Altretamine: A hexamethyl-2,4,6-triamine derivative of 1,3,5-triazine.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.CreatinineHIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Chills: The sudden sensation of being cold. It may be accompanied by SHIVERING.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the small intestine below the DUODENUM, and the LARGE INTESTINE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Dizziness: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.

Disposition and metabolism of pentamethylmelamine and hexamethylmelamine in rabbits and humans. (1/29)

The disposition and metabolism of pentamethylmelamine (PMM) and hexamethylmelamine (HMM) were studied in the rabbit, and the disposition of PMM was studied in humans. Parent compound and metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. Plasma elimination in both species following i.v. administration of each drug was best described by a two-compartment open model. Both compounds were extensively demethylated with less than 1% of the total dose administered recovered in the urine over 24 hr. The areas under the plasma time-concentration curves of PMM and HMM following p.o. administration to rabbits were 5 and 25% of the areas following i.v. administration. Gastrointestinal absorption was rapid and efficient with 75 to 89% of drug equivalents recoverable in the urine after p.o. administration of [ring-14C]PMM or [ring-14C]HMM to rabbits. Reduced bioavailability of PMM and HMM p.o. appears to be a consequence of rapid metabolism presumably in the liver.  (+info)

Recurrent ovarian cancer: how important is it to treat to disease progression? (2/29)

Ovarian cancer is increasingly recognized as a chronic disease whose treatment is often characterized by administration of multiple, sequential active agents, each of which may or may not be accompanied by a tumor response. Despite the large proportion of patients who relapse and undergo longer-term treatment, the question of optimal treatment duration has not been fully addressed to date. For patients who progress on therapy, the answer is straightforward: they are switched to another active agent, presumably having a different mechanism of action from previous therapies with, ideally, limited overlapping toxicities. However, for patients who remain in partial response or who have stable disease, the answer is less apparent and less clear. The majority of oncologists believe that treatment beyond 6 cycles of a given therapy does not provide any additional benefit to patients. There are some data to support that treatment strategy. However, with the advent of new, less toxic agents, treatment to progression should be further explored. Agents that are potentially well suited for extended treatment intervals may include such properties as absence of cumulative toxicity, non-cross-resistance, positive benefit on quality of life, and convenient schedule. A number of active agents in ovarian cancer (platinum, paclitaxel, topotecan, liposomal doxorubicin, docetaxel, gemcitabine, and etoposide) will be reviewed in the context of what is known about cumulative toxicity, potential adverse effects on patients' quality of life, and evidence addressing the potential benefits of longer-term treatment.  (+info)

Pretreatment CA-125 and risk of relapse in advanced ovarian cancer. (3/29)

PURPOSE: A previous report suggested the nadir serum CA-125 level within the group of patients with ovarian cancer who achieved normalization of CA-125 accurately defined the risk of relapse. Using similar CA-125 subgroups, we sought to determine if the baseline CA-125 level before initiation of maintenance chemotherapy in women achieving a clinically-defined complete response to primary chemotherapy would be of prognostic value. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients included in this retrospective analysis had been treated on one of two previously reported trials of maintenance chemotherapy (three v 12-monthly cycles of paclitaxel; oral altretamine), with a baseline CA-125 level of < or = 35 u/mL. Progression-free survival (PFS) from study entry was analyzed by the Cox regression model. RESULTS: The distribution of premaintenance baseline CA-125 levels for the 384 patients was 58%, 34%, and 8% for values of (A) < or = 10 u/mL, (B) 11 to 20 u/mL, and (C) 21 to 35 u/mL, respectively. The baseline CA-125 was highly statistically significant, either as a categoric variable (P < .001) or as a continuous variable (P < .0001). Median PFS was 24 months, 17 months, and 7 months for groups (A), (B), and (C), respectively. There was no evidence the CA-125 effect differed by trial or treatment in an interaction analysis (P = .70). CONCLUSION: The baseline CA-125 level before initiation of maintenance chemotherapy strongly predicts the risk of subsequent relapse. Patients with premaintenance baseline CA-125 values < or = 10 u/mL have a superior PFS compared with higher levels in the normal CA-125 range.  (+info)

Relationship between frailty and cognitive decline in older Mexican Americans. (4/29)

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Subrenal capsule assay in selection of chemotherapy after operation for recurrent ovarian cancer. (5/29)

Forty-six patients with recurrent ovarian cancer were reoperated, and cancer samples for the subrenal capsule assay (SRCA) were collected from 23 of them, whereas this test was not done in the remaining 23 control patients. The SRCA was evaluable in 22 cases (96%). Taken together, no significant difference appeared in the 3 years' survival figures between the groups: seven of 22 patients (32%) with the evaluable SRCA and six of 23 control patients (26%) were alive. However, a further analysis of the data revealed that the SRCA guided the selection of chemotherapy only in 15 patients, whereas tumour samples were resistant to all cytostatics tested in six cases and toxic side-effects limited the clinical application of the test results in the remaining one case. Four of the 11 patients (36%) whose further chemotherapy was strictly chosen based on the SRCA and seven of the 24 patients (29%) whose treatment was based on physician's choice survived at least 3 years. Our conclusion is that the SRCA is of limited value in the selection of second-line chemotherapy in recurrent ovarian cancer.  (+info)

Long-term follow-up and prognostic factor analysis in advanced ovarian carcinoma: the Gynecologic Oncology Group experience. (6/29)

Long-term follow-up was obtained on 726 women with advanced ovarian carcinoma (suboptimal stage III and stage IV) who had received primary chemotherapy on two Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocols between 1976 and 1982. The first study compared melphalan alone versus melphalan plus hexamethylmelamine versus cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin (CA). The second study evaluated the same CA regimen with or without cisplatin. Eligibility for the two studies was the same. At last contact, 76 patients were alive. In a multivariate analysis, cell type other than clear cell or mucinous, cisplatin-based treatment, good performance status, younger age, lower stage, clinically nonmeasurable disease, smaller residual tumor volume, and absence of ascites were favorable characteristics for overall survival (P less than .05). Second-look laparotomy was negative significantly more often among those with endometrioid tumors; there were no negative second-look laparotomies among those with mucinous or clear cell tumors. There were 30 patients with suboptimal stage III disease who had a negative second-look laparotomy; 18 (60%) have experienced recurrence, and 13 (43%) have died. Although cisplatin treatment was beneficial, new treatments are clearly needed.  (+info)

Hexamethylmelamine as consolidation treatment for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in complete response after first-line chemotherapy. (7/29)

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Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)). (8/29)

The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed.  (+info)

DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Documented HIV antibody positive Histologically confirmed, by biopsy, non-Hodgkins lymphoma that is in complete remission or stable/partial remission for a minimal period of one month And/or Histologically confirmed, by biopsy, Kaposis sarcoma without stable disease. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 18 and over Performance status: Karnofsky 60-100% Hematopoietic: Absolute neutrophil count at least 500/mm3 Platelet count greater than 25,000/mm3 (unless secondary to lymphoma) Hepatic: Transaminases less than 5 times upper limit of normal AND Bilirubin less than 2.0, unless secondary to lymphoma Renal: Creatinine less than 2.0 mg/dL OR Creatinine clearance at least 60 mL/min Dose reduction of 21% if creatinine clearance 10-50 mL/min Dose reduction of 50% if creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/min Cardiovascular: No active cardiac arrhythmia or angina Pulmonary: Must exclude Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia if there is any suspicion of infection Other: No uncontrolled ...
Visit your doctor for checks on your progress.. This drug may make you feel generally unwell. This is not uncommon, as chemotherapy can affect healthy cells as well as cancer cells. Report any side effects. Continue your course of treatment even though you feel ill unless your doctor tells you to stop.. Call your doctor or health care professional for advice if you get a fever, chills or sore throat, or other symptoms of a cold or flu. Do not treat yourself. This drug decreases your bodys ability to fight infections. Try to avoid being around people who are sick.. This medicine may increase your risk to bruise or bleed. Call your doctor or health care professional if you notice any unusual bleeding.. Be careful brushing and flossing your teeth or using a toothpick because you may get an infection or bleed more easily. If you have any dental work done, tell your dentist you are receiving this medicine.. Avoid taking products that contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, or ketoprofen ...
Visit your doctor for checks on your progress.. This drug may make you feel generally unwell. This is not uncommon, as chemotherapy can affect healthy cells as well as cancer cells. Report any side effects. Continue your course of treatment even though you feel ill unless your doctor tells you to stop.. Call your doctor or health care professional for advice if you get a fever, chills or sore throat, or other symptoms of a cold or flu. Do not treat yourself. This drug decreases your bodys ability to fight infections. Try to avoid being around people who are sick.. This medicine may increase your risk to bruise or bleed. Call your doctor or health care professional if you notice any unusual bleeding.. Be careful brushing and flossing your teeth or using a toothpick because you may get an infection or bleed more easily. If you have any dental work done, tell your dentist you are receiving this medicine.. Avoid taking products that contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, or ketoprofen ...
Visit your doctor for checks on your progress.. This drug may make you feel generally unwell. This is not uncommon, as chemotherapy can affect healthy cells as well as cancer cells. Report any side effects. Continue your course of treatment even though you feel ill unless your doctor tells you to stop.. Call your doctor or health care professional for advice if you get a fever, chills or sore throat, or other symptoms of a cold or flu. Do not treat yourself. This drug decreases your bodys ability to fight infections. Try to avoid being around people who are sick.. This medicine may increase your risk to bruise or bleed. Call your doctor or health care professional if you notice any unusual bleeding.. Be careful brushing and flossing your teeth or using a toothpick because you may get an infection or bleed more easily. If you have any dental work done, tell your dentist you are receiving this medicine.. Avoid taking products that contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, or ketoprofen ...
Doctors give unbiased, helpful information on indications, contra-indications, benefits, and complications: Dr. Romero on chemo bandanas: Choosing chemo depends on many factors, so only your doctor can decide what might work for you. Drugs you havent mentioned include altretamine, capecitabine, cytoxan, (cyclophosphamide) vinorelbine, ifosfamide, etoposide, and irinotecan. There are also several hormonal agents. And a clinical trial might be an option. Check out www.Cancer.Gov for more info. And good luck.
0092]Other anti-cancer drugs include, but are not limited to: 20-epi-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3; 5-ethynyluracil; abiraterone; aclarubicin; acylfulvene; adecypenol; adozelesin; aldesleukin; ALL-TK antagonists; altretamine; ambamustine; amidox; amifostine; aminolevulinic acid; amrubicin; amsacrine; anagrelide; anastrozole; andrographolide; angiogenesis inhibitors; antagonist D; antagonist G; antarelix; anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein-1; antiandrogen, prostatic carcinoma; antiestrogen; antineoplaston; antisense oligonucleotides; aphidicolin glycinate; apoptosis gene modulators; apoptosis regulators; apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; axinastatin 3; azasetron; azatoxin; azatyrosine; baccatin III derivatives; balanol; batimastat; BCR/ABL antagonists; benzochlorins; benzoylstaurosporine; beta lactam derivatives; beta-alethine; betaclamycin B; betulinic acid; bFGF inhibitor; bicalutamide; bisantrene; ...
0108]Other second agents include, but are not limited to: 20-epi-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3; 5-ethynyluracil; abiraterone; aclarubicin; acylfulvene; adecypenol; adozelesin; aldesleukin; ALL-TK antagonists; altretamine; ambamustine; amidox; amifostine; aminolevulinic acid; amrubicin; amsacrine; anagrelide; anastrozole; andrographolide; angiogenesis inhibitors; antagonist D; antagonist G; antarelix; anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein-1; antiandrogen, prostatic carcinoma; antiestrogen; antineoplaston; antisense oligonucleotides; aphidicolin glycinate; apoptosis gene modulators; apoptosis regulators; apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; axinastatin 3; azasetron; azatoxin; azatyrosine; baccatin III derivatives; balanol; batimastat; BCR/ABL antagonists; benzochlorins; benzoylstaurosporine; beta lactam derivatives; beta-alethine; betaclamycin B; betulinic acid; bFGF inhibitor; bicalutamide; bisantrene; ...
This is a 48 week study for HIV-infected patients who have failed several regimens including PIs, NNRTs and NRTIs. Patients will be randomly selected to be in 1 of 4 groups. Three of the 4 groups will contain capravirine in different doses combined with Kaletra and nucleosides and one of the groups will be a combination of Kaletra and nucleosides without the capravirine ...
Title. Comparing the Effectiveness of Different Drug Combinations for Advanced Cancer of the Urothelium Which Cannot Be Controlled With Surgery (A Phase III Trial). Sponsor. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group through the NCI-sponsored Cancer Cooperative Group Program. Purpose of the Study. To slow, stop or decrease the growth of cancer of the urothelium and to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of the two drug treatments. The two treatments were; 1) a Two-Drug (paclitaxel and carboplatin) Combination Chemotherapy, and 2) a Four-Drug (methotrexate, vinblastine, asplatin, doxorubin) Combination Chemotherapy. The urothelium is the lining of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or lining of the urinary tract.. Results. The study did not show one treatment to be more beneficial than the other. Of patients receiving the four-drug combination, 12.8 percent experienced a complete response rate (no detectable cancer remaining) and 23.1 percent experienced a decrease in the size or extent of their cancer ...
The Challenges of Risk Perception and Infectious Disease Response: Counteracting Inaccurate Risk Perception is a research paper published by the Scowcroft Institute of International Affairs at the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University.
Four-drug combination chemotherapy (methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, and CCNU) for non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma: A cancer and leukemia group B study. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1983 ...
Animal Disease Response Training provides the critical information needed to minimize the affects of an outbreak on your community. Responders to whom this
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The level of an individual protein in cells treated with combinations of drugs is best explained by simple linear superposition of the protein levels in response to single drugs. and protease inhibitors used to treat HIV contamination4 and the four-drug combination comprising DNA-damaging brokers a microtubule disruptor and a corticosteroid (cyclophosphamide doxorubicin vincristine and prednisone together known as CHOP) used to treat non-Hodgkins lymphoma5. Variations on these treatments exist SCH-527123 that add even more drugs to the mix. Given this SCH-527123 pattern one may ask: what is the most effective drug combination complexity and how will we know when we get there? In nature a bacterial endosymbiont growing around the antennae of certain wasp species releases a cocktail of nine different antibiotic compounds that together protect growing wasp larvae from a broad range of fungal and bacterial pathogens6. This suggests that we have much to SCH-527123 go before achieving the same ...
The level of an individual protein in cells treated with combinations of drugs is best explained by simple linear superposition of the protein levels in response to single drugs. and protease inhibitors used to treat HIV contamination4 and the four-drug combination comprising DNA-damaging brokers a microtubule disruptor and a corticosteroid (cyclophosphamide doxorubicin vincristine and prednisone together known as CHOP) used to treat non-Hodgkins lymphoma5. Variations on these treatments exist SCH-527123 that add even more drugs to the mix. Given this SCH-527123 pattern one may ask: what is the most effective drug combination complexity and how will we know when we get there? In nature a bacterial endosymbiont growing around the antennae of certain wasp species releases a cocktail of nine different antibiotic compounds that together protect growing wasp larvae from a broad range of fungal and bacterial pathogens6. This suggests that we have much to SCH-527123 go before achieving the same ...
In October 2014 AHA commenced management of a new, Department of Agriculture and Water Resources funded, four year project dedicated to the development of a formal industry-government aquatic emergency animal disease response agreement.. While Australia has long-standing joint industry-government arrangements in place for responses to livestock emergency diseases and emergency plant pests and diseases, until now, theres been nothing formally in place for responding to emergency disease outbreaks affecting aquatic animals and the industries that rely on them.. Aquatic animal industries as well as governments have long recognised this as a significant gap in our national preparedness and response tackle box. Previous work on developing formal industry-Government emergency aquatic animal disease response arrangements focussed on the abalone sector (aquaculture and wild capture). This project aims to build on previous efforts and eventually cover most aquatic animal industries.. An Aquatic Deed ...
Vol. 43 (x): 2017 November 11. doi: 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2017.0025 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Shawn Dason 1, Nathan C. Wong 1, Christopher B. Allard 1,
State and local officials in four Kansas counties are conducting an exercise to practice the states plan to respond to a foreign animal disease.
* Gileads once-daily quad pill to be sold as Stribild * Gilead to conduct further studies on safety, drug interactions * Shares unchanged after hours (Adds analyst comment, label information,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of p53 immunostaining in primary and residual ovarian cancer at the time of positive second-look laparotomy and its prognostic role. T2 - A Southwest Oncology Group ancillary study. AU - Hawes, Debra. AU - Liu, P. Y.. AU - Muggia, Franco M.. AU - Wilczynski, Sharon. AU - Cote, Richard. AU - Felix, Juan. AU - Terada, Keith. AU - Belt, Robert J.. AU - Alberts, David S. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Objective. The objective of this study was to verify the correlation between p53 immunostaining at initial diagnosis and at positive reassessment after completing platinum-based chemotherapy and to assess prognostic differences between patients whose tumors display positive immunostaining versus those that have negative immunostaining at such reassessment. Methods. This study made use of samples from patients entered into a prospective randomized study of the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG 8835) that treated patients with minimal residual disease at second-look laparotomy with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of p53 immunostaining in primary and residual ovarian cancer at the time of positive second-look laparotomy and its prognostic role. T2 - A Southwest Oncology Group ancillary study. AU - Hawes, Debra. AU - Liu, P. Y.. AU - Muggia, Franco M.. AU - Wilczynski, Sharon. AU - Cote, Richard J. AU - Felix, Juan. AU - Terada, Keith. AU - Belt, Robert J.. AU - Alberts, David S.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Objective. The objective of this study was to verify the correlation between p53 immunostaining at initial diagnosis and at positive reassessment after completing platinum-based chemotherapy and to assess prognostic differences between patients whose tumors display positive immunostaining versus those that have negative immunostaining at such reassessment. Methods. This study made use of samples from patients entered into a prospective randomized study of the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG 8835) that treated patients with minimal residual disease at second-look ...
Influence of secondary cytoreduction at the time of second-look laparotomy on the survival of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma Academic Article Article ...
Get this from a library! Drug information handbook for oncology : a complete guide to combination chemotherapy regimens. [Diedra L Bragalone; Lexi-Comp, Inc.;]
The course presents an empirical approach to implement a GIS project and provides an introduction to QGIS. Availabile from 13 february 2018 to 12 febbraio 2019. Free of charge. Endorsed by the OIE.
| A UCLA team found that using a combination of birinapant with a chemotherapy eliminated a population of cells responsible for recurrent ovarian cancer. Birinapant sensitizes CA125-negative cells...
Researchers have identified lead compounds from Cuban sea anemone extract and the rue plant that may help treat autoimmune disease response in type-1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. The compounds act by blocking the ion channel in autoimmune T lymphocytes and disabling these cells, while allowing other white blood cells to fight disease and infection.. In one set of tests using blood samples from type-1 diabetes patients and joint fluid from people with rheumatoid arthritis, the researchers found that both compounds suppressed the function of the autoimmune T-cells without affecting other T-cells that fight infections.. In another set of tests using rats, the compound from the rue shrub plant delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of disease in diabetic rats, while the venom compound stopped the progression of the disease and improved the joint function of rats with experimental autoimmune arthritis. In these rat tests, the compounds were nontoxic.. The study was published in the Nov. ...
In the KEYNOTE-100 study, presented during the ASCO2020 Virtual Scientific Program, Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, of Dana Farber Cancer Institute, showed pembrolizumab had a modest but durable impact on recurrent ovarian cancer.“Pembrolizumab like other single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitors which have been studied in recurrent ovarian cancer, has modest activity in recurrent ovarian cancer.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today released details about efforts to enhance disease detection in Uganda and Vietnam that could provide a model for helping other countries protect their citizens and the wider global community from health threats. In both instances, the CDC and its partners undertook 6-month missions that focused…
The purpose of this study is to determine the survival, disease response, and side effects of Tasigna® (nilotinib) in patients who have malignant gliom
Ranitidine was first prepared as AH19065 by John Bradshaw in the summer of 1977 in the Ware research laboratories of Allen & Hanburys, part of the Glaxo organization.[36][37] Its development was a response to the first in class histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, developed by Sir James Black at Smith, Kline and French, and launched in the United Kingdom as Tagamet in November 1976. Both companies would eventually become merged as GlaxoSmithKline following a sequence of mergers and acquisitions starting with the integration of Allen & Hanburys Ltd and Glaxo to form Glaxo Group Research in 1979, and ultimately with the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham in 2000. Ranitidine was the result of a rational drug-design process using what was by then a fairly refined model of the histamine H2 receptor and quantitative structure-activity relationships. Glaxo refined the model further by replacing the imidazole ring of cimetidine with a furan ring with a nitrogen-containing ...
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with dismal outcomes for which no standard therapy exists. We found that primary BPDCN cells were dependent on the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 and were uniformly sensitive to the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax, as measured by direct cytotoxicity, apoptosis assays, and dynamic BH3 profiling. Animals bearing BPDCN patient-derived xenografts had disease responses and improved survival after venetoclax treatment in vivo. Finally, we report on 2 patients with relapsed/refractory BPDCN who received venetoclax off-label and experienced significant disease responses. We propose that venetoclax or other BCL2 inhibitors undergo expedited clinical evaluation in BPDCN, alone or in combination with other therapies. In addition, these data illustrate an example of precision medicine to predict treatment response using ex vivo functional assessment of primary tumor tissue, without requiring a genetic ...
Looking for online definition of second-look operation in the Medical Dictionary? second-look operation explanation free. What is second-look operation? Meaning of second-look operation medical term. What does second-look operation mean?
Maurie Markman, M.D. is the Vice President for Clinical Research at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center located in Houston, Texas. On June 6, 2008, Dr. Markman moderated an expert panel discussion entitled, Recognizing and Overcoming Challenges in the Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cancer. The panel discussion was recorded as a Continuing Medical…
RATIONALE: IM-862 may stop the growth of ovarian cancer by stopping blood flow to the tumor. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effectiveness of IM-86
Thanks to targeted drugs and evolving research, women who experience recurrences of ovarian cancer have more treatment options than they did in the past..
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Zejula (niraparib capsules; Tesaro) for the maintenance treatment of adults with recurrent epithelial o
The ontogeny and disease responses of Langerhans-like cells within lymphoid tissues of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were investigated. These cells were studied in situ with the use of two markers: the ultrastructural presence of Birbeck-like granules and immunohistochemistry with an antibody against human langerin/CD207 that cross-reacts with salmonid tissues. The appearance of Birbeck-like granules was observed in rainbow trout at 2 weeks post-hatch (PH) Show moreThe ontogeny and disease responses of Langerhans-like cells within lymphoid tissues of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were investigated. These cells were studied in situ with the use of two markers: the ultrastructural presence of Birbeck-like granules and immunohistochemistry with an antibody against human langerin/CD207 that cross-reacts with salmonid tissues. The appearance of Birbeck-like granules was observed in rainbow trout at 2 weeks post-hatch (PH) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Experience of Being Aware of Disease Status in Women with Recurrent Ovarian Cancer. T2 - A Phenomenological Study. AU - Finlayson, Catherine Scott. AU - Fu, Mei R.. AU - Squires, Allison. AU - Applebaum, Allison. AU - Van Cleave, Janet. AU - OCearbhaill, Roisin. AU - Derosa, Antonio P.. PY - 2019/3/27. Y1 - 2019/3/27. N2 - Background: Awareness of disease status has been identified as a factor in the treatment decision-making process. Women with recurrent ovarian cancer are facing the challenge of making treatment decisions throughout the disease trajectory. It is not understood how women with ovarian cancer perceive their disease and subsequently make treatment decisions. Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the lived experience of women with recurrent ovarian cancer, how they understood their disease and made their treatment decisions. Methods: A qualitative design with a descriptive phenomenological method was used to conduct 2 in-depth ...
Gilead Sciences Incs four-drug experimental HIV pill worked as well as a regimen containing protease inhibitor Reyataz in the second pivotal trial of the drug
As is common in drug-switch studies, the side effects of Tivicay plus Edurant were greater than those of three- and four-drug regimens.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The nephroblastomatosis complex and its relationship to Wilms tumor. AU - Stone, Marshall M.. AU - Beaver, Bonnie L.. AU - Sun, Chen Chih J. AU - Laurance Hill, J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Nephroblastomatosis (NB), a persistence of abnormal embryonal renal tissue beyond 36 weeks gestation, is often associated with Wilms tumor. The exact relationship of NB to the development of Wilms tumor is unclear. Four cases are presented that elucidate the entire morphological spectrum of this disease. Analyses of these cases suggest these conclusions: (1) the NB complex is a spectrum of lesions from benign multifocal nodular renal blastema, resembling residual nephrogenic zones of immature fetal kidney, to Wilms tumor; (2) infantile NB is a premalignant variant of Wilms tumor with a favorable outcome usually, when treated early; (3) neonatal nephromegaly requires a complete evaluation and follow-up imaging; persistence mandates biopsy; (4) "second-look" laparotomy is unnecessary ...
This investigation revealed that persons in authority 2. 1. 2. 7 forging, tampering, altering or fabricating of school superintendents and the homework online systems explanation that interrupts the quotation. Did you hear the leaves into a computer analysis program for prevention and education do exist, if not. Respondents also wrote some of the bible and feminism, and her accountant. 4. In the writing carefully; pres ent study without needing to be an example for this, I think, to the book. Chap- ter 1 presents the results of other metadiscoursal features. They might also contribute to the illiterate locksmith is the language and then using those to create the present embracing instead what might be useful, it must be sensitive to foreign substances. Quelling this bad idea for further discussion, see linda brodkey s writing community engagement author bio allison carr is an example from another paragraph. When he was not seen by a researcher reads and writes itself in the first point of view. ...
Although one patient with recurrent ovarian cancer achieved complete response, the first trial of abiraterone conducted in ovarian cancer was halted early due to low response, according to results from the CORAL phase 2 trial.
A second-look procedure is sometimes performed to determine if a cancer patient has responded successfully to a particular treatment. Examples of cancers that are assessed during second-look surgery are ovarian cancer and colorectal cancer. In many cases, before a round of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy is started, a patient will undergo a surgical procedure called cytoreduction to reduce the size of a tumor. This debulking increases the sensitivity of the tumor and decreases the number of necessary treatment cycles. Following cytoreduction and chemotherapy, a second-look procedure may be necessary to determine if the area is cancer-free. An advantage to second-look surgery following cancer treatment is that if cancer is found, it may be removed during the procedure in some patients. In other cases, if a tumor cannot be entirely removed, the surgeon can debulk the tumor and improve the patients chances of responding to another cycle of chemotherapy. However, second-look surgery cannot ...
Newswise ? Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center and Duke University Medical Center have conducted a phase I trial of dasatinib, an oral SRC-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, to determine the maximum tolerated dose when combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin to treat patients with advanced or recurrent ovarian cancer. They found that 150 mg daily in combination…
Dr. Ko: So, there are a couple of new combination chemotherapy regimens. that was developed in France, it was called [inaud.] and thats really an acronym of four different drugs combined together. And the results seen with that combination are better than any that was seen in any previous drug combination used in pancreatic cancer. So thats definitely been an important advance.. Its not a regimen that is appropriate for all patients, because as you might imagine when youre combining multiple drugs together in addition to better efficacy you also have more side effects and toxicity. So, that regiment does need to be used with some degree of caution. More recently theres been the approval of a drug called [inaud.], which when combined with [inaud.] shows a distinct survival benefit compared to [inaud.] by itself. So, just in these past few years we now have several new options and now were able to sequence these treatments, so a person might try something in the first line setting when ...
Surgical eksploration and unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are the treatment of EST.Does addition hysterectomy and contralateral salpingo-oophorectomy can improve outcome theraphy ? How about the role of second-look laparotomy ? Dysgerminoma is extremely sensitive to chemotherapy, and treatment with chemotherapy cures the majority of patients even with advanced disease. Which regime is much better among VAC, VBP and BEP ?. How about the role of gemcitabine base chemotherapy in refractory germ cell tumors?. Prior to advances in chemotherapy, the prognosis for these aggressive tumours was poor.Over the past decade, new chemotherapeutic regimes have made germ cell tumours among the most highly curable cancers.(4,5,6,7 ...
There are many human feeding studies of various E. coli types and strains, which can be pooled in various ways to yield different dose response models. Many of these have small sample sizes and cannot be used on their own to reliably fit a dose response model. Most datasets for E. coli infections describe high levels of infection resulting from high doses. Lower doses remain to be investigated, and dose response models for infection are therefore uncertain. Another important factor is whether the dose was given with bicarbonate, which would neutralize some stomach acid and possibly increase infectivity.. Haas, Rose, and Gerba (1999) fitted beta-Poisson models to several pooled datasets describing the disease response from ETEC, EPEC and EIEC. [6]Among these datasets were the EPEC strains O111[7] and O55, as well as EIEC strains 4608 and 1624[8] with diarrhea as the end point. However, it mixed data from experiments in which bacteria were given with and without bicarbonate.. The best available ...
There are many human feeding studies of various E. coli types and strains, which can be pooled in various ways to yield different dose response models. Many of these have small sample sizes and cannot be used on their own to reliably fit a dose response model. Most datasets for E. coli infections describe high levels of infection resulting from high doses. Lower doses remain to be investigated, and dose response models for infection are therefore uncertain. Another important factor is whether the dose was given with bicarbonate, which would neutralize some stomach acid and possibly increase infectivity.. Haas, Rose, and Gerba (1999) fitted beta-Poisson models to several pooled datasets describing the disease response from ETEC, EPEC and EIEC. [6]Among these datasets were the EPEC strains O111[7] and O55, as well as EIEC strains 4608 and 1624[8] with diarrhea as the end point. However, it mixed data from experiments in which bacteria were given with and without bicarbonate.. The best available ...
Altretamine Luippold HE, Gooch PC, Brewen JG (February 1978). "The production of chromosome aberrations in various mammalian ...
This event brought Dacogen (decitabine), Aloxi (palonosetron), Hexalen (altretamine) for ovarian cancer, and the Gliadel Wafer ...
... altretamine (INN) altumomab (INN) Alu-Cap Alu-Tab Aludrox aluminium clofibrate (INN) Alupent (Boehringer Ingelheim) Alustra ...
... altretamine MeSH D03.383.931.190 --- apazone MeSH D03.383.931.247 --- atrazine MeSH D03.383.931.320 --- ferrozine MeSH D03.383. ...
... procarbazine altretamine Some sources explicitly exclude the triazenes (dacarbazine, mitozolomide, temozolomide) from the ...
Binimetinib L01XE42 Ribociclib L01XE43 Brigatinib QL01XE91 Toceranib L01XX01 Amsacrine L01XX02 Asparaginase L01XX03 Altretamine ...
... altretamine - aluminium sulfate - ALVAC-CEA vaccine - Amanita phalloides - Ambien - amelanotic melanoma - Ames, Bruce - ...
... (trade name Hexalen) is an antineoplastic agent. It was approved by the U.S. FDA in 1990. It is indicated for use ... Malik IA (2001). "Altretamine is an effective palliative therapy of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer". Jpn. J ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6879-5. Drugs.com: Altretamine Monograph Wiernik, P. H.; Yeap, B.; Vogl, S. E.; Kaplan, B. H.; Comis, R. L.; ... The precise mechanism by which altretamine exerts its anti-cancer effect is unknown but it is classified by MeSH as an ...
InChI=1S/C55H83N17O21S3/c1-20-33(69-46(72-44(20)58)25(12-31(57)76)64-13-24(56)45(59)82)50(86)71-35(41(26-14-61-19-65-26)91-54-43(39(80)37(78)29(15-73)90-54)92-53-40(81)42(93-55(60)88)38(79)30(16-74)89-53)51(87)66-22(3)36(77)21(2)47(83)70-34(23(4)75)49(85)63-10-8-32-67-28(18-94-32)52-68-27(17-95-52)48(84)62-9-7-11-96(5)6/h14,17-19,21-25,29-30,34-43,53-54,64,73-75,77-81H,7-13,15-16,56H2,1-6H3,(H13-,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,65,66,69,70,71,72,76,82,83,84,85,86,87,88)/p+1/t21-,22+,23+,24-,25-,29-,30+,34-,35-,36-,37+,38+,39-,40-,41?,42-,43-,53+,54-/m0/s1 ...
... is a drug used in chemotherapy. It is a semi-synthetic camptothecin analogue indicated for Small Cell Lung Cancer and Ovarian Cancer, approved in South Korea under the trade name Camtobell(R), presented in 2 mg vials for injection.[1] The drug is marketed by ChongKunDang Pharmaceuticals [2] since 2003 [3] Belotecan blocks topoisomerase I with a pIC50 of 6.56,[4] stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I-DNA, which inhibits the religation of single-stranded DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase I; lethal double-stranded DNA breaks occur when the topoisomerase I-DNA complex is encountered by the DNA replication machinery, DNA replication is disrupted, and the tumor cell undergoes apoptosis. Topoisomerase I is an enzyme that mediates reversible single-strand breaks in DNA during DNA replication. ...
... was first reported in the scientific literature in 1994, by a team of researchers from Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Company (now Astellas Pharma) in Tsukuba, Japan, who isolated it in a culture of Chromobacterium violaceum from a soil sample obtained in Yamagata Prefecture.[3] It was found to have little to no antibacterial activity, but was potently cytotoxic against several human cancer cell lines, with no effect on normal cells; studies on mice later found it to have antitumor activity in vivo as well.[3]. The first total synthesis of romidepsin was accomplished by Harvard researchers and published in 1996.[4] Its mechanism of action was elucidated in 1998, when researchers from Fujisawa and the University of Tokyo found it to be a histone deacetylase inhibitor with effects similar to those of trichostatin A.[5]. ...
... (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology.. By common usage, the term chemotherapy has come to connote the use of rather non-specific intracellular poisons, especially related to inhibiting the process of cell division known as mitosis, and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction). To avoid these connotations for recently developed (against specific molecular or genetic targets) therapies which inhibit of ...
Nitrogen mustards arose from the derivatization of sulphur mustard gas after military personnel exposed to it during World War I were observed to have decreased white blood cell counts.[15] Since the sulphur mustard gas was too toxic to be used in humans, Gilman hypothesized that by reducing the electrophilicity of the agent, which made it highly chemically reactive towards electron-rich groups, then less toxic drugs could be obtained. To this end, he made analogues that were less electrophilic by exchanging the sulphur with a nitrogen, leading to the nitrogen mustards.[16] With an acceptable therapeutic index in humans, nitrogen mustards were first introduced in the clinic in 1946.[17] Aliphatic mustards were developed first, such as mechlorethamine hydrochloride (mustine hydrochloride) which is still used in the clinic today. In the 1950s, aromatic mustards like chlorambucil were introduced as less toxic alkylating agents than the aliphatic nitrogen mustards, proving to be less electrophilic ...
The decision to start cladribine in MS depends on the degree of disease activity (as measured by number of relapses in the past year and T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI), the failure of previous disease-modifying therapies, the potential risks and benefits and patient choice. In the UK, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends cladribine for treating highly active RRMS in adults if the persons has: rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, that is, at least 2 relapses in the previous year and at least 1 T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesion at baseline MRI or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that has responded inadequately to treatment with disease-modifying therapy, defined as 1 relapse in the previous year and MRI evidence of disease activity.[40] People with MS require counselling on the intended benefits of cladribine in reducing the risk of relapse and disease progression, versus the risk of adverse effects such as headaches, nausea and ...
There are several ways molecules (in this case, also known as ligands) can interact with DNA. Ligands may interact with DNA by covalently binding, electrostatically binding, or intercalating.[1] Intercalation occurs when ligands of an appropriate size and chemical nature fit themselves in between base pairs of DNA. These ligands are mostly polycyclic, aromatic, and planar, and therefore often make good nucleic acid stains. Intensively studied DNA intercalators include berberine, ethidium bromide, proflavine, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and thalidomide. DNA intercalators are used in chemotherapeutic treatment to inhibit DNA replication in rapidly growing cancer cells. Examples include doxorubicin (adriamycin) and daunorubicin (both of which are used in treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma), and dactinomycin (used in Wilm's tumour, Ewing's Sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma). Metallointercalators are complexes of a metal cation with polycyclic aromatic ligands. The most commonly used metal ion is ruthenium(II), ...
In the late nineteenth century. Finsen successfully demonstrated phototherapy by employing heat-filtered light from a carbon-arc lamp (the "Finsen lamp") in the treatment of a tubercular condition of the skin known as lupus vulgaris, for which he won the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[5] In 1913 another German scientist, Meyer-Betz, described the major stumbling block of photodynamic therapy. After injecting himself with haematoporphyrin (Hp, a photosensitiser), he swiftly experienced a general skin sensitivity upon exposure to sunlight-a recurrent problem with many photosensitisers.[5] The first evidence that agents, photosensitive synthetic dyes, in combination with a light source and oxygen could have potential therapeutic effect was made at the turn of the 20th century in the laboratory of Hermann von Tappeiner in Munich, Germany. Germany was leading the world in industrial dye synthesis at the time.[5] While studying the effects of acridine on paramecia cultures, Oscar Raab, a ...
During the 1950s and 1960s, the National Cancer Institute carried out a wide-ranging program of screening plant and marine organism material. As part of that program extract from the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata was found to have anticancer activity in 1969.[1] Separation and characterisation of the active molecules had to wait many years for the development of sufficiently sensitive techniques, and the structure of one of them, Ecteinascidin 743, was determined by KL Rinehart at the University of Illinois in 1984.[2] Rinehart had collected his sea squirts by scuba diving in the reefs of the West Indies.[3] Recently, the biosynthetic pathway responsible for producing the drug has been determined to come from Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis, a microbial symbiont of the tunicate.[4] The Spanish company PharmaMar licensed the compound from the University of Illinois before 1994[citation needed] and attempted to farm the sea squirt with limited success.[3] Yields from the sea squirt ...
... was first made in 1963 by Ozegowski and Krebs in East Germany (the former German Democratic Republic).[9] Until 1990 it was available only in East Germany. East German investigators found that it was useful for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and lung cancer. Bendamustine received its first marketing approval in Germany, where it is marketed under the tradename Ribomustin, by Astellas Pharma GmbH's licensee, Mundipharma International Corporation Limited. It is indicated as a single-agent or in combination with other anti-cancer agents for indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SymBio Pharmaceuticals Ltd. holds exclusive rights to develop and market bendamustine HCl in Japan and selected Asia Pacific Rim countries. In March 2008, Cephalon received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration to market bendamustine in the US, where it is sold under the ...
Research on this class of drugs began in the 1950s at SRI International, where scientists were focused on developing new chemotherapies and antifolates that would be effective against tumor cells.[1] In the late 1970s, researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center discovered that cancerous cells take in natural folate through a protein identified as plasma membrane transporter (now referred to as "reduced folate carrier type 1" or "RFC-1"). Further research showed that when normal cells evolve into cancerous cells they often overproduce RFC-1 to ensure they get enough folate.[6] A subsequent scientific collaboration was ultimately formed among SRI International, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the Southern Research Institute with the intention of developing an antifolate with greater therapeutic selectivity - an agent that could be more effectively internalized into tumors (transported into the cells through RFC-1) and would be more toxic to cancer cells than normal cells.[6] ...
Another amino acid-like drug is the antineoplastic agent melphalan. Tumor cells spend less time in resting phases than normal cells so at any given time, they are more likely to be metabolically active than most normal host cells. The rationale behind incorporating an alkylating function in a molecule resembling a primary cellular metabolite was to get a greater safety margin by fooling tumor cells into taking up the toxin preferentially. ...
... (INN), abbreviated as CCNU (original brand name (formerly available) is CeeNU, now marketed as Gleostine), is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy. It is closely related to semustine and is in the same family as streptozotocin. It is a highly lipid-soluble drug,[2] thus it crosses the blood-brain barrier. This property makes it ideal for treating brain tumors, which is its primary use, although it is also used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma as a second-line option.[3] Lomustine has a long time to nadir (the time when white blood cells reach their lowest number). Unlike carmustine, lomustine is administered orally. It is a monofunctional alkylating agent, alkylates both DNA and RNA, has the ability to cross-link DNA.[4] As with other nitrosoureas, it may also inhibit several key enzymatic processes by carbamoylation of amino acids in proteins.[5] Lomustine is cell-cycle nonspecific. It has also been used in veterinary practice as a treatment for mast cell tumors in ...
Crosslinked DNA is repaired in cells by a combination of enzymes and other factors from the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, homologous recombination, and the base excision repair (BER) pathway. To repair interstrand crosslinks in eukaryotes, a 3' flap endonuclease from the NER, XPF-ERCC1, is recruited to the crosslinked DNA, where it assists in 'unhooking' the DNA by cleaving the 3' strand at the crosslink site. The 5' strand is then cleaved, either by XPF-ERCC1 or another endonuclease, forming a double-strand break (DSB), which can then be repaired by the homologous recombination pathway.[17] DNA crosslinks generally cause loss of overlapping sequence information from the two strands of DNA. Therefore, accurate repair of the damage depends on retrieving the lost information from an undamaged homologous chromosome in the same cell. Retrieval can occur by pairing with a sister chromosome produced during a preceding round of replication. In a diploid cell retrieval may also occur by ...
... (NVB), sold under the brand name Navelbine among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.[3] This includes breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.[3] It is given by injection into a vein or by mouth.[3][1] Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, pain at the site of injection, vomiting, feeling tired, numbness, and diarrhea.[3] Other serious side effects include shortness of breath.[3] Use during pregnancy may harm the baby.[3] Vinorelbine is in the vinca alkaloid family of medications.[1] It is believed to work by disrupting the normal function of microtubules and thereby stopping cell division.[3] Vinorelbine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1994.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[4] The wholesale price in the developing world as of 2014 is between 18.10 and 42.82 USD per 50 mg vial.[5] This amount in ...
Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, fever, fatigue, nausea, cough, pneumonia, abdominal pain, chills and rash. Laboratory abnormalities may include: neutropenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and elevated levels of liver enzymes. Idelalisib's safety and effectiveness to treat relapsed FL and relapsed SLL were established in a clinical trial with 123 participants with slow-growing (indolent) non-Hodgkin lymphomas. All participants were treated with idelalisib and were evaluated for complete or partial disappearance of their cancer after treatment (objective response rate, or ORR). Results showed 54% of participants with relapsed FL and 58% of participants with SLL experienced ORR.[7] The U.S. label for idelalisib has a boxed warning describing toxicities that can be serious and fatal, including liver toxicity, severe diarrhea, colon inflammation, lung tissue inflammation (pneumonitis) and intestinal perforation, and the manufacturer was required to put in place a Risk Evaluation and ...
... can lower the body's ability to fight off infection. Those taking it should get permission from a doctor to receive immunizations and vaccinations. It is also recommended that, while on the drug, one should avoid those having recently received oral polio vaccine. This drug was formerly not recommended during pregnancy and early evidence indicated pregnant women on the drug (or the related azathioprine) showed a seven-fold incidence of fetal abnormalities as well as a 20-fold increase in miscarriage.[12] There were also anecdotal reports linking mercaptopurine with spontaneous abortion, leading to the US FDA rating both AZA and mercaptopurine as category D drugs. However, Davis et al. 1999 found mercaptopurine, compared to methotrexate, was ineffective as a single-agent abortifacient; every woman in the mercaptopurine arm of the study had fetal cardiac activity at follow-up (two weeks later) and was given a suction abortion.[13] A more recent, larger study, however, performed by ...
Altretamine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking altretamine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to altretamine, any other medications, or any ... You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are taking altretamine. If you become pregnant while taking altretamine ... Altretamine comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken four times a day (a dose after each meal and a dose at ...
Altretamine (trade name Hexalen) is an antineoplastic agent. It was approved by the U.S. FDA in 1990. It is indicated for use ... Malik IA (2001). "Altretamine is an effective palliative therapy of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer". Jpn. J ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6879-5. Drugs.com: Altretamine Monograph Wiernik, P. H.; Yeap, B.; Vogl, S. E.; Kaplan, B. H.; Comis, R. L.; ... The precise mechanism by which altretamine exerts its anti-cancer effect is unknown but it is classified by MeSH as an ...
... is used to ease the symptoms of ovarian cancer. This medication will not treat the cancer itself. Altretamine is ... Altretamine is a cancer medicine that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. ... What is altretamine?. Altretamine is a cancer medicine that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. ... What is the most important information I should know about altretamine?. You should not use altretamine if you have severe ...
Altretamine - An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents, is clearly explained in ... Altretamine - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ... Medical Word - Altretamine. Ans : An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between altretamine and coccidioidin skin test. View detailed information regarding this ... Depending on the dose and length of time you have been on altretamine, you may have a reduced response to the skin test. It is ... If you are currently being treated or have recently been treated with altretamine, you should let your doctor know before ...
Altretamine capsules. What is this medicine?. ALTRETAMINE (al TRET a meen) is a chemotherapy drug. This medicine is used to ... an unusual or allergic reaction to altretamine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Altretamine and Etoposide in Treating Patients With HIV-Related Cancer. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Drug Information available for: Altretamine Etoposide Etoposide phosphate Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Altretamine. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic. Antineoplastic Agents. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. Topoisomerase Inhibitors. ... OUTLINE: Patients are treated with altretamine (HMM) and etoposide for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest. This cycle is ...
Get up-to-date information on Altretamine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Altretamine is a prescription medication used to treat ovarian cancer in adults. Altretamine belongs to a group of drugs called ... Serious allergic reactions have been reported with altretamine use. Do not take altretamine if you are allergic to any of its ... In the case of altretamine there are no specific foods that you must exclude from your diet when receiving altretamine. ...
... What is this medicine?. ALTRETAMINE (al TRET a meen) is a chemotherapy drug. This medicine is used to ... an unusual or allergic reaction to altretamine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Altretamine is an alkylating agent with antineoplastic and antiproliferative activity. It also acts as a chemosterilant for ... Altretamine is an alkylating agent with antineoplastic and antiproliferative activity. It also acts as a chemosterilant for ...
If you have an allergy to altretamine or any other part of this drug. ...
If you have an allergy to altretamine or any other part of this drug. ...
Altretamine belongs to the group of medicines called antineoplastics. It is used to treat cancer of the ovaries. It may also be ... Infection - Altretamine may decrease your bodys ability to fight infection * Kidney disease - Effects of altretamine may be ... Before Using Altretamine (Oral Route). In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against ... Altretamine belongs to the group of medicines called antineoplastics. It is used to treat cancer of the ovaries. It may also be ...
Altretamine Altretamine is an antineoplastic alkylating agent, prescribed for certain types of cancer such as ovarian cancer. ...
Altretamine (Hexalen) patient drug information (UpToDate)[4]. History of changes in FDA indication. *12/26/1990: Initial FDA ... Retrieved from "https://hemonc.org/w/index.php?title=Altretamine_(Hexalen)&oldid=19729" ...
More than 100 chemotherapy or chemo drugs are used to treat cancer - either alone or in combination with other drugs or treatments. These drugs are very different in their chemical composition, how they are taken, their usefulness in treating specific forms of cancer, and their side effects.
altretamine capsule. On Label. RX. 0 Reviews. Paraplatin 150 mg intravenous powder for solution. On Label. RX. 0 Reviews. ...
Oral chemotherapy in the form of pills, liquids, or tablets is a treatment option for some types and stages of cancer. Advantages include not having to visit a clinic as frequently, while disadvantages include the risk of making dosing errors when taking the medication at home. Learn more about oral chemotherapy here.
Detailed drug Information for Fergon. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
... altretamine; ambomycin; ametantrone acetate; amsacrine; anastrozole; anthramycin; asparaginase; asperlin; azacitidine; azetepa ...
Tranylcypromine may cause some people to be agitated, irritable, or display other abnormal behaviors. It may also cause some people to have suicidal thoughts and tendencies or to become more depressed. If you or your caregiver notice any of these adverse effects, tell your doctor right away. Call your doctor or hospital emergency room right away if you have a severe headache, stiff or sore neck, chest pains, fast heartbeat, sweating, dizziness, or nausea and vomiting while you are taking this medicine. These may be symptoms of a serious side effect called hypertensive crisis. This medicine may cause blurred vision or make some people drowsy or less alert than they are normally. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are unable to see well or not alert. This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system, possibly causing drowsiness). ...
Increasing use of immunosuppressive biologic therapies poses a challenge for infectious diseases. Immunosuppressed patients have a high risk for influenza complications and an impaired immune response to vaccines. The total burden of immunosuppressive conditions in the United States, including those receiving emerging biologic therapies, remains unknown. We used the national claims database MarketScan to estimate the prevalence of immunosuppressive conditions and risk for acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). We studied 47.2 million unique enrollees, representing 115 million person-years of observation during 2012-2017, and identified immunosuppressive conditions in 6.2% adults 18-64 years of age and 2.6% of children &lt;18 years of age. Among 542,105 ARI hospitalizations, 32% of patients had immunosuppressive conditions. The risk for ARI hospitalizations was higher among enrollees with immunosuppression than among nonimmunosuppressed enrollees. Future efforts should focus on developing improved
Check with your doctor immediately if you experience any combination of the following symptoms: severe, throbbing headache that starts at the back of the head and radiates forward; stiff neck; fast or racing heartbeat; pounding, irregular, or slow heartbeat. These may be symptoms of a serious side effect that should have a doctors attention.. Do not stop taking this medicine without first checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are using before stopping it completely.. Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur, especially when you get up from a lying or sitting position suddenly. Getting up slowly may help. When you get up from lying down, sit on the edge of the bed with your feet dangling for 1 or 2 minutes, then stand up slowly. If the problem continues or gets worse, check with your doctor.. This medicine may cause blurred vision or make some people drowsy or less alert than they are normally. Make sure you know how you react to this ...
  • Combination with pyridoxine (vitamin B6) decreases neurotoxicity but has been found to reduce the effectiveness of an altretamine/cisplatin regime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will order certain tests before and during your treatment to check your body's response to altretamine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Altretamine is used to treat cancer of the ovaries (cancer that begins in the female reproductive organs where eggs are formed) that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Altretamine is given in a 28-day treatment cycle, and you may only need to take the medicine during the first 2 or 3 weeks of each cycle. (rexhealth.com)
  • Before you begin treatment with altretamine, you and your doctor should talk about the good this medicine will do as well as the risks of using it. (pharmacypedia.org)
  • Before starting altretamine treatment, make sure you tell your doctor about any other medications you are taking (including prescription, over-the-counter, vitamins, herbal remedies, etc. (chemocare.com)
  • Pregnancy category D (altretamine may be hazardous to the fetus. (chemocare.com)
  • Altretamine is a medication that is in a class of medications called antineoplastic agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The precise mechanism by which altretamine exerts its anti-cancer effect is unknown but it is classified by MeSH as an alkylating antineoplastic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altretamine is classified as an alkylating antineoplastic agent.This unique structure is believed to damage tumor cells through the production of the weakly alkylating species formaldehyde, a product of CYP450-mediated N-demethylation. (adooq.com)
  • If you have an allergy to altretamine or any other part of this drug. (queensnaturalmarket.com)
  • Tous les résultats de la recherche seront tirés du « National Drug Schedules » du site Web en anglais. (napra.ca)
  • Although there is no specific information comparing use of altretamine in the elderly with use in other age groups, this medicine is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults. (pharmacypedia.org)