remain heavily dependent on external humanitarian assistance to survive," said WFP deputy country director in Algeria Francesca Caponera. "A halt in WFP food assistance would have a severe impact on the food security and nutritional status of the refugees and may also have unpredictable consequences on the stability of the area.". WFP made this appeal during a briefing session held today in Algiers and was joined by the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and the UN Childrens fund (UNICEF). WFP is facing a shortfall of US$10 million until the end of this year.. "The unprecedented scale of humanitarian emergencies around the world has overshadowed the long-lasting Sahrawi refugee crisis and negatively impacted donor support," said UNHCR Representative in Algeria Ralf Gruenert. "Food assistance is particularly affected and unless new funding becomes available, the UN will be forced to ...
Geographically, Uganda is at the center of the African continent. Many of the countries surrounding Uganda are embroiled in conflict or other humanitarian crises, leading refugees from a number of different nations to seek sanctuary within its borders. At the refugee settlements in which we work, ARC hosts people from some of the most diversely populated camps in the world, with residents from DRC, Sudan, Somalia, South Sudan, Burundi, and several other countries.. This confluence of cultures makes for an energizing and creative environment, bursting with ideas. We work closely with these communities and other organizations operating within the camp, coordinating our services to meet the needs of the diverse and vibrant population. ...
Humanitarian assistance is still relevant in eastern Ukraine. The United Nations reports that 3.1 million people are in need of emergency aid, particularly health services, food, clean water, sanitation and shelter. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania will allocate humanitarian aid to the International Committee of the Red Cross. Lithuania has already allocated EUR 1.1 million in humanitarian help to Ukraine since the beginning of the conflict, out of which EUR 256,6 thousand were provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania.. Bearing in mind the exceptional role of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) in providing assistance to more than 5 million Palestine refugees, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania allocated EUR 20,000 to the organization. UNRWA provides assistance and support to Palestine refugees, who live in 58 recognized Palestine refugee camps in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Gaza and the West Bank, including ...
Syrian American Medical Society (or SAMS) is a non-profit, non-political, professional organization representing thousands of Syrian-American medical professionals in the United States that provides humanitarian assistance to Syrians in need. Since the Syrian Conflict began, SAMS has supported field hospitals, clinics, and surgical centers in Syria while assisting Syrian doctors, nurses, and health workers by paying salaries and providing training. SAMS has sent Syrian-American medical personnel into Syria, Jordan, and Turkey on medical missions, and has shipped medical equipment and other humanitarian aid into Syria. SAMS also supports Syrian refugees in neighboring countries with psychosocial support and medical and social services. In 2014, SAMS reported supporting over 1.4 million Syrians in need. SAMS was founded in 1998 as a professional society for American physicians of Syrian descent. The society provides networking, educational, cultural, and professional services to its members and ...
3 April 2014, JUBA, South Sudan - The Government of Japan has contributed US$ 4.4 million to UNICEF to support life-saving humanitarian interventions throughout South Sudan, with a focus on conflict-affected states. Mr. Takeshi Akamatsu, Ambassador of Japan stated "UNICEF is a trusted partner of the Government of Japan and we know that the funds we provided will make a crucial difference for conflict affected children and women after the crisis that broke out in mid-December 2013. I am very proud of giving this assistance.". Since 2009, the Government of Japan has been UNICEF South Sudans largest government donor in the area of humanitarian assistance, with contributions so far totalling more than US$51 million to support emergency responses that include health, nutrition, education and child protection services and the provision of clean water and sanitation facilities to communities throughout South Sudan.. "UNICEF South Sudan is grateful to the people of Japan for their continuous support to ...
Projects/dissertations. TM5310:09 Dissertation 2. TV5320:03 Applied Protocol Writing. TM5527:03 Project. TM5549:03 Dissertation 1. Coursework. HS5102:03 Qualitative Research Methods for Health Professionals. HS5555:03 Infection Prevention and Control in Health Care Settings. IA5119:03 Empowerment and Change. MI5000:03 Clinical Epidemiology. TM5501:03 Tropical Medicine. TM5503:03 Human Parasitology. TM5506:03 Social Science in Public Health. TM5508:03 Diving and Marine Medicine. TM5510:03 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health. TM5512:03 Travel Medicine. TM5514:03 Environmental Health. TM5518:03 Medical Entomology. TM5524:03 Qualitative Research Methods for Tropical Health Practitioners. TM5526:03 Public Health Economics. TM5528:03 Health Promotion. TM5529:03 Applied Health Economics. TM5534:03 Tropical Paediatrics. TM5536:03 Public Health in Humanitarian Emergencies. TM5540:03 Public Health and the Workplace. TM5541:03 Managing Effective Health Programs. TM5547:03 Public Health Program ...

Altruism - WikipediaAltruism - Wikipedia

Pathological altruism[edit]. Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the ... which is the intention of altruism. This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. ... Look up altruism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *. Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Biological Altruism". Stanford Encyclopedia ... The term "pathological altruism" was popularised by the book Pathological Altruism.. Examples include depression and burnout ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altruists

Altruism - WikipediaAltruism - Wikipedia

Pathological altruism[edit]. Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the ... which is the intention of altruism. This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. ... Look up altruism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *. Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Biological Altruism". Stanford Encyclopedia ... The term "pathological altruism" was popularised by the book Pathological Altruism. Examples include depression and burnout ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altruistic

Revealed AltruismRevealed Altruism

Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Ã-rst ... The test results provide supp ort for the theory of revealed altruism.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of ... "Altruism, Cooperation and Trust: Other-regarding Behavior and Collective Actions in Thailand," EEPSEA Research Report ... "Who cooperates in repeated games: The role of altruism, inequity aversion, and demographics," Journal of Economic Behavior & ...

more infohttps://ideas.repec.org/r/cla/levrem/784828000000000595.html

Category:Altruism - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Altruism - Wikimedia Commons

Altruism (et); 利他主義 (zh-hant); Altruizam (sr-el); Altruisme (oc); Altruism (sv); алтруизам (sr-ec); altruïsme (nl); altruísmo ( ... Emergence-of-altruism-behavior-in-army-ant-based-social-evolutionary-system-40064 2014 1412 MOESM1 ESM.ogv 2 min 35 s, 528 × ... Emergence-of-altruism-behavior-in-army-ant-based-social-evolutionary-system-40064 2014 1412 MOESM2 ESM.ogv 1 min 26 s, 416 × ... File nella categoria "Altruism". Questa categoria contiene 17 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 17. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Altruism?uselang=it

AltruismAltruism

... Gift Economy. It has long been assumed that there is something beyond economics involved in the proliferation of free ... Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism, hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to ... such as altruism, can develop. Sociobiology: A New Synthesis, Wilsons first attempt to outline the new field of study, was ... and neither is altruism. Efforts and rewards may be valued in intangibles, but, as this paper argues, there is a very tangible ...
more infohttp://jahsonic.com/Altruism.html

Altruism Archives | BlogcriticsAltruism Archives | Blogcritics

Altruism is a touchy-feely kind of term. If evolutionary science is to posit it as a viable alternative to that which drives ... Altruism is an alternative to competition as the all-definitive, if not vulgar, expression of the evolutionary principle. The ... Ancient wisdom has indicated for millennia that altruism leads to better health. ...
more infohttps://blogcritics.org/tag/altruism/

Altruism - Child TrendsAltruism - Child Trends

Four single item measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the adolescent scale: a measure of social behavior (fighting), a measure of health behavior (smoking), a measure of emotional health (adolescent-reported depressive symptoms), and a measure of cognitive development (grades).. Concurrent validity was examined in two ways: with bivariate and multivariate analyses. The table below presents the results of multivariate analyses, which control for: teen gender, teen age, teen race, household income, household size, parental education, parental marital status, parental home ownership, parental employment, and metropolitan area and region of residence. The beta coefficient of the relationship between the constructs scale and outcome is presented.. ...
more infohttps://www.childtrends.org/research/research-by-topic/positive-indicators-project/altruism

Altruism - FactbitesAltruism - Factbites

Altruism - EvoWiki (Site not responding. Last check: ). Altruism may reasonably be defined as acting to benefit others at ones ... Evil_Altruism.html. Altruism is a code of ethics which hold the welfare of others as the standard of "good", and self-sacrifice ... Altruism is the abdication of claims of power over others. The most effective counter to the spread of altruism is the modern ... Altruism is the moral code at the base of socialism. The term "altruism" was coined by the nineteenth century advocate of ...
more infohttp://www.factbites.com/topics/Altruism

Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Reciprocal altruism theory also seems to take the altruism out of altruism. Behaving nicely to someone in order to procure ... 1. Altruism and the Levels of Selection. The problem of altruism is intimately connected with questions about the level at ... Strong altruism is the standard notion of altruism in the literature, and was assumed above. To count as weakly altruistic, an ... If by real altruism we mean altruism done with the conscious intention to help, then the vast majority of living creatures ...
more infohttps://plato.stanford.edu/entries/altruism-biological/

Effective Altruism Berlin (Berlin, Germany) | MeetupEffective Altruism Berlin (Berlin, Germany) | Meetup

Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most ... Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most ... effective altruismCharity & PhilanthropyPhilanthropySocial PhilanthropyPhilosophyCharityCharity EventsRationality and Reasoning ...
more infohttps://www.meetup.com/Effective-Altruism-Berlin/

AltruismAltruism

Altruisms. Could A More Individualistic World Also Be A More Altruistic One?. Individualism is that rugged frontier quality ...
more infohttps://www.psychologicalscience.org/tag/altruism

AltruismAltruism

I havent seen altruism in plants yet. But I have seen altruism in animals. They are amazing.. ... "Altruism only evolves if the benefactor is a close relative of the beneficiary. When the endosperm gives all of its food to the ... Some scientists believe humans have in-built altruism. But most humans behave altruistically towards close kin than to distant ...
more infohttps://freethoughtblogs.com/taslima/tag/altruism/?wpmp_switcher=mobile

NetLogo Models Library: AltruismNetLogo Models Library: Altruism

Notice that the Altruism seed of the parent is 3/5 = .600, while the childs is .552. Even though altruism is dominating, it is ... Altruism. If you download the NetLogo application, this model is included. (You can also run this model in your browser, but we ... This model is based on a paper by Mitteldorf and Wilson, 2000, Population Viscosity and the Evolution of Altruism, Journal of ... BENEFIT-FROM-ALTRUISM slider --- determines the value of benefit in the above fitness equations. ...
more infohttp://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Altruism

Teaching Healing Through AltruismTeaching Healing Through Altruism

One of the projects goals was to teach the future therapists how altruism can have long-term mental health benefits. ... Teaching Healing Through Altruism. Marymount students learn counseling technique by helping U.S. troops. ... One of the projects goals was to teach the future therapists how altruism can have long-term mental health benefits. ... Marymount University professor Lisa Jackson-Cherry, Ph.D., discusses an altruism project with her pastoral counseling class. ...
more infohttp://www.connectionnewspapers.com/news/2013/may/16/teaching-healing-through-altruism/

Attitude-Dependent Altruism, Turnout and VotingAttitude-Dependent Altruism, Turnout and Voting

... Julio J. Rotemberg. NBER Working Paper No. 14302. Issued in September 2008. ... "Attitude-dependent altruism, turnout and voting," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 140(1), pages 223-244, July. citation courtesy ... w15635 Quality Provision, Expected Firm Altruism and Brand Extensions. Schwartz. Gross Dividend and Interest Payments by ... Substantial equilibrium turnout emerges with nontrivial voting costs and modest altruism. The model can explain higher turnout ...
more infohttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14302

The Evolutionary Roots of AltruismThe Evolutionary Roots of Altruism

As Wilson well knows, the extant evolutionary explanations of altruism (or cooperation) are manifold. Since altruism has ... If a gene affects altruism in such a way that the altruism is more likely to be directed at close relatives, the gene can ... Does Altruism Exist? Culture, Genes, and the Welfare of Others. By David Sloan Wilson. 192 pp. Yale University/Templeton Press ... And no, it doesnt matter that there is no one gene for kin-directed altruism. There can be hundreds of genes, each with a ...
more infohttp://prospect.org/node/222311

Altruism (biology) - WikipediaAltruism (biology) - Wikipedia

"Altruism , Define Altruism at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved June 4, 2018.. ... There are other forms of altruism in nature other than risk-taking behavior, such as reciprocal altruism. This biological ... "altruism (n .)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved September 19, 2014.. *^ Teske, Nathan (2009). Political ... foreshadowed by Robert Trivers reciprocal altruism theory) is a robust strategy which promotes altruism.[22][23][24] In "tit- ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altruism_

Schlock and Awwww: Commercializing Altruism - Mother JonesSchlock and Awwww: Commercializing Altruism - Mother Jones

But even "true reality TV" demands that no act of genuine altruism be left unhyped. And so Roberts signaled for a humongous ... Schlock and Awwww: Commercializing Altruism. Every week, Ty Pennington brings the American Dream to a deserving family. What a ...
more infohttps://www.motherjones.com/media/2007/11/schlock-and-awwww-commercializing-altruism/

Gender based prescriptions: evidence for altruismGender based prescriptions: evidence for altruism

To do so, we concentrate on a single topic: altruism. Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying ... altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. Our results ... "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(1 ... "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1951, Iowa State University, ...
more infohttps://ideas.repec.org/p/gra/wpaper/06-11.html

Altruism in Humans - Oxford ScholarshipAltruism in Humans - Oxford Scholarship

p.1) Altruism in Humans (p.2) (p.1) Altruism in Humans (p.2) Source:. Altruism in Humans. Publisher:. Oxford University Press. ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ... and Competing Predictions that Can Test the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Each Egoistic Alternative ...
more infohttp://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341065.001.0001/acprof-9780195341065-miscMatter-001005

Liberalism, Altruism and Group ConsentLiberalism, Altruism and Group Consent

... Grill, Kalle Department of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology. ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:562259

Altruism: A Very Powerful Antidepressant - Depression | HealthCentralAltruism: A Very Powerful Antidepressant - Depression | HealthCentral

Our doctors wouldnt be prescribing meds for no reason at all, would they? Could there possibly be another way of looking at depression?
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/article/altruism-a-very-powerful-antidepressant

Baby Pics Boost Altruism - NeuromarketingBaby Pics Boost Altruism - Neuromarketing

Hundreds of wallets were planted on the streets of Edinburgh by psychologists last year. Perhaps surprisingly, nearly half of the 240 wallets were posted back. But there was a twist. Richard Wiseman, a psychologist, and his team inserted one of four photographs behind a clear plastic window inside, showing either a smiling baby, a cute puppy, a happy family or a contented elderly couple. Some wallets had no image and some had charity papers inside. When faced with the photograph of the baby people were far more likely to send the wallet back, the study found. In fact, only one in ten were hard-hearted enough not to do so. With no picture to tug at the emotions, just one in seven were sent back. According to Dr Wiseman the result reflects a compassionate instinct towards vulnerable infants that people have evolved to ensure the survival of future generations. "The baby kicked off a caring feeling in people, which is not surprising from an evolutionary perspective," he said. [From TimesOnline - ...
more infohttps://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/baby-pics-boost-altruism.htm

Food & Wine & Decadence & Altruism - ChowhoundFood & Wine & Decadence & Altruism - Chowhound

Food & Wine & Decadence & Altruism. By James Norton , Published on Thursday, December 14, 2006. / Edit Post ...
more infohttps://www.chowhound.com/food-news/1522/food-wine-decadence-altruism/
  • If altruism is to evolve, it must be the case that the recipients of altruistic actions have a greater than average probability of being altruists themselves. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism in this sense is different from the philosophical concept of altruism, in which an action would only be called "altruistic" if it was done with the conscious intention of helping another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of altruism in nature is at first sight puzzling, because altruistic behaviour reduces the likelihood that an individual will reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "altruism" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme , for an antonym of egoism . (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "altruism" (French, altruisme , from autrui: "other people", derived from Latin alter: "other") was coined by Auguste Comte , the French founder of positivism , in order to describe the ethical doctrine he supported. (factbites.com)
  • Other approaches to the evolutionary puzzle of altruism also appeared in the next half-century: the ability to expect and receive reciprocal altruism, the benefits to an individual's reputation, cooperation in games where the cumulative payoff beats defection, and other models. (prospect.org)
  • For the concept in behavioral ecology, see Altruism (biology) . (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology , altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • From a Darwinian viewpoint, the existence of altruism in nature is at first sight puzzling, as Darwin himself realized. (stanford.edu)
  • How can the existence of altruism be reconciled with basic Darwinian principles? (stanford.edu)
  • The book comprises a collection of essays which discuss negative aspects of altruism and empathy towards others, such as when altruism hurts the altruist, is taken to an unhealthy extreme, or causes more harm than good. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms can be defined as an individual performing an action which is at a cost to themselves (e.g., pleasure and quality of life, time, probability of survival or reproduction), but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. (wikipedia.org)
  • E.O. Wilson defines sociobiology as "the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior," the central theoretical problem of which is the question of how behaviors that seemingly contradict the principles of natural selection, such as altruism , can develop. (jahsonic.com)
  • Indeed, some of the most interesting examples of biological altruism are found among creatures that are (presumably) not capable of conscious thought at all, e.g. insects. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, they are not part of the meaning of "altruism" in the biological sense. (utm.edu)
  • Connecting biological and moral altruism is typically done without conflating the two, that is, without committing the naturalistic fallacy of "is implies ought. (utm.edu)
  • Research questions that can be explored using this learning guide include: what are the factors that motivate one person to help another, how costs and rewards, or empathy influence helping and altruism, the impact that cultural norms and roles may have on helping behavior, and whether characteristics of the person needing help influence helping behavior and if so, how. (umich.edu)
  • It is considered the first book to explore negative aspects of altruism and empathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is a functional definition of altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether altruism occurs depends on several things: on the population's initial conditions, on the definition of "altruism" as absolute or relative fitness reduction ─ that is, whether one suffers a net loss or not (Kerr et al. (utm.edu)
  • Altruism is the deliberate sacrifice of a portion of an individual's reproductive capacity in order to increase that of another. (factbites.com)
  • Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism , hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to identify evolutionary trends and sociobiological characteristics of all animal groups, up to and including man. (jahsonic.com)
  • The meaning of "altruism" in ordinary language is quite different from its use among evolutionary biologists (Sober and Wilson, 1998, pp. 17-18). (utm.edu)
  • Pathological Altruism is a book edited by Barbara Oakley, Ariel Knafo, Guruprasad Madhavan, and David Sloan Wilson. (wikipedia.org)
  • and because altruism via group selection may explain some major evolutionary transitions in the history of life (such as the transition from separate molecules into a gene, from individual genes into a chromosome, from individual cells into a multi-cellular organism, and from multi-cellular organisms turning into a social group). (utm.edu)
  • The term altruism may also refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism is an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have an ethical obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self interest. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings and/or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual . (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism focuses on a motivation to help others or a want to do good without reward, while duty focuses on a moral obligation towards a specific individual (for example, God, a king ), a specific organization (for example, a government), or an abstract concept (for example, country etc). (factbites.com)
  • Nursing Standard said "I recommend this book to health professionals looking for a deeper understanding of altruism and its motivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism is not quite as spectacular at the organism level, but it nevertheless happens in abundance. (factbites.com)
  • Although the problem of altruism was largely ignored by early evolutionary theory, over the past several decades it has risen to become a central issue in the debate over the level at which natural selection operates - whether that be the level of the gene, individual, kin group, or even an entire population . (factbites.com)
  • The problem of altruism is intimately connected with questions about the level at which natural selection acts. (stanford.edu)
  • Biologists usually define "altruism" as behavior of an animal that is risky-perhaps deadly-for that animal, but benefits other members of its community . (factbites.com)
  • Although there are differences in opinion, it is generally believed that animal altruism exists and survives as a behavior pattern because there is some reproductive advantage to the group. (factbites.com)
  • with an old conundrum that has animated many late-night dormitory debates: If helping someone gives you pleasure, gains you points for an afterlife, and enhances your reputation, is it really altruism? (prospect.org)
  • Group selection departs from the more familiar model of individual selection that sees the evolutionary prize going to the individual, male or female, who has more surviving offspring, regardless of health and life-span, much less altruism. (prospect.org)
  • These distinctions between ordinary and technical senses of "altruism" notwithstanding, many scientists often link them in the evolutionary debates over group selection. (utm.edu)
  • In short, linking "altruism" with "group selection" is historically very common although conceptually not necessary. (utm.edu)
  • Oakley has also stated that suicide bombings and genocides can be caused by pathological altruism, when perpetrators of these acts believe they are behaving altruistically towards those who share their ideology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism is often seen as a form of consequentialism, as it indicates that an action is ethically right if it brings good consequences to others. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism is contrary to the normal purpose of advertising, to convince the individual that acquiring a certain product or service will benefit that individual. (factbites.com)
  • Hamilton's rule describes the benefit of such altruism in terms of Wright's coefficient of relationship to the beneficiary and the benefit granted to the beneficiary minus the cost to the sacrificer. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a gene affects altruism in such a way that the altruism is more likely to be directed at close relatives, the gene can spread in the population despite the cost imposed on the altruist. (prospect.org)
  • Much debate exists as to whether "true" altruism is possible in human psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism is easier to link to self-esteem for women, since for many women self-esteem is related to a sense of connectedness rather than competition. (factbites.com)
  • Cases of animals helping individuals to whom they are closely related can be explained by kin selection , and are not considered true altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The psychology of pathological altruism Psychiatric implications of pathological altruism Societal implications of pathological altruism Cultural and evolutionary dimensions of pathological altruism The development and underlying brain processes of pathological altruism Synthesis of views on pathological altruism The book was widely reviewed, including reviews in the New Scientist, and The Independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALTRUISM-COST slider --- determines the value of cost in the above fitness equations. (northwestern.edu)
  • Obligate altruism is the permanent loss of direct fitness (with potential for indirect fitness gain). (wikipedia.org)
  • To do so, we concentrate on a single topic: altruism. (repec.org)
  • Altruism is an alternative to competition as the all-definitive, if not vulgar, expression of the evolutionary principle. (blogcritics.org)
  • Ancient wisdom has indicated for millennia that altruism leads to better health. (blogcritics.org)
  • One of the project's goals was to teach the future therapists how altruism can have long-term mental health benefits. (connectionnewspapers.com)
  • Altruism was central to the teachings of Jesus found in the Gospel . (factbites.com)