Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.BoliviaNepalPulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)PeruRespiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Ranunculus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.ColoradoRunning: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Medicare Part A: The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Lepidium: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.AustriaCell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.South AmericaHypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.GeesePulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Frostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Senecio: A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)EcuadorSolar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Mouth FloorSwitzerlandPoa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.YemenChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Rest: Freedom from activity.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.KyrgyzstanEnvironment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.SicilyFresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.TajikistanHypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Cardiovascular Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Dyssomnias: A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Caryophyllaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Blood Circulation Time: Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Tricuspid Atresia: Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.VenezuelaPhonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.SulfonesInfant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Elephantiasis: Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Carboxyhemoglobin

Barometric pressures on Mt. Everest: new data and physiological significance. (1/1342)

Barometric pressures (PB) near the summit of Mt. Everest (altitude 8, 848 m) are of great physiological interest because the partial pressure of oxygen is very near the limit for human survival. Until recently, the only direct measurement on the summit was 253 Torr, which was obtained in October 1981, but, despite being only one data point, this value has been used by several investigators. Recently, two new studies were carried out. In May 1997, another direct measurement on the summit was within approximately 1 Torr of 253 Torr, and meteorologic data recorded at the same time from weather balloons also agreed closely. In the summer of 1998, over 2,000 measurements were transmitted from a barometer placed on the South Col (altitude 7,986 m). The mean PB values during May, June, July, and August were 284, 285, 286, and 287 Torr, respectively, and there was close agreement with the PB-altitude (h) relationship determined from the 1981 data. The PB values are well predicted from the equation PB = exp (6.63268 - 0.1112 h - 0.00149 h2), where h is in kilometers. The conclusion is that on days when the mountain is usually climbed, during May and October, the summit pressure is 251-253 Torr.  (+info)

Low-temperature sensitivity and enhanced Bohr effect in red deer (Cervus elaphus) haemoglobin: a molecular adaptive strategy to life at high altitude and low temperature. (2/1342)

A study of the functional properties of haemoglobin from red deer (Cervus elaphus) whose habitat varies over a wide range of latitude, was performed. The oxygen-binding properties of the most common haemoglobin phenotype from the species living in Sardinia were examined with particular attention to the effect of pH, chloride, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate and temperature. Results indicate that red deer haemoglobin, like all haemoglobins from ruminants so far examined, is characterized by a low intrinsic oxygen affinity, with chloride being its main physiological modulator in vivo. The functional results and the low temperature sensitivity of the oxygen affinity are discussed in the light of the amino acid sequence of closely related ruminant haemoglobins.  (+info)

Augmented sympathetic activation during short-term hypoxia and high-altitude exposure in subjects susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema. (3/1342)

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a hallmark of high-altitude pulmonary edema and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Cardiovascular adjustments to hypoxia are mediated, at least in part, by the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic activation promotes pulmonary vasoconstriction and alveolar fluid flooding in experimental animals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured sympathetic nerve activity (using intraneural microelectrodes) in 8 mountaineers susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema and 7 mountaineers resistant to this condition during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and at rest at a high-altitude laboratory (4559 m). We also measured systolic pulmonary artery pressure to examine the relationship between sympathetic activation and pulmonary vasoconstriction. In subjects prone to pulmonary edema, short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude evoked comparable hypoxemia but a 2- to 3-times-larger increase in the rate of the sympathetic nerve discharge than in subjects resistant to edema (P<0.001). At high altitude, in subjects prone to edema, the increase in the mean+/-SE sympathetic firing rate was >2 times larger than in those resistant to edema (36+/-7 versus 15+/-4 bursts per minute, P<0.001) and preceded the development of lung edema. We observed a direct relationship between sympathetic nerve activity and pulmonary artery pressure measured at low and high altitude in the 2 groups (r=0.83, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: With the use of direct measurements of postganglionic sympathetic nerve discharge, these data provide the first evidence for an exaggerated sympathetic activation in subjects prone to high-altitude pulmonary edema both during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and during actual high-altitude exposure. Sympathetic overactivation may contribute to high-altitude pulmonary edema.  (+info)

Living at high altitude and risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (4/1342)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between altitude of residence and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A retrospective, case control study in the Tyrol, Austria enrolled 99 infants with SIDS occurring between 1984 and 1994, and 136 randomly selected control cases. Data on pregnancy, delivery, child care practice, and socio-demographic characteristics including altitude of residence were collected with a standardised questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of SIDS increased gradually with increasing altitude of residence. This relation remained independently significant when the analysis was adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, prenatal care, mother's age at delivery, educational level of parents, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The prone sleeping position emerged as an obligatory cofactor in this association. In the whole of Austria, a similar trend of association emerged between the average altitudes in the 99 political counties and the rates of SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified altitude of residence as a significant risk predictor of SIDS, primarily in combination with the prone sleeping position. Respiratory disturbances, reduced oxygen saturation, and lower temperatures at high altitude might explain this association.  (+info)

Cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity to citric acid challenge during a simulated ascent to extreme altitude. (5/1342)

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of cough and the citric acid cough threshold during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects were studied during Operation Everest 3. Eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m over 31 days in a hypobaric chamber. Frequency of nocturnal cough was measured using voice-activated tape recorders, and cough threshold by inhalation of increasing concentrations of citric acid aerosol. Spirometry was performed before and after each test. Subjects recorded symptoms of acute mountain sickness and arterial oxygen saturation daily. Air temperature and humidity were controlled during the operation. Cough frequency increased with increasing altitude, from a median of 0 coughs (range 0-4) at sea level to 15 coughs (range 3-32) at a simulated altitude of 8,000 m. Cough threshold was unchanged on arrival at 5,000 m compared to sea level (geometric mean difference (GMD) 1.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-2.1, p=0.5), but fell on arrival at 8,000 m compared to sea level (GMD 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.3, p=0.043). There was no relationship between cough threshold and symptoms of acute mountain sickness, oxygen saturation or forced expiratory volume in one second. Temperature and humidity in the chamber were controlled between 18-24 degrees C and 30-60%, respectively. These results confirm an increase in cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity associated with hypobaric hypoxia, and refute the hypothesis that high altitude cough is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. The small sample size makes further conclusions difficult, and the cause of altitude-related cough remains unclear.  (+info)

Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase. (6/1342)

We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.  (+info)

Loss of heterozygosity in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. (7/1342)

PURPOSE: Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is characterized by the accumulation of a material of unknown origin in the anterior structures of the eye. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a genetic locus indicates the presence of a gene located in the same region that could be implicated in the development or the progression of a disease. In this study, the occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX and the possible correlation of LOH incidence with clinical parameters were evaluated. METHODS: Twelve iris specimens, 12 anterior capsule specimens, and respective blood samples were obtained from 17 patients with PEX (13 men), who were undergoing glaucoma and cataract surgery. Sixteen anterior capsule specimens and four iris specimens were obtained from 16 patients without PEX. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 1, 7, 9, and 13. RESULTS: Overall, 83.3% (20/24) of PEX specimens and 94.11% (16/17) of patients with PEX had LOH. The highest incidence of LOH was observed in marker D13S175 (41.6%) followed by D7S478 and D7S479 (37.5%). Only three non-PEX specimens displayed LOH. The number of loci lost was directly related to the altitude of the patients' present residence, but the number lost did not differ significantly between the iris and capsule samples. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX implies a genetic role in PEX pathogenesis at a cellu lar level. The correlation of LOH incidence with the altitude of the patient's residence, could indicate an increased susceptibility to UV radiation of the chromosomal regions examined.  (+info)

Exaggerated endothelin release in high-altitude pulmonary edema. (8/1342)

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated pulmonary hypertension is thought to play an important part in the pathogenesis of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Endothelin-1 is a potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide that also augments microvascular permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure in 16 mountaineers prone to HAPE and in 16 mountaineers resistant to this condition at low (580 m) and high (4559 m) altitudes. At high altitude, in mountaineers prone to HAPE, mean (+/-SE) endothelin-1 plasma levels were approximately 33% higher than in HAPE-resistant mountaineers (22.2+/-1.1 versus 16.8+/-1.1 pg/mL, P<0.01). There was a direct relationship between the changes from low to high altitude in endothelin-1 plasma levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.82, P<0.01) and between endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure measured at high altitude (r=0.35, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in HAPE-susceptible mountaineers, an augmented release of the potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 and/or its reduced pulmonary clearance could represent one of the mechanisms contributing to exaggerated pulmonary hypertension at high altitude.  (+info)

*Aircraft lavatory

The intense cold of high altitude required crews to wear many layers of heavy clothing, and the pilot might have to take ... These devices were awkward to use and could become frozen and blocked in the intense cold of high altitude. Such devices are ...

*Ambient pressure

"Altitude oxygen calculator". Retrieved 2013-11-27. - Online interactive altitude oxygen calculator Brylske, A. (2006). ... ISBN 978-3-642-03629-3. "Online high altitude oxygen calculator". altitude.org. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. ... By measuring ambient atmospheric pressure, a pilot may determine altitude (see pitot-static system). Near sea level, a change ...

*Lhasa Apso

... the high altitudes, the dry windy climate, the dusty terrain, the short hot summer and the long bitterly cold winter of the ...

*Westland Aircraft

The Welkin was a twin-engine high altitude design to intercept attempts by high-flying German bombers to attack Britain. When ...

*Hybrid airship

... the hybrid can be made smaller and does not need to carry ballast for altitude control, while compared to a heavier-than-air ... the other is a thermal cycle to extract energy from the differences in air temperature at different altitudes. Kytoon-a ...

*Altitude

Absolute altitude - altitude in terms of the distance above the ground directly below True altitude - altitude in terms of ... These types of altitude can be explained more simply as various ways of measuring the altitude: Indicated altitude - the ... high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema. The higher the altitude, the more likely are serious effects. ... altitude in terms of the distance above a certain point Pressure altitude - the air pressure in terms of altitude in the ...

*Altitude, Mississippi

Altitude is an unincorporated community in western Prentiss County, Mississippi, United States, about 7.1 miles from downtown ... "Altitude". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. ...

*Altitude 360

Altitude London is a collection of venues in the 387 ft (118 m)-high Millbank Tower, a skyscraper in Central London. Covering ... Altitude 360 was also the British venue chosen to launch British Tourism Week in 2008, hosted by HRH Prince Charles and then ... Altitude 360 London, along with The River Room London, The MillBank Cinema & Media Centre and The View Collection make up ... One of the final parts to open was the Altitude Viewing Gallery on the 29th floor. This Empire State Building-style viewing ...

*Altitude sickness

Altitude.org: what every climber should know about altitude sickness. An online calculator to show the effects of high altitude ... Altitude acclimatization is necessary for some people who move rapidly from lower altitudes to intermediate altitudes (e.g., by ... Altitude training Cabin pressurization Gas exchange High altitude cerebral edema High altitude pulmonary edema Mountain ... "Altitude Tutorials - Altitude Sickness". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. ...

*Altitude (triangle)

The intersection of the extended base and the altitude is called the foot of the altitude. The length of the altitude, often ... Altitudes can be used in the computation of the area of a triangle: one half of the product of an altitude's length and its ... Thus, the longest altitude is perpendicular to the shortest side of the triangle. The altitudes are also related to the sides ... The sum of the ratios on the three altitudes of the distance of the orthocenter from the base to the length of the altitude is ...

*Meridian altitude

A few minutes before this time the observer starts observing the altitude of the object with a sextant. The altitude of the ... As the object passes the meridian a maximum altitude will be observed. The time in UTC of this is observed. The altitude ... Observer B is standing at one of the poles (latitude 90°N or 90°S) he would see the sun on the horizon at an altitude of 0°. By ... If he were to measure the height of the sun above the horizon with a sextant he would find that the altitude of the sun was 90 ...

*Altitude tent

An altitude tent is a sealed tent used to simulate a higher altitude with reduced oxygen. The basic concept of living or ... An altitude tent is one way to enable athletes living at any elevation sleep in a high altitude-like environment. A more ... Training or spending time at a higher altitude will cause the body to adapt to the higher altitude and provide enhanced ... An alternative to the sealed altitude tent is the altitude canopy, which drapes over the user's bed, and features a weighted ...

*Altitude training

... can be simulated through use of an altitude simulation tent, altitude simulation room, or mask-based ... Altitude training can produce slow recovery due to the stress of hypoxia. Exposure to extreme hypoxia at altitudes above 16,000 ... Effects of high altitude on humans West, JB (October 1996). "Prediction of barometric pressures at high altitude with the use ... Altitude training is the practice by some endurance athletes of training for several weeks at high altitude, preferably over ...

*Altitude diving

If an altitude-aware computer is not used, altitude decompression tables must be used. At altitude, atmospheric pressure is ... MD Diving At Altitude - John Ware, PhD At-Altitude Arithmetic - Larry "Harris" Taylor, PhD Altitude Diving Calculator - Online ... Altitude is significant in diving because the depths and decompression used for dives at altitude are different from those used ... underwater diving at altitudes above 300 m Altitude diving is underwater diving using scuba or surface supplied diving ...

*Altitude Montreal

List of tallest buildings in Montreal Altitude Montreal at Emporis "Altitude Montreal". SkyscraperPage. Altitude Montreal at ... Altitude Montreal is a 33-storey, 124 m (407 ft) skyscraper in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is located at 1225 Robert-Bourassa ... Altitude Montreal consists of luxury condominiums and offers hotel-style services to residents such as a pool, spa, fitness ... Altitude Montreal was designed by architecture firm Jean-Pierre Lagacé Architects, Nicolet Chartrand Knoll are the structural ...

*Decompression (altitude)

... altitude illness, hypobaropathy, the altitude bends, or soroche, is a pathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by ... Altitude decompression may be a natural consequence of unprotected elevation to altitude, or due to intentional or ... There is little evidence of altitude decompression occurring among healthy individuals at altitudes below 18,000 feet (5,500 m ... Decompression (altitude) refers to the reduction in ambient pressure due to ascent above sea level. Decompression has physical ...

*Altitude 25

1 Croydon Nestlé Tower Building of Altitude 25 published by Skyscrapernews.com Facts of the Altitude 25 project published by ... Altitude 25 is an apartment building on Fairfield Road in the London Borough of Croydon, London. It is Croydon's second tallest ... The building was completed in 2009, and has 26 floors of apartments up to floor 25, hence the name Altitude 25, a roof height ... The Ashcroft Theatre and Fairfield Halls which provide theatre performances and concerts are both on the same road as Altitude ...

*Pressure altitude

... within the atmosphere is the altitude in the International Standard Atmosphere with the same pressure as the ... QNH Flight Level Density altitude Standard conditions for temperature and pressure Barometric formula "Pressure Altitude" (PDF ... pressure altitude is the indicated altitude when an altimeter is set to an agreed baseline pressure setting under certain ... above the transition altitude). QNE The term "QNE" refers to the indicated altitude at the landing runway threshold when ...

*Density altitude

... density altitude from pressure altitude ..and International Standard Atmosphere temperature deviation Density altitude in feet ... Density altitude is the altitude relative to the standard atmosphere conditions (ISA) at which the air density would be equal ... "Density altitude" can also be considered to be the pressure altitude adjusted for non-standard temperature. Both an increase in ... In hot and humid conditions, the density altitude at a particular location may be significantly higher than the true altitude. ...

*Altitude-azimuth

... , alt-azimuth, or alt-az may refer to: Altitude-azimuth coordinates, another name for the horizontal coordinate ...

*Altitude record

... may refer to: Flight altitude record, the highest altitude to have been reached in an aircraft World altitude ... record (mountaineering), the highest altitude to have been reached by mountaineers. ...

*Pivotal altitude

... is the height for a given ground speed at which the line of sight from the cockpit directly parallel to the ... A rule of thumb for calculating the pivotal altitude H in feet, given the speed in knots v {\displaystyle v} , is H = v 2 11.3 ...

*Altitude (ALT album)

Altitude was the only studio album to date released by ALT, the grouping of Tim Finn, Andy White & Liam O'Moanlai. Also ...

*High-altitude research

... high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Research at high altitude is also an important ... The most obvious and direct application of high-altitude research is to understand altitude illnesses such as acute mountain ... Travelling to high altitude is often used as a way of studying the way the body responds to a shortage of oxygen. It is ... The percentage of oxygen in the air at sea level is the same at high altitudes. But because the air molecules are more spread ...

*High-altitude cooking

... is the opposite of pressure cooking in that the boiling point of water is lower at higher altitudes due ... For home cooking, this effect becomes relevant at altitudes above approximately 2,000 feet (610 m). At that altitude, water ... Boiling point of water vs altitude Cooking at high altitudes Is it true that you can't make a decent cup of tea up a mountain? ... "High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-06-02. https://books.google.com/books?id=UUWXjlu_JWQC&pg=PA396 ( ...
Interviewer: Could altitude play a part in depression? If so, could something as simple as a dietary supplement fix the problem? Up next on The Scope.. Announcer: Examining the latest research and telling you about the latest breakthroughs. The Science and Research Show is on The Scope.. Interviewer: Im talking with Dr. Perry Renshaw, professor of psychiatry at the University of Utah. Hes currently seeking crowdfunding for a project on Experiment.com to improve depression caused by living at high altitude, a particularly worrisome problem here in Utah.. Dr. Renshaw, youre researching the effects of altitude on depression. What led you to make that connection in the first place?. Dr. Renshaw: Well, you know the risk of being too long winded . . . I and my wife moved here as part of the USTAR program in 2008. In conjunction with that move, we started working at the VA Research Center on Mental Health. The assigned focus of that center which is called a MIRECC is on suicide. Never having done ...
Aim: This study was conducted on Ouled Djellal ewes in arid area of south-east Algeria in order to reveal the influence of altitude and landforms on some hematological and biochemical parameters.. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 ewes having 3-5 years of age, multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating and reared in arid areas of South East Algeria were included. Blood samples were divided according to factors of altitude and landform (plain region at 150 m above sea level, tableland region at 600 m above sea level and mountain region at 1000 m above sea level). The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, and plasma samples for biochemical analysis.. Results: The study found lowest glucose concentrations were detected in tableland region at 600 m. In plain region at 150 m, ewes had a higher (p,0.01) concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride. Furthermore, a higher concentration of total proteins (p,0.01) and urea (p,0.05) were detected in plain region at 150 m. The average blood creatinine ...
With the increase of altitude (above sea level), atmospheric pressure decreases, which leads to a reduction of the air amount inhaled into the cylinder of diesel engines. Thereby the pressure, the temperature of the cylinder in diesel engines and the density of the mixture decrease correspondingly, so that there are differences between the combustion processes which naturally aspirated and supercharged diesel engines operate at different altitude regions. The combustion processes of diesel engines at different altitude regions have been studied by means of a micro-computer controlled atmosphere-simulating system on engines. The achieved conclusions serve to clarify some of the uncertainties about the combustion processes of diesel engines in plateau regions and contribute to solve some of the problems that diesel engines have when working in plateau regions ...
The elevation near the mouth of the Lackawanna River is 522 feet (159 m) above sea level.[27] The elevation of the rivers source is between 1,560 and 1,580 feet (480 and 480 m) above sea level.[22] The river is steep and sometimes narrow. Its average gradient between Forest City and Pittston is 19 feet per mile (3.6 m/km).[24] For its first 13 miles (21 km), the rivers average gradient is 45.4 feet per mile (8.60 m/km). For the next 15 miles (24 km), the average gradient is 20 feet per mile (3.8 m/km). For the final 12 miles (19 km), the gradient of the river averages 13.2 feet per mile (2.50 m/km).[28] In general, the topography of the Lackawanna River watershed consists of long, steep-sided ridges with valleys in between.[25] The headwaters of the river are in a group of glacial ponds and bogs in Susquehanna County and Wayne County, about 12 miles (19 km) north of Forest City. The river itself begins at Stillwater Lake, which was built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1960. ...
By means of sensors mounted on cable cars and a telemetry system, profiles are determined for temperature, humidity, wind, air conductivity and potential gradient, against pressure as a parameter of altitude. The site of the project is the Bavarian Alps in the vicinity of Garmisch Partenkirchen, at a uniquely instrumented range. Relationships are established between vertical aerosol distribution and meteorological parameters in the region of the upper boundary of the exchange layers. Electrical conductivity measurements were also made. The report will assist in studies of transport and diffusion of material in the atmosphere, weather modification, visibility, and radar signal propagation in mountainous terrain. (Author)(*ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING
While the skin microbiome has been shown to play important roles in health and disease in several species, the effects of altitude on the skin microbiome and how high-altitude skin microbiomes may be associated with health and disease states remains largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing, we characterized the skin microbiomes of people from two racial groups (the Tibetans and the Hans) and of three local pig breeds (Tibetan pig, Rongchang pig, and Qingyu pig) at high and low altitudes. The skin microbial communities of low-altitude pigs and humans were distinct from those of high-altitude pigs and humans, with five bacterial taxa (Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus, Carnobacterium, and two unclassified genera in families Cellulomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae) consistently enriched in both pigs and humans at high altitude. Alpha diversity was also significantly lower in skin samples collected from individuals living at high altitude compared to individuals at low altitude. Several of the taxa
The elevational pattern of soil microbial diversity along mountain slopes has received considerable interest over the last decade. An increasing amount of taxonomic data on soil microbial community composition along elevation gradients have been collected, however the trophic patterns and environmental drivers of elevational changes remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the distribution patterns of major soil bacterial and fungal taxa along the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China, at five typical vegetation types located between 740 and 2691 m above sea level. Elevational patterns of the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa could be partially explained by the oligotrophic-copiotrophic theory. Specifically, two dark-coniferous forests, located at mid-elevation sites, were considered to be oligotrophic habitats, with relatively higher soil C/N ratio and NH4+-N concentrations. As expected, oligotrophic microbial taxa, belonging to the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria and
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/The_Influence_of_Simulated_High_Altitude.html?id=OzRNAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe Influence of Simulated High Altitude on the Endocrine Glands with Particular Reference to Those Concerned with Reproduction ...
Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) protein was unaltered. The expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), determined by quantitative RT-PCR of mRNA levels did not significantly change during high-altitude hypoxia, although the data could not exclude a minor upregulation. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress ...
Background: Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in childhood and is steadily increasing in prevalence. Better characterisation of factors that determine the risk of hospitalisation for atopic asthma in childhood may help design prevention programmes and improve our understanding of disease pathobiology. This study will focus on the altitude of residence.. Methods: This is an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study that enrolled all live-born infants in the Tyrol. Between 1994 and 1999, baseline data were collected for 33 808 infants. From 2000 to 2005, all children hospitalised for atopic asthma at the age of ⩾6 years (n = 305) were identified by a careful search of hospital databases. Disease status was ascertained from the typical medical history, a thorough examination and proof of atopy.. Results: Living at higher altitude was associated with an enhanced risk of hospitalisation for atopic asthma (multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval 2.08 (1.45 to 2.98) and 1.49 (1.05 to ...
2) When you live at a higher altitude you will need to breath deeper to get the same amout of oxygen as you would living at sea level. At higher altitude there is less pressure and the air is less dense. For example...say you farted in a car(living at sea level) versus farting in a classroom(living at high altitude) you would need to breath alot more in the classroom in order to get the full effect of the fart ...
A fundamental question in human biology is the extent to which high-altitude native populations have evolved by natural selection to differ from their low-altitude ancestors. Answering this question will have implications for larger questions including the size of selection pressures and the mode and tempo of human evolution. High-altitude natives differ biologically from low-altitude populations at low altitude and during acute exposure to high altitude. The high-altitude populations also differ among themselves in numerous biological features thought to be adaptive, suggesting that these natural experiments had different outcomes. The central theme of the proposed catalysis meeting is how to test the hypothesis of genetic adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia of human populations indigenous to the Tibetan, Andean, and East African plateaus. The purpose of this meeting is to examine how recent advances in genomic technologies and research design can address some of these questions. The meeting ...
Increased participation of competitive athletes in new methods of simulated altitude warrants research on changes in performances. PURPOSE: To ascertain the effects of intermittent simulated altitude exposure via re-breathing on cycling performance. METHODS: Eighteen, well-trained male cyclists engaged in the use of a re-breathing simulated altitude device for 15 days. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 simulated altitude groups; a low constant exposure group (CON) or progressively increased exposure group (TRT). Each exposure consisted of alternating between a rebreathing device and atmospheric air for 6 min and 4 min, respectively over 1 hour. Oxygen saturation was monitored with a pulse oximeter; and either held constant (98% over 15 days; equivalent altitude equal 150 m) or progressively reduced (90% on the 1 ii st day to 77% on the 15th day; equivalent altitudes equal 3600-6300 m). An exercise performance test was performed to familiarize subjects to the protocol (FAM), prior to ...
Differences between the effects of training at sea level and at simulated altitude on performance and muscle structural and biochemical properties were investigated in 8 competitive cyclists who...
Currently deployed unmanned rotorcraft rely on preplanned missions or teleoperation and do not actively incorporate information about obstacles, landing sites, wind, position uncertainty, and other aerial vehicles during online motion planning. Prior work has successfully addressed some tasks such as obstacle avoidance at slow speeds, or landing at known to be good locations. However, to enable autonomous missions in cluttered environments, the vehicle has to react quickly to previously unknown obstacles, respond to changing environmental conditions, and find unknown landing sites. We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address the problem of fast obstacle avoidance for a small aerial vehicle and present results from over a 1000 runs at speeds up to 10 m/s. Fast response is achieved through a reactive algorithm whose response is learned based on observing a pilot. Second, we show an algorithm to update the obstacle ...
The military has developed plans for a low-altitude missile defense system in the face of Chinas intensified missile deployment against Taiwan, Minister of National Defense Tang Yiau-min (湯曜明) said yesterday.
Purpose.: Reports on intraocular pressure (IOP) changes at high altitudes have provided inconsistent and even conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of very high altitude and different ascent profiles on IOP in relation to simultaneously occurring ophthalmic and systemic changes in a prospective study. Methods.: This prospective study involved 25 healthy mountaineers who were randomly assigned to two different ascent profiles during a medical research expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata (7,546 m/24,751 ft). Group 1 was allotted a shorter acclimatization time before ascent than was group 2. Besides IOP, oxygen saturation (SaO2), acute mountain sickness symptoms (AMS-c score), and optic disc appearance were assessed. Examinations were performed at 490 m/1,607 ft, 4,497 m/14,750 ft, 5,533 m/18,148 ft, and 6,265 m/20,549 ft above sea level. Results.: Intraocular pressure in both groups showed small but statistically significant changes: an increase during ascent from ...
Rationale: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is characterized by excessive pulmonary vasoconstriction and is associated with decreased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in the lung. Objectives: We hypothesized that individuals susceptible to HAPE (HAPE-S) would also have dysfunction of the vascular NO vasodilator pathway during hypoxia in the systemic vasculature. Methods: During normoxia (FI(O(2)) = 0.21) and 4 hours of normobaric hypoxia (FI(O(2)) = 0.12, corresponding to an altitude of 4,500 m above sea level) endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilator responses to intraarterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were measured by forearm venous occlusion plethysmography in nine HAPE-S subjects and in nine HAPE-resistant control subjects. Main Results: Pulmonary artery systolic pressure increased from 22 +/- 3 to 33 +/- 6 mm Hg (p , 0.001) during hypoxia in control subjects, and from 25 +/- 4 to 50 +/- 9 mm Hg in HAPE-S subjects (p , ...
Since Mount Everest is 8,050 metres (29,035 feet) high, it is in the uppermost part of the troposphere layer of the atmosphere that helps to protect the Earth from the suns UV rays. This means that a large percentage of the harmful rays that are filtered out gradually through the atmosphere at lower altitudes (where most people live) are not filtered on Everest. Climbers at this height are exposed to very dangerous levels of ultraviolet radiation. Also, 85 per cent of UV rays that do reach Earth (of which most are absorbed at lower altitudes) are reflected off the fresh, white snow, almost doubling the radiation exposure in this environment (Canadian Dermatology Association, Sun Facts). The suns UV rays have the potential to be extremely dangerous for high altitude climbers, as well as for those people who live at relatively high altitudes on a year-round basis such as the Sheraps in the Mount Everest area of Nepal. Even more alarming is how little exposure is required to cause serious damage ...
Organisms can live at high altitude, either on land, in water, or while flying. Decreased oxygen availability and decreased temperature make life at such altitudes challenging, though many species have been successfully adapted via considerable physiological changes. As opposed to short-term acclimatisation (immediate physiological response to changing environment), high-altitude adaptation means irreversible, evolved physiological responses to high-altitude environments, associated with heritable behavioural and genetic changes. Among animals, only few mammals (such as yak, ibex, Tibetan gazelle, vicunas, llamas, mountain goats, etc.) and certain birds are known to have completely adapted to high-altitude environments. Human populations such as some Tibetans, South Americans and Ethiopians live in the otherwise uninhabitable high mountains of the Himalayas, Andes and Ethiopian highlands respectively. The adaptation of humans to high altitude is an example of natural selection in action. ...
The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of
Description: This article examines elevation trends and their control by seasonality, dominant geochemical processes, and season dynamics in these supraglacial ponds at elevations ranging between 3989 and 4292 m above sea level in the debris-covered area of Lirung glacier in central Nepal Himalayas, from November 2010 to October 2011 on a bimonthly basis. ...
During a flight, aircraft cabins are pressurized. The air pressure in the cabin when flying at cruising altitudes (36,000 - 46,000 feet or 11,000 - 12,000 m) is lower than at sea level. It is equivalent to the outside pressure at 6,000 - 8,000 feet (1,800 - 2,400 m) above sea level. In other words, the atmosphere inside the plane during the flight is comparable to the atmosphere at the top of a 6,000 - 8,000-foot mountain. Since the air pressure is lower, the amount of oxygen in the blood decreases and the gases in the body expand. Usually such effects are well-tolerated by healthy passengers because the body enables certain physiological mechanisms to compensate the reduced oxygen in blood.. But, low cabin pressure is a main risk factor for cardiac patients as it may promote an increase in blood pressure, hypertensive crisis and even the development of a heart attack, although very rare. The decreases in air pressure are perceived by everyone in the cabin, but people with heart problems may ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of endurance training and hypoxia on endurance performance in normoxic and hypoxic conditions (approximately 3000 m above sea level) as well as on lactate and glucose metabolism during
Large-scale emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (CA) from South Asia impact both regional climate and air quality, yet their sources are not well constrained. Here we use source-diagnostic stable and radiocarbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C) to characterize CA sources at a semiurban site (Hisar: 29.2°N, 75.2°E) in the NW Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and a remote high-altitude location in the Himalayan foothills (Manora Peak: 29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1950 m above sea level) in northern India during winter. The Δ14C of total aerosol organic carbon (TOC) varied from −178‰ to −63‰ at Hisar and from −198‰ to −1‰ at Manora Peak. The absence of significant differences in the 14C-based fraction biomass of TOC between Hisar (0.81 ± 0.03) and Manora Peak (0.82 ± 0.07) reveals that biomass burning/biogenic emissions (BBEs) are the dominant sources of CA at both sites. Combining this information with δ13C, other chemical tracers (K+/OC and SO42−/EC) and air mass back trajectory analyses indicate ...
Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes < 2,000 m above sea level. Occasionally, transmission of malaria occurs in areas...
Hudbays $1.7bn Constancia Project, 4,100m above sea level in the Peruvian Andes, has faced many development challenges due to the locations harsh environment and high altitude. The project embodies many of the new challenges faced by mining companies as they are forced to explore in more remote and hard-to-reach locations for commercially viable resources.. Australia-based Ausenco, which was hired by Hudbay to provide engineering, procurement and construction management services to design, construct, and commission a 25 Mt/y concentrator and associated infrastructure for the project, was last week recognised for its work.. The company won the Innovation in Mining and Metals award at the 2014 Bentley Year in Infrastructure awards, held in London at the Hilton Metropole on 5 November, for its innovative approach to overcoming project challenges.. Speaking about the award, Ausenco senior design systems engineer Anuj Anand says, It feels amazing to accomplish something of this magnitude. This is ...
Holocene Cyclical Switching of Colorado River Water Alternatively to the Sea of Cortez or to the Salton Sink. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Howard, K. A.; Stock, G. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Schafer, J.; Webb, R. H.. 2007-05-01. The former giant lake (ancient Lake Cahuilla) that intermittently filled the Salton Sink with a volume half that of Lake Erie has profound implications for the hydrologic and ecologic history of the Colorado River delta. Because the delta dams and isolates the sink from the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California), the delta cone has a rare geometry that drains distributaries toward two unconnected termini: sea level on the south side and a fluctuating level in the Salton Sink on the north side. This level fluctuated in the Holocene between 85 m below modern sea level when the Salton Sink was dry and 12 m above sea level when occupied by successive incarnations of full Lake Cahuilla. Geologic and archaeologic records indicate that over the last 1300 years the Salton Sink ...
Peter Harbarth • Dossenheim • Germany Keywords: new taxa: Heliamphora chimantensis, Venezuela.. Received: 8 February 2002. Introduction. During our January 2001 expedition to the tepuis of Venezuela (Wistuba et al., 2001), we also explored parts of the Macizo de Chimanta, the Chimanta Massif in the southwest part of the Gran Sabana. This huge massif covers a total area of 1470 km² and is actually a cluster of tepuis including the central Chimanta Tepui itself. Their peaks range in altitude from 1700 m (at the central part of the massif) to 2698 m (on Eruoda Tepui). The ten tepuis that reach 2000 m above sea level cover an area of some 700 km² in total (Huber, 1992). The size and the diverse altitudes of the Chimanta Massif support numerous habitats including rivers, green valleys and forests as well as rocky plateaus and moist savannas. Starting in the 1950s, various expeditions explored the unique flora and fauna of this area. Many endemic plants and animals were discovered during these ...
At 2960 m above sea level the Zugspitze is Germany highest mountain. It lies at the border between Germany and Austria in southern Bavaria and the summit can be reached either by foot or with a cog railway or a cablecar. Below the Zugspitze lies a huge glacier. Right next to the summit there is a restaurant, a weather station and microwave relay stations ...
Mt Toubkal, the highest peak in north Africa, stands 4167m above sea level and commands superb views of the High Atlas Mountains. Our trek passes through impressive landscapes on well-defined paths and is, surprisingly, not too strenuous. As we climb higher, the paths do become steeper but the gain in altitude awards dramatic views towards Marrakech and the spectacular Anti-Atlas mountains. Passing through remote villages and terraced fields we gain an insight into the life of the friendly Berber people and finish with free time in the colourful imperial city of Marrakech.
40 - 20 million years ago. Great Valley Sediments. The stratigraphy of the Great Valley Sequence (GVS) sediments on Quail Ridge is largely obscured by vegetation, but visitors who approach the Ridge from the east have the opportunity to get a great view of them at the Monticello Dam overlook, as well as in the roadcuts from there to the Reserve. Sediments at the dam and in the Reserve, originally laid down horizontally, are nearly vertical. In the gap at Devils Gate where the dam was built, it is clear that some of the strata are more resistant to erosion than others - in general, the sandstones are more resistant than the finer grained silt and shale layers.. These sediments were laid down over a period of 75 million years, from 140-65 million years ago. They are derived by erosion from the early Sierra Nevada and/or Klamath Mountains, which were up to 3000-4000 m high (for reference, the peak of Mt. Whitney is 4417 m above sea level). The sediments appear to have been deposited off the edge ...
In order to prove that Paliki was once an island the geology must show that the Thinia valley was once under water. However, the problem is that the elevation of the Thinia valley is 180m above sea level...and sea level certainly has not changed 180m is only 3000 years!!! However, there are other geologic features that can account for some of the uplift. The Eastern side of the Thinia valley is divided by a large thrust fault known as the Aenos Thrust, which is an extremely active fault to this day. Indeed, the last major earthquake on Cephalonia was a 7.2 magnitude in August 1953. The seismicity is generated by the collision of the Eurasian plate with the African plate. However, the earthquakes, while they cause substantial uplift did not occur often enough or have enough displacement to result in over 180m of uplift since the time of Homer. Therefore, another mechanism is needed to fill in the valley and raise it to 180m. Mapping of the island and the valley revealed a possible solution to ...
The Andes have undergone extended in situ diversification since the late Eocene. However, our analyses also provided evidence of decline in the diversification rate since the middle Oligocene, which has important implications for history and conservation of the endemic Andean fauna. First, the Andes uplift at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary caused significant changes in the rate of diversification in the lowland transition zone. We found that several poison frog lineages distributed on one or both sides of the Andes had dispersed repeatedly before the Miocene uplift (i.e., five cross-Andean and five Northern to Central Andes migrations). Paleogeological evidence supports introgression of shallow seas across the northern Andes during the Miocene, suggesting a historical connection between the Amazon Basin and the Chocó. Second, the Pliocene Andean uplift (>2,000 m above sea level) formed a significant barrier to dispersal, because no other cross-Andean dispersals were found. The uplift also was ...
The Andes have undergone extended in situ diversification since the late Eocene. However, our analyses also provided evidence of decline in the diversification rate since the middle Oligocene, which has important implications for history and conservation of the endemic Andean fauna. First, the Andes uplift at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary caused significant changes in the rate of diversification in the lowland transition zone. We found that several poison frog lineages distributed on one or both sides of the Andes had dispersed repeatedly before the Miocene uplift (i.e., five cross-Andean and five Northern to Central Andes migrations). Paleogeological evidence supports introgression of shallow seas across the northern Andes during the Miocene, suggesting a historical connection between the Amazon Basin and the Chocó. Second, the Pliocene Andean uplift (>2,000 m above sea level) formed a significant barrier to dispersal, because no other cross-Andean dispersals were found. The uplift also was ...
Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes Physiologia Plantarum 2010, 139 , 388-400 Fan Yang, Yong Wang, Ling-Feng Miao Abstract Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a...
Mt Kilimanjaro holds many titles: its the highest peak in Africa (5,895m above sea level), the highest free-standing mountain in the world (rising 4,600m from the surrounding plains), and the most ac
Study participants are men and women between the ages of 30 to 70 who are of Tibetan descent living at high altitudes (1200, 2900, and 3660 meters above sea level). These populations are exposed to tough climate conditions and different levels of hypobaric hypoxia. However, due to economic development there is a marked heterogeneity in lifestyle among these populations. The studies conducted are cross-sectional using random sampling technique.. ...
A quaint and picturesque town, Kuthar is most well known for the magnificent Kuthar Fort, one of the oldest fortified structures in the state. A fine example of Rajasthani architecture and Rajputana artistry, it once served as the residence of the royal family of Kuthar. Spread over an area of 52.8 sq km, it houses a beautiful garden, an ancient temple and freshwater springs. One can get a picturesque view of the Subathu Fort and the snow-capped Himalayan peaks from the fort.. It is said that the fort was originally built by Gurkha rulers around 800 years ago on a hilltop, around 1,300 m above sea level. A section of the fort has been converted into a resort but one can pay an entry fee and visit the fort between 8 am and 6 pm.. ...
Liladownsia fraile was found living around the boundaries of Pine-Oak forests between 1900 and 3000 m above sea level, in a shrubby layer at the edge of the woodland, with acid soils and a temperature range of 10-26°C, and annual precipitation from 350-2000 mm per year. Its preferred host plant is the Pineapple Sage, Salvia elegans. This is a habitat that ranges from Mexico to Guatemala, so the Grasshopper may have a similarly extensive range ...
Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transport/retention was determined at four sites in three rainforest streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. La Selva is located at the base of the last remaining intact rainforest transect from 30 m above sea level to 3000 m along the entire Caribbean slope of Central America. Steam SRP levels can be naturally high there due to regional, geothermal groundwater discharged at ambient temperature. Monitoring since 1988 has revealed distinctive long-term differences in background SRP and total P (TP) for three streams in close proximity, and identified the impact of ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) events on SRP-enriched reaches. Mean interannual SRP concentrations (?? standard deviation) were 89 ?? 53??g/l in the Salto (1988-1996), 21 ?? 39??g/l in the Pantano (1988-1998), and 26 ?? 35??g/l in the Sabalo (1988-1996). After January, 1997 the separate upland-lowland contributions to discharge and SRP load were determined monthly in...
is a mountain peak (altitude - 1343 m above sea level) in the Western Ghats in South India (Karnataka State). The name is a corruption of the Sanskrit word "Kutakachalam." In local Kannada language, it is also called Kodashi Parvatha.Kodachadri forms a picturesque background to the famous temple of Mookambika in Kollur. Situated in the middle of the Mookambika National Park, it is home to several endemic and endangered species of flora and fauna. The rain forests loom in a perpetual layer of mist around the peak. Around peak, shola forest is also there ...
The northeastern highlands of Brazil are endemic for several tropical diseases, especially American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) and schistosomiasis. Twenty years ago, we measured the seroprevalence of protozoan diseases in Santo Inácio, a village of approximately 1,000 inhabitants located 1,000 m above sea level. We detected small numbers of sera with antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii, and the area had a low prevalence both of American trypanosomiasis (3.54%) and toxoplasmosis (27.43%) compared with nearby Brazilian areas. This was attributed to a specific triatomine vector and local housing conditions. Twenty years later, we again determined the prevalences of both diseases and compared these results with those from Iraquara, a larger town with the same ethnic and social background but with a higher prevalence of rural activities. The incidence of Chagas' disease in San Inácio showed the same low level, i.e., 3.78% (5 of 132) with only adult males affected in
The freshwater red alga Lemanea fluviatilis (L.) Ag. was found in both winter and summer algal communities of the Banias Stream in the piedmonts of Mount Hermon, Northern Israel. This species occurs in only one locality of the Upper Jordan River Basin, at 361 m above sea level. The Banias population grows on carbonate pebbles in the slow streaming, clear, cool-temperate alkaline waters of low salinity and insignificant organic pollution. As a result of a statistical comparison of morphological character states in the Banias population with selected European populations of the species it is concluded that the Israeli population of Lemanea fluviatilis, the southernmost (10°N) Old World locality, is characterized by the smallest and the more copiously branched thalli. The diversity analysis of the entire community and environmental conditions in the natural habitat characterize this rare species as inhabiting low richness communities of low alkaline, low mineralized unpolluted waters. The Israeli ...
1. Name of Plants. Local name :Ki tolod, daun tolod (Sunda), Kendali, sangkobak (Jawa). Synonym : Laurentia longiflora (Linn.), Peterm.. 2. Classification of Plants. Family : Campanuiaceae. 3. Description of Plants. Plants from the West Indies grows wild in the drains or rivers, rice fields, around fences and other places are moist and open. Ki tolod can be found from the lowlands to 1,100 m above sea level. Upright herb, up to 60 cm, branched from the base, white gummy sharp taste and contain toxic. Single leaf, sitting, lancet shape, rough surface, pointed tip, base narrowed, curved edges inward, toothed up curved pinnate. Leaves 5-17 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, green color. The flowers are upright, single, out of the armpit leaves, long-stemmed, white star-shaped crown. The fruit is bell-shaped boxes of fruit, duck, broke into two spaces, seed lot. Propagation by seed, stem cuttings or saplings.. 4. Chemical Ingredients and Uses. Alkaloid compound that is lobelin, lobelamin, isotomin (Anonim, ...
Many researchers working in Antarctica study large things. The ice lakes and glaciers are so massive that the glaciologists who study them may find it easier to use airplanes rather than tons as unit of measure. Oceanographers and climatologists track down icebergs larger than some countries. Volcanologists are checking the vital signs of that formidable giant that is Mount Erebus (3794 m above sea level, more than 12 thousand feet). Astronomers look out of the clear Antarctic skies to stars and galaxies.. Many biologists study large and easily recognized creatures such as seals, penguins, and whales. But where we "Wormherders" are conducting research there are no living things that the naked eye can see. We are focusing on much smaller creatures, such as nematode worms. Virtually all soils on Earth host nematodes, but in the Dry Valleys very few species occur, and they are specially adapted to this extreme environment. The same goes for the microscopic algae and the bacteria living in lakes and ...
Use 5 tumble of tea tree oil and basin of warm water, soak feet for at lowest 20 mins. Pat feet dry.(substitute with eucalyptus, peppermint or lemongrass oil).. Located at 2175 m above sea level, Phawngpui National Park is known among top selling Mizoram sights. With a surrounding area of 3000 sq m, the park offers rich plant life and animals. Tourists can observe different animals like tigers, hoolog gibbon, sambar deer, bear and serow.. But after you are done with work, it is equally in order to completely remove every item of make up properly. Not properly removing the make up can a person serious repercussions - skin rashes, pigmentation or pimples in over time. Thus, it is essential to use a good quality cleansing beauty oil for conduct removal. This particular mixture of oil will smoothly wipe off your make up and install a supple feel to confront. Generally preferred cleaning beauty oils are people natural ingredients like green tea, lemon or orange extracts for that natural ...
15 cm dbh) in the 75-ha study site at Cabang Panti Research Station, Gunung Palung National Park, Kalimantan Barat (Indonesian West Borneo). The site is bounded by elevation (100 350 m above sea level; gray lines represent 25-m contours) and on the east side by a creek (bold lines). The western boundary extends 100 m west from the western spur ridge running parallel to the creek. Dots represent S. quadrinervis adults; size is proportional to dbh. Thick circles are 0.5-ha areas (80 m diameter) with HIGH densities of conspecific adults (n = 8). Similarly, thin circles are 0.5-ha areas with LOW densities of conspecific adults (n = 8). Overall, HIGH 0.5-ha areas have 3.4 times the number of conspecific neighbors as LOW areas. ...
Numerous studies have assessed the associations of different ethnicities and races with the risk of MS worldwide (2, 12, 14, 25). Iran has different ethnic groups, each with specific lifestyle and behavioral habits as well as different environmental exposures. Khuzestan province (Iran) is located in southwestern Iran between longitude 47° 41 to 50° 39 E and latitude 29° 58 to 33° 4 N. Ahvaz, the capital city of Khuzestan, is one of eight major cities of the country located geographically 31° 20 N and 48° 40 E on the plains of Khuzestan and 18 m above sea level.. Sharafaddinzadeh et al. (2009) conducted a cross-sectional study and found that the prevalence and incidence of MS in persons of Persian ethnicity were higher than in those of Arab ethnicity. However, the prevalence of advanced stages of MS with brain and motor symptoms is higher among Arab ethnic groups (24). The findings of no significant differences between Arab and non-Arab ethnic groups in the present study imply that ...
Stumpffia maledicta Rakotoarison, Scherz, Glaw, Köhler, Andreone, Franzen, Glos, Hawlitschek, Jono, Mori, Ndriantsoa, Raminosoa, Riemann, Rödel, Rosa, Vieites, Crottini, and Vences, 2017, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 67: 321. Holotype: ZSM 2079/2007, by original designation. Type locality: Gite detape campsite (S12.5268, E48.1721, ca. 1050 m above sea level), Montagne dAmbre National Park, Antsiranana Province, Madagascar. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:74E46BB8-AD68-49AC-BBE1-121CA225111B. Rhombophryne maledicta - Here (25 November 2017). See comment under Rhombophryne. ...
Stumpffia mamitika Rakotoarison, Scherz, Glaw, Köhler, Andreone, Franzen, Glos, Hawlitschek, Jono, Mori, Ndriantsoa, Raminosoa, Riemann, Rödel, Rosa, Vieites, Crottini, and Vences, 2017, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 67: 322. Holotype: ZSM 3237/2012, by original designation. Type locality: near the Campement des Princes (ca. S12.9575, E49.1183, 90 m above sea level), Ankarana National Park, Antsiranana Province, Madagascar. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:57BA52EE-CDDF-466F-863E-5C642B4891FC. Rhombophryne mamitika - Here (25 November 2017). See comment under Rhombophryne. ...
Familia : Convolvulaceae. Local names: Blanar, widara upas (Jawa), hailale (Ambon).. 2. Classification of Plants. 3. Description of Plants. Bidara upas is a creeping or convolute planta length of 3-6 m, small trunkwhen held somewhat slipperyand the color is a bit dark. Single leaf, long-stemmed, heart-shaped, flat edge, tapered tip, 5-12 cm long, 4-15 cm wide, and dark green. The flower shape like umbrella fork gather1-4 flowers, shaped like a white bell, length of 7-8 cm, with 4 strands of petals. Bulbs collect in the soil, Similar to sweet potato. When the land is dryand no stagnant waterand friable, it can weigh up to 5 kg or more. Skin tuber color is brownish yellow, skin thick and gummy white, turn brown when dry. Propagation by stem cuttingor planting tuber.. 4. Habitat and Spreading. Grows wild in the forest,sometimes planted in the yard near the fenceas a medicinal plant orbecause the edible tuber. Grow well in the tropicsfrom the lowlandto a height of 250 m above sea level. These plants ...
VITAMINS Authentic Organic Premium 4 Root Maca Powder - 250g (Certified Organic) [1H-0JNF-NYFV] - Authentic Vitamins Organic Premium 4 Root Maca Powder - 250g (Certified Organic)Maca is a plant grown in the Peruvian over 4000m above sea level. Its root and hypocotyl the bulbous stem below the leafy growth have for centuries been part of the diet andculture of people in the region. Legend
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found at epidemic levels in certain populations of the Pacific Coast in northwestern Nicaragua especially in younger men. There are knowledge gaps concerning CKDs prevalence in regions at higher altitudes.. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1 coffee-growing village in Nicaragua located at 1,000 m above sea level (MASL) altitude was performed. Predictors included participant sex, age, occupation, conventional CKD risk factors and other factors associated with CKD suggested by previous surveys in Central America. Outcomes included serum creatinine (SCr) values ,1.2 mg/dL for men and ,0.9 mg/dL for women, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ,60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, dipstick proteinuria stratified as microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/dL) and macroalbuminuria (,300 mg/dL), hypertension and body mass index.. RESULTS: Of 324 eligible participants, 293 were interviewed (90.4%), and 267 of those received the ...
A mass occurrence of grass rats in Northern Ethiopia. The species is perhaps Abyssinian grass rat (Arvicanthis abyssinicus), they have a small black stripe on the back. They emerged on a plateau, which is covered with fields and surrounded by stony slopes. They emerged on a plateau, which is covered with fields and about 2200 m above sea level. From one day to the other hundreds of specimens were observed in small groups, which were distributed over the fields or occurred along a river.
The Baikonur Cosmodrome, also called Tyuratam, is the worlds first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert steppes of Kazakhstan, about 200 km east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya River, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 m above sea level. It is leased by the Kazakh government to Russia (currently until 2050) and is managed jointly by the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Space Forces.. The shape of the area leased is an ellipse, measuring 90 km east-west by 85 km north-south, with the cosmodrome at the centre. It was originally built by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s as the base of operations for its ambitious space program. Under the current Russian space program, Baikonur remains a busy space port, with numerous commercial, military and scientific missions being launched annually. Vostok 1, the first manned spacecraft in human history, was launched from one of Baikonurs launch pads, which is presently known as Gagarins Launch ...
Denmark Attractive resort town on the banks of the Denmark River Denmark is located on the Denmark River 18 m above sea level and 414 km south of Perth. It is a popular and attractive resort noted for its excellent fishing, the diversity of landscape (from rugged coastline to tall timber country) and the quietness of an area which has not been over-developed or commercialised. -
I had the vague idea that the isotopic analysis gave more precise in its results, however it seems that the only thing that it can say is that the Amesbury Archer grew in a colder place than Wiltshire. That might be somewhere like Burgos, for example. OK, I know it is very counter-intuitive but in fact the Northern Iberian plateau is year-long slightly colder than Southern Britain for the simple reason that it is semi-continental climate and 700 m above sea level, sort of a mini-Tibet ...
The golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, was formerly thought to range below 300-400 m above sea level, because of changes in forest physiognomy and lack of resources at higher elevations. We document four cases (from two studies) of L. chrysomelas ranging above 500 m, and investigate the behavior of two groups that ranged from 100 to 700 m. We discuss the possibilities that 1 ...
Abstract. This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the European Marie Curie Action SAPUSS project carried out in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) during September-October in autumn 2010. The key SAPUSS objective is to deduce aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations - both horizontally and vertically in the Mediterranean urban environment. In order to achieve so, the unique approach of SAPUSS is the concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously in six monitoring sites around the city of Barcelona (NE Spain): a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two urban tower sites (150 m and 545 m above sea level, 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively). SAPUSS allows us to advance our knowledge sensibly of the atmospheric chemistry and ...
But chalk is also very old. My lot - and apparently most of the worlds chalk - was formed in the late cretaceous period (66-100mya).. The chalk beds around here are about 400m deep and the highest is about 110m above sea level.. It takes about 1,000 years to build 1-10 cm of chalk (depending on type and condition). So if we started today, and use the fastest rate, it would take 4 million years to build my chalk cliffs.. Im no geologist, but it seems to me that this single piece of geology is enough to prove that the earth is older than 6,000 years. Anyone care to put me right?. Edited by Tangle, : No reason given.. Edited by Tangle, : No reason given. ...
Left: The EDNRB gene may play a role in Ethiopians adaptation to life at high altitudes. Right: EDNRB coordinates a network of genes involved in heart function.. Ethiopians have lived at high altitudes for thousands of years, providing a natural experiment for studying human adaptations to low oxygen, a condition known as hypoxia. One factor that may enable Ethiopians to tolerate high altitudes and hypoxia is the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine now find that mice with lower-than-normal levels of EDNRB protein are remarkably tolerant to hypoxia. The study, published this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, provides a mechanism for the genes role in adaptation to life at high altitudes and suggests that EDNRB could be targeted to treat sea level diseases that stem from lack of oxygen.. "This is the first demonstration that a gene involved in high altitude adaptation is critical in protecting ...
High altitude (HA) dwellers have an exceptionally high tolerance to orthostatic stress, and this may partly be related to their high packed cell and blood volumes. However, it is not known whether their orthostatic tolerance would be changed after relief of the altitude-related hypoxia. Furthermore, orthostatic tolerance is known also to be influenced by the efficiency of the control of peripheral vascular resistance and by the effectiveness of cerebral autoregulation and these have not been reported in HA dwellers. In this study we examined plasma volume, orthostatic tolerance and peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress in HA dwellers, including some with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in whom packed cell and blood volumes are particularly large. Eleven HA control subjects and 11 CMS patients underwent orthostatic stress testing, comprising head-up tilting with lower body suction, at their resident altitude (4338 m) and at sea level. Blood pressure (Portapres), ...
In studies concerned with the performance at high altitude it is often not possible to separate the effects which are due to hypoxia from those associated with the stress of ascent. Some of the basic observations concerning exercise at high altitude are reviewed and a study is described which was designed to simulate the physical exertion of high altitude mountaineering but performed at altitudes below 1000 m. Some of the changes observed including peripheral oedema might under other circumstances have been ascribed to altitude.. ...
Gradient analysis is rarely used in studies of fungal communities. Data on macromycetes from eight sites along an elevation gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico, were used to demonstrate methods for...
GONZALES, Gustavo F.. Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2011, vol.28, n.1, pp.92-100. ISSN 1726-4634.. The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates ...
dapted to their high altitude homes that the low oxygen levels dont even faze them, but for those of us living near sea level, traveling up to the mountains can put a lot of stress on our bodies. Even so, we can still do some of our own short-term biological adjustments, and a new study published today in PLoS ONE identifies some of the specific genetic changes that are involved in this high altitude acclimation.. The research team, composed of 26 scientists from institutions in China and Denmark, studied four climbers of Himalayan peak Mount Xixiabangama, which rises 8,012 meters, or 26,286 feet, above sea level. (For comparison, Mount Everest is 8,848 meters tall.) They collected blood samples before, during, and after the trip, which took almost 30 days, and then determined how the climbers gene expression - which genes were "on" or "off" - changed over time.. Changing gene expression is one of the fastest ways to adjust to a new environment or situation. The DNA itself cant change to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of simulated altitude erythrocythemia in women on hemoglobin flow rate during exercise. AU - Robertson, R. J.. AU - Gilcher, R.. AU - Metz, K. F.. AU - Caspersen, C. J.. AU - Allison, T. G.. AU - Abbott, R. A.. AU - Skrinar, G. S.. AU - Krause, J. R.. AU - Nixon, P. A.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The effect of simulated altitude erythrocythemia on hemoglobin flow rate and maximal O 2 uptake (V̇O(2max)) was determined for nine women sea-level residents. Test conditions included normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (16% O 2-84% N 2). Cycle tests were performed under normoxia (T 1-N) and hypoxia (T 1-H) at prereinfusion control and under hypoxia 48 h after a placebo infusion (T 2-H) and 48 h after autologous infusion of 334 ml of erythrocytes (T 3-H). Hematocrit (38.1-44.9%) and hemoglobin concentration (12.7-14.7 g·dl -1) increased from control to postreinfusion. At peak exercise, V̇O(2max) decreased from T 1-N (2.40 l·min -1) to T 1-H (2.15 l·min -1) then increased at T 3-H ...
Acclimatization to altitude can improve endurance performance above levels achieved solely by training at sea level. There is natural limitation in the applicability of employing terrestrial altitude training - namely proximity. A simple, non-cumbersome method of simulating altitude is desirable to many types of endurance athletes. The Alto2Lab (Pharma Pacific Inc.), consisting of primarily a breathing tube and silo stack, has shown some potential in this role. There is a lack of evidence regarding whether simulated altitude exposure triggers abnormal cardiovascular responses. The aim of this study was to provide initial evidence of cardiac changes associated with usage patterns that follow distributor guidelines. Twenty-five participants (mean age 29 ± 10.7; 16 males; 9 females) volunteered for the study. Subjects underwent a baseline ECG recording followed by ECG recording during sham (4-5 mins), hypoxia (~6 mins), and recovery (3-4 mins) phases. The sham phase consisted of subjects breathing
1 - 5 per-cent performance improvement at lactic threshold. There are vary varied methods of high altitude training - which are successful (see the summary further down). That is a surprise. On the other hand all these methods bring an unusual stimulus and that leads to the success of the training. Science has not come to any fast conclusions so far. Evidently there is a strong individual component to it all, which affects different people in different ways. Not everyone benefits the same. But the type of preparation also plays an important role.. Benoit Nave, coach at 2PEAK, has been on many high altitude training camps with a number of top athletes and noticed, that "those who had not benefited from the training previously had either not been completely well or had trained wrongly." According to Nave, after corrections to diet and different training, these athletes were then also able to profit from the high altitude method.. What is surprising is that so little scientific data about high ...
High-altitude exposure causes a mild to moderate rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This case report describes the first documented case of a hypertensive crisis at altitude, as well as the first report of the occurrence of acute kidney injury in the context of altitude-related hypertension. A healthy, previously normotensive 30-year old, embarked on a trek to Everest Base Camp (5300 m). During his 11-day ascent the subject developed increasingly worsening hypertension. In the absence of symptoms, the individual initially elected to remain at altitude as had previously been the plan. However, an increase in the severity of his hypertension to a peak of 223/119 mmHg resulted in a decision to descend. On descent he was found to have an acute kidney injury that subsequently resolved spontaneously. His blood pressure reverted to normal at sea level and subsequent investigations including a transthoracic echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, renal ultrasound, and urinary
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1. Prolonged (, 10h) exposure to hypoxia and high altitude (, 5000 m) invariably have detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Paradoxically, mild improvements in cognitive function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after cessation of oxygen therapy have been reported.. 2. We studied in each of 10 healthy subjects the effect of an acute altitude challenge [rapid helicopter transport to the Jungfraujoch (3450 m), experiment 1] and of an acute exposure to mild hypoxia (fractional inspiratory oxygen concentration 14.5%, experiment 2) on a simple test of cognitive performance (the time needed to read briefly displayed letters).. 3. Under both hypoxic conditions the time needed to read briefly presented letters decreased, from 12.1 ± sd 3.8 ms to 8.3 ± 1.5 ms (P,0.01) in experiment 1, and from 11.9 ± 1.9 ms to 8.1 ± 1.1 ms (P,0.01) in experiment 2.. 4. A rapid and mild hypoxic challenge seems to improve a simple measure of cognitive performance above normal values. The ...
Headache is common in Cerro de Pasco (CP), Peru (altitude 4338 m) and was present in all patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in CP reported here. Forty-seven percent of inhabitants report headache. Twenty-four percent of men have migraine w
Know why the worlds elite athletes use high altitude training. Mountain Might Provide the Biological Adaptations of Altitude Training and Acclimatization.
336 pages. $30 hardcover. In 1896, the evolutionist James Mark Baldwin formulated a hypothesis that he further developed in 1902 and which later became known as the "Baldwin effect." The hypothesis, which has received considerable attention since it was first proposed, asserts that adaptive responses of organisms to extreme environments may become genetically fixed if the conditions persist. The idea is that learned behaviors can become innate or instinctual under the right selection pressures. Think of adaptation to high altitude. When a person travels from near sea level to a high mountain, the body increases the production of red blood cells because more are needed for respiration where the air has a low concentration of oxygen. For travelers from low to very high altitudes, this adaptation occurs gradually and takes several days to reach a satisfactory concentration of red blood cells. For people who have moved permanently to live at high altitude, natural selection favors genetic mutations ...
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. A shared biological adaptation enables highlanders in both Tibet and Ethiopia to thrive in the low oxygen of high altitudes. A new study from Case Western Reserve University reveals that the ability to pass on this trait, however, appears to be linked to different genes in the two groups.. The shared adaptation is the ability to maintain relatively low levels of hemoglobin for high altitudes. Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. Increased hemoglobin production is the natural response of a member of an ethnic group that historically lives at low altitudes - such as most Americans - when subjected to high altitude conditions. While this response can help draw oxygen into the body, it also increases blood viscosity and the risks for thrombosis, stroke and difficulties with pregnancies.. "At 4000 meters, every lungful of air only has 60% of the oxygen molecules that people at sea level have," said Cynthia Beall, ...
Local resource for arthritis clinics in Pasco. Includes detailed information on local clinics that provide access to arthritis treatment, as well as advice and content on joint pain, arthritis in children, and pain medication.
Select image for other craters with time-lapse images from the MRO press release. Mars surface air pressure is much too low for pure liquid water to exist now. At very low pressure, water can exist as either frozen ice or as a gas but not in the intermediate liquid phase. If you have ever cooked food at high elevations using boiling water, you know that it takes longer because water boils at a lower temperature than at sea level. That is because the air pressure at high elevations is less. If you were several miles above the Earths surface, you would find that water would boil (turn into steam) at even room temperature! However, if the liquid is very salty water, especially mixed with perchlorates, then it may be able to exist long enough to flow partway down the crater walls before freezing or evaporating. The dark streaks that grow during the warm summer time could be the result of liquid brines near the surface of Mars breaking through to the surface. Because of the widespread presence of ...
This table lists species that are considered to be primarily a threat to tropical ecosystems over 1,000 m elevation. Although they are profiled on PIER, most Pacific islands do not exceed this elevation and thus these species may only be a problem or potential problem in a limited number of locations. Each species is linked by its scientific name to an individual write-up containing relevant information. Species are listed in alphabetic order. You can browse this list or use the find function on your web browser to search by scientific name. Cant find it here? Check the list of synonyms for other names (the more common synonyms are included below) or search other lists and databases available on the Internet. Stumped by botanical terms? Here are links to a ...
In most cases, Cardiac problems is the primary cause of pulmonary edema. Other reasons may include pneumonia, kidney failure, exposure to poisonous toxins and some medications, and externous exercising or living at high elevations.. CHF or (Congestive Heart Failure) occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the body. Left-sided heart failure will reduce cardiac output, and directly effect the pulmonary circulation. Decrease in Cardiac ejection fraction will leave abnormally high volume of blood in the left ventricle. End-diastolic ventricular pressure elevates. This increase in volume pressure, backs up to the left atrium and then to the pulmonary veins. Increased volume pressure in the pulmonary veins impairs the normal drainage of the alveoli and promotes the flow of fluid from the capillaries into the lungs causing pulmonary edema. This impairs gas exchange. Left-sided heart failure presents with respiratory symptoms: shortness of breath, orthopnea caused ...
Dear Editor Drs Huicho, Singi and Bharti make the important points that definitions of hypoxaemia should be based on altitude-specific normal values and that further research at sea level and higher altitudes is needed. An altitude-specific definition of hypoxaemia (being an arbitrary value of SpO2 more than 2 [1] or 3 standard deviations below the normal population mean) may be different from the threshold SpO2 for giving oxygen. Other considerations for giving oxygen are at what level of SpO2 (at different altitudes) oxygen is beneficial, local resource availability, and, in an individual child, confounding factors including the duration of exposure to altitude, age, or co-existent disease such as brain injury, severe anaemia, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac failure. We studied Papua New Guinean neonates and children living at an altitude of 1600m to determine normal range of oxygen saturation.[2] Hypoxaemia in our study was a SpO2 less than 2SD below the mean. In practice our threshold for ...
May 8, 2011 Health Care, Medicine 159 Comments  People with certain medical conditions need to take special precautions when traveling at high altitudes. 1.Diabetics be aware: Blood glucose meters can give inaccurate results at high altitudes. Consult the manufacturer of the meter for recommendations about high altitude readings. Above 5000 m, some of the diabetic climbers experience hypoglycemia after dinner with nocturnal hyperglycemia probably because of delayed absorption of carbohydrates at altitude and rapid absorption of the Lispro Insulin used. One should delay insulin administration until the end of dinner. 2.If one has angina or had a heart attack in the past: Have a cardiac evaluation. One should consult if there is chest pain, shortness of breath, or dizziness while travelling. 3.At high altitude, the blood thickens and the blood pressure rises. This may increase the risk of a stroke. 4.Asthma does not worsen at high altitudes. 5.If one uses oxygen because of lung disease, a higher ...
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Cylance Pro Cycling is returning to the mountainous Southern California resort town of Big Bear Lake. The goal of the camp is to prepare at altitude with specific training prior to the Tour of the Gila.. Known for its high altitude conditions, the Tour of the Gila is the next stop on the UCI Americas Tour. By utilizing the incredible resources of Big Bear Lake, Cylance Pro Cycling plans to be as prepared as possible for one of the hardest races in the North American circuit.. According to the Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, athletes have long utilized altitude for training benefits. Higher altitude can decrease performance due to the fewer oxygen molecules per volume of air as compared to the air at sea level¹. By training at higher altitudes, the body produces more red blood cells to do the efforts in the hypoxic environment¹. Altitude training camps at specific times of year can be useful for elite athletes to acclimate for altitude races and to increase training adaptations¹.. Even ...
The more I look at my HR data, the more Im convinced that altitude compresses your HR ranges. Your lows are higher and your highs are lower. My RHR would be about 5 bpm lower at sea level (high 40s), and my perceived "MAF" HR would be about 10 bpm lower at altitude (low-to-mid 130s). Its a little tough to correlate precisely because my training at sea level is typically on much flatter and easier terrain than my training in Leadville, but 140 bpm at Leadville feels way harder than 140 bpm at sea level (e.g., Florida or Boston). I think thats the easiest way I can state it. 140 bpm does not feel the same at altitude as it does at sea level! It feels significantly harder. My HR barely ever spikes into the 150s in Leadville. At sea level it spikes into the 150s all the time-- even into the 160s. In both cases, my perceived effort feels almost exactly the same. Alternatively, if I hold my HR constant, I seem to run about 30-45 seconds/mile faster at sea level on similar terrain (on, say, a 5 ...
Previous studies have investigated IOP changes after ascent to high altitude and found that several environmental factors (i.e., temperature,16 humidity, wind, and exercise17) may cause inconsistent results. The current study examined the relationship between IOP and high altitude by controlling those confounding factors by using a hypobaric chamber. Thick CCT due to hypoxia was also thought to be a factor that can artificially inflate IOP changes at high altitude.9 However, our data showed comparable CCT during exposure to simulated 4000 m ASL and at sea level. This finding is in accordance with a recent meta-analysis that found that the unoperated corneas of healthy lowlanders take over 10 days to change to a point of clinical significance at high altitude.18 Moreover, IOP corrected for CCT changes also showed a similar reduction during hypobaric hypoxic stimulus. Our findings are in accordance with previously published data; they reported an IOP reduction at various altitudes in a hypobaric ...
1. Liu C, Zhang LF, Li N. The specific expression pattern of globin mrnas in tibetan chicken during late embryonic stage under hypoxia. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013;164:638-644 2. Su Y, Li D, Gaur U, Wang Y, Wu N, Chen B. et al. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations. J Genet. 2016;95:675-681 3. Huang S, Zhang L, Rehman MU, Iqbal MK, Lan Y, Mehmood K. et al. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens. Plos One. 2017;12:e0173698 4. Mees G, Dierckx R, Vangestel C, Wiele CVD. Molecular imaging of hypoxia with radiolabelled agents. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:1674-1686 5. Semenza G. Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Physiology and Medicine. Cell. 2012;148:399-408 6. González-Muniesa P, Quintero P, Andrés JD, Martínez JA. Hypoxia: a consequence of obesity and also a tool to treat excessive weight loss. Sleep Breath. 2015;19:7-8 7. Liu XW, Yin J, Ma QS, ...
Find the Bikeman Performance Billet Low Altitude Head Kit - 04-314L at Dennis Kirk. Shop our complete selection of Snowmobile parts and accessories including the Bikeman Performance Billet Low Altitude Head Kit - 04-314L.
Mr. Pit - Sky Traffic / Low Altitude Release Label: Coldharbour Recordings Release Code: CLHR102 Release Date: September 6th 2010 http://i9.photobucket.com/albums/a94/ImpactPlayaz/Coldharbour/CLHR102.jpg Sky Traffic Low Altitude
This thesis studies the effect of hypoxia (at rest and during exercise) on the arterial and venous cerebral circulation, investigating the venous system role in high altitude headache. Methods: 1) Hypobaric hypoxic studies investigated 198 trekkers and 24 Investigators to 5300m, 14 to 6400m and 8 to 8848m. 2) Normobaric hypoxic studies used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)) at sea-level. Four domains were addressed: i. Arterial: Hypobaric hypoxia: (n=24) Transcranial Doppler (TCD) measured middle cerebral artery diameter (MCAD) and blood velocity (MCAv). Sea-Level normobaric hypoxia: (n=7) A hypoxicator (FiO2 = 11%) for 3 hours with a 3Tesla MRI scan measured MCAD and MCAv. ii. Brain Oxygenation: Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) monitored Regional Brain Oxygenation (rSO2). iii. Venous: Retinal imaging at altitude and MRI at sea-level assessed the venous system. iv. Headache: A daily diary recorded headache burden. Results: Arterial: Hypobaric and normobaric hypoxia induced MCA dilatation. Mean ...
If you are anything like me, you are a sucker for anything south of the border, food wise. I am pretty obsessed with finding the best Latin food that Long
The main result of the present study is the ability of high-altitude hypoxia to modify the uroflowmetry parameters in young adult women, as shown by some changes occurring within a few days from sea level to 5,050 m a.s.l. and in the return to sea level. High-altitude hypoxia increased TFlow (from 12 to 27 s) and QVol (from 182 to 389 ml). These changes can be related to chronic states of hypoxic stress, since TFlow and QVol were found to be negatively correlated with SpO2.; i.e., the decrease in SpO2.was related to the longer TFlow and higher QVol. The strong negative correlation supports a direct and/or indirect dependence of bladder functionality on oxygen availability.. The increase in TFlow, TVoid, and QVol can be explained by other neural hypotheses. Indeed, these changes can be related to higher bladder filling due to a lesser need to contract, perhaps linked to the fact that the threshold volume for the urination activation mechanism would be increased. Since our subjects were asked to ...
Interclass distribution of arterial blood pressure at different altitudes and time courses. (A) SBP (systolic blood pressure, mmHg), (B) DBP (diastolic blood pr
Abstract To characterize the altitudinal and successional trends in microbial biomass and to understand their role in soil nutrient dynamics during the aggradation phase (vegetation recovery) of abandoned shifting cultivation systems, we determined the soil properties and microbial C and N in jhum (slash-and-burn) cultivation systems at different altitudes and 1-, 7-, and 16-year-old fallow agricultural lands at lower and higher altitudes in the northeastern Indian hills. Density of ground vegetation was lower in the undisturbed forest than in the jhum fallows. In general, 1-year jhum fallow had greater herbaceous vegetation both at lower and higher altitudes. Although woody plants were observed in 7- and 16-year-old jhum fallows, their density was highest in the forest. Soil moisture, organic C, and total N also increased gradually with increasing altitude and progressive secondary succession. Soil pH showed a negative correlation with altitude (as also confounded by soil type) and fallow age. ...
JIM WORTHAM JULY 18, 2003 SCRIPT TRANSCRIPTION Mr. Wortham: My name is Jim Wortham. I am a Flyway Biologist, pilot. Wortham is spelled W-O-R-T- H-A-M. My name is Jim Wortham. I am a Flyway Biologist/Pilot for the Migratory Bird Office within the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. I have been doing this for about eight years now. I am part of a group of eleven Flyway Biologist/Pilots and we cover pretty much the continent of North America following and assessing the populations of migratory birds; primarily waterfowl; and assessing habitat conditions across all Canada, the U.S., Mexico and sometimes into Central America. During the course of our surveys we survey the migratory bird populations and assess habitats. And during the course of the surveys we generally fly low-level, much of the time where we can be low enough to identify and actually enumerate different flocks of birds that we encounter. We also fly at different altitudes just assessing landscapes and habitats at difference scales. We ...
In addition, Serrano and Chiappe estimated the wing aspect ratio (the length of the wing relative to the width of its chord) of Sapeornis using both multivariate equations as well as direct measurements of reconstructed wing area. In both cases, the wing aspect ratio of Sapeornis plotted among soaring birds, and specifically among thermal soarers such as vultures that primarily soar on columns of warm air rising off the land. This makes sense. There are other soaring birds that are dynamic soarers, specialized for soaring at high speeds over the ocean by exploiting differences in wind velocity at different altitudes. Most of these species are seabirds with narrow, pointed wings. Given that fossils of Sapeornis were preserved in inland lakes near forested environment, it would have been a big surprise if it was found to have been a dynamic soarer ...
A supercell thunderstorm is a thermopile. It has more than one ionization event and each one changes the columns conductivity in a feedback that increases current and amplifies ionization.. The rising central updraft ionizes where the moisture is saturating and condensing, or freezing, at specific temperature layers. All around the column is a shear zone between it and the surrounding air, and this is where the ions go to collect. The shear zone is an interface - a dielectric barrier that attracts charged species to it.. Again, lets refer back to our previous discussion of Natures Electrode: we discussed how ionization occurs at different altitudes as the moisture in the air condenses, supersaturates and freezes.. Its been known since the beginning of the twentieth century, that a fast-moving charged particle will cause sudden condensation of water along its path. In 1911, Charles Wilson used this principle to devise the cloud chamber so he could photograph the tracks of fast-moving ...
Low, mid and high cloud cover: Cloud cover at different altitudes. High clouds (8-15 km) like cirrus are less significant for total cloud cover than low (below 4 km) like stratus, cumulus and fog or mid clouds (4-8 km) like alto cumulus and alto stratus ...
Geography and distribution Native to north-eastern Algeria, where it grows in the oak and cedar forests of Mount Babor, at 1,200-1,500 m above sea level.. Moist forests of North Africa Epimedium perralderianum is one of the interesting species found in the relicts of moist forest in the North African mountains. The closely related E. pinnatum subspecies colchicum grows in the moist forests of the Black Sea coast in north-eastern Turkey.. Mount Babor (Djebel Babor) in Algeria is one of the wettest places in North Africa (with 2,000-2,500 mm average annual rainfall). It contains the last remnants of forests which covered much of North Africa during the glacial maximum 20,000 years ago. Oaks, holly, yew, aspen and Acer opalus subsp. obtusatumare all found here, along with Atlas cedar ( Cedrus atlantica), which occurs from around 1,200 m above sea level in mixed woodland, and dominates at higher altitudes (above 1,800 m).. Part of the area is protected as the Djebel Babor Strict Nature ...
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE High-altitude headache is the primary symptom associated with acute mountain sickness, which may be caused by nitric oxide-mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of inspiratory hypoxia on the transcerebral exchange kinetics of the vasoactive molecules, nitrite (NO(2)(*)), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). METHODS Ten males were examined in normoxia and after 9-hour exposure to hypoxia (12.9% O(2)). Global cerebral blood flow was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique with paired samples obtained from the radial artery and jugular venous bulb. Plasma CGRP and NO(2)(*) were analyzed via radioimmunoassay and ozone-based chemiluminescence. Net cerebral exchange was calculated by the Fick principle and acute mountain sickness/headache scores assessed via clinically validated questionnaires. RESULTS Hypoxia increased cerebral blood flow with a corresponding increase in acute mountain sickness and headache
On a road trip to Shangri-La / In the shadow of Mount Everest in Tibet lies the tragic Buddhist monastery that might have inspired Lost Horizon [...] the less said about the facilities the better. Destinations all over Central Asia claim to be the real-life inspiration for James Hiltons 1933 novel, Lost Horizon, but my money is on the Rongbuk Monastery at the foot of Mount Everest in Tibet. The British Everest expeditions of the 1920s used it as their base camp, and they returned home with stories of wizened Buddhist monks living in splendid isolation in a valley walled off by Himalayan peaks. Get out a detailed topographic map of the Everest area and run your finger a few miles to the southwest, just over Nepalese frontier. The Tibetan plateau, about the size of western Europe, is the loftiest land mass on the planet, crowned by colossal snow peaks scraping the Central Asian sky: Most tours actually use Toyota Land Cruisers, but in Tibet, as in East Africa, Land Rover has become the
Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOx (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone ...
Yuma/La Paz Counties Community College District (Arizona Western College) Single Audit Reporting Package June 30, 2002 Yuma/La Paz Counties Community College District (Arizona Western College) Single Audit Reporting Package June 30, 2002 Table of Contents Financial Section Independent Auditors Report Managements Discussion and Analysis........................................................................... i Statement of Net Assets .................................................................................................... 1 Statement of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes in Net Assets..................................... 2 Statement of Cash Flows................................................................................................... 3 Notes to Financial Statements........................................................................................... 5 Supplementary Information Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards ...
In 2011, park biologists and researchers collected trout from three watersheds including the West Prong of the Little Pigeon River, Little River, and the Oconaluftee River. The fish were collected from the same locations used to monitor water quality by the University of Tennessee. Trout were captured using electrofishing techniques and then dissected to remove the otoliths. Those otoliths were then taken to the University of Tennessee where scientists used nitric acid to dissolve the structure enough that it could be viewed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES).. Scientists discovered that within the same watershed, trout at the highest elevations had greater amounts of aluminum in their otoliths than fish at low elevation. This trend supports water quality data that show greater spikes in aqueous (liquid) aluminum and stream acidity at those elevations, especially during storm events when stream flow increases drastically. A thin soil layer at high elevations ...
The main aim of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of differences introduced when estimating a given blood volume compartment (e.g. plasma volume) through the direct determination of another compartment (e.g. red cell volume) by multiplication of venous haematocrit and/or haemoglobin concentration. However, since whole body haematocrit is higher than venous haematocrit such an approach might comprise certain errors. To test this experimentally, four different methods for detecting blood volumes and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were compared, namely the carbon monoxide (CO) re-breathing (for Hbmass), the indocyanine green (ICG; for plasma volume [PV]) and the sodium fluorescein (SoF; for red blood cell volume [RBCV]) methods. No difference between ICG and CO re-breathing derived PV could be established when a whole body/venous haematocrit correction factor of 0.91 was applied (p = 0.11, r = 0.43, mean difference -340 ± 612 mL). In contrast, when comparing RBCV derived by the CO ...
Pinus hartwegii is the typical high altitude pine of Mexico and Guatemala, where it often forms extensive, monotypic pine forests up to the tree line on high, isolated volcanoes or summits of mountain ranges. In Honduras it is rare, of limited extent and usually found with Abies guatemalensis, Cupressus lusitanica, Juniperus standleyi, Quercus spp., Dendropanax lempirianus, Drymis granadensis, a ground cover of Ericaceae, Lycopodiaceae, and epiphytic Bromeliaceae in a cool cloud forest type usually between 2,700-2,850 m on the highest mountain summits. Similar forests occur in Guatemala and the southern states of Mexico, but there extensive pine forests predominate, in which P. hartwegii increasingly dominates with rising altitude. Its altitudinal range in Guatemala and Mexico is similar: (2,300-)2,500-4,000(-4,300) m a.s.l. At lower elevations it is often mixed with P. montezumae, with which it is closely related, and with other pines depending on the geographical area. Soils are both from ...

Swiss National Park in Zurich,Zurich Swiss National Park,Zurich Swiss National Park in SwitzerlandSwiss National Park in Zurich,Zurich Swiss National Park,Zurich Swiss National Park in Switzerland

There is also a large hut here, allowing walkers to break the route into two days and to enjoy a night at altitude. From ...
more infohttp://www.tsitours.com/switzerland/swiss-national-park.html

Travel to High Altitudes | Travelers Health | CDCTravel to High Altitudes | Travelers' Health | CDC

However, people with altitude illness should not continue to ascend until they have gotten used to the altitude. A person whose ... Altitude Illness. The symptoms of altitude illness are similar to those of a hangover: headache, tiredness, lack of appetite, ... Many high-altitude destinations are remote and lack access to medical care, so preventing altitude illness is better than ... As an alternative, consider taking a day trip to a higher altitude and then returning to a lower altitude to sleep. ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/travel-to-high-altitudes

Altitude - WikipediaAltitude - Wikipedia

Absolute altitude - altitude in terms of the distance above the ground directly below True altitude - altitude in terms of ... These types of altitude can be explained more simply as various ways of measuring the altitude: Indicated altitude - the ... high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema. The higher the altitude, the more likely are serious effects. ... altitude in terms of the distance above a certain point Pressure altitude - the air pressure in terms of altitude in the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altitude

Altitude, Mississippi - WikipediaAltitude, Mississippi - Wikipedia

Altitude is an unincorporated community in western Prentiss County, Mississippi, United States, about 7.1 miles from downtown ... "Altitude". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altitude,_Mississippi

AltitudeAltitude

Home , Altitude. Altitude. I wonder. how it would be here with you,. where the wind. that has shaken off its dust in low ... "Altitude" was published in Ridges book Sun-up and other poems (B. W. Huebsch, 1920). ...
more infohttps://www.poets.org/print/node/420116

Altitude sickness | Britannica.comAltitude sickness | Britannica.com

Altitude sickness, acute reaction to a change from sea level or other low-altitude environments to altitudes above 8,000 feet ( ... In 1878 French physiologist Paul Bert demonstrated that the symptoms of altitude sickness are ... 2,400 metres). Altitude sickness was recognized as early as the 16th century. ... A more serious type of altitude sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), occurs rarely among newcomers to altitude but ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/altitude-sickness

Altitude Intimates Events | EventbriteAltitude Intimates Events | Eventbrite

Check out Altitude Intimatess events, learn more, or contact this organizer. ... Altitude Intimates is using Eventbrite to organize 2 upcoming events. ...
more infohttps://www.eventbrite.com/o/altitude-intimates-12196357032

High-altitude cerebral edema - WikipediaHigh-altitude cerebral edema - Wikipedia

High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO). High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a medical condition in which the brain swells with ... Generally, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or AMS precede HACE.[2] In patients with AMS, the onset of HACE is usually ... Bärtsch, Peter; Swenson, Erik (2013). "Acute High-Altitude Illnesses". The New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (24): 2294-302 ... Schoene, Robert (2008). "Illnesses at High Altitude". Chest. 134 (2): 402-16. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0561. PMID 18682459.. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-altitude_cerebral_edema

High-altitude cerebral edema - WikipediaHigh-altitude cerebral edema - Wikipedia

High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a medical condition in which the brain swells with fluid because of the physiological ... Generally, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or AMS precede HACE.[2] In patients with AMS, the onset of HACE is usually ... Schoene, Robert (2008). "Illnesses at High Altitude". Chest. 134 (2): 402-16. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0561. PMID 18682459.. ... Bärtsch, Peter; Swenson, Erik (2013). "Acute High-Altitude Illnesses". The New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (24): 2294-302 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_altitude_cerebral_edema

Chart: Gaining Altitude - BloombergChart: Gaining Altitude - Bloomberg

Connecting decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people and ideas, Bloomberg quickly and accurately delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world. ...
more infohttps://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2005-02-20/chart-gaining-altitude

Altitude May Influence Language SoundsAltitude May Influence Language Sounds

The lower air pressure at high altitudes may be a factor in why ejective consonants are more popular in languages spoken higher ... Everett suggests that the sounds are more popular at altitude because lower air pressure may make it easier to produce the ... He took a sample of 567 languages spoken around the world, and compared the locations and altitudes of those that either ...
more infohttps://www.yahoo.com/news/altitude-may-influence-language-sounds-221008570.html?.tsrc=sun?_device=full&ref=gs

Ibuprofen Helps Altitude SicknessIbuprofen Helps Altitude Sickness

43% of those on the drug had symptoms of altitude sickness.. 69% of those on the placebo had similar issues, showing the drug ... Lipmans study took 86 men and women and used double-blind and placebos to look into the effects of Ibuprofen on altitude ... "We suggest that availability alone makes ibuprofen an appealing drug for individuals who travel to high altitudes. In addition ... Kilimanjaro Climbers Underestimate The Risks Of Potentially Fatal Altitude Sickness Researchers from UKs Edinburgh University ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/243152.php?sr

Air Canada AltitudeAir Canada Altitude

... is a top tier program designed to enhance the travel experiences of our most frequent flyers with ...
more infohttps://www.aircanada.com/pe/en/aco/home/altitude.html

Air Canada AltitudeAir Canada Altitude

... is a top tier program designed to enhance the travel experiences of our most frequent flyers with ...
more infohttps://www.aircanada.com/es/en/aco/home/altitude.html

density altitude - Everything2.comdensity altitude - Everything2.com

Density altitude is the reason airplane accidents tend to cluster around mountain resorts during the summer months. Piloting an ... altitude. Flight level. How to survive a helicopter mishap. Aerodynamic lift. Vertical Speed Indicator. cruising altitude. ... is the concept of density altitude or pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature. When an aircraft is designed ... Density altitude is the reason airplane accidents tend to cluster around mountain resorts during the summer months. Piloting an ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/density+altitude

Airport employment regaining altitudeAirport employment regaining altitude

Morris Lee, who recruits staff for local airports, has seen his work take off.Two weeks ago, he interviewed candidates for 35 openings at a company that supports airlines at John F. Kennedy International Airport. The week before, he screened people for 50 openings at a new cargo company at the same…
more infohttps://www.crainsnewyork.com/article/20050124/SUB/501240712/airport-employment-regaining-altitude

Altitude | Big WhiteAltitude | Big White

From hoodies to t-shirts, thermals and ball caps, youre sure to find your Big White piece here in Altitude. If youre already ...
more infohttp://bigwhite.com/explore-big-white/mountain-services/shopping/altitude

Altitude Platinum | WestpacAltitude Platinum | Westpac

Love rewards points? Then youll love our Altitude Platinum card with Altitude Rewards. It now earns you more Altitude points ... Excludes Altitude Qantas, Altitude Velocity and Visa Altitude cards. Participating merchants are subject to change. ... Excludes Altitude Qantas, Altitude Velocity and Visa Altitude cards. Participating airlines are subject to change. ... Earn Altitude Points on your everyday purchases. You can also earn 40,000 bonus Altitude Points if you spend at least $2,000 ...
more infohttps://www.westpac.com.au/personal-banking/credit-cards/reward/altitude-platinum/altitude-rewards/balance-transfer/

A Solid-State Altitude EncoderA Solid-State Altitude Encoder

Several forms of altitude encoders have been designed. This paper describes a digital altitude encoder with only one moving ... An altitude encoder enables an ATC transponder to report the altitude of the airplane to the controller, in addition to its ... A Solid-State Altitude Encoder 720314. An altitude encoder enables an ATC transponder to report the altitude of the airplane to ... Several forms of altitude encoders have been designed. This paper describes a digital altitude encoder with only one moving ...
more infohttps://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/720314/

Generic Altitude AlerterGeneric Altitude Alerter

... gauge shows it is compatible with FSX/P3D/X-Plane but after trying it out I discovered in the Lua ... Generic Altitude Alerter The Generic Altitude Alerter gauge shows it is compatible with FSX/P3D/X-Plane but after trying it ...
more infohttps://www.flightsim.com/vbfs/showthread.php?295283-Generic-Altitude-Alerter&s=fddb9149e1c5cebe1e7204f5f18bd028

Attrition: Altitude SicknessAttrition: Altitude Sickness

The US Air Force recently fired (discharged) 30 junior personnel for using or selling synthetic drugs, in this case a marijuana-like item called Spice All the airmen were based at Tinker Air Force Base This is part of a trend Earlier this year, th
more infohttps://strategypage.com/htmw/htatrit/articles/20110620.aspx?comments=Y

altitude - GeoGebraaltitude - GeoGebra

This worksheet is also part of one or more other Books. Modifications will be visible in all these Books. Do you want to modify the original worksheet or create your own copy for this Book instead ...
more infohttps://www.geogebra.org/m/djCYJFbT

High Altitude



: Digital Photography ReviewHigh Altitude : Digital Photography Review

Digital Photography Review: All the latest digital camera reviews and digital imaging news. Lively discussion forums. Vast samples galleries and the largest database of digital camera specifications.
more infohttps://www.dpreview.com/challenges/Entry.aspx?ID=650085&View=Results&Rows=4
  • A high-altitude weight loss strategy could be viable, though studies have shown peoples' appetites bounce back after about six months at high elevation, Leissner said. (wired.com)
  • Read about important changes to the Altitude cards effective 4 April 2018 . (westpac.com.au)
  • Although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • True altitude is the actual elevation above mean sea level. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is referred to over the radio as height, where the specified datum is the airfield elevation (see QFE) Pressure altitude is the elevation above a standard datum air-pressure plane (typically, 1013.25 millibars or 29.92" Hg). (wikipedia.org)
  • I will definately be hitting some mtn roads and was wondering at what elevation altitude really starts to have an effect on your breathing. (bikeforums.net)
  • To summarize, even though your body loses fluids faster at altitude, you're less likely to crave the water you need to perform well. (camelbak.com)
  • Treatment is generally by descending to a lower altitude and sufficient fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • when you spend $5,000 on eligible purchases on a new Altitude Black credit card within 90 days from card approval. (westpac.com.au)
  • Opt in for either Altitude Points or Qantas Points, and earn points for every $1 spent on eligible purchases. (westpac.com.au)
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  • There's no limit to the amount of points you can earn with your chosen rewards program, either Altitude Points or Qantas points. (westpac.com.au)
  • If you choose Altitude Rewards you can register your Altitude Black American Express card to receive two complimentary passes per year to use at over 700 VIP airport lounges worldwide. (westpac.com.au)
  • If you choose Qantas Rewards, you are eligible for two complimentary Qantas Lounge invitations per year after your first Altitude Black Card spend on selected Qantas products and services. (westpac.com.au)
  • Add in Altitude Platinum benefits and you'll only need a single credit card. (westpac.com.au)
  • You spend at least $A500 on your travel costs before you leave Australia using one of your Altitude Black or Platinum cards. (westpac.com.au)
  • Don't get fooled into thinking timezone change affects are altitude affects. (bikeforums.net)
  • An altitude encoder enables an ATC transponder to report the altitude of the airplane to the controller, in addition to its identity and position. (sae.org)
  • If that's the case, then shuttling the overweight to even a moderate altitude may worsen inflammation and increase their chances of heart attack or other serious problems. (wired.com)
  • It is indicated altitude corrected for non-standard temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pressure altitude and indicated altitude are the same when the altimeter setting is 29.92" Hg or 1013.25 millibars. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with heart or lung disease should talk to a doctor who is familiar with high-altitude medicine before their trip. (cdc.gov)
  • What is nice about this paper, is that it clearly demonstrates that there's a lasting effect of decreased caloric intake, that people eat less even a month after they come out of high altitude,' said Massachusetts General Hospital anesthesiologist Kay Leissner, who studies high altitude physiology, but was not involved in the study. (wired.com)
  • So to pay your balance transfer down, earn Altitude Points and enjoy interest-free days on purchases, you should make a card repayment of $1,300 ($300 of your monthly balance transfer instalment plus $1,000 of your new purchases plus any fees) by the due date shown on your statement each month. (westpac.com.au)