A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.
A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.
An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.
Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Freedom from activity.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
An increase in the rate of speed.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.

Barometric pressures on Mt. Everest: new data and physiological significance. (1/1342)

Barometric pressures (PB) near the summit of Mt. Everest (altitude 8, 848 m) are of great physiological interest because the partial pressure of oxygen is very near the limit for human survival. Until recently, the only direct measurement on the summit was 253 Torr, which was obtained in October 1981, but, despite being only one data point, this value has been used by several investigators. Recently, two new studies were carried out. In May 1997, another direct measurement on the summit was within approximately 1 Torr of 253 Torr, and meteorologic data recorded at the same time from weather balloons also agreed closely. In the summer of 1998, over 2,000 measurements were transmitted from a barometer placed on the South Col (altitude 7,986 m). The mean PB values during May, June, July, and August were 284, 285, 286, and 287 Torr, respectively, and there was close agreement with the PB-altitude (h) relationship determined from the 1981 data. The PB values are well predicted from the equation PB = exp (6.63268 - 0.1112 h - 0.00149 h2), where h is in kilometers. The conclusion is that on days when the mountain is usually climbed, during May and October, the summit pressure is 251-253 Torr.  (+info)

Low-temperature sensitivity and enhanced Bohr effect in red deer (Cervus elaphus) haemoglobin: a molecular adaptive strategy to life at high altitude and low temperature. (2/1342)

A study of the functional properties of haemoglobin from red deer (Cervus elaphus) whose habitat varies over a wide range of latitude, was performed. The oxygen-binding properties of the most common haemoglobin phenotype from the species living in Sardinia were examined with particular attention to the effect of pH, chloride, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate and temperature. Results indicate that red deer haemoglobin, like all haemoglobins from ruminants so far examined, is characterized by a low intrinsic oxygen affinity, with chloride being its main physiological modulator in vivo. The functional results and the low temperature sensitivity of the oxygen affinity are discussed in the light of the amino acid sequence of closely related ruminant haemoglobins.  (+info)

Augmented sympathetic activation during short-term hypoxia and high-altitude exposure in subjects susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema. (3/1342)

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a hallmark of high-altitude pulmonary edema and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Cardiovascular adjustments to hypoxia are mediated, at least in part, by the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic activation promotes pulmonary vasoconstriction and alveolar fluid flooding in experimental animals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured sympathetic nerve activity (using intraneural microelectrodes) in 8 mountaineers susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema and 7 mountaineers resistant to this condition during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and at rest at a high-altitude laboratory (4559 m). We also measured systolic pulmonary artery pressure to examine the relationship between sympathetic activation and pulmonary vasoconstriction. In subjects prone to pulmonary edema, short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude evoked comparable hypoxemia but a 2- to 3-times-larger increase in the rate of the sympathetic nerve discharge than in subjects resistant to edema (P<0.001). At high altitude, in subjects prone to edema, the increase in the mean+/-SE sympathetic firing rate was >2 times larger than in those resistant to edema (36+/-7 versus 15+/-4 bursts per minute, P<0.001) and preceded the development of lung edema. We observed a direct relationship between sympathetic nerve activity and pulmonary artery pressure measured at low and high altitude in the 2 groups (r=0.83, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: With the use of direct measurements of postganglionic sympathetic nerve discharge, these data provide the first evidence for an exaggerated sympathetic activation in subjects prone to high-altitude pulmonary edema both during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and during actual high-altitude exposure. Sympathetic overactivation may contribute to high-altitude pulmonary edema.  (+info)

Living at high altitude and risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (4/1342)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between altitude of residence and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A retrospective, case control study in the Tyrol, Austria enrolled 99 infants with SIDS occurring between 1984 and 1994, and 136 randomly selected control cases. Data on pregnancy, delivery, child care practice, and socio-demographic characteristics including altitude of residence were collected with a standardised questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of SIDS increased gradually with increasing altitude of residence. This relation remained independently significant when the analysis was adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, prenatal care, mother's age at delivery, educational level of parents, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The prone sleeping position emerged as an obligatory cofactor in this association. In the whole of Austria, a similar trend of association emerged between the average altitudes in the 99 political counties and the rates of SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified altitude of residence as a significant risk predictor of SIDS, primarily in combination with the prone sleeping position. Respiratory disturbances, reduced oxygen saturation, and lower temperatures at high altitude might explain this association.  (+info)

Cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity to citric acid challenge during a simulated ascent to extreme altitude. (5/1342)

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of cough and the citric acid cough threshold during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects were studied during Operation Everest 3. Eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m over 31 days in a hypobaric chamber. Frequency of nocturnal cough was measured using voice-activated tape recorders, and cough threshold by inhalation of increasing concentrations of citric acid aerosol. Spirometry was performed before and after each test. Subjects recorded symptoms of acute mountain sickness and arterial oxygen saturation daily. Air temperature and humidity were controlled during the operation. Cough frequency increased with increasing altitude, from a median of 0 coughs (range 0-4) at sea level to 15 coughs (range 3-32) at a simulated altitude of 8,000 m. Cough threshold was unchanged on arrival at 5,000 m compared to sea level (geometric mean difference (GMD) 1.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-2.1, p=0.5), but fell on arrival at 8,000 m compared to sea level (GMD 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.3, p=0.043). There was no relationship between cough threshold and symptoms of acute mountain sickness, oxygen saturation or forced expiratory volume in one second. Temperature and humidity in the chamber were controlled between 18-24 degrees C and 30-60%, respectively. These results confirm an increase in cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity associated with hypobaric hypoxia, and refute the hypothesis that high altitude cough is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. The small sample size makes further conclusions difficult, and the cause of altitude-related cough remains unclear.  (+info)

Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase. (6/1342)

We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.  (+info)

Loss of heterozygosity in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. (7/1342)

PURPOSE: Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is characterized by the accumulation of a material of unknown origin in the anterior structures of the eye. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a genetic locus indicates the presence of a gene located in the same region that could be implicated in the development or the progression of a disease. In this study, the occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX and the possible correlation of LOH incidence with clinical parameters were evaluated. METHODS: Twelve iris specimens, 12 anterior capsule specimens, and respective blood samples were obtained from 17 patients with PEX (13 men), who were undergoing glaucoma and cataract surgery. Sixteen anterior capsule specimens and four iris specimens were obtained from 16 patients without PEX. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 1, 7, 9, and 13. RESULTS: Overall, 83.3% (20/24) of PEX specimens and 94.11% (16/17) of patients with PEX had LOH. The highest incidence of LOH was observed in marker D13S175 (41.6%) followed by D7S478 and D7S479 (37.5%). Only three non-PEX specimens displayed LOH. The number of loci lost was directly related to the altitude of the patients' present residence, but the number lost did not differ significantly between the iris and capsule samples. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX implies a genetic role in PEX pathogenesis at a cellu lar level. The correlation of LOH incidence with the altitude of the patient's residence, could indicate an increased susceptibility to UV radiation of the chromosomal regions examined.  (+info)

Exaggerated endothelin release in high-altitude pulmonary edema. (8/1342)

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated pulmonary hypertension is thought to play an important part in the pathogenesis of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Endothelin-1 is a potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide that also augments microvascular permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure in 16 mountaineers prone to HAPE and in 16 mountaineers resistant to this condition at low (580 m) and high (4559 m) altitudes. At high altitude, in mountaineers prone to HAPE, mean (+/-SE) endothelin-1 plasma levels were approximately 33% higher than in HAPE-resistant mountaineers (22.2+/-1.1 versus 16.8+/-1.1 pg/mL, P<0.01). There was a direct relationship between the changes from low to high altitude in endothelin-1 plasma levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.82, P<0.01) and between endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure measured at high altitude (r=0.35, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in HAPE-susceptible mountaineers, an augmented release of the potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 and/or its reduced pulmonary clearance could represent one of the mechanisms contributing to exaggerated pulmonary hypertension at high altitude.  (+info)

Interviewer: Could altitude play a part in depression? If so, could something as simple as a dietary supplement fix the problem? Up next on The Scope.. Announcer: Examining the latest research and telling you about the latest breakthroughs. The Science and Research Show is on The Scope.. Interviewer: Im talking with Dr. Perry Renshaw, professor of psychiatry at the University of Utah. Hes currently seeking crowdfunding for a project on Experiment.com to improve depression caused by living at high altitude, a particularly worrisome problem here in Utah.. Dr. Renshaw, youre researching the effects of altitude on depression. What led you to make that connection in the first place?. Dr. Renshaw: Well, you know the risk of being too long winded . . . I and my wife moved here as part of the USTAR program in 2008. In conjunction with that move, we started working at the VA Research Center on Mental Health. The assigned focus of that center which is called a MIRECC is on suicide. Never having done ...
Aim: This study was conducted on Ouled Djellal ewes in arid area of south-east Algeria in order to reveal the influence of altitude and landforms on some hematological and biochemical parameters.. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 ewes having 3-5 years of age, multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating and reared in arid areas of South East Algeria were included. Blood samples were divided according to factors of altitude and landform (plain region at 150 m above sea level, tableland region at 600 m above sea level and mountain region at 1000 m above sea level). The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, and plasma samples for biochemical analysis.. Results: The study found lowest glucose concentrations were detected in tableland region at 600 m. In plain region at 150 m, ewes had a higher (p,0.01) concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride. Furthermore, a higher concentration of total proteins (p,0.01) and urea (p,0.05) were detected in plain region at 150 m. The average blood creatinine ...
With the increase of altitude (above sea level), atmospheric pressure decreases, which leads to a reduction of the air amount inhaled into the cylinder of diesel engines. Thereby the pressure, the temperature of the cylinder in diesel engines and the density of the mixture decrease correspondingly, so that there are differences between the combustion processes which naturally aspirated and supercharged diesel engines operate at different altitude regions. The combustion processes of diesel engines at different altitude regions have been studied by means of a micro-computer controlled atmosphere-simulating system on engines. The achieved conclusions serve to clarify some of the uncertainties about the combustion processes of diesel engines in plateau regions and contribute to solve some of the problems that diesel engines have when working in plateau regions ...
The elevation near the mouth of the Lackawanna River is 522 feet (159 m) above sea level.[27] The elevation of the rivers source is between 1,560 and 1,580 feet (480 and 480 m) above sea level.[22] The river is steep and sometimes narrow. Its average gradient between Forest City and Pittston is 19 feet per mile (3.6 m/km).[24] For its first 13 miles (21 km), the rivers average gradient is 45.4 feet per mile (8.60 m/km). For the next 15 miles (24 km), the average gradient is 20 feet per mile (3.8 m/km). For the final 12 miles (19 km), the gradient of the river averages 13.2 feet per mile (2.50 m/km).[28] In general, the topography of the Lackawanna River watershed consists of long, steep-sided ridges with valleys in between.[25] The headwaters of the river are in a group of glacial ponds and bogs in Susquehanna County and Wayne County, about 12 miles (19 km) north of Forest City. The river itself begins at Stillwater Lake, which was built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1960. ...
By means of sensors mounted on cable cars and a telemetry system, profiles are determined for temperature, humidity, wind, air conductivity and potential gradient, against pressure as a parameter of altitude. The site of the project is the Bavarian Alps in the vicinity of Garmisch Partenkirchen, at a uniquely instrumented range. Relationships are established between vertical aerosol distribution and meteorological parameters in the region of the upper boundary of the exchange layers. Electrical conductivity measurements were also made. The report will assist in studies of transport and diffusion of material in the atmosphere, weather modification, visibility, and radar signal propagation in mountainous terrain. (Author)(*ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING
While the skin microbiome has been shown to play important roles in health and disease in several species, the effects of altitude on the skin microbiome and how high-altitude skin microbiomes may be associated with health and disease states remains largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing, we characterized the skin microbiomes of people from two racial groups (the Tibetans and the Hans) and of three local pig breeds (Tibetan pig, Rongchang pig, and Qingyu pig) at high and low altitudes. The skin microbial communities of low-altitude pigs and humans were distinct from those of high-altitude pigs and humans, with five bacterial taxa (Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus, Carnobacterium, and two unclassified genera in families Cellulomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae) consistently enriched in both pigs and humans at high altitude. Alpha diversity was also significantly lower in skin samples collected from individuals living at high altitude compared to individuals at low altitude. Several of the taxa
The elevational pattern of soil microbial diversity along mountain slopes has received considerable interest over the last decade. An increasing amount of taxonomic data on soil microbial community composition along elevation gradients have been collected, however the trophic patterns and environmental drivers of elevational changes remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the distribution patterns of major soil bacterial and fungal taxa along the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China, at five typical vegetation types located between 740 and 2691 m above sea level. Elevational patterns of the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa could be partially explained by the oligotrophic-copiotrophic theory. Specifically, two dark-coniferous forests, located at mid-elevation sites, were considered to be oligotrophic habitats, with relatively higher soil C/N ratio and NH4+-N concentrations. As expected, oligotrophic microbial taxa, belonging to the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria and
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/The_Influence_of_Simulated_High_Altitude.html?id=OzRNAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe Influence of Simulated High Altitude on the Endocrine Glands with Particular Reference to Those Concerned with Reproduction ...
Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) protein was unaltered. The expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), determined by quantitative RT-PCR of mRNA levels did not significantly change during high-altitude hypoxia, although the data could not exclude a minor upregulation. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress ...
Background: Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in childhood and is steadily increasing in prevalence. Better characterisation of factors that determine the risk of hospitalisation for atopic asthma in childhood may help design prevention programmes and improve our understanding of disease pathobiology. This study will focus on the altitude of residence.. Methods: This is an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study that enrolled all live-born infants in the Tyrol. Between 1994 and 1999, baseline data were collected for 33 808 infants. From 2000 to 2005, all children hospitalised for atopic asthma at the age of ⩾6 years (n = 305) were identified by a careful search of hospital databases. Disease status was ascertained from the typical medical history, a thorough examination and proof of atopy.. Results: Living at higher altitude was associated with an enhanced risk of hospitalisation for atopic asthma (multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval 2.08 (1.45 to 2.98) and 1.49 (1.05 to ...
A fundamental question in human biology is the extent to which high-altitude native populations have evolved by natural selection to differ from their low-altitude ancestors. Answering this question will have implications for larger questions including the size of selection pressures and the mode and tempo of human evolution. High-altitude natives differ biologically from low-altitude populations at low altitude and during acute exposure to high altitude. The high-altitude populations also differ among themselves in numerous biological features thought to be adaptive, suggesting that these natural experiments had different outcomes. The central theme of the proposed catalysis meeting is how to test the hypothesis of genetic adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia of human populations indigenous to the Tibetan, Andean, and East African plateaus. The purpose of this meeting is to examine how recent advances in genomic technologies and research design can address some of these questions. The meeting ...
Increased participation of competitive athletes in new methods of simulated altitude warrants research on changes in performances. PURPOSE: To ascertain the effects of intermittent simulated altitude exposure via re-breathing on cycling performance. METHODS: Eighteen, well-trained male cyclists engaged in the use of a re-breathing simulated altitude device for 15 days. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 simulated altitude groups; a low constant exposure group (CON) or progressively increased exposure group (TRT). Each exposure consisted of alternating between a rebreathing device and atmospheric air for 6 min and 4 min, respectively over 1 hour. Oxygen saturation was monitored with a pulse oximeter; and either held constant (98% over 15 days; equivalent altitude equal 150 m) or progressively reduced (90% on the 1 ii st day to 77% on the 15th day; equivalent altitudes equal 3600-6300 m). An exercise performance test was performed to familiarize subjects to the protocol (FAM), prior to ...
Differences between the effects of training at sea level and at simulated altitude on performance and muscle structural and biochemical properties were investigated in 8 competitive cyclists who...
Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). The implications of working intermittently (day shifts) at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia) over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy miners working at an altitude of 4,400-4,800 m for over 5 years in 7-day commuting shifts was designed. Echocardiography was performed on day 2 at sea level. Additionally, biomedical and biochemical variables, Lake Louise scores (LLSs), sleep disturbances and physiological variables were measured at altitude and at sea level. Results: The population was 41.8 ± 0.7 years old, with an average of 14 ...
Currently deployed unmanned rotorcraft rely on preplanned missions or teleoperation and do not actively incorporate information about obstacles, landing sites, wind, position uncertainty, and other aerial vehicles during online motion planning. Prior work has successfully addressed some tasks such as obstacle avoidance at slow speeds, or landing at known to be good locations. However, to enable autonomous missions in cluttered environments, the vehicle has to react quickly to previously unknown obstacles, respond to changing environmental conditions, and find unknown landing sites. We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address the problem of fast obstacle avoidance for a small aerial vehicle and present results from over a 1000 runs at speeds up to 10 m/s. Fast response is achieved through a reactive algorithm whose response is learned based on observing a pilot. Second, we show an algorithm to update the obstacle ...
The military has developed plans for a low-altitude missile defense system in the face of Chinas intensified missile deployment against Taiwan, Minister of National Defense Tang Yiau-min (湯曜明) said yesterday.
Purpose.: Reports on intraocular pressure (IOP) changes at high altitudes have provided inconsistent and even conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of very high altitude and different ascent profiles on IOP in relation to simultaneously occurring ophthalmic and systemic changes in a prospective study. Methods.: This prospective study involved 25 healthy mountaineers who were randomly assigned to two different ascent profiles during a medical research expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata (7,546 m/24,751 ft). Group 1 was allotted a shorter acclimatization time before ascent than was group 2. Besides IOP, oxygen saturation (SaO2), acute mountain sickness symptoms (AMS-c score), and optic disc appearance were assessed. Examinations were performed at 490 m/1,607 ft, 4,497 m/14,750 ft, 5,533 m/18,148 ft, and 6,265 m/20,549 ft above sea level. Results.: Intraocular pressure in both groups showed small but statistically significant changes: an increase during ascent from ...
Rationale: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is characterized by excessive pulmonary vasoconstriction and is associated with decreased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in the lung. Objectives: We hypothesized that individuals susceptible to HAPE (HAPE-S) would also have dysfunction of the vascular NO vasodilator pathway during hypoxia in the systemic vasculature. Methods: During normoxia (FI(O(2)) = 0.21) and 4 hours of normobaric hypoxia (FI(O(2)) = 0.12, corresponding to an altitude of 4,500 m above sea level) endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilator responses to intraarterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were measured by forearm venous occlusion plethysmography in nine HAPE-S subjects and in nine HAPE-resistant control subjects. Main Results: Pulmonary artery systolic pressure increased from 22 +/- 3 to 33 +/- 6 mm Hg (p , 0.001) during hypoxia in control subjects, and from 25 +/- 4 to 50 +/- 9 mm Hg in HAPE-S subjects (p , ...
Since Mount Everest is 8,050 metres (29,035 feet) high, it is in the uppermost part of the troposphere layer of the atmosphere that helps to protect the Earth from the suns UV rays. This means that a large percentage of the harmful rays that are filtered out gradually through the atmosphere at lower altitudes (where most people live) are not filtered on Everest. Climbers at this height are exposed to very dangerous levels of ultraviolet radiation. Also, 85 per cent of UV rays that do reach Earth (of which most are absorbed at lower altitudes) are reflected off the fresh, white snow, almost doubling the radiation exposure in this environment (Canadian Dermatology Association, Sun Facts). The suns UV rays have the potential to be extremely dangerous for high altitude climbers, as well as for those people who live at relatively high altitudes on a year-round basis such as the Sheraps in the Mount Everest area of Nepal. Even more alarming is how little exposure is required to cause serious damage ...
Organisms can live at high altitude, either on land, in water, or while flying. Decreased oxygen availability and decreased temperature make life at such altitudes challenging, though many species have been successfully adapted via considerable physiological changes. As opposed to short-term acclimatisation (immediate physiological response to changing environment), high-altitude adaptation means irreversible, evolved physiological responses to high-altitude environments, associated with heritable behavioural and genetic changes. Among animals, only few mammals (such as yak, ibex, Tibetan gazelle, vicunas, llamas, mountain goats, etc.) and certain birds are known to have completely adapted to high-altitude environments. Human populations such as some Tibetans, South Americans and Ethiopians live in the otherwise uninhabitable high mountains of the Himalayas, Andes and Ethiopian highlands respectively. The adaptation of humans to high altitude is an example of natural selection in action. ...
The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of
Description: This article examines elevation trends and their control by seasonality, dominant geochemical processes, and season dynamics in these supraglacial ponds at elevations ranging between 3989 and 4292 m above sea level in the debris-covered area of Lirung glacier in central Nepal Himalayas, from November 2010 to October 2011 on a bimonthly basis. ...
The state is on a narrow peninsula which broke away from the mainland about two million years ago due to tectonic activity.[17] The territory is primarily mountains or mountain ranges and coastal plains. The mountain ranges parallel the coastline and are of volcanic rock. The local name for the main mountain range is the Sierra de la Giganta and the highest peak is the Sierra de la Laguna at 2080m above sea level. The coastal plains are significantly wider on the Pacific side, averaging about 40 km, with much wider plains such as those of Santa Clara, Berrendo and Magdalena y Hiray. These areas are dominated by sedimentary rock, especially limestone of marine origin.[10][18]. The state is divided into five regions: Central Desert, La Serranía, the Vizcaíno Desert, the Magdalena Plains and Los Cabos. The Central Desert has desert plants, with vegetation springing up during short and irregular rains. The La Serranía is the high mountain areas with significant tree cover, some species of which ...
During a flight, aircraft cabins are pressurized. The air pressure in the cabin when flying at cruising altitudes (36,000 - 46,000 feet or 11,000 - 12,000 m) is lower than at sea level. It is equivalent to the outside pressure at 6,000 - 8,000 feet (1,800 - 2,400 m) above sea level. In other words, the atmosphere inside the plane during the flight is comparable to the atmosphere at the top of a 6,000 - 8,000-foot mountain. Since the air pressure is lower, the amount of oxygen in the blood decreases and the gases in the body expand. Usually such effects are well-tolerated by healthy passengers because the body enables certain physiological mechanisms to compensate the reduced oxygen in blood.. But, low cabin pressure is a main risk factor for cardiac patients as it may promote an increase in blood pressure, hypertensive crisis and even the development of a heart attack, although very rare. The decreases in air pressure are perceived by everyone in the cabin, but people with heart problems may ...
WASHINGTON-Patients on hemodialysis (HD) who live at low elevations have a greater prevalence of heart disease and have higher hospitalization rates than those living at mid or high elevations, according to data presented at the American Society of Nephrologys 2019 Kidney Week meeting. Patients on HD who live at higher elevations have a higher prevalence of diabetes and more often receive an extra HD treatment.. Of 244,720 HD patients included in a study by Sheetal Chaudhuri, MS, of Fresenius Medical Care in Bad Homburg, Germany, and colleagues, 59% lived at low elevation (less than 1000 feet), 35% at mid elevation (1000 to 4000 feet), and 6% at high elevation (above 4000 feet). The proportion of patients with congestive heart failure and ischemic heart disease was 21% and 21%, respectively, for the low-elevation patients, 19% and 19% for the mid-elevation group, and 13% and 12% for the high-elevation group, Dr Chaudhuris team reported in a poster presentation. ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of endurance training and hypoxia on endurance performance in normoxic and hypoxic conditions (approximately 3000 m above sea level) as well as on lactate and glucose metabolism during
Large-scale emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (CA) from South Asia impact both regional climate and air quality, yet their sources are not well constrained. Here we use source-diagnostic stable and radiocarbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C) to characterize CA sources at a semiurban site (Hisar: 29.2°N, 75.2°E) in the NW Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and a remote high-altitude location in the Himalayan foothills (Manora Peak: 29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1950 m above sea level) in northern India during winter. The Δ14C of total aerosol organic carbon (TOC) varied from −178‰ to −63‰ at Hisar and from −198‰ to −1‰ at Manora Peak. The absence of significant differences in the 14C-based fraction biomass of TOC between Hisar (0.81 ± 0.03) and Manora Peak (0.82 ± 0.07) reveals that biomass burning/biogenic emissions (BBEs) are the dominant sources of CA at both sites. Combining this information with δ13C, other chemical tracers (K+/OC and SO42−/EC) and air mass back trajectory analyses indicate ...
Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes < 2,000 m above sea level. Occasionally, transmission of malaria occurs in areas...
Hudbays $1.7bn Constancia Project, 4,100m above sea level in the Peruvian Andes, has faced many development challenges due to the locations harsh environment and high altitude. The project embodies many of the new challenges faced by mining companies as they are forced to explore in more remote and hard-to-reach locations for commercially viable resources.. Australia-based Ausenco, which was hired by Hudbay to provide engineering, procurement and construction management services to design, construct, and commission a 25 Mt/y concentrator and associated infrastructure for the project, was last week recognised for its work.. The company won the Innovation in Mining and Metals award at the 2014 Bentley Year in Infrastructure awards, held in London at the Hilton Metropole on 5 November, for its innovative approach to overcoming project challenges.. Speaking about the award, Ausenco senior design systems engineer Anuj Anand says, It feels amazing to accomplish something of this magnitude. This is ...
High-altitude environments require that animals meet the metabolic O2 demands for locomotion and thermogenesis in O2-thin air, but the degree to which convergent metabolic changes have arisen across independent high-altitude lineages or the speed at which such changes arise is unclear. We examined seven high-altitude waterfowl that have inhabited the Andes (3812-4806m elevation) over varying evolutionary time scales, to elucidate changes in biochemical pathways of energy metabolism in flight muscle relative to low-altitude sister-taxa. Convergent changes across high-altitude taxa included increased hydroxyacyl-coA dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activities, decreased lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, creatine kinase, and cytochrome c oxidase activities, and increased myoglobin content. ATP synthase activity increased in only the longest established high-altitude taxa, whereas hexokinase activity increased in only newly established taxa. Therefore, changes in pathways of lipid ...
Holocene Cyclical Switching of Colorado River Water Alternatively to the Sea of Cortez or to the Salton Sink. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Howard, K. A.; Stock, G. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Schafer, J.; Webb, R. H.. 2007-05-01. The former giant lake (ancient Lake Cahuilla) that intermittently filled the Salton Sink with a volume half that of Lake Erie has profound implications for the hydrologic and ecologic history of the Colorado River delta. Because the delta dams and isolates the sink from the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California), the delta cone has a rare geometry that drains distributaries toward two unconnected termini: sea level on the south side and a fluctuating level in the Salton Sink on the north side. This level fluctuated in the Holocene between 85 m below modern sea level when the Salton Sink was dry and 12 m above sea level when occupied by successive incarnations of full Lake Cahuilla. Geologic and archaeologic records indicate that over the last 1300 years the Salton Sink ...
At 2960 m above sea level the Zugspitze is Germany highest mountain. It lies at the border between Germany and Austria in southern Bavaria and the summit can be reached either by foot or with a cog railway or a cablecar. Below the Zugspitze lies a huge glacier. Right next to the summit there is a restaurant, a weather station and microwave relay stations ...
Mt Toubkal, the highest peak in north Africa, stands 4167m above sea level and commands superb views of the High Atlas Mountains. Our trek passes through impressive landscapes on well-defined paths and is, surprisingly, not too strenuous. As we climb higher, the paths do become steeper but the gain in altitude awards dramatic views towards Marrakech and the spectacular Anti-Atlas mountains. Passing through remote villages and terraced fields we gain an insight into the life of the friendly Berber people and finish with free time in the colourful imperial city of Marrakech.
40 - 20 million years ago. Great Valley Sediments. The stratigraphy of the Great Valley Sequence (GVS) sediments on Quail Ridge is largely obscured by vegetation, but visitors who approach the Ridge from the east have the opportunity to get a great view of them at the Monticello Dam overlook, as well as in the roadcuts from there to the Reserve. Sediments at the dam and in the Reserve, originally laid down horizontally, are nearly vertical. In the gap at Devils Gate where the dam was built, it is clear that some of the strata are more resistant to erosion than others - in general, the sandstones are more resistant than the finer grained silt and shale layers.. These sediments were laid down over a period of 75 million years, from 140-65 million years ago. They are derived by erosion from the early Sierra Nevada and/or Klamath Mountains, which were up to 3000-4000 m high (for reference, the peak of Mt. Whitney is 4417 m above sea level). The sediments appear to have been deposited off the edge ...
In order to prove that Paliki was once an island the geology must show that the Thinia valley was once under water. However, the problem is that the elevation of the Thinia valley is 180m above sea level...and sea level certainly has not changed 180m is only 3000 years!!! However, there are other geologic features that can account for some of the uplift. The Eastern side of the Thinia valley is divided by a large thrust fault known as the Aenos Thrust, which is an extremely active fault to this day. Indeed, the last major earthquake on Cephalonia was a 7.2 magnitude in August 1953. The seismicity is generated by the collision of the Eurasian plate with the African plate. However, the earthquakes, while they cause substantial uplift did not occur often enough or have enough displacement to result in over 180m of uplift since the time of Homer. Therefore, another mechanism is needed to fill in the valley and raise it to 180m. Mapping of the island and the valley revealed a possible solution to ...
Civil engineering, like other branches of engineering, follows preset rules of presentation in order that drawings and plans can be easily read and understood.. Dimensions. On normal drawings, dimensions up to 10 m are usually expressed in millimetres. Over 10 m, dimensions may be expressed directly in metres. Diameters are usually expressed in millimetres; a 100-mm diameter pile is expressed as Ø100.. Levels. Levels above and below mean sea level are usually expressed in metres up to two decimal places. A quay 1.5 m above sea level is said to be at +1.50 m. Similarly, a sounding that is 2 m deep is expressed as -2.00 m. When there are tides, which change the depth of the water, all levels should refer to chart datum or low water spring level (LWS) (see Figure 22).. Symbols. The symbols for sand, rock, etc., used in this booklet are internationally recognized symbols (Figure 105).. ...
The Andes have undergone extended in situ diversification since the late Eocene. However, our analyses also provided evidence of decline in the diversification rate since the middle Oligocene, which has important implications for history and conservation of the endemic Andean fauna. First, the Andes uplift at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary caused significant changes in the rate of diversification in the lowland transition zone. We found that several poison frog lineages distributed on one or both sides of the Andes had dispersed repeatedly before the Miocene uplift (i.e., five cross-Andean and five Northern to Central Andes migrations). Paleogeological evidence supports introgression of shallow seas across the northern Andes during the Miocene, suggesting a historical connection between the Amazon Basin and the Chocó. Second, the Pliocene Andean uplift (>2,000 m above sea level) formed a significant barrier to dispersal, because no other cross-Andean dispersals were found. The uplift also was ...
The Andes have undergone extended in situ diversification since the late Eocene. However, our analyses also provided evidence of decline in the diversification rate since the middle Oligocene, which has important implications for history and conservation of the endemic Andean fauna. First, the Andes uplift at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary caused significant changes in the rate of diversification in the lowland transition zone. We found that several poison frog lineages distributed on one or both sides of the Andes had dispersed repeatedly before the Miocene uplift (i.e., five cross-Andean and five Northern to Central Andes migrations). Paleogeological evidence supports introgression of shallow seas across the northern Andes during the Miocene, suggesting a historical connection between the Amazon Basin and the Chocó. Second, the Pliocene Andean uplift (>2,000 m above sea level) formed a significant barrier to dispersal, because no other cross-Andean dispersals were found. The uplift also was ...
Many users use a location-based application on a portable device to be a navigator when driving. However, there exists an incident that two roads are located on the same geolocation, i.e., same values of latitude and longitude but different altitude, for very long distance where one road is located on the ground level and another one is elevated. This incident mostly confuses a location-based application to precisely retrieve the actual road that a vehicle is currently on and, consequently, causes the application to either navigate incorrectly or suggest a route that is a detour. Calling an altitude from a GPS sensor might be a possible solution but it came with problems of accuracy, especially for mid-grade GPS sensors that equipped with most smartphone in todays market. We proposed a concept of implementing a classification model that can classify whether a vehicle is on a ground road or an elevated road regardless of geolocation data. We trained and validated two models using a dataset that ...
Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes Physiologia Plantarum 2010, 139 , 388-400 Fan Yang, Yong Wang, Ling-Feng Miao Abstract Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a...
The Pushpagiri or Subramanya Hills (also referred as Kumaraparvatha) is the second-highest peak of Kodagu, and fourth highest peak in Karnataka About 36 kilometres (22 mi) from Somwarpet and 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from Kumaralli, it is located amid the jungle. The Eastern entrance can be reached from Beedehalli via Heggademane temple and the Western entrance from Kukke Subramanya via Giri gadde. However, the entrance through Beedehalli is less strenuous. The entrance from Kukke Subramanya is located 165 m above sea level. The nearest airport is in Mangalore at a distance of 106 kilometres (70 mi).Trekkers have to obtain permission from the Forest department which is located near Batra Mane, which is also a spot for overnight camping. This place is at a distance of 6km from Kukke Subramanya. ...
Mt Kilimanjaro holds many titles: its the highest peak in Africa (5,895m above sea level), the highest free-standing mountain in the world (rising 4,600m from the surrounding plains), and the most ac
Study participants are men and women between the ages of 30 to 70 who are of Tibetan descent living at high altitudes (1200, 2900, and 3660 meters above sea level). These populations are exposed to tough climate conditions and different levels of hypobaric hypoxia. However, due to economic development there is a marked heterogeneity in lifestyle among these populations. The studies conducted are cross-sectional using random sampling technique.. ...
As the bagpipes came to life around me, the familiar sound sparked memories of highland classics. But instead of Scotland, I was in the Glen Innes Town Hall, where Celtic flags fly proudly alongside Australian and Aboriginal flags, and where the pipers stamp their local twist on Australia Day as they play Advance Australia Fair. The New England highlands cover the tablelands of northern New South Wales, stretching from the Moonbi Range that rises from around 500 to 1,300m above sea level, to the Queensland border around 300km north. Up here in Glen Innes the first European settlers were Scottish and the sound of bagpipes fills the high street every Friday at midday and can be heard around the towns Standing Stones on special occasions, including the Australian Celtic Festival in May. Given the Scottish link, its surprising then that the land is known as New England rather than any more Celtic variation. But the story behind the name mirrors that of its most famous owner. The New England ...
A quaint and picturesque town, Kuthar is most well known for the magnificent Kuthar Fort, one of the oldest fortified structures in the state. A fine example of Rajasthani architecture and Rajputana artistry, it once served as the residence of the royal family of Kuthar. Spread over an area of 52.8 sq km, it houses a beautiful garden, an ancient temple and freshwater springs. One can get a picturesque view of the Subathu Fort and the snow-capped Himalayan peaks from the fort.. It is said that the fort was originally built by Gurkha rulers around 800 years ago on a hilltop, around 1,300 m above sea level. A section of the fort has been converted into a resort but one can pay an entry fee and visit the fort between 8 am and 6 pm.. ...
Liladownsia fraile was found living around the boundaries of Pine-Oak forests between 1900 and 3000 m above sea level, in a shrubby layer at the edge of the woodland, with acid soils and a temperature range of 10-26°C, and annual precipitation from 350-2000 mm per year. Its preferred host plant is the Pineapple Sage, Salvia elegans. This is a habitat that ranges from Mexico to Guatemala, so the Grasshopper may have a similarly extensive range ...
Meakan Onsen (雌阿寒温泉) is a hot spring place in Ashoro town located in the northwestern direction of Kushiro city, and is well-knonw as a secter onsen in a mountain at around 720 m above sea level in Akan Mashu National Park (阿寒摩周国立公園). Only Nonaka Onsen (野中温泉), Nonaka Onsen Annex Building (野中温泉別館), Kiefuku (景福), a public parking lot and a public restroom are built at an entrance of Lake Onneto (オンネトー). A lot of hikers come to go up Mt. Meakandake (雌阿寒岳) or Mt. Akanfuji (阿寒富士), and here is popular for the Lake Oneneto and rare type of hot springs. The distance is around 50 km away from the center of the Ashoro, and the distance is around 20 km away from Akako Onsen Resort (阿寒湖温泉街), so a convenience store is not built. But Onneto-Chaya (オンネトー茶屋) is a little away from here, and tourists can have a lunch there.
Difficulty sleeping is very common with acute high altitude exposure. Sleep disturbances were reported by more than 70% of participants in acute mountain sickness pharmacologic treatment trials. Difficulty sleeping is one of the primary complaints of visitors to high altitude and some authors consider difficulty sleeping to be nearly universal at high altitudes. Acetazolamide, temazepam, zolpidem and zaleplon are all effective and safe in treating the acute insomnia of high altitude. No head-to-head trials have been performed to determine the best drug class for treatment of high altitude sleep disturbances. The purpose of this study is to compare temazepam and acetazolamide in the treatment of high altitude sleep disturbances. Such knowledge will benefit the hundreds of thousands of visitors to areas of high altitude throughout the world.. The study will be a convenience sample of 100 trekkers in Manang, Nepal (elevation 11,500 feet). The study will only enroll trekkers who have gained more ...
Measurements from icebreaker Odens navigation, meteorological and surface seawater systems from the Arctic Ocean 2018 (AO2018, also referred to as MOCCHA-ACAS-ICE) expedition to the central Arctic Ocean in August and September 2018. The dataset provides rare meteorological and surface sea water observations from sea-ice regions of the Arctic Ocean, as well as Odens navigation data. The data enable analysis of meteorological conditions and provide context for other measurements and analysis associated with the expedition. Measurements of wind, temperature, humidity and pressure were made from sensors above Odens bridge (25-35 m above sea level). Measurements of seawater properties (temperature, salinity, conductivity and sound velocity) were performed by sensors in the main laboratory on the pumped underway line, with an intake at 8 m depth. Water temperature was also measured with hull contact sensors located close to the underway line intake.
Throughout the world, invasive species remain one of the most serious threats to native wildlife. Perhaps the most infamous example of such an alien invasion is that of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia. Released in 1935 to combat sugarcane pests, cane toads proved themselves to be adept at reproducing rapidly in their new environment and, worse still, took quite a fancy to many of Australias native wildlife, viewing them as a tasty snack. A recent study, by Rick Shine and his team at the University of Sydney, Australia, demonstrates that a barrier that once was thought would slow down the toads expansion - low temperatures at high altitudes - is actually dealt with rapidly and successfully by the toads, their secret trick being incredibly rapid cold acclimation.. The study, published in Functional Ecology, noted that cane toads were being recorded up to 1100 m above sea level, with the animals experiencing considerably colder conditions than their native counterparts in central and ...
Here, we apply the model to simulate a mountain time trial in the Tour de France. The time trial starts in the town of Bourg dOisans at an altitude of about 720 m above sea level, and ends after 15.5 km in the town of Alpe dHuez at an altitude of 1850 m. The conditions are similar to the mountain time trial in the Tour de France on 21 July 2004 [12,13], although we emphasize that exact correspondence to the parameters of the time trial and the cyclist could not be established. The altitude of the road at 1 km intervals was obtained from published profiles [14]. From these altitudes, we calculated the slope of the road with a 1 km resolution. The climb starts 1.5 km from the start and the slopes vary between 8 and 11 per cent for three quarters of the distance covered. For the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of the rider in the model, we use published data for Lance Armstrong [3], who won the stage with a time of about 39 min 41 s, more than 1 min faster than Jan Ullrich, who ...
Thus, large quantity of dead organic matter accumulates in these areas, and this gives a rich humus and organic content to the soil. Since the latter amount is dependent on temperature, relative humidity is a function of both moisture content and temperature. Research suggests that the ideal humidity level in your home should be somewhere between 35% - 45%.Some sources suggest it can be as low as 30% or as high as 50%. Seasons. Humid definition, containing a high amount of water or water vapor; noticeably moist: humid air;a humid climate. Under high temperature, high humidity with sufficient rainfall and irrigation facilities, rice can be grown in any type of soil. Kodaikanal is 2100 m above sea level and located at 10.23° N 77.48° E. Kodaikanal has a population of 35021. it is difficult for the sweat to evaporate and in high humidity conditions we tend to sweat more. house-warming - tamil meaning of புதுமனை புகுவிழா. Contextual translation of high humidity into ...
Figure 1. Grape (Vitis vinifera). 1. Name of Plant. Name : anggur (grape). 2. Classification of Plants. Kingdom: Plantae. Divisio : Spermatophyta. Subdivisio : Angiospermae. Class: Magnoliopsida. Subclass : Rosidae. Ordo : Rhamnales. Family: Vitaceae. Genus: Vitis. Species: Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca. 3. Description Plants. Shrubs vines, length can reach 10 m, curved round leaves with serrated edge and tapering ends. Flowers are arranged in panicles. Fruit round or slightly oval-sized +/- 2 cm, smooth-skinned, color variety, sweet fruit sour meat, containing 2-4 seeds. Not all types of genus Vitis edible, which can be eaten only two types, there are Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. Plants grape type Vitis vinifera has the following characteristics:. a) Thin skin, sweet and fresh taste.. b) The ability to grow from lowland up to 300 m above sea level dry climates.. c) Including this type, there are Gros Colman, Probolinggo Biru dan Putih, Situbondo Kuning, Alphonso Lavalle and Golden ...
Alnus glutinosa (black or common alder): up to 700m above sea level, especially on moist sites (stream banks, ditches, forest mires).. Alnus viridis (Green Alder): shrub, subalpine to montane (predominantly at timber line) on silicate soils with ample surface water supply, superseding Pinus mugo (which grows at similar elevations on limestone). Alnus incana (grey or speckled alder): widespread, but absent in Western Europe, used for reforestation and stabilization of slopes and embankments, blooms February to March - usually a bit earlier than black alder.. Alnus x spaethii: the product of a hybridisation, the source of pollen up to two months before other alder species in European cities where it is planted (for example, Christmas hay fever in parts of Switzerland) ...
A submarine eruption, the first recorded in historical time from this previously little known seamount, was observed by a passing ship on February 18, 1996. Water discoloration and bursts of very dark water were observed at Eastern Gemini. Overflights as late as the 22nd noted periodic explosions that ejected black products to about 20 m above sea level. Located ~100 km south of Aneityum Island, about halfway between Yasur volcano and Matthew Island, the Eastern Gemini seamount, also known as Oscostar, is one of several seamounts along the southern submarine extension of the New Hebrides island arc. It consists of an elongated NNE-SSW-trending ridge of submarine volcanoes with satellitic cones. Several basaltic samples and one andesitic rock dredged from this seamount in 1989 were described as glassy, vesicular, and extremely fresh ...
Oberstdorf is Germanys southernmost health resort. In the midst of the Allgäu Alps and 815m above sea level, the town - one of only 16 certified premium class health resorts - offers guests the opportunity to experience nature at its purest, as well as superlative air quality. Total relaxation in a climatic health resort. Health-conscious visitors to Oberstdorf can choose from more than 85 providers of wellness, beauty and therapeutic treatments, and the town also specialises in treating patients with respiratory illnesses, cardiovascular diseases, psychosomatic and vegetative disorders and internal diseases. Healing therapies are complemented by acupuncture, phytotherapy and alternative treatments. The result is a unique medical concept. Everyone wants to escape the everyday grind and feel better - but visitors can do much more than just that at Oberstdorfs thermal baths. You can get yourself fit at one of the many aquafit classes on offer, including the latest craze: aqua Nordic walking. ...
Since the mask can be adjusted to restrict increasingly greater amounts of oxygen, the adaptation effect may get you ready for training/living at high altitudes, where there is less oxygen available. Even if you dont plan to live or train at high altitude, the TrainingMask can beneficial for improving aerobic endurance and cardiovascular fitness. Danford says a general Training Mask protocol of three mask-wearing cardio training sessions a week for six weeks will yield noticeable results.. The main results from running with the mask are better cardio, lung volume, and oxygen efficiency within the bloodstream in addition to re-training the way you breathe.. Aside from running, the unique device can be worn during various physical activities including circuit and mixed martial arts training to establish proper breathing technique and get your respiratory system acclimated to a lack of oxygen.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of airway device cuff volumes at simulated altitude. AU - Law, Jennifer. AU - Bair, Aaron E. AU - Capra, Jason. AU - Holder, Allen. AU - Allen, Robert. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Introduction: Cuff volume of an air-filled airway device varies inversely with ambient pressure at altitude. This may result in problems with ventilation, aspiration, and tissue ischemia in intubated patients transported by aircraft. We aimed to characterize cuff volume changes in airway devices as a function of altitude. Methods: Four inflatable airway devices [endotracheal tube (ETT), Combitube, King tube, and laryngeal mask airway (LMA)], each inflated with air or water, were evaluated for cuff volume changes in an altitude chamber simulating ascent and descent from ground level to 15,000 ft (4572 m). A novel cuff-less supraglottic device called i-gel was also tested. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the effect of altitude and cuff content on cuff volume. Results: ...
10 day trek to Everest Base Camp trek is an exclusive trekking package by tourist link treks & expedition for the sake of frugal friendly trekker. Everest base camp trekking has been a dream for many trekkers all around the world due to hefty expenses many visitors became reluctant to make the dream come true. Now we have come up with best possible itinerary with the reasonable price. Exploring the base camp of world tallest mountain Mt Everest 8848, Sherpa people, Buddhist culture and dozens of tallest peak are the major attraction. 10 Day Trek to Everest Base Camp starts in Kathmandu taking a scenic mountain flight to Lukla 2840m which takes half an hour and the journey continues ahead all the way to Everest Base camp passing through precious Sherpa land where we get to learn their custom, culture, religion, ritual, history and tribal legacy. Additionally you will be blessed with enriched flora-fauna of Sagarmatha National park which lies inside Everest region. Another highlight of this ...
Altitude Sickness The available amount of oxygen to sustain mental and physical alertness decreases with altitude. Available oxygen drops as the air density drops. Dehydration due to the higher rate of water vapor lost from the lungs at higher altitudes may contribute to the symptoms of altitude sickness. The rate of ascent, altitude attained, amount of physical activity at high altitude, as well as individual susceptibility, are contributing factors to the onset and severity of high- altitude illness.Dehydration Altitude sickness-also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS): is a pathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude. It commonly occurs above 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). It presents as a collection of nonspecific symptoms, acquired at high altitude or in low air pressure, resembling a case of
The areas around Khumbu are commonly called as the Everest Region. It is also known as the home of Sherpa people and the mysterious Yeti. This trek comprises not only the Everest Base Camp but also Kalapatthar from where you can witness the stunning view of Mt. Everest, highest peak in the world.. The trek starts from Lukla where we reach by plane from Kathmandu. During the flight, you will have magnificent geographical views of snow capped high Himalayas, colorful flowered green hills, tiny settlements; river gorges etc..... The Everest Base Camp Trek is probably the most famous trek in the world. Our 17 days Everest Base Camp Trek itinerary goes right into the heart of the Himalaya; taking in the famous trading town of Namche Bazaar, the worlds highest Buddhist monastery and Everest Base Camp itself, where Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay set off on their epic journey in 1953.. ...
The simple way to think about the cloud structure is that different types of gas will condense into ice clouds at different altitudes, almost like layers in a parfait dessert. Exactly which cloud condenses where depends on how much vapor is present and on the temperatures, which become colder and colder at lower altitudes in the stratosphere. The reality is more complicated, however, because each type of cloud forms over a range of altitudes, so its possible for some ices to condense simultaneously, or co-condense.. Anderson and colleagues use CIRS to sort through the complex set of infrared fingerprints from many molecules in Titans atmosphere. The instrument separates infrared light into its component colors, like raindrops creating a rainbow, and measures the strengths of the signal at the different wavelengths.. CIRS acts as a remote-sensing thermometer and as a chemical probe, picking out the heat radiation emitted by individual gases in an atmosphere, said F. Michael Flasar, the CIRS ...
Trek to Everest Base Camp in Nepal. We offer a full range of Everest Base Camp trekking holidays including our classic Everest Base Camp Trek and an in Style trek staying in a selection of luxury lodges. We have been trekking in the Everest Region for over 30 years and pride ourselves on excellent acclimatisation and service throughout.
Stays at high altitude induce alterations in cardiovascular control and are a model of specific pathological cardiovascular derangements at sea level. However, high-altitude alterations of the complex cardiovascular dynamics remain an almost unexplored issue. Therefore, our aim is to describe the altered cardiovascular complexity at high altitude with a multiscale entropy (MSE) approach. We recorded the beat-by-beat series of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in 20 participants for 15 min twice, at sea level and after arrival at 4554 m a.s.l. We estimated Sample Entropy and MSE at scales of up to 64 beats, deriving average MSE values over the scales corresponding to the high-frequency (MSEHF) and low-frequency (MSELF) bands of heart-rate variability. We found a significant loss of complexity at heart-rate and blood-pressure scales complementary to each other, with the decrease with high altitude being concentrated at Sample Entropy and at MSEHF for heart rate and at MSELF for blood
See this link for a video of Macbook Pros being used at high altitude on Mount Everest. Although this was mentioned before on MR by Macbytes I dont...
How is Low Altitude Surveillance Radar abbreviated? LASS stands for Low Altitude Surveillance Radar. LASS is defined as Low Altitude Surveillance Radar rarely.
Ascent to high altitude leads to a number of changes in lung function. We studied 55 subjects at sea level and as they ascended from 2600m to 5300m over 8 to 14 days to investigate the possible time course of these changes. Using a turbine spirometer, previously validated at simulated altitude, subjects recorded their peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) on arrival at each new attitude and again the next morning. Compared to sea level, PEF rose by 4.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 4.4-5.0, p=0.007), and FVC fell by 0.54% (95% CI 0.4-0.7, p=0.034), for every 1000m gain in altitude. FEV1 was unaffected by altitude change. These observations are in line with our previous findings (Pollard et al, Thorax, 1996;51:175-8). There was no significant change in lung function or acute mountain sickness (AMS) scores between arrival at each altitude and the next morning. Subjects with a greater fall in FVC on arrival at each attitude had higher
It has been previously reported that N-beta-phenethyl-biguanide phenformin protected both anesthetized and unanesthetized rats from the lethal effects of severe hypoxia. Data in these studies indicated that phenformin HCl protected the rats by preventing cardiovascular collapse and central depression and simultaneously producing marked respiratory stimulation accompanied by arterial PCO2 and pH significantly lower and arterial PO2 significantly higher than that found in untreated animals. In the present studies, hexamethonium abolished the pressor response of phenformin HCl in cats providing additional evidence that one of the actions of phenformin HCl is facilitation of ganglionic activity. Phenformin HCl, 75 mgkg, orally, markedly improved the lever press shock-avoidance performance of rats tested at altitudes between 18,000 and 24,000 feet. Altitudes in excess of 21,000 feet produced a much greater detrimental effect on learning than on performance and phenformin HCl did not improve the ability
High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of ...
High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of ...
Eventbrite - Base Camp Excursion Pvt. Ltd presents Mount Everest base camp trek Nepal - Saturday, October 7, 2017 | Wednesday, October 18, 2017 at Khumjung, Khumjung, Eastern Region. Find event and ticket information.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the numerous porters and Sherpas who made this study possible, in particular Sherpa Pemba, who organized the logistics of the ascent. They also thank Peter Becker, MD, for his tireless medical support during the expedition and Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., for providing 2 portable echocardiography devices. Finally, they thank Michael Yeager for editing the manuscript.. Grant Support: By the German Research Foundation (Sonderforschungsbereich 547) and in part by an unrestricted independent research grant from Pfizer GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany.. Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest:Grants received: H.A. Ghofrani (Pfizer Ltd., ALTANA Pharma AG, Schering AG), W. Seeger (Schering AG, Pfizer Ltd., ALTANA Pharma AG, Lung Rx, Myogen), F. Grimminger (ALTANA Pharma AG, Bayer AG, Pfizer Ltd.); Grants pending: H.A. Ghofrani (Eli Lilly and Co.), F. Grimminger (Eli Lilly and Co.).. Requests for Single Reprints: Friedrich Grimminger, PhD, MD, Department of Internal ...
The chemical composition of the spring waters arising from the volcano, fed by rainwater ion-enriched during infiltration, depends on the dissolution reactions of primary minerals and oxidation-reduction equilibrium reactions which occur in the surface layer of organic matter, where this exists. At low elevation, vegetation is extensive, soils are more developed and the waters are heavily loaded with ions, whereas at high elevation they have low ion content. This mineral impoverishment can be explained by a what is still only a slight interaction between the water and the rock, characteristic of the start of the weathering process. That result was confirmed by the small size of differences in strontium isotope ratios obtained at high elevation between the waters and the rock and similar to those of fresh lavas. The speed of the process, expressed as weathering rate and calculated as a function of the water input from rainfall and losses by evapotranspiration, was estimated at a maximum of 20 mm ...
Taking us to the most iconic base camp of all, at the foot of the greatest mountain in the world, Mount Everest (8848m), this is one of the worlds classic treks. Walking through Sherpa country past cultivated fields and small villages, we have time to acclimatise before reaching spectacular high altitude scenery: the incredible monastery at Thyangboche, views of Ama Dablam, Everest and other mighty Himalayan peaks. As well as reaching Base Camp, we have the opportunity to climb Kala Pattar (5545m) for a magnificent view of the highest mountain on Earth.
What every physician needs to know: Millions of people travel to high altitude every year for recreation, exploration, and work. Ascent to high altitude is associated with physiological changes that may manifest as altitude-related illness. Altitude-related illnesses range from acute mountain sickness, which is common and usually mild, to life-threatening high-altitude pulmonary edema and high-altitude…. ...
Before going trekking to the Himalayas make sure you familiarize yourself with the common symptoms of mountain sickness so that you may be better able to help yourself and others. AMS (acute mountain sickness) causes headache and nausea at high altitude (,2700 m). So if you are going to Lahsa, Tibet or Kailash/Mana sarover please take diamox (125 mg two times per day) for 4 days, starting on day before your trip. Make sure you have no sulpha allergy before taking this drug expect tingling of your fingers and toes. The life-threatening problems at altitude are HACE (High Altitude Cerebral Edema) and HAPE (High Altitude Pulmonary Edema) For further info, please check our website: www.nepalinternationalclinic.com. ...
There are things that stink to high heaven - quite literally. For example, if up to 1000 climbers, high altitude porters, cooks, kitchen helpers and other staff relieve themselves for two months during the spring season in the base camp on the Nepalese south side of Mount Everest. The number of 12,000 kilograms of faeces has been reported for years, which seems to me rather low. The removal of the human waste from Everest Base Camp has been regulated for a long time, in contrast to the faecal problem in the high camps. The excrements from the toilet tents of the expeditions are collected in barrels and carried downwards by so-called shit porters - until 2014 without exception to Gorak Shep, the next small settlement, located about five kilometers from the base camp, now also further down the valley. There the faeces have been tipped into pits thus posing a great danger to the drinking water. The International Climbing and Moutaineering Association (UIAA) has now awarded an environmental ...
Everest region is the best trekking route ever for all the thrill-seekers which consist of worlds highest point 8848 m. Everest Base camp trek, Rowling trek, Gokyo trek, Everest Chola pass, Jiri to Everest Base camp trek, Everest panorama trek, are some of the best package with the life time memoir sovereign.
The new finding of the present study is that AMS symptoms in subjects acutely exposed to high altitude appear to be related to an altered dynamic autoregulation of the cerebral circulation.. Transcranial Doppler was used for the noninvasive and beat-by-beat estimation of CBF. This approach is based on the reasonable assumption that hypoxia or acute hypotension would not alter the diameter of the middle cerebral artery.16,17 Finger plethysmography was used for the noninvasive beat-by-beat estimation of cerebral arterial pressure. This approach is validated for the measurement of instantaneous relative changes, and as such, has been used previously for cerebral autoregulation studies and ARI computing.11,12. Previous studies in normal subjects using the same methodology as in the present study reported a normal ARI of ≈5, range from 3 to 7, for an average BP drop ranging from 15 to 28 mm Hg.12 Our normal subjects presented with a baseline ARI of 4.44 for an average cuff release-induced drop in ...
The trend identified by our colleagues in Figure 3 is underscored when we look at the trend in the date of the beginning of melt (melt onset, top image in Figure 4) and the date that the snow and ice finally re-freeze at the end of the season (freeze-up, lower image in Figure 4). Melt day data from 1978 to 2013 show a pronounced trend toward a longer melt season. Melt onset has started 4-12 days earlier per decade over this 35 year period (shown by the blue colors). A few areas at high elevation have shown later onset, perhaps due to increasing accumulation of snow at high elevation in Greenland. The end of the melt season, or freeze-up date, has pushed later into the autumn by 8-16 days per decade, particularly along the southwestern coast and east-central areas. ...
Guideline for acclimatization:. Above 2500m-300m ascent per day with a rest day every third or fourth day.. Above 3500m-150m ascent per day with a rest day every third or fourth day.. Spend two nights at the same altitude for every 600m gained above 3500m. The daily ascent recommended is the difference between sleeping locations, you may go higher during the day. [Measures: 1meter =3.28feets, *C = 5/9 (*F-32)]. How do I know if I am getting a high- altitude sickness?. Some of the fist signs of high-altitude illness are headache, lightheadness, weakness, trouble sleeping and an upset stomach. If you have these symptoms, stop going up to a higher altitude or go back down to a lower altitude until your symptoms go away. More severe symptoms include difficulty breathing while you are resting, coughing, confusion and inability to walk in a straight line. If you get these symptoms, go to a lower altitude right away and get help from a doctor.. What should I do if I get high-altitude sickness?. The ...
Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere at sea level is about 21%. As altitude increases, the percentage remains the same but the number of oxygen molecules per breath is reduced. At 12,000 feet (3,600 m) there are roughly 40% fewer oxygen molecules per breath so the body must adjust to having less oxygen. AMS is caused by the failure of the body to adapt quickly enough to the reduced oxygen at increased altitudes. Altitude sickness can occur in some people as low as 8,000 feet, but serious symptoms do not usually occur until over 12,000 feet. It is not the height that is most troublesome, but the rate of ascension. It is difficult to determine who may be affected by altitude sickness since there are no specific factors such as age, sex, or physical condition that correlate with susceptibility. At over 10,000 feet (3,000 m), more than 75% of climbers will experience at least some form of mild AMS. There are four factors related to AMS:. ...
LOW: Alaska L-3/4 IFR Low Altitude Enroute Chart by FAA - NACO / NOS ELAK3 - Alaska L-3/4 IFR Low Altitude Enroute Chart - - Pilot Supplies at a Pilot Shop
Himalaya is an ecologically pristine environment. The geo-tectonic activities have shaped various environmental niches with diverse microbial populations throughout the Himalayan biosphere region. Albeit, limited information is available in terms of molecular insights into the microbiome, including the uncultured microbes, of the Himalayan habitat. Hence, a vast majority of genomic resources are still under-explored from this region. Metagenome analysis has simplified the extensive in-depth exploration of diverse habitats. In the present study, the culture-independent whole metagenome sequencing methodology was employed for microbial diversity exploration and identification of genes involved in various metabolic pathways in two geothermal springs located at different altitudes in the Sikkim Himalaya. The two hot springs, Polok and Reshi, have distinct abiotic conditions. The average temperature of Polok and Reshi was recorded to be 62 °C and 43 °C, respectively. Both the aquatic habitats have alkaline
ALTITUDE TRAINING AND ITS EFFECTS ON HIGHLY-TRAINED SWIMMERS The scientific evidence associated with altitude acclimatization and performance in elite swimmers is reviewed extensively in the yet-to-be-published paper, Altitude training and elite swimmers. The authors are: Brent S. Rushall, Michael J. Buono, and Anthony A. Sucec, Professors of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences at San Diego State University, and Alan D. Roberts, Associate-Professor of Sports Studies at the University of Canberra. The article is the most detailed and up-to-date treatment of the topic available. Initial attention is paid to the manner in which the human body acclimatizes (adapts) to passive and active stresses. Those reactions are then meshed with the published works on altitude acclimatization that are valid for swimming. With altitude training featuring as an expensive part of the annual plans of several nations, it is of value to consider the summary implications of this research article. . . . acclimatization ...
Dr. Fisher is exploring the hypothesis that acute high-altitude hypoxia during critical points of development early in pregnancy reduces oxygen transport and leads to congenital heart defects. He plans to test this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse with a built-in oxygen concentration detector that will allow him to determine at what altitude and developmental stage oxygen delivery to the developing heart is compromised. He will also develop a novel mouse model of placental insufficiency and examine how this condition affects oxygen delivery to fetal tissues under high-altitude hypoxia. The cause of the vast majority of congenital heart defects remains unknown, and Dr. Fishers work may shed light on one such cause and lead to recommendations and preventative treatments regarding exposure to high altitude during pregnancy. ...
Methods A total of 39 obese and 43 non-obese young-middle aged male subjects were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed an AMS (acute mountain sickness) self-report questionnaire at sea level and after ascending high-altitude 12 hours and 24 hours. Weight and height were measured and BM1 was calculated. Vital capacity of lungs was measured. Venous blood was sampled for measuring haemoglobin at baseline. Arterial blood was taken for evaluating arterial oxygen saturation (SO2), arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCOz) at baseline and 24 hours after ascending high-altitude.. ...
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Kenyatta National Hospital and the University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of Burkitts lymphoma (BL) from three regions in Kenya at different altitudes with a view towards understanding the contribution of local environmental factors. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and seven provincial hospitals in Kenya. METHOD: Histologically proven cases of Burkitts lymphoma in patients less than 16 years of age were clinically examined and investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For every case the following parameters were documented: chief complaint(s); physical examination, specifically pallor, jaundice, oedema, lymphadenopathy, presence of masses, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Reports of evaluation of chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound/scan, bone marrow aspiration, cerebral spinal fluid cytology, liver and kidney function tests, ...
Yoichi Shimatsu: Well that too, thats the problem, see this new report by this blue ribbon panel has come out that are very critical to the governments response. The government had this program called SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) which takes all the wind direction, all the meteorological readings at different altitudes. And then it calculates if there is a nuclear release, it will calculate the fallout. Its not precise but it will get down to lets say a 3 m2 area which is very small, exactly like size of some peoples pool tables essentially, two billiard tables put together. And they will calculate where exactly the radiation is going and they knew exactly. The ridiculous circles that they made these 20 km and 30 km circles where just not how radiation is spread. It spreads along the directional path of where wind and water will take it. And they moved a lot of people to the north west which was closer to Fukushima city but right in the sort of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of interferon, cytokine, and lymphocyte proliferative responses in elite swimmers with altitude exposure. AU - Pyne, David B.. AU - McDonald, Warren A.. AU - Morton, Darla S.. AU - Swiggett, Jeanene P.. AU - Foster, Mareva. AU - Sonnenfeld, Gerald. AU - Smith, John A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - To determine the immunologic consequences of athletic training at altitude, blood samples were taken at rest from 10 swimmers and 8 control nontraining but altitude-exposed members of the 1996 Australian Olympic Swimming Team, near the start and completion of a 21-day training camp at 2102 m. Blood leukocyte numbers dropped in both groups (p , 0.05), with the decrease greater in the swimmers (-38% swimmers, -3% controls). Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced blastogenesis decreased in both groups (p,0.01), but the drop was greater in the control group (-32% swimmers, -56% controls, p , 0.05). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced blastogenesis more than doubled in both groups (281% ...
Se övriga modeller. Toyota har just nu omkring 82 fordon i produktion. Deras modeller sträcker sig mellan allt från personbilar, sedaner och minibussar till lastbilar, hybridbilar och crossoverbilar. Biltillverkarens framgång beror dock främst på försäljningen av personbilar. Blocket är Sveriges största marknadsplats inom kategorin toyota, highlander i hela sverige. Toyota Highlander HYBRID V6 AWD Automat 7. Butik. Förutom den oerhört populära hybridbilen Prius har Toyota även fått stort genomslag med bilfamiljerna Yaris, Corolla, Camry och Avalon. 2 begagnade Toyota Highlander blev prisjämförda. hämtade från -6% begagnad Toyota Highlander V6 Hybrid 4WD-i Automat · Toyota Highlander Här loggar du in för obegränsad läsning av allt innehåll på di. I dag har vi nått halvvägs sverige vårt unika test av vätgasbilen Toyota Mirai. Bilen har rullat i sex månader och mil - och bilens styrkor och svagheter har bekräftats ytterligare. Frågan är: varför highlander Toyota ...
This specific tour to the Annapurna base camp takes you on a special route, including a very popular tourist spot, i.e. Ghorepani. We will depart to Birethanti from the capita and from there, the trek will commence. We will each Ghorepani on the fourth day. After witnessing an amazing sunset and sunrise from Poonhill, we move forwards towards the foot of the Himalayas. We will reach the base camp of the eighth day of the trek. The destination, Annapurna Base Camp will be magical with a close-up view of amazing snow-capped mountains, and panoramic sunsets. We will camp there for the day, and return down from the next day. THe descent will be accompanied by mesmerizing flora and fauna upto the eleventh day. This is when we will reach Pokhara From there you can choose to either fly or drive towards Kathmandu where you will depart.. ...
Low Cost Everest Base Camp Trek with us is a truly fantastic trip in the high valleys of Khumbu & interesting traditions of Sherpa community. this kind of trek to EBC will let you watch high Himalayan range,unbelievable landscapes, the valley view & different trekking experience in the high Himalaya region.
A new paper finds global mean sea levels rose at only 1 mm/year, equivalent to less than 4 inches per century, over the 203 year period from 1807-2010. The finding is remarkably similar to the sea level rise of 1.1-1.3 mm/yr found by the NOAA 2005-2012 Sea Level Budget, the only sea level budget which reconciles both satellite [altimeters & GRACE] & ARGO float data. The authors also find no evidence of acceleration of sea level rise, which indicates that there is no evidence of a human influence upon sea levels. In addition, the authors find that sea level rise is a localized rather than global phenomenon, with 61% of tide gauge records demonstrating no change in sea levels, 4% showing a decrease, and a minority of 35% showing a rise. This implies relative sea level change is primarily related to subsidence or post-glacial rebound [land height changes] rather than melting ice or steric sea level changes [thermal expansion from warming]. ...
Masks for high-altitude climbers[edit]. Oxygen masks are used by climbers of high peaks such as Mt. Everest.[15] Because of the ... altitude (usually somewhat lower altitude), where one can breathe normally without an oxygen mask. If the oxygen pressure in ... Windsor JS, Rodway GW (2006). "Supplemental oxygen and sleep at altitude". High Alt. Med. Biol. 7 (4): 307-11. doi:10.1089/ham. ... In a diluter-demand system, as the altitude increases (ambient pressure, and therefore the partial pressure of ambient oxygen, ...
Altitude[edit]. Built on the plateau of Laona, with an average altitude of about 170 meters, Neo Chorio Paphou is located in ...
Altitude[edit]. Main article: Altitude sickness. Atmospheric pressure reduces with altitude and with it, the amount of oxygen.[ ... "Altitude oxygen calculator". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Archived from the original on 2017-06-11. Retrieved 2006- ... Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to ... To counter the effects of high-altitude diseases, the body must return arterial pO. 2 toward normal. Acclimatization, the means ...
In the high altitude vineyards of Tupungato, located southwest of the city of Mendoza in the Uco Valley, Chardonnay is ... Recently, the higher-altitude vines planted in the Pedernal valley in Western San Juan, one of the most isolated regions in ... Despite its high altitude daytime temperatures in the summertime can reach 38 °C (100 °F) but at night the area experiences a ... The altitude here exceeds that of more southerly Uco Valley in Mendoza, leading to extremely dry conditions with high thermal ...
High-altitude and mountaineering medicine[edit]. *Physics and physiology of altitude. *AMS, HAPE and HACE ...
Sigmund Rascher in experiments to aid German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes. A low-pressure chamber containing these ... "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Letter to Sigmund Rascher concerning the high altitude experiments". nuremberg.law.harvard.edu. ... In a letter from Himmler to Rascher on April 13, 1942, Himmler ordered Rascher to continue the high altitude experiments and to ... "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Letter to Erhard Milch concerning the high altitude and freezing experiments". nuremberg.law. ...
At low altitudes above sea level, the pressure decreases by about 1.2 kPa for every 100 metres. For higher altitudes within the ... As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. One can calculate the atmospheric pressure at a given altitude.[6] ... Calculator giving standard air pressure at a specified altitude, or altitude at which a pressure would be standard ... High Altitude Cooking, Crisco.com, 2010-09-30, archived from the original on 2012-09-07, retrieved 2012-10-17. ...
High-altitude features[edit]. To reach higher altitudes, a pressurized cockpit was added to the H models. The canopy was sealed ... High-altitude fighters[edit]. Rumors of the B-29, which would cruise at altitudes at which no German aircraft could comfortably ... altitude. This presented a problem for fighter use, where high-altitude performance was desirable. Through careful tuning, the ... It used the MW 50 system mainly for altitudes up to about 10,000 metres (33,000 ft) and the GM-1 system for higher altitudes, ...
At altitudes above the Armstrong limit, around 19,000 m (62,000 ft), water boils at body temperature and pressurized suits are ... The suit is a direct descendant of the United States Air Force high-altitude pressure suits worn by SR-71 Blackbird and U-2 spy ... Evgeniy Chertovsky created his full-pressure suit or high-altitude "skafandr" (скафандр) in 1931. (скафандр also means "diving ... Many space suit designs are taken from the U.S. Air Force suits, which are designed to work in "high altitude aircraft pressure ...
Lines of constant tidal phase are called cotidal lines, which are analogous to contour lines of constant altitude on ... However, for a given location the relationship between lunar altitude and the time of high or low tide (the lunitidal interval ... Atmospheric tides are negligible at ground level and aviation altitudes, masked by weather's much more important effects. ... the Moon's altitude (elevation) above the Earth's Equator, and bathymetry. Variations with periods of less than half a day are ...
High altitudes[edit]. A pressure cooker can be used to compensate for lower atmospheric pressure at high elevations. The ... At higher altitudes, the boiling point of liquid in the pressure cooker will be slightly lower than it would be at sea level. ... "Pressure Cooking At High Altitudes". Miss Vickie's Pressure Cooker Recipes. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. ... Nonetheless, small, lightweight pressure cookers are available for mountain climbers (see Use at high altitudes). ...
High altitude experiments[edit]. Rascher suggested in early 1941, while a captain in the Luftwaffe's Medical Service, that high ... He conducted deadly experiments on humans about high altitude, freezing and blood coagulation under SS leader Heinrich Himmler' ... altitude/low-pressure experiments be carried out on human beings.[8] While taking a course in aviation medicine at Munich, he ... the interior pressure of which was then lowered to a level corresponding to very high altitudes. The pressure could be very ...
Main article: Altitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda. The consolidated cases of Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia and Altitude ... 5.3.18 Altitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda (2020). *5.3.19 R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes Inc. v. Equal Employment Opportunity ... In June 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in three cases (Bostock v. Clayton County, Altitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda, and R.G ...
Given normal atmospheric conditions, the temperature, and thus speed of sound, varies with altitude: Altitude Temperature m/s ... Altitude variation and implications for atmospheric acoustics[edit]. Density and pressure decrease smoothly with altitude, but ... Cruising altitude of commercial jets,. and first supersonic flight) −57 °C (−70 °F) 295 1,062 660 573 ... At altitude, for reasons explained, Mach number is a function of temperature. Aircraft flight instruments, however, operate ...
Measuring a celestial altitude with the quadrant[edit]. On one of the straight edges of the non maritime quadrant (solid sheet ... Taking the altitude of the Sun with the Sinecal Quadrant. Note shadow of sight vane with dot of sunlight on index finger of ... The cord is called "Khait" and is used as a plumb line when measuring celestial altitudes. It is also used as the indicator of ... Making altitude (elevation) measurements of the Sun being simple and direct, requiring the user to aligning the image of the ...
Speed: Mach 24.1; altitude: 243,000 feet (74 km; 46.0 mi).. *08:52:00 (EI+471): Columbia was about 300 miles (480 km) west of ... Speed: Mach 22.5; altitude: 227,400 feet (69.3 km; 43.07 mi).. Witnesses observed a bright flash at this point and 18 similar ... Speed: Mach 22.8; altitude: 230,200 feet (70.2 km; 43.60 mi).. The hot air surrounding the Orbiter suddenly brightened, causing ... Exposure to high-speed and high-altitude environment[edit]. After separation from the crew module, the bodies of the crew ...
Sullivan, Steve (director) (29 March 2019). Being Frank: The Chris Sievey Story (Motion picture). Altitude. Event occurs at 31: ...
It varies greatly from tropical to severe cold depending upon the altitude of the area. The city is in Doon Valley, temperature ... "Altitude". Dehradun. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011. "Important District Indicators". ...
Jantar Mantar was constructed with an aim of measuring local time, altitude (of the place) and also to measure declination of ... "Altitude". daftlogic.com. Retrieved 16 August 2015. - "Places Of Interest". Varanasi.nic. Retrieved 16 August 2015. - "Jantar ...
Altitude. The external partial pressure of oxygen decreases with altitude, for example in areas of high altitude or when flying ... "Altitude oxygen calculator". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Archived from the original on 2017-06-11. Retrieved 2006- ... The term hypoxemia was originally used to describe low blood oxygen occurring at high altitudes and was defined generally as ... "Maximal exercise at extreme altitudes on Mount Everest". Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise ...
"Altitude". IMDb. "#killerpost". IMDb. victoriaatkin.com Official website Victoria Atkin at IMDb. ...
altitude. The municipal area of 162.3 km2 extending from the piedmont and foothills of Sierra Morena, in exactly the watershed ...
Altitude. At a higher altitude it is easier to become burnt, because there is less of the earth's atmosphere to block the ...
Altitude. A warming stripes graphic (blues denote cool, reds denote warm) shows how the greenhouse effect traps heat in the ... Higher-altitude cooling differences attributed to ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases; spikes occurred with volcanic ...
"Altitude". Reza Kabul Architects. Archived from the original on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017. "The Altitude Colombo, ...
Altitude , Up to 800 m , 800m-1,600m , 1,600m-2,700m , 2,700m-3,600m ,- , Type of area , Valley areas and foothills , Hilly and ... There is a huge variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal Pradesh due to variation in altitude (450-6500 metres). The ...
"Altitude." Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine C-130J/CC-130J. Retrieved: 23 March 2012. Borman, Martin W. Lockheed C ... impacted the side of Kebnekaise mountain at an altitude of 4,920 feet (1,500 metres) during bad weather after disappearing from ...
Webb, Hugh (2005). "Say Goodbye to the Colonial Bogeyman: Aboriginal Strategies of Resistance". Altitude. 6. Archived from the ...
altitude. The Sky Extra took into account the best four results of the season and was won by Pere Aurell of Spain and America's ... altitude. The Sky Classic ranking took into account the best five results of the season. The Sky Classic category champions ... Altitude (average and maximum reached), peak reach, running on snow/glacier, grade II climbing difficulty and increased ... The SWS was launched in 2004 and has grown to represent the peak of outdoor running defined by altitude and technicality. In ...
"Special Agents Faced Capture ad Execution". Altitude. Spring. 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2015. Scott, Alec (Autumn 2007). "Behind ... "Special Agents Faced Capture ad Execution". Altitude. Spring. 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2015. "Recommendation for Award for ...
Amateur high-altitude ballooning[edit]. Payload of an amateur high-altitude balloon for scientific purposes. Embedded computer ... Manned high-altitude balloons[edit]. Manned high-altitude balloons were used from the 1930s to 1960s for research and in ... GSBC, What is a High Altitude Balloon. Retrieved August 8, 2016. *^ UKHAS, A Beginners Guide to High Altitude Ballooning. ... High-altitude balloons are often flown by students and by amateur groups to altitudes on the order of 30,000 m (98,000 ft) for ...
Diving in altitudes higher than 300 metres/1000 feet above sea level is altitude diving. Discover a hidden world where only a ... Altitude dive planning, organization, procedures and techniques.. *How to adjust your dive computer for altitude diving or ... Interested? Any time you scuba dive at an altitude higher than 300 metres/1000 feet above sea level, youre altitude diving. If ... Learning to adjust your dive plan for the reduced surface pressure at altitude is an important part of the course. Youll ...
High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO). High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a medical condition in which the brain swells with ... Generally, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or AMS precede HACE.[2] In patients with AMS, the onset of HACE is usually ... Bärtsch, Peter; Swenson, Erik (2013). "Acute High-Altitude Illnesses". The New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (24): 2294-302 ... Schoene, Robert (2008). "Illnesses at High Altitude". Chest. 134 (2): 402-16. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0561. PMID 18682459.. ...
Altitude Trampoline Park, has announced an agreement is in place for a 20,119 ... "We expect Altitude Slidell to add 50 or more part time, as well as several full time jobs to the Slidell, Louisiana area." - ... Curt Skallerup, Altitude- President/CEO.. Altitude Trampoline Park will be one of the largest trampoline parks in the state of ... Altitude Slidell will have large party rooms along with a mezzanine lookout for and plenty of in-park party areas for birthdays ...
43% of those on the drug had symptoms of altitude sickness.. 69% of those on the placebo had similar issues, showing the drug ... Lipmans study took 86 men and women and used double-blind and placebos to look into the effects of Ibuprofen on altitude ... "We suggest that availability alone makes ibuprofen an appealing drug for individuals who travel to high altitudes. In addition ... Kilimanjaro Climbers Underestimate The Risks Of Potentially Fatal Altitude Sickness Researchers from UKs Edinburgh University ...
Altitude sickness, acute reaction to a change from sea level or other low-altitude environments to altitudes above 8,000 feet ( ... In 1878 French physiologist Paul Bert demonstrated that the symptoms of altitude sickness are ... 2,400 metres). Altitude sickness was recognized as early as the 16th century. ... A more serious type of altitude sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), occurs rarely among newcomers to altitude but ...
Connecting decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people and ideas, Bloomberg quickly and accurately delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world. ...
... Studies of the feasibility of using nuclear power for propulsion officially began in New ... The Tory II-C reactor was designed for flight capability at low-altitude, hot-day Mach-3 conditions for periods of 3 to 10 ... Attention was directed to a vehicle that would travel at supersonic speeds over long distances and at very low altitudes. ... and Convair were selected to conduct funded studies of a low-altitude nuclear-powered strategic missile for a mission no ...
Back to High-Altitude Challah All Reviews for High-Altitude Challah ... I am sure this is because of my low altitude. Looks and tastes great. I am glad I found it. Read More ... I am sure this is because of my low altitude. Looks and tastes great. I am glad I found it. ... Reviews for: Photos of High-Altitude Challah. Reviews: Most Helpful ...
Join us as we investigate the challenges of navigating density and altitude in this extreme climate. ... Join us as we investigate the challenges of navigating density and altitude in this extreme climate. ...
Several forms of altitude encoders have been designed. This paper describes a digital altitude encoder with only one moving ... An altitude encoder enables an ATC transponder to report the altitude of the airplane to the controller, in addition to its ... A Solid-State Altitude Encoder 720314. An altitude encoder enables an ATC transponder to report the altitude of the airplane to ... Several forms of altitude encoders have been designed. This paper describes a digital altitude encoder with only one moving ...
... is a top tier program designed to enhance the travel experiences of our most frequent flyers with ... Air Canada Altitude is designed to elevate the travel experiences of our most frequent flyers. Youve chosen to fly the world ... And of course, Altitude Qualifying Miles earned on eligible flights with Air Canada and the Star Alliance member airlines are ... As an Air Canada Altitude member, you benefit from Air Canadas partnership with the Aeroplan Program, which provides for a ...
... is a top tier program designed to enhance the travel experiences of our most frequent flyers with ...
"Altitude affects your thinking, your breathing, and your ability to sleep. But high-altitude natives dont have these problems ... Tag: altitude. Posted on June 8, 2010. Scientists Uncover The Genetic Secrets That Allow Tibetans To Thrive In Thin Air. A new ... For those who live closer to sea level, the findings may one day help predict who is at greatest risk for altitude sickness. " ... People who live or travel at high altitude respond to the lack of oxygen by making more hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying ...
Just a week at high altitudes can cause sustained weight loss, suggesting that a mountain retreat could be a viable strategy ... Altitude Causes Weight Loss Without Exercise. Just a week at high altitudes can cause sustained weight loss, suggesting that a ... A high-altitude weight loss strategy could be viable, though studies have shown peoples appetites bounce back after about six ... The sceintists data showed this was likely because they ate about 730 calories less at high altitudes than they did at normal ...
JP Aerospace flies a remote-controlled airship to an altitude of 95,000 feet, setting the stage for air-launching payloads into ... Lockheed Martin has been developing its High Altitude Airship, but the vehicle is designed for altitudes around 60,000 feet and ... The DIY crew sent an unmanned powered airship soaring 95,085 feet above Nevada last month, an altitude they claim is the record ... They hope to use high-altitude airships as a launch platform for rockets or hypersonic aircraft sent into space. ...
Feb 25, 2020, 09:30 ET Altitude Networks Named a Cyber Defense Magazine InfoSec Award Winner Altitude Networks, the industrys ... News from altitude networks A wide array of domestic and global news stories; news topics include politics/government, business ... Altitude Networks, the industrys first cloud-native DLP for SaaS collaboration, today announced its Rapid Security Assessment ... Altitude Networks, the industrys first cloud-native DLP for SaaS collaboration, today launched rogue application detection to ...
NASA.gov brings you the latest images, videos and news from Americas space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, watch NASA TV live, and learn about our quest to reveal the unknown and benefit all humankind.
found that small groups of men exposed to simulated altitudes of up to 4,500 meters did not exhibit significantly different ... Though my colleague Jim Ledbetter suggests a massive data-mining project to measure voting patterns as a function of altitude ... recently pondered the possibility that flying at high altitudes makes one more likely to cry at cheesy movies. ( ... More direct attempts to measure the effect of altitude on emotions have not found strong correlations; a ...
Hawthorne C. Grays fatal ascent to 12,950 metres (42,470 feet) in 1927, the maximum altitude was only limited by… ... ballooning has continually achieved higher altitudes. From Charless 3,000-metre (10,000-foot) ascent in 1783 to U.S. Army Air ... High-altitude balloon: Beginning with the 18th century, ... High-altitude balloon. aircraft. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ... In balloon flight: High-altitude ballooning. Beginning with the 18th century, ballooning has continually achieved higher ...
Some people are more susceptible to altitude sickness, a condition caused by exposure to low oxygen levels at high altitude. ... leisure and sport to making permanent homes at altitude. ... There are many reasons why people ascend to high altitudes, ... Getting used to conditions at altitude by spending time at moderate altitudes can decrease the incidence of altitude sickness. ... High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE). This reaction to altitude can be asymptomatic and is related to HACE. With HAPE, fluid ...
Density altitude is the reason airplane accidents tend to cluster around mountain resorts during the summer months. Piloting an ... altitude. Flight level. How to survive a helicopter mishap. Aerodynamic lift. Vertical Speed Indicator. cruising altitude. ... is the concept of density altitude or pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature. When an aircraft is designed ... Density altitude is the reason airplane accidents tend to cluster around mountain resorts during the summer months. Piloting an ...
Morris Lee, who recruits staff for local airports, has seen his work take off.Two weeks ago, he interviewed candidates for 35 openings at a company that supports airlines at John F. Kennedy International Airport. The week before, he screened people for 50 openings at a new cargo company at the same…
Cosmetics Safe at Any Altitude. Aug. 31, 2006 , 2:01 Liquids are no longer permitted on airlines, but heres a make-up kit that ...
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... and closer to 20 seconds per mile at 7500 altitude. These differences apply if fairly acclimatized to altitude. It will be a ... At 2250 meters altitude (7382 feet -- also similar to Mexico City Olympics where the winner in 10k was just over 29:00 and the ... I used that calculator, but i guess its wrong, and I won\t be racing at altitude just training and I am curious about sub max ... If I were to give you an adjustment on the data I have, I make the following for an altitude of 2000m (6562 feet) -- 5-min race ...
Full-pressure suits are a vital second line of defense for pilots flying at high altitudes, keeping the pilot healthy and alert ... Three High-Altitude Peoples, Three Adaptations to Thin Air (February 2004) *Hurricanes Plane Flies Into Storms To Sharpen ... High-Altitude Suits Keep Pressure on Pilots. John Roach. for National Geographic News. ... "As you go up in altitude, pressure decreases," Sokolik explained. ER-2 pilots routinely fly above 63,000 feet (19,200 meters) ...
Altitude definition, the height of anything above a given planetary reference plane, especially above sea level on earth. See ... altitude. altiloquent, altimeter, altimetry, Altiplano, altissimo, altitude, altitude chamber, altitude dial, altitude sickness ... WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED WITH altitude. 1. altitude , attitude; 2. altitude , elevation, height(see synonym study at height). ... altitude. *. Whatever happened overtook them both within a minute or so of that altitude change request, and they were never ...
... unlike those I had made at a lower altitude. I found this recipe, and I was back to making Lemon Meringue Pies again. It adds ... Many years ago when I moved to a high altitude area, I found that my meringues on my pies were flat and weepy, ... Back to High Altitude Meringue for Pie All Reviews for High Altitude Meringue for Pie ... Many years ago when I moved to a high altitude area, I found that my meringues on my pies were flat and weepy, unlike those I ...
altitude within cohort. △P ≤ 0.05, △△P ≤ 0.01 at altitude 1 vs. altitude 2 within cohort. G, glutamate; JO2, oxygen flux; M, ... altitude within cohort. △P ≤ 0.05 at altitude 1 vs. altitude 2 within cohort. ... Sherpas at baseline (B) (A), Lowlanders at B and at early-altitude (A1) and late-altitude (A2) time points (B), and Sherpas at ... A1, early-altitude exposure; A2, late-altitude exposure; B, baseline; L, Lowlanders; S, Sherpas. Arterial hemoglobin-O2 ...
  • Early symptoms of high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) generally correspond with those of moderate to severe acute mountain sickness (AMS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stanford Hospital & Clinics and a clinical assistant professor at the Stanford University School of Medicine, has found that a widely available, over-the-counter (OTC) drug may help with altitude, or acute mountain sickness (AMS). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lipman's study took 86 men and women and used double-blind and placebos to look into the effects of Ibuprofen on altitude sickness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 43% of those on the drug had symptoms of altitude sickness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 69% of those on the placebo had similar issues, showing the drug reduced the altitude sickness rate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Altitude sickness , also called mountain sickness , acute reaction to a change from sea level or other low-altitude environments to altitudes above 8,000 feet (2,400 metres). (britannica.com)
  • Altitude sickness was recognized as early as the 16th century. (britannica.com)
  • In 1878 French physiologist Paul Bert demonstrated that the symptoms of altitude sickness are the result of a deficiency of oxygen in the tissues of the body. (britannica.com)
  • The resulting insufficiency of oxygen in the arterial blood supply causes the characteristic symptoms of altitude sickness. (britannica.com)
  • The main protection against altitude sickness in aircraft is the use of pressurized air in cabins. (britannica.com)
  • Mountain climbers often use a mixture of pure oxygen and air to relieve altitude sickness while climbing high mountains. (britannica.com)
  • In addition, the prophylactic use of the diuretic acetazolamide initiated two to three days before ascent may prevent or mitigate acute altitude sickness. (britannica.com)
  • A more serious type of altitude sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), occurs rarely among newcomers to altitude but more often affects those who have already become acclimated to high elevations and are returning after several days at sea level. (britannica.com)
  • In the online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, an international team has identified a gene that allows Tibetans to live and work more than two miles above sea level without getting altitude sickness. (lockergnome.com)
  • Excessive hemoglobin is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness, an overreaction to altitude characterized by thick and viscous blood. (lockergnome.com)
  • For those who live closer to sea level, the findings may one day help predict who is at greatest risk for altitude sickness. (lockergnome.com)
  • But the obese are more likely to suffer severe altitude sickness , in which low oxygen pressure causes dizziness, nausea and more serious problems like edema or heart attacks, Leissner said. (wired.com)
  • Does Altitude Sickness Feed Obama Fever? (slate.com)
  • What Causes Altitude Sickness? (news-medical.net)
  • Some people are more susceptible to altitude sickness, a condition caused by exposure to low oxygen levels at high altitude. (news-medical.net)
  • The most dangerous consequences of altitude sickness are coma and death, but not all forms of altitude sickness are equally dangerous. (news-medical.net)
  • Acute mountain sickness is typically the least life-threatening form of altitude sickness. (news-medical.net)
  • There are several pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures that can be taken to prevent acute altitude sickness. (news-medical.net)
  • Ascending to high altitudes too quickly remains the main risk factor for developing altitude sickness. (news-medical.net)
  • Getting used to conditions at altitude by spending time at moderate altitudes can decrease the incidence of altitude sickness. (news-medical.net)
  • Medication to prevent altitude sickness is not necessary in low-risk circumstances. (news-medical.net)
  • Descending to lower altitudes is the best treatment for every form of altitude sickness, but different treatment courses can be taken according to the individual's type and severity of altitude sickness. (news-medical.net)
  • And now that you mention it, I also got seasick, and had altitude sickness, and had to be rescued a few times. (dictionary.com)
  • Altitude sickness is a set of symptoms that some may experience when at a higher than normal altitude. (nationaljewish.org)
  • In more severe cases, altitude sickness may cause chest tightening and severe headache. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Some altitude dwellers, particularly Andeans, may develop chronic mountain sickness, the most prominent characteristic of which being excessive polycythaemia. (springer.com)
  • Most adaptive changes occur in the first days and weeks following arrival at altitude, and this is the period when acute mountain sickness with cerebral and/or pulmonary oedema may occur. (springer.com)
  • What are the different types of altitude sickness? (webmd.com)
  • High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) is the most severe form of altitude sickness and happens when there's fluid in the brain. (webmd.com)
  • Cleveland Clinic: "Altitude Sickness. (webmd.com)
  • Harvard Health Publications: "Altitude Sickness. (webmd.com)
  • What are moderate symptoms of altitude sickness? (webmd.com)
  • Altitude sickness can be a great set back to any climbing trips. (medindia.net)
  • Find out why they occur & how to treat & prevent altitude sickness. (medindia.net)
  • Ibuprofen - an anti-inflammatory drug can reduce acute altitude sickness, shows study. (medindia.net)
  • We also describe symptoms of altitude sickness, and how to prepare for a trip. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Preexisting diseases like COPD can magnify the effects of decreased oxygen, worsening symptoms of altitude sickness and related conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Lake Louise Scoring System helps to diagnose AMS, the most common altitude sickness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and cerebral edema are the most ominous of these symptoms, while acute mountain sickness, retinal hemorrhages, and peripheral edema are the milder forms of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • The statistics from the Himalayan Rescue Association aid post in Manang from the fall of 2016 has the alarming figures which show that more than half of the altitude sickness patients traveled to Manang by motor vehicle. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Altitude sickness is a common pathological condition in high altitude because of our body's inability to acclimatize properly. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Altitude sickness includes: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • But, patients with moderate to severe form of acute mountain sickness must be brought down to lower altitude and treated, otherwise there is a high chance of developing high altitude cerebral edema. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • succumbing to altitude sickness not so much. (responsibletravel.com)
  • Read on for more tips on avoiding altitude sickness. (responsibletravel.com)
  • Altitude (or mountain) sickness refers to the symptoms that affect people at an altitude level, usually above 8,000 feet or 2,400 m. (infobarrel.com)
  • People facing the risk of altitude sickness would include mountain climbers, hikers, skiers, or travelers at high-altitude areas. (infobarrel.com)
  • However, there are no specific factors such as age, sex, or physical condition that correlate with susceptibility to altitude sickness. (infobarrel.com)
  • In very severe cases of altitude sickness, the person may cough up frothy sputum. (infobarrel.com)
  • As altitude sickness is easier to treat in the early stages, it is important to identify the symptoms quickly and take necessary remedial action. (infobarrel.com)
  • If you feel unwell at a high altitude, it is better to assume that it is altitude sickness and stop the ascent. (infobarrel.com)
  • i) The best treatment for altitude sickness is to descend to a lower altitude as quickly as possible. (infobarrel.com)
  • v) People with severe altitude sickness may need to be immediately admitted to a hospital. (infobarrel.com)
  • I'd like some input on the need for (or not) altitude sickness medicine for 4 days in the Bernese Oberland area. (fodors.com)
  • Diamox is the drug prescribed for altitude sickness (which in me presents with bad headaches). (fodors.com)
  • It was prescribed to me here in the States years ago for altitude sickness while skiing in CO. Only side effect was mild tingling in hands. (fodors.com)
  • Search 'altitude sickness' in Switzerland tag for other responses I received. (fodors.com)
  • The medicines for altitude sickness have to be tailored to your medical condition. (fodors.com)
  • Altitude sickness , the mildest form being acute mountain sickness ( AMS ), is the negative health effect of high altitude , caused by rapid exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high elevation . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Acute mountain sickness can progress to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) with associated shortness of breath or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) with associated confusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] Chronic mountain sickness may occur after long term exposure to high altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altitude sickness typically occurs only above 2,500 metres (8,000 ft), though some are affected at lower altitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [3] Risk factors include a prior episode of altitude sickness, a high degree of activity, and a rapid increase in elevation. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [4] It is recommended that at high-altitude any symptoms of headache, nausea, shortness of breath, or vomiting be assumed to be altitude sickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The earliest description of altitude sickness is attributed to a Chinese text from around 30 BCE which describes "Big Headache Mountains" possibly referring to the Karakoram Mountains around Kilik Pass . (wikipedia.org)
  • for some otherwise healthy people, acute altitude sickness can begin to appear at around 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level, such as at many mountain ski resorts, equivalent to a pressure of 80 kilopascals (0.79 atm ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] This is the most frequent type of altitude sickness encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Headaches are the primary symptom used to diagnose altitude sickness, although a headache is also a symptom of dehydration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of altitude sickness that are not life threatening are called acute mountain sickness. (drugs.com)
  • Mountain climbers on any high mountain and skiers in high-altitude locations such as Colorado are at risk of developing acute mountain sickness. (drugs.com)
  • Symptoms from acute mountain sickness improve if you descend to lower altitude quickly. (drugs.com)
  • Acute mountain sickness is the least dangerous of several kinds of altitude illnesses that can occur. (drugs.com)
  • A related illness, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), can occur with or without warning symptoms that signal altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
  • A type of altitude sickness called high-altitude retinal hemorrhage (HARH) can cause eye damage. (drugs.com)
  • Coma and death are the most serious consequences of altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
  • Altitude sickness is more likely to occur in people who have a previous history of altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
  • Obesity appears to increase the risk for altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
  • High-altitude cerebral edema is considered by many experts to be an extreme form of acute mountain sickness. (drugs.com)
  • A new test has been developed that researchers believe could help revolutionise the way mountain climbers approach high-altitude ascents, by identifying which people are the most vulnerable to contracting acute mountain sickness (AMS). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) is a buildup of fluid in the lungs that can be very dangerous and even life threatening. (webmd.com)
  • In high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), it's theorized that vessels in the lungs constrict, causing increased pressure. (mayoclinic.org)
  • High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a not uncommon form of acute altitude illness, can occur within days of ascent above 2500 to 3000 m. (nih.gov)
  • This article will review the pathophysiology of the vasculature, alveolar epithelium, innervation, immune response, and genetics of the lung at high altitude, as well as therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to reduce the morbidity and mortality of HAPE. (nih.gov)
  • High altitudes can cause a range of health issues, including high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with COPD are more vulnerable to altitude-related illnesses, including HAPE. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The pathophysiology high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is not well understood. (medscape.com)
  • The collection of fluid in the lungs is known as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and is characterized by non-exertional breathlessness which is more on lying down and at night cough which is usually dry than frothy and blood mixed, drop in exercise performance, fatigue, chest tightness and sometimes low grade fever. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Importantly, these altitude illnesses are preventable conditions and lives can be saved from potentially fatal conditions like HACE and HAPE if we stick to simple rules. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Genetics may also put some people at increased risk, particularly for high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). (drugs.com)
  • The CDC urges those traveling to an altitude above 8,000 feet to avoid alcohol and heavy exercise for the first 48 hours. (medicinenet.com)
  • If you ascend to altitudes above 8,000 feet, you will be in danger of developing uncomfortable or dangerous symptoms from the change in altitude. (drugs.com)
  • The symptoms usually occur within six hours to four days after arrival at high altitude and disappear within two to five days as acclimatization occurs. (britannica.com)
  • Altitudes above 8000 feet pose significant risks to the body and may result in dangerous symptoms from the ascent. (news-medical.net)
  • Any symptoms experienced at high altitude can quickly develop into life threatening problems and should not be dismissed. (news-medical.net)
  • Travellers and adventure seekers who climb or fly to high altitudes often experience severe headaches, nausea & other symptoms. (medindia.net)
  • Limiting exercise, alcohol consumption, and the use of sleeping pills during the first 2 days at a high altitude may minimize the occurrence and severity of symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with COPD have a high risk of symptoms worsening at high altitudes, even if symptoms are stable at low altitudes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Symptoms of high altitude exposure were also recorded. (springer.com)
  • For people who have asthma that is well controlled, changing altitude will probably not have any noticeable effect on asthma symptoms. (empowher.com)
  • But for people whose are sensitive to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus), spending time at a higher altitude may actually improve asthma symptoms. (empowher.com)
  • Nonetheless, as we give our body more time to adjust to the altitude change, the symptoms will usually go away. (infobarrel.com)
  • At high altitudes, this type of breathing is not considered abnormal, though doctors can prescribe acetazolamide to relieve the symptoms. (infobarrel.com)
  • If you only have mild symptoms, you may be able to stay at that altitude and let your body acclimatise to the altitude. (infobarrel.com)
  • Getting to a lower altitude will help to alleviate or eliminate the symptoms. (infobarrel.com)
  • Symptoms that develop at high altitude should be taken very seriously, since some altitude problems can develop into fatal illnesses. (drugs.com)
  • As your body makes normal adjustments to adapt to a high altitude, you may experience a few symptoms that are bothersome but are not cause for concern. (drugs.com)
  • Symptoms of this more severe altitude disease may not be noticed immediately because the illness can begin during the night. (drugs.com)
  • Because this low-oxygen injury affects the brain and thought process, a person with high-altitude cerebral edema may not understand that symptoms have become more severe until a traveling companion notices unusual behavior. (drugs.com)
  • High-altitude pulmonary edema , which is the lungs' response to an increase in altitude, may occur with or without other symptoms of altitude illness. (drugs.com)
  • Symptoms of high-altitude pulmonary edema commonly appear at night and can worsen during exertion. (drugs.com)
  • Diving in altitudes higher than 300 metres/1000 feet above sea level is altitude diving. (padi.com)
  • Any time you scuba dive at an altitude higher than 300 metres/1000 feet above sea level, you're altitude diving. (padi.com)
  • On the flight deck, the definitive instrument for measuring altitude is the pressure altimeter, which is an aneroid barometer with a front face indicating distance (feet or metres) instead of atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • ZURICH, Switzerland - No international soccer matches will be allowed to take place above an altitude of 2500 metres in future, FIFA president Sepp Blatter said today. (smh.com.au)
  • Nearly 140 million people live at altitudes above 2500 metres (about 8000 feet). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Substantial numbers live permanently at altitudes as high as 4500 metres in the Peruvian Andes, and caretakers of a mine in Chile have lived at nearly 6000 metres. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The highest point on Earth is the summit of Mt. Everest (8848 metres), and well-acclimatized climbers can just reach that altitude without using supplementary oxygen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, if we go to an altitude of about 5800 metres, the pressure falls to half the normal sea level value of 760 mm Hg (1013 millibars or hectopascals). (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, it can be shown that if Mt. Everest were at the latitude of Mt. McKinley (Denali) in Alaska , which is 60° N, the summit would in effect be over 950 metres (3000 feet) higher because the barometric pressure at high altitude at latitudes far from the Equator is so much lower. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Irish squad flew up to the Highveld on Sunday from sea level to about 1700 metres which South African exercise physiologist Ross Tucker has classified as moderate altitude. (irishexaminer.com)
  • Mountain climbers, pilots, and persons living at high altitudes are the most likely to be affected. (britannica.com)
  • Climbers have lived for several days at altitudes that would cause unconsciousness within a few seconds in the absence of acclimatization. (medscape.com)
  • And sometimes even the best high altitude climbers get AMS on 13k foot peaks. (summitpost.org)
  • There are many reasons why people ascend to high altitudes, from travel, leisure and sport to making permanent homes at altitude. (news-medical.net)
  • A remarkable degree of acclimatization occurs when humans ascend to these altitudes. (medscape.com)
  • When travelling at altitude ascend slowly so your body has time to adapt and spend a few days acclimatizing before climbing above 3,500m (11,000ft). (ehow.co.uk)
  • ii) If you cannot descend to a lower altitude, do not ascend any further. (infobarrel.com)
  • Most people who travel to high altitudes acclimatize . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ibuprofen could be a way to prevent AMS in a significant number of the tens of millions of people who travel to high altitudes each year. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Read about important changes to the Altitude cards effective 4 April 2018 . (westpac.com.au)
  • Although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • True altitude is the actual elevation above mean sea level. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is referred to over the radio as height, where the specified datum is the airfield elevation (see QFE) Pressure altitude is the elevation above a standard datum air-pressure plane (typically, 1013.25 millibars or 29.92" Hg). (wikipedia.org)
  • On a very hot day, density altitude at an airport (especially one at a high elevation) may be so high as to preclude takeoff, particularly for helicopters or a heavily loaded aircraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study sheds light on how Tibetans, who have lived at extreme elevation for more than 10,000 years, have evolved to differ from their low-altitude ancestors. (lockergnome.com)
  • A high-altitude weight loss strategy could be viable, though studies have shown peoples' appetites bounce back after about six months at high elevation, Leissner said. (wired.com)
  • 2. altitude , elevation , height (see synonym study at height ). (dictionary.com)
  • Altitude, named for Denver's "Mile High" elevation, serves contemporary American cuisine in comfortable elegance. (opentable.com)
  • A study in Respiratory Research defines a high altitude as any elevation greater than 1,500 meters (m) - about 5,000 feet (ft) - above sea level. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Traditionally, elevation and altitude both refers to a height above sea level ( H ), where the mean sea level (MSL) value is based on some local measurements near the shore and extrapolated inland with gravity. (openstreetmap.org)
  • It is more likely if you climb quickly, if you exercise vigorously during your first few days of altitude exposure, and if you have been living at low elevation prior to your climb. (drugs.com)
  • There are several types of altitude in aviation: Indicated altitude is the reading on the altimeter when it is set to the local barometric pressure at mean sea level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aircraft performance depends on density altitude, which is affected by barometric pressure, humidity and temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower barometric pressures of high altitudes lead to a lower partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli, or air sacs in the lungs, which in turn decreases the amount of oxygen absorbed from the alveoli by red blood cells for transport to the body's tissues. (britannica.com)
  • Ascending to high altitudes subjects the body to several significant changes, including decreases in temperature and ambient humidity, to a drop in barometric pressure (air pressure). (news-medical.net)
  • Barometric pressure falls progressively with increasing altitude. (springer.com)
  • At this altitude barometric pressure is 450 mmHg and without hyperventilation alveolar oxygen tension would be only 34 mmHg. (springer.com)
  • Since oxygen accounts for one-fifth of the volume of the air, and this fraction does not alter with altitude, the pressure of oxygen decreases proportionally with the total barometric pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The relationship between barometric pressure and altitude is not the same over the whole surface of the globe. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because of the warming of the atmosphere by the sun near the Equator, the column of air is higher there, and therefore the barometric pressure at any given altitude is higher than at the poles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At higher altitudes, the pressure of the air around you (barometric pressure) decreases so there is less oxygen in surrounding air. (drugs.com)
  • High-altitude cerebral edema ( HACE ) is a medical condition in which the brain swells with fluid because of the physiological effects of traveling to a high altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction to altitude can be asymptomatic and is related to HACE. (news-medical.net)
  • The end spectrum of the AMS is high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) which means water in the brain. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • One dangerous reaction to high altitude is a condition called high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), in which the brain accumulates extra fluid, swells and stops working properly. (drugs.com)
  • However, environmental or logistical factors may prevent this method from being effective in every situation, so those ascending to altitude are advised to average their ascent rate across the entire duration of the trip. (news-medical.net)
  • To decrease the risk of AMS, strenuous exercise and over-exertion should be avoided immediately after rapid ascent to high altitude. (news-medical.net)
  • Pre-acclimatization should be carried out as close to the ascent to high altitude as possible. (news-medical.net)
  • Gradual increases in altitude over two weeks resulted in larger heart rate changes compared with an abrupt ascent. (springer.com)
  • The rate of ascent, the altitude attained, the amount of physical activity at high altitude, and individual susceptibility are contributing factors to the incidence and severity of high-altitude illness. (medscape.com)
  • The ventilatory response to a relatively hypoxic stimulus can be divided into 4 phases: (1) initial increase on ascent, (2) subsequent course over hours and weeks, (3) deacclimatization on descent, and (4) long-term response of high-altitude natives. (medscape.com)
  • This usually occurs after 3-4 days of ascending to high altitudes, but it can also occur in rapid ascent profile. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • The first rule is making the ascent profile "slow and gradual" which means not increasing the sleeping altitude more than 500 meters per day compared to the previous night's sleeping altitude and taking a rest day after ascending 1,000-1,200 meters above 2,500 meters. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • It usually happens when there is rapid ascent to a high altitude area, because our body does not have the time to adjusting to the decreased oxygen level there. (infobarrel.com)
  • The experts from France and Italy used ultrasound scans of heart activity on a group of volunteers at sea level and repeated the tests after an ascent by cable car to an altitude of 3,842 m (12,605 ft) on Aiguille du Midi in the French Alps. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Several forms of altitude encoders have been designed. (sae.org)
  • Descent, descent and descent is the only treatment of these severe forms of altitude illnesses. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • In soccer, statistical analysis has found that an increase in altitude of 1000m is worth about half a goal to the home team. (news24.com)
  • This causes the atmospheric pressure to decrease as we increase in altitude. (answers.com)
  • Your teeth are also affected by an increase in altitude. (ehow.co.uk)
  • How to avoid problems and handle emergency situations, if they occur, at altitude. (padi.com)
  • Individuals with the condition must immediately descend to a lower altitude or coma and death can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hypoxia is responsible for almost all the physiological changes and the potential medical problems that occur at high altitude. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The unsafe condition of engine surges due to hard carbon build-up blocking the static vanes has continued to occur at 37,000ft altitude and lower," says the FAA in the 10 March final AD announcement. (flightglobal.com)
  • These kind of "dental pains provoked by an altitude beyond 5.000 ft can occur with any kind of tooth, healthy or restored," according to researchers Fleury and Deboets. (ehow.co.uk)
  • BMJ: "Altitude illness. (webmd.com)
  • French researchers have discovered potential risk factors for severe high altitude illness (SHAI). (medindia.net)
  • Results of a study published in Sports Health indicate that athletes may be especially vulnerable to acute high-altitude illness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • High-altitude illness may result from short-term exposures to altitudes in excess of 2000 m (6560 ft). (medscape.com)
  • Also see Altitude Illness - Cerebral Syndromes and Altitude Illness - Pulmonary Syndromes . (medscape.com)
  • At higher altitudes, the air becomes thinner and the amount of breathable oxygen decreases. (britannica.com)
  • As you go up in altitude, pressure decreases," Sokolik explained. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Air pressure decreases as altitude increases. (answers.com)
  • As your altitude decreases, there is more air on top of you, therefore, the air pressure increases. (answers.com)
  • Is it true that air pressure decreases as altitude decreases? (answers.com)
  • No. Air pressure decreases with altitude. (answers.com)
  • As altitude increases, temperature increases by 12.5oC every 1km upwards, and pressure rapidly decreases. (answers.com)
  • As subjects acclimatise to the altitude cardiac output decreases although the heart rate can remain high with a low stroke volume. (springer.com)
  • Taking the time to plan can help people with COPD limit the effects of traveling to high altitudes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They can also perform tests to assess fitness for flying or traveling to high altitudes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It occurs when the body fails to acclimatize while ascending to a high altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • Everett suggests that the sounds are more popular at altitude because lower air pressure may make it easier to produce the burst of air that is a key characteristic of ejective consonants. (yahoo.com)
  • Lower air pressure at altitude means fewer oxygen molecules for every lungful of air. (lockergnome.com)
  • So a team at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich wanted to see if the pounds also melted away with a safer, sedentary stay at somewhat lower altitude. (wired.com)
  • Many years ago when I moved to a high altitude area, I found that my meringues on my pies were flat and weepy, unlike those I had made at a lower altitude. (allrecipes.com)
  • The only solution to this altitude dilemma is to prepare for the situation by allowing the body to adapt to the lower oxygen levels. (news24.com)
  • Researchers found that individuals whose bodies were used to the lower oxygen environment at altitude may actually be protected from severe effects of COVID-19. (nationaljewish.org)
  • For those who have adjusted to living at high altitude, their body produces a lower amount of the ACE2 enzyme because they have gotten used to living in an environment with less oxygen. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Those who travel from lower altitude environments are still at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, as they have higher levels of the ACE2 enzyme. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Dr. Stubenrauch advises that patients remain in quarantine, wherever they are, unless directed to move to a lower altitude by their health care provider. (nationaljewish.org)
  • liquids evaporate more quickly since water boils at lower temperatures at high altitude. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Air pressure increase with lower altitude. (answers.com)
  • Simply because of the fact that as altitude increases, the less air there is on top of you, and the lower the pressure would be. (answers.com)
  • Could moving to a warm, lower altitude place help polycythemia vera? (dailystrength.org)
  • Such systems have been used by athletes for years , after it was shown that living at altitude increases your endurance -- especially if you then train at lower altitudes. (techdirt.com)
  • The ultimate solution, then, is a system that makes your body think you're at higher altitudes when you sleep or are at home, but then when you train, you're actually at the lower altitudes. (techdirt.com)
  • After living in a new settlement at a lower altitude for a few months, 71-year-old Norbu Dawa found that he had lower blood pressure. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • A University of Miami anthropologist has found that languages of people living at high altitudes, such as Quechuan, tend to have certain consonants that are absent in lower-altitude languages. (csmonitor.com)
  • If you move from a lower altitude, then there may be issues. (metafilter.com)
  • It arises mainly from the reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. (infobarrel.com)
  • High altitude and lower air pressure also cause fluid to leak from the blood capillaries which can cause fluid build-up in both the lungs and the brain. (infobarrel.com)
  • [2] Treatment is generally by descending to a lower altitude and sufficient fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other factors the degree of altitude acclimatization determines the risk to develop AMS with a lower risk in well acclimatized compared to non acclimatized persons (4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At lower altitudes, a satellite runs into traces of Earth's atmosphere, which creates drag. (howstuffworks.com)
  • found that small groups of men exposed to simulated altitudes of up to 4,500 meters did not exhibit significantly different mental capacities compared with the control group. (slate.com)
  • At 2250 meters altitude (7382 feet -- also similar to Mexico City Olympics where the winner in 10k was just over 29:00 and the 5k just over 14:00), I would give a 30-minute race 1:48, a 20-min race 54 seconds and a 10-min race 21 seconds. (letsrun.com)
  • Norbu Dawa is a Tibetan nomad originally from Tsonyi county in the Tibet autonomous region, where the average altitude is 5,000 meters above the sea level. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The fossil from Baishiya Karst cave, situated 10,760 feet (3,280 meters) above sea level, showed not only that Denisovans once were widely distributed in eastern Eurasia but also that they inhabited an inhospitable high-altitude, low-oxygen setting. (reuters.com)
  • While many world class atheltes have migrated to Boulder or have choosen to live at the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, your article pretty much says it - Living at high altitude and *training* at low altitudes brings the most bennefit. (techdirt.com)
  • Maybe I missed it, but they're just comparing Americans living at high altitudes to other Americans, right? (metafilter.com)
  • If that's the case, then shuttling the overweight to even a moderate altitude may worsen inflammation and increase their chances of heart attack or other serious problems. (wired.com)
  • The Lions, the Bulls and to a lesser extent, the Cheetahs, all play their home matches at what is classified as moderate altitude between 1000m and 1700m. (news24.com)
  • Pressure altitude is used to indicate "flight level" which is the standard for altitude reporting in the Class A airspace (above roughly 18,000 feet). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DIY crew sent an unmanned powered airship soaring 95,085 feet above Nevada last month, an altitude they claim is the record for a (remotely) piloted airship. (wired.com)
  • Lockheed Martin has been developing its High Altitude Airship, but the vehicle is designed for altitudes around 60,000 feet and is primarily a military observation platform . (wired.com)
  • Scientists had puzzled over why the Siberian Denisovans had a gene mutation-also present in modern Sherpas and Tibetans-that would help them live in low-oxygen, high-altitude environments, when their cave was only 2,300 feet above sea level. (theweek.com)
  • On a 100 degree day in summer, the Santa Monica Airport-located slightly higher than sea level in sunny Southern California--has a density altitude of 3000 feet. (everything2.com)
  • If I were to give you an adjustment on the data I have, I make the following for an altitude of 2000m (6562 feet) -- 5-min race = 4.2 sec, 10-min race = 15 seconds, 20-min race = 40.8 seconds, 30-min race = 72 seconds. (letsrun.com)
  • But that samll difference between 5000 feet and 10,000 feet of altitude is not accurate. (letsrun.com)
  • Figure about 10-15 seconds per mile slower at 5000 feet of altitude (compared to SL), and closer to 20 seconds per mile at 7500 altitude. (letsrun.com)
  • At an altitude of about twelve thousand feet the depth of the snow became suddenly less, soon falling to only an inch or so. (dictionary.com)
  • At an altitude of several hundred feet it straightened out and went due east. (dictionary.com)
  • Once we were cruising at altitude (+/- 30,000 feet) I could not ignore the 'Chemspew' (a term coined for the electro-chemical smog that results from massive Chemtrail spraying & attendant accumulation) being generated in front of me and anyone who cared to look out of any window/portal our airplane. (rense.com)
  • I'd like to know what flowers (preferably showy ones) would be successful at my altitude of 8,500 feet in Colorado. (garden.org)
  • Based on a comparison of suicide rates at sea level and at areas above 2,000 feet, living at a high altitude may make people 30% more likely to commit suicide. (metafilter.com)
  • In a 2010 study published in High Altitude Medicine and Biology, the Case Western group analyzed suicide rates across 2,584 counties in 16 states and found that suicides start increasing between 2,000 and 3,000 feet in all U.S. regions. (metafilter.com)
  • The researchers took the group to the Dutch Asthma Centre Davos in Switzerland, which is located at an altitude of approximately 5,250 feet. (empowher.com)
  • Curt Skallerup, Altitude- President/CEO. (prweb.com)
  • Altitude Trampoline Park, has announced an agreement is in place for a 20,119 sq. ft. facility in, Slidell, Louisiana at 61119 Airport Road. (prweb.com)
  • Altitude Trampoline Park, has announced an agreement is in place for a 20,119 sq. ft. facility in Slidell, LA. Company officials state that facility preparations on site have begun and they expect to have the newest Altitude location in full operation mid fall. (prweb.com)
  • Altitude Trampoline Park will be one of the largest trampoline parks in the state of Louisiana and is thrilled to bring this high flying one of kind attraction to the Slidell community. (prweb.com)
  • Altitude Trampoline Park places a sharp focus on providing a safe, clean, family friendly environment that will set our park apart. (prweb.com)
  • Like us on our Facebook page Altitude Trampoline Park - Slidell to see exciting park developments and special information on our grand opening festivities coming this fall. (prweb.com)
  • Altitude Trampoline Park will soon be bringing more fun and excitement to the Fort Lauderdale community. (prweb.com)
  • A previous study published May 13 in Science reported that Tibetans are genetically adapted to high altitude. (lockergnome.com)
  • This increases the need for supplemental oxygen support in high altitude areas. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Does air pressure increase as altitude increases? (answers.com)
  • What does air pressure do when altitude increases? (answers.com)
  • How does air pressure change when altitude increases? (answers.com)
  • How does the air pressure change as the altitude increases? (answers.com)
  • Is it true or false that Air pressure increases as Altitude increases? (answers.com)
  • What happens to the altitude when the air pressure increases? (answers.com)
  • How does air pressure changes altitude increases? (answers.com)
  • Air pressure change in each layer of the earth as altitude increases due to variation in the density of air. (answers.com)
  • False, air pressure goes down as altitude increases. (answers.com)
  • Is it true that as altitude increases the density of the air increases? (answers.com)
  • As the altitude increases, the pressure and the density of the atmosphere decrease. (answers.com)
  • But as the altitude increases, air gets thinner in other words the molecules in air are farther than the one close to earth's surface. (answers.com)
  • What happens to the pressure as altitude increases in the troposphere? (answers.com)
  • AT&T had held that Altitude was demanding high rate increases even though many of its customers don't watch the channel. (multichannel.com)
  • Recent studies in animals and man have highlighted the role of the autonomic nervous system in adaptation and in particular the importance of sympathetic activation following high altitude exposure. (springer.com)
  • Beginning with the 18th century, ballooning has continually achieved higher altitudes. (britannica.com)
  • The higher the temperature, and the greater the altitude , the less distance the height of the pump can be above the water. (dictionary.com)
  • It extends their usefulness by permitting greater speed at higher altitudes with economy and reliability. (sae.org)
  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is best to avoid all non-essential travel, especially to areas of higher altitude. (nationaljewish.org)
  • The amount of sun and ultraviolet light that you're getting is very high, especially at our higher altitude. (unm.edu)
  • You could always just go to higher altitudes. (techdirt.com)
  • I live at a higher altitude, and I see faster results with steroids. (techdirt.com)
  • In spite of hypoxia associated with high altitude, approximately 15 million people live at elevations over 3050 m, and some permanent residents live higher than 4900 m in the Andes. (medscape.com)
  • At altitude, the 26-hour postexercise BALF had significantly higher RBC and protein concentrations, suggesting an ongoing capillary leak. (medscape.com)
  • The Federal Aviation Administration airworthiness directive supersedes a 2008 mandate that limited the aircraft from flying higher than 37,000ft, 4,000ft below its maximum certificated altitude of 41,000ft. (flightglobal.com)
  • Altitude affects climate in that the higher up you get, the more the temperature drops. (reference.com)
  • In higher altitudes, the wind and coldness become a large factor in vegetation development. (ehow.co.uk)
  • As we reach higher altitudes, our body cannot take in as much oxygen as it requires. (infobarrel.com)
  • It usually takes one to three days for the body to acclimatise to a higher altitude. (infobarrel.com)
  • At higher altitudes, where the vacuum of space is nearly complete, there is almost no drag and a satellite like the moon can stay in orbit for centuries. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although most people gradually recover as they adapt to the low atmospheric pressure of high altitude, some persons experience a reaction that can be severe and, unless they return to low altitude, possibly fatal. (britannica.com)
  • Atmospheric pressure is due to air mass loading down to surface, high altitude had smaller amount of air mass on top. (answers.com)
  • What happens to atmospheric pressure as altitude increase? (answers.com)
  • With the gain in altitude there is decrease in atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • An alternative might be to exercise your lungs (without simulating altitude) by using a respiratory trainer, such as Power Lung, which is about 100 USD. (summitpost.org)
  • This could be a sign of a high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) where fluid collects in the lungs, interfering with the supply of oxygen to the body. (infobarrel.com)
  • The number of patients with severe form of altitude illnesses, that is high altitude cerebral edema and high altitude pulmonary edema in Nepali trekkers, has dramatically increased in 2016 compared to previous years", said Mr. Thaneswor Bhandari from HRA aid post in Manang. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • The effect of pressure changes on acute tooth root infection and recent treatment for root canal repair can cause high-altitude illnesses such as pulmonary oedema, according to a study published in the Postgraduate Medical Journal. (ehow.co.uk)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A jawbone found in a cave on the Tibetan Plateau in China is providing surprising insights into Denisovans, the enigmatic extinct cousins to Neanderthals and our own species, including that they were pioneers at enduring high-altitude environments. (reuters.com)
  • As chatty mountaineers tend to quickly discover, talking too much at altitude can lead to dehydration. (csmonitor.com)
  • USARIEM facilities allow for the study of various forms of stress that soldiers may encounter in the field and scientists here are investigating ways to help soldiers adjust to these stressors, including extreme temperature, altitude acclimatization , physical work and training injuries, energy deficit, dehydration, inflammatory stressors, chemicals, sleep deficit, and anxiety and fear. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • see QNH) Absolute altitude is the vertical distance of the aircraft above the terrain over which it is flying. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 1958, Chance Vought Aircraft, North American Aviation, and Convair were selected to conduct funded studies of a low-altitude nuclear-powered strategic missile for a mission no chemical-powered vehicle could perform. (globalsecurity.org)
  • They hope to use high-altitude airships as a launch platform for rockets or hypersonic aircraft sent into space. (wired.com)
  • When an aircraft is designed and flown, its performance figures are always dependent upon the relationship between pressure altitude (a standard datum based on 29.92 inches of mercury at sea level ) and air density , which is a figure that changes according to the temperature. (everything2.com)
  • Thank Jim Sokolik and other life-support technicians for keeping the pilots of NASA's ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft safe and under pressure as the planes head into the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • though I'm sure it's usually more complicated than aircraft colliding because they both chose the same easy to remember altitude. (halfbakery.com)
  • What are the odds of two aircraft, both piloted by slightly squiffy pilots, both being at exactly their intended altitude at the same time, and in the same place? (halfbakery.com)
  • So one can't help but wonder: Will the mile-high altitudes of Denver make Obama supporters even crazier than usual? (slate.com)
  • But if you live in Denver, Calgary, Johannesburg, or a host of other high-altitude locales, you'll face fallen cakes and overflowing batters if you don't. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Altitude Sports & Entertainment, the Denver- based regional sports programmer, has reached a carriage agreement with AT&T, returning its RSNs to AT&T's DirecTV subscribers in 10 states. (multichannel.com)
  • Lowlanders who go to high altitude undergo a process known as acclimatization, which greatly assists them in tolerating the high altitude. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most important feature of acclimatization to high altitude is an increase in the rate and depth of breathing . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Effect of increased blood flow on pulmonary circulation before and during high altitude acclimatization ," High Altitude Medicine & Biology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some studies suggested that altitude acclimatization is the best strategy for prevention of AMS, and pre-acclimatization before training or competition at altitude might be beneficial (5,18,25). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Roeggla reported that alcohol depressed breathing at high altitudes and impeded high altitude acclimatization (7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For those lacking altitude acclimatization , oxygen is always available. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prepare as you would for any marathon, but with more hill work (up and down) and altitude acclimatization , if at all possible. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We're looking for the most efficient and effective approaches to altitude acclimatization ," Muza said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effects of high altitude acclimatization on heart rate variability in resting humans. (thefreedictionary.com)