A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.
A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.
An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.
Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Freedom from activity.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
An increase in the rate of speed.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.

Barometric pressures on Mt. Everest: new data and physiological significance. (1/1342)

Barometric pressures (PB) near the summit of Mt. Everest (altitude 8, 848 m) are of great physiological interest because the partial pressure of oxygen is very near the limit for human survival. Until recently, the only direct measurement on the summit was 253 Torr, which was obtained in October 1981, but, despite being only one data point, this value has been used by several investigators. Recently, two new studies were carried out. In May 1997, another direct measurement on the summit was within approximately 1 Torr of 253 Torr, and meteorologic data recorded at the same time from weather balloons also agreed closely. In the summer of 1998, over 2,000 measurements were transmitted from a barometer placed on the South Col (altitude 7,986 m). The mean PB values during May, June, July, and August were 284, 285, 286, and 287 Torr, respectively, and there was close agreement with the PB-altitude (h) relationship determined from the 1981 data. The PB values are well predicted from the equation PB = exp (6.63268 - 0.1112 h - 0.00149 h2), where h is in kilometers. The conclusion is that on days when the mountain is usually climbed, during May and October, the summit pressure is 251-253 Torr.  (+info)

Low-temperature sensitivity and enhanced Bohr effect in red deer (Cervus elaphus) haemoglobin: a molecular adaptive strategy to life at high altitude and low temperature. (2/1342)

A study of the functional properties of haemoglobin from red deer (Cervus elaphus) whose habitat varies over a wide range of latitude, was performed. The oxygen-binding properties of the most common haemoglobin phenotype from the species living in Sardinia were examined with particular attention to the effect of pH, chloride, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate and temperature. Results indicate that red deer haemoglobin, like all haemoglobins from ruminants so far examined, is characterized by a low intrinsic oxygen affinity, with chloride being its main physiological modulator in vivo. The functional results and the low temperature sensitivity of the oxygen affinity are discussed in the light of the amino acid sequence of closely related ruminant haemoglobins.  (+info)

Augmented sympathetic activation during short-term hypoxia and high-altitude exposure in subjects susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema. (3/1342)

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a hallmark of high-altitude pulmonary edema and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Cardiovascular adjustments to hypoxia are mediated, at least in part, by the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic activation promotes pulmonary vasoconstriction and alveolar fluid flooding in experimental animals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured sympathetic nerve activity (using intraneural microelectrodes) in 8 mountaineers susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema and 7 mountaineers resistant to this condition during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and at rest at a high-altitude laboratory (4559 m). We also measured systolic pulmonary artery pressure to examine the relationship between sympathetic activation and pulmonary vasoconstriction. In subjects prone to pulmonary edema, short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude evoked comparable hypoxemia but a 2- to 3-times-larger increase in the rate of the sympathetic nerve discharge than in subjects resistant to edema (P<0.001). At high altitude, in subjects prone to edema, the increase in the mean+/-SE sympathetic firing rate was >2 times larger than in those resistant to edema (36+/-7 versus 15+/-4 bursts per minute, P<0.001) and preceded the development of lung edema. We observed a direct relationship between sympathetic nerve activity and pulmonary artery pressure measured at low and high altitude in the 2 groups (r=0.83, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: With the use of direct measurements of postganglionic sympathetic nerve discharge, these data provide the first evidence for an exaggerated sympathetic activation in subjects prone to high-altitude pulmonary edema both during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and during actual high-altitude exposure. Sympathetic overactivation may contribute to high-altitude pulmonary edema.  (+info)

Living at high altitude and risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (4/1342)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between altitude of residence and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A retrospective, case control study in the Tyrol, Austria enrolled 99 infants with SIDS occurring between 1984 and 1994, and 136 randomly selected control cases. Data on pregnancy, delivery, child care practice, and socio-demographic characteristics including altitude of residence were collected with a standardised questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of SIDS increased gradually with increasing altitude of residence. This relation remained independently significant when the analysis was adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, prenatal care, mother's age at delivery, educational level of parents, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The prone sleeping position emerged as an obligatory cofactor in this association. In the whole of Austria, a similar trend of association emerged between the average altitudes in the 99 political counties and the rates of SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified altitude of residence as a significant risk predictor of SIDS, primarily in combination with the prone sleeping position. Respiratory disturbances, reduced oxygen saturation, and lower temperatures at high altitude might explain this association.  (+info)

Cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity to citric acid challenge during a simulated ascent to extreme altitude. (5/1342)

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of cough and the citric acid cough threshold during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects were studied during Operation Everest 3. Eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m over 31 days in a hypobaric chamber. Frequency of nocturnal cough was measured using voice-activated tape recorders, and cough threshold by inhalation of increasing concentrations of citric acid aerosol. Spirometry was performed before and after each test. Subjects recorded symptoms of acute mountain sickness and arterial oxygen saturation daily. Air temperature and humidity were controlled during the operation. Cough frequency increased with increasing altitude, from a median of 0 coughs (range 0-4) at sea level to 15 coughs (range 3-32) at a simulated altitude of 8,000 m. Cough threshold was unchanged on arrival at 5,000 m compared to sea level (geometric mean difference (GMD) 1.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-2.1, p=0.5), but fell on arrival at 8,000 m compared to sea level (GMD 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.3, p=0.043). There was no relationship between cough threshold and symptoms of acute mountain sickness, oxygen saturation or forced expiratory volume in one second. Temperature and humidity in the chamber were controlled between 18-24 degrees C and 30-60%, respectively. These results confirm an increase in cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity associated with hypobaric hypoxia, and refute the hypothesis that high altitude cough is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. The small sample size makes further conclusions difficult, and the cause of altitude-related cough remains unclear.  (+info)

Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase. (6/1342)

We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.  (+info)

Loss of heterozygosity in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. (7/1342)

PURPOSE: Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is characterized by the accumulation of a material of unknown origin in the anterior structures of the eye. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a genetic locus indicates the presence of a gene located in the same region that could be implicated in the development or the progression of a disease. In this study, the occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX and the possible correlation of LOH incidence with clinical parameters were evaluated. METHODS: Twelve iris specimens, 12 anterior capsule specimens, and respective blood samples were obtained from 17 patients with PEX (13 men), who were undergoing glaucoma and cataract surgery. Sixteen anterior capsule specimens and four iris specimens were obtained from 16 patients without PEX. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 1, 7, 9, and 13. RESULTS: Overall, 83.3% (20/24) of PEX specimens and 94.11% (16/17) of patients with PEX had LOH. The highest incidence of LOH was observed in marker D13S175 (41.6%) followed by D7S478 and D7S479 (37.5%). Only three non-PEX specimens displayed LOH. The number of loci lost was directly related to the altitude of the patients' present residence, but the number lost did not differ significantly between the iris and capsule samples. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX implies a genetic role in PEX pathogenesis at a cellu lar level. The correlation of LOH incidence with the altitude of the patient's residence, could indicate an increased susceptibility to UV radiation of the chromosomal regions examined.  (+info)

Exaggerated endothelin release in high-altitude pulmonary edema. (8/1342)

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated pulmonary hypertension is thought to play an important part in the pathogenesis of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Endothelin-1 is a potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide that also augments microvascular permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure in 16 mountaineers prone to HAPE and in 16 mountaineers resistant to this condition at low (580 m) and high (4559 m) altitudes. At high altitude, in mountaineers prone to HAPE, mean (+/-SE) endothelin-1 plasma levels were approximately 33% higher than in HAPE-resistant mountaineers (22.2+/-1.1 versus 16.8+/-1.1 pg/mL, P<0.01). There was a direct relationship between the changes from low to high altitude in endothelin-1 plasma levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.82, P<0.01) and between endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure measured at high altitude (r=0.35, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in HAPE-susceptible mountaineers, an augmented release of the potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 and/or its reduced pulmonary clearance could represent one of the mechanisms contributing to exaggerated pulmonary hypertension at high altitude.  (+info)

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

Symptoms of pulmonary edema may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Coughing up frothy sputum
* Chest pain or tightness
* Fatigue
* Confusion or disorientation

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, chest x-rays, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests. Treatment options include oxygen therapy, diuretics, and medications to manage underlying conditions such as heart failure or sepsis. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide mechanical ventilation.

Prevention measures for pulmonary edema include managing underlying medical conditions, avoiding exposure to pollutants and allergens, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In summary, pulmonary edema is a serious condition that can impair lung function and lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other respiratory symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

When the body's CO2 levels are too low, it can cause a range of symptoms including:

1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Headaches
3. Fatigue and weakness
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
6. Muscle twitching
7. Irritability and anxiety
8. Increased heart rate and blood pressure
9. Sleep disturbances
10. Decreased mental performance and concentration

Hypocapnia can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including blood gas analysis, electroencephalography (EEG), and imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of hypocapnia, but may include breathing exercises, oxygen therapy, medication, and addressing any underlying conditions.

In severe cases, hypocapnia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The severity of decompression sickness can vary widely, ranging from mild discomfort to life-threatening complications. In severe cases, the condition can cause respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and even death.

The risk of developing decompression sickness increases with the depth and duration of the dive, as well as the speed at which the diver surfaces. To minimize the risk of this condition, divers are advised to follow established diving procedures and protocols, including gradual ascent from depth and regular stops at specific depths to allow for decompression.

Treatment for decompression sickness typically involves hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which involves breathing pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber to help dissolved gases in the body to be absorbed and excreted more quickly. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as respiratory or cardiac failure.

Prevention is key when it comes to decompression sickness, and divers are advised to take a number of precautions to minimize their risk, including:

1. Planning dives carefully to avoid excessive depth and duration.
2. Following established diving procedures and protocols.
3. Using proper equipment and maintaining it in good condition.
4. Making gradual ascents from depth and regular stops at specific depths to allow for decompression.
5. Avoiding alcohol and sedatives before and after diving.
6. Getting plenty of rest before and after diving.
7. Seeking medical attention if any symptoms of decompression sickness are experienced.

There are three main types of polycythemia:

1. Polycythemia vera (PV): This is the most common type and is characterized by an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is a slowly progressing disease that can lead to complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and an increased risk of cancer.
2. Essential thrombocythemia (ET): This type is characterized by an overproduction of platelets, which can increase the risk of blood clots and other cardiovascular problems.
3. Primary myelofibrosis (PMF): This type is characterized by bone marrow scarring, anemia, fatigue, and an increased risk of blood clots.

Symptoms of polycythemia may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Swelling in the spleen or liver

Diagnosis is based on a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood counts (CBCs) and bone marrow biopsies. Treatment options for polycythemia include:

1. Phlebotomy (removal of blood): This is the most common treatment for PV and ET, which involves removing excess blood to reduce the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Chemotherapy: This may be used in combination with phlebotomy to treat PV and PMF.
3. Hydroxyurea: This medication is used to reduce the production of blood cells and relieve symptoms such as headache and dizziness.
4. Interferons: These medications are used to treat ET and may be effective in reducing the number of platelets.
5. Stem cell transplantation: In severe cases of PV or PMF, a stem cell transplant may be necessary.

It is important to note that these treatments do not cure polycythemia, but they can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes.

Example Sentence: The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and began treatment with medication to lower her blood pressure and improve her symptoms.

Word class: Noun phrase / medical condition

Retinal hemorrhage can cause vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly. The bleeding can lead to scarring, which can cause permanent damage to the retina and affect vision. In some cases, retinal hemorrhage can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Retinal hemorrhage is diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography. Treatment options for retinal hemorrhage depend on the underlying cause and can include laser surgery, medication, or vitrectomy.

In summary, retinal hemorrhage is a serious condition that can cause vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly. It is essential to seek medical attention if symptoms such as blurred vision, flashes of light, or floaters are noticed. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or reduce vision loss in cases of retinal hemorrhage.

Symptoms of fascioliasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and may include:

1. Abdominal pain
2. Diarrhea
3. Vomiting
4. Fatigue
5. Weight loss
6. Anemia
7. Elevated liver enzymes
8. Inflammation of the liver, bile ducts, or pancreas

If left untreated, fascioliasis can lead to serious complications such as:

1. Cholangiohepatitis (inflammation of the bile ducts and liver)
2. Hepatic cysts or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
3. Biliary obstruction or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)

Diagnosis of fascioliasis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as:

1. Blood tests to detect antibodies against the parasite
2. Detection of the parasite in stool or bile samples
3. Imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans to visualize the liver and bile ducts

Treatment of fascioliasis usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as triclabendazole or nitazoxanide, to eliminate the parasite from the body. Supportive care may also be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of fascioliasis primarily involves measures to avoid ingesting contaminated food or water, such as:

1. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly pork or lamb
2. Properly cooking and storing food
3. Avoiding consumption of untreated water
4. Using proper sanitation and hygiene practices
5. Avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water

In areas where fascioliasis is common, it is important to be aware of the risk and take appropriate precautions to prevent infection. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with fascioliasis.

Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a type of sleep apnea that occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing during sleep. This results in pauses in breathing, which can last for seconds or even minutes and can occur multiple times throughout the night.

CSA is different from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which occurs when the airway is physically blocked by a physical obstruction such as excess tissue in the throat. Instead, CSA is caused by a problem in the brain's respiratory control center, which can be due to various factors such as heart failure, stroke, or a brain tumor.

Symptoms of central sleep apnea may include:

* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Fatigue and daytime sleepiness

Treatment for CSA usually involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating heart failure or stroke. In some cases, therapies such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) may be recommended to help regulate breathing during sleep.

It's important to note that CSA is a less common type of sleep apnea compared to OSA, and it's often misdiagnosed or overlooked. If you suspect you or your partner may have central sleep apnea, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Frostbite typically affects the extremities, such as the hands, feet, nose, and ears. The symptoms of frostbite include:

1. Coldness and numbness in the affected area
2. Pale or blue-gray skin
3. Firm or waxy texture of the skin
4. Blisters or sores
5. Pain or discomfort
6. In severe cases, blackening or necrosis of the skin

If you suspect that someone has frostbite, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. While waiting for help, there are some steps you can take to provide care:

1. Move the person to a warm place as quickly as possible
2. Immerse the affected area in warm (not hot) water
3. Use warm compresses or blankets to gently rewarm the affected area
4. Avoid direct heat sources, such as heating pads or stoves, as they can cause burns
5. Monitor the person for signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or pus

It is important to note that frostbite can be a serious condition and should not be treated at home. Medical professionals will need to assess the extent of the damage and provide appropriate treatment, which may include antibiotics, pain management, and in severe cases, amputation.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Brain hypoxia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients. Treatment options may include oxygen therapy, medications to improve blood flow to the brain, and surgery to remove any blockages or obstructions in blood vessels.

Symptoms of splenic infarction may include sudden severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and tenderness in the abdomen. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT scans or ultrasound. Treatment may involve surgical removal of the affected tissue or clot, antibiotics for any associated infections, and supportive care to manage pain and other symptoms.

The signs and symptoms of fetal hypoxia may include:

1. Decreased fetal movement
2. Abnormal fetal heart rate
3. Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid
4. Premature contractions
5. Preterm labor

If left untreated, fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications such as:

1. Intracranial hemorrhage
2. Cerebral palsy
3. Developmental delays
4. Learning disabilities
5. Memory and cognitive impairments
6. Behavioral problems
7. Autism
8. Seizures
9. Hearing and vision loss

Treatment of fetal hypoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization
2. Corticosteroids to promote fetal growth and maturity
3. Oxygen supplementation
4. Antibiotics for infections
5. Planned delivery, if necessary

In some cases, fetal hypoxia may be detected through ultrasound examination, which can show a decrease in fetal movement or abnormal heart rate. However, not all cases of fetal hypoxia can be detected by ultrasound, and regular prenatal check-ups are essential to monitor the health of the developing fetus.

Prevention of fetal hypoxia includes proper prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol, maintaining a healthy diet, and managing any underlying medical conditions. Early detection and treatment of fetal hypoxia can significantly improve outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Hypercapnia is a medical condition where there is an excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. Respiratory failure: When the lungs are unable to remove enough CO2 from the body, leading to an accumulation of CO2 in the bloodstream.
2. Lung disease: Certain lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pneumonia can cause hypercapnia by reducing the ability of the lungs to exchange gases.
3. Medication use: Certain medications, such as anesthetics and sedatives, can slow down breathing and lead to hypercapnia.

The symptoms of hypercapnia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Headaches
2. Dizziness
3. Confusion
4. Shortness of breath
5. Fatigue
6. Sleep disturbances

If left untreated, hypercapnia can lead to more severe complications such as:

1. Respiratory acidosis: When the body produces too much acid, leading to a drop in blood pH.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can occur due to the increased CO2 levels in the bloodstream.
3. Seizures: In severe cases of hypercapnia, seizures can occur due to the changes in brain chemistry caused by the excessive CO2.

Treatment for hypercapnia typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms through respiratory support and other therapies as needed. This may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: Administering oxygen through a mask or nasal tubes to help increase oxygen levels in the bloodstream and reduce CO2 levels.
2. Ventilation assistance: Using a machine to assist with breathing, such as a ventilator, to help remove excess CO2 from the lungs.
3. Carbon dioxide removal: Using a device to remove CO2 from the bloodstream, such as a dialysis machine.
4. Medication management: Adjusting medications that may be contributing to hypercapnia, such as anesthetics or sedatives.
5. Respiratory therapy: Providing breathing exercises and other techniques to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have hypercapnia, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:

1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.

The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease

Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

The symptoms of RVH can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs and feet, and chest pain. If left untreated, RVH can lead to heart failure and other complications.

RVH is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and right heart catheterization. Treatment options for RVH depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications to reduce blood pressure, oxygen therapy, and in severe cases, heart transplantation.

Preventing RVH involves managing underlying conditions such as pulmonary hypertension, managing high blood pressure, and avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol. Early detection and treatment of RVH can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

People with dyssomnia may experience symptoms such as:

* Difficulty falling asleep
* Waking frequently during the night
* Waking too early in the morning
* Feeling groggy or disoriented upon waking
* Poor quality sleep

Dyssomnia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, depression, chronic pain, sleep disorders, and certain medications. Treatment options for dyssomnia may include lifestyle changes, such as establishing a regular sleep schedule and avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, as well as cognitive behavioral therapy, relaxation techniques, and in some cases, medication.

It is important to note that dyssomnia is not a specific sleep disorder, but rather a term used to describe a group of related conditions. If you are experiencing difficulty sleeping or poor quality sleep, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

There are several potential causes of hyperventilation, including anxiety, panic attacks, and certain medical conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Treatment for hyperventilation typically involves slowing down the breathing rate and restoring the body's natural balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

Some common signs and symptoms of hyperventilation include:

* Rapid breathing
* Deep breathing
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or tightness
* Shortness of breath
* Confusion or disorientation
* Nausea or vomiting

If you suspect that someone is experiencing hyperventilation, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment may involve the following:

1. Oxygen therapy: Providing extra oxygen to help restore normal oxygen levels in the body.
2. Breathing exercises: Teaching the individual deep, slow breathing exercises to help regulate their breathing pattern.
3. Relaxation techniques: Encouraging the individual to relax and reduce stress, which can help slow down their breathing rate.
4. Medications: In severe cases, medications such as sedatives or anti-anxiety drugs may be prescribed to help calm the individual and regulate their breathing.
5. Ventilation support: In severe cases of hyperventilation, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support the individual's breathing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of hyperventilation, as it can lead to more serious complications such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest if left untreated.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

There are several types of premature complexes, including:

1. Premature atrial complex (PAC): An extra heartbeat that originates in the atria, usually due to a rapid or irregular heart rate.
2. Premature ventricular complex (PVC): An extra heartbeat that originates in the ventricles, which can be more serious than PACs and may require further evaluation.
3. Premature nodal rhythm: A condition where the AV node (the electrical pathway between the atria and ventricles) fires prematurely, causing a rapid heart rate.

PCCs can be diagnosed using electrocardiography (ECG), which records the electrical activity of the heart. Treatment options for PCCs depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate the heart rhythm, cardioversion (a procedure that restores a normal heart rhythm using electrical shock), or catheter ablation (a minimally invasive procedure that destroys the abnormal electrical pathway).

Tricuspid atresia is a rare congenital heart defect that occurs when the tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium and ventricle, does not develop properly and is absent or very small. This results in poor blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle, leading to inadequate oxygenation of the body.

Symptoms:

Children with tricuspid atresia may experience symptoms such as:

* Blue tinge to the skin (cyanosis)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Poor feeding and growth
* Rapid breathing
* Pallor (pale skin)

Diagnosis:

Tricuspid atresia is diagnosed through a series of tests, including:

* Physical examination
* Chest X-ray
* Echocardiogram (echo)
* Electrocardiogram (ECG)
* Cardiac catheterization

Treatment:

The treatment for tricuspid atresia usually involves a series of surgeries and catheterizations to improve blood flow and oxygenation to the body. These may include:

* Balloon atrial septostomy: A procedure in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the atrial septum to create a hole between the atria to improve blood flow.
* Tricuspid valve replacement: A surgical procedure to replace the tricuspid valve with an artificial valve.
* Intracardiac repair: A surgical procedure to repair any other defects in the heart.

Prognosis:

The prognosis for children with tricuspid atresia varies depending on the severity of the defect and the presence of other congenital heart defects. With appropriate treatment, many children with tricuspid atresia can lead active and healthy lives. However, some may experience ongoing health problems and may require long-term monitoring and care.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

There are several types of elephantiasis, including:

1. Filariasis: This is a parasitic infection caused by a group of worms known as filariae. It is one of the most common causes of elephantiasis and can affect various parts of the body, such as the legs, arms, and genitalia.
2. Lymphatic filariasis: This is a type of filariasis that affects the lymphatic system and can cause swelling in the limbs, genitalia, and other areas of the body.
3. Filarial epididymitis: This is a condition where the epididymis (a tube that stores sperm) becomes inflamed due to filarial infection.
4. Filarial prostatitis: This is a condition where the prostate gland becomes inflamed due to filarial infection.
5. Hyperkeratosis lichenification: This is a condition where there is thickening of the skin, leading to the formation of scaly, hardened areas.

Elephantiasis can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, as it can cause physical discomfort, social stigma, and difficulties with mobility and employment. Treatment options for elephantiasis depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antiparasitic medications, surgery, or other therapies to manage symptoms.

Some common symptoms of corneal edema include:

* Blurred vision
* Haziness or clouding of the cornea
* Increased sensitivity to light
* Redness or discharge in the eye
* Pain or discomfort in the eye

Corneal edema can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as cornea scans or ultrasound. Treatment for corneal edema depends on the underlying cause and may involve antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies to reduce swelling and promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove scar tissue or improve drainage of fluid from the eye.

If left untreated, corneal edema can lead to more serious complications such as corneal ulcers or vision loss. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of corneal edema to prevent any further damage and ensure proper treatment.

1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of sleep apnea, caused by a physical blockage in the throat, such as excess tissue or a large tongue.
2. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): This type of sleep apnea is caused by a problem in the brain's breathing control center.
3. Mixed Sleep Apnea: This type of sleep apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA.

The symptoms of sleep apnea syndromes can include:

* Loud snoring
* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day

If left untreated, sleep apnea syndromes can lead to serious health problems, such as:

* High blood pressure
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Diabetes
* Depression

Treatment options for sleep apnea syndromes include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight or quitting smoking
* Oral appliances, such as a mouthpiece to help keep the airway open
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask over the nose and/or mouth while sleeping to deliver a constant flow of air
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which is similar to CPAP but delivers two different levels of air pressure
* Surgery, such as a tonsillectomy or a procedure to remove excess tissue in the throat.

It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have sleep apnea syndromes, as treatment can help improve your quality of life and reduce the risk of serious health problems.

The term "papilledema" comes from the Greek words "papilla," meaning "little nipple," and "dema," meaning "swelling." This refers to the appearance of the optic disc when it is swollen, as it looks like a small, round nipple on the surface of the retina.

Papilledema can be caused by a variety of conditions, including high blood pressure, brain tumors, and aneurysms. It can also be a symptom of other conditions such as meningitis or multiple sclerosis. The diagnosis of papilledema is typically made through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes visual acuity testing, refraction, and retinoscopy. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to evaluate the cause of the swelling.

Treatment of papilledema depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In cases where high blood pressure is the cause, medication to lower blood pressure may be prescribed. In other cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain and reduce swelling in the optic disc.

It's important for individuals with papilledema to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor and manage their condition, as untreated papilledema can lead to permanent vision loss.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

VPCs can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness. In some cases, they can lead to more serious arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death. To diagnose VPCs, a healthcare provider may perform an electrocardiogram (ECG) or other tests to measure the heart's electrical activity. Treatment options for VPCs include medications to regulate the heart rhythm, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and in some cases, surgery to repair or replace a damaged heart valve.

Prevention of VPCs includes maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing high blood pressure and other risk factors, and avoiding certain medications that can trigger these abnormal heartbeats. Early detection and treatment of underlying heart conditions can also help prevent VPCs from occurring. In summary, Ventricular Premature Complexes are abnormal heartbeats that can disrupt the normal heart rhythm and may be a sign of an underlying heart condition. Diagnosis and treatment options are available to manage this condition and prevent complications.

Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.

Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.

Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.

In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

The symptoms of a femoral fracture may include:

* Severe pain in the thigh or groin area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected area
* Difficulty moving or straightening the leg
* A visible deformity or bone protrusion

Femoral fractures are typically diagnosed through X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment for these types of fractures may involve immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or in some cases, surgical plate and screws or rods may be used to hold the bone in place as it heals.

In addition to surgical intervention, patients may also require physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg after a femoral fracture.

The word "edema" comes from the Greek word "oidema", meaning swelling.

Hyperoxia can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs, particularly the lungs and brain. In severe cases, hyperoxia can lead to respiratory failure, seizures, and even death.

There are several ways to diagnose hyperoxia, including:

1. Blood tests: These can measure the levels of oxygen in the blood.
2. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis: This is a test that measures the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
3. Pulse oximetry: This is a non-invasive test that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood by shining a light through the skin.

Treatment for hyperoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: This involves administering oxygen to the patient through a mask or nasal tubes.
2. Medications: These may be used to treat any underlying conditions that are causing hyperoxia.
3. Mechanical ventilation: In severe cases, this may be necessary to support the patient's breathing.

In summary, hyperoxia is a condition where there is too much oxygen in the body, and it can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs. Diagnosis is typically made through blood tests or other tests, and treatment may involve oxygen therapy, medications, or mechanical ventilation.

There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:

1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.

The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.

Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.

Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.

In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.

1. Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
2. Sleep apnea: pauses in breathing during sleep
3. Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep
4. Restless leg syndrome: uncomfortable sensations in the legs during sleep
5. Periodic limb movement disorder: involuntary movements of the legs or arms during sleep
6. Sleepwalking: walking or performing other activities during sleep
7. Sleep terrors: intense fear or anxiety during sleep
8. Sleep paralysis: temporary inability to move or speak during sleep
9. REM sleep behavior disorder: acting out dreams during sleep
10. Circadian rhythm disorders: disruptions to the body's internal clock, leading to irregular sleep patterns.

Sleep disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, such as stress, anxiety, certain medications, sleep deprivation, and underlying medical conditions like chronic pain or sleep apnea. Treatment for sleep disorders may include lifestyle changes (such as establishing a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a relaxing sleep environment), medications, and behavioral therapies (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia). In some cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have a sleep disorder, as untreated sleep disorders can lead to serious health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. A healthcare professional can help diagnose the specific sleep disorder and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Sources:

1. Dictionary of Medical Microbiology, Second Edition. Edited by A. S. Chakrabarti and S. K. Das. Springer, 2012.
2. Medical Microbiology, Fourth Edition. Edited by P. R. Murray, K. S. N air, and M. J. Laurence. Mosby, 2014.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Conclusion
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

The exact cause of SID is not known, but researchers believe that it may be related to defects in the baby's brain that affect the baby's ability to regulate their breathing, heart rate, and temperature. These defects may be inherited or caused by environmental factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, overheating, or exposure to soft bedding or loose bedding in the crib.

There are no specific signs or symptoms of SID, and it can occur suddenly and without warning. It is important for parents and caregivers to be aware of the risk factors and take steps to reduce the risk of SID, such as:

1. Placing the baby on their back to sleep
2. Using a firm mattress and tight-fitting bedding
3. Keeping the crib free of soft objects and toys
4. Avoiding overheating or overdressing the baby
5. Breastfeeding and offering a pacifier
6. Ensuring that the baby is sleeping in a safe sleep environment, such as a crib or bassinet, and not on a sofa or other soft surface.

There is no specific treatment for SID, and it is often diagnosed by ruling out other causes of death. If you suspect that your infant has died from SID, it is important to contact the authorities and seek medical attention immediately.

Types of congenital heart defects include:

1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.

Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.


The diagnosis of BHR is based on a combination of clinical, physiological, and imaging tests. The most common method used to assess BHR is the methacholine or histamine challenge test, which involves inhaling progressively increasing concentrations of these substances to measure airway reactivity. Other tests include exercise testing, hyperventilation, and mannitol challenge.

BHR is characterized by an increased responsiveness of the airways to various stimuli, such as allergens, cold or exercise, leading to inflammation and bronchoconstriction. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

There are several risk factors for BHR, including:

* Allergies
* Respiratory infections
* Exposure to environmental pollutants
* Genetic predisposition
* Obesity
* Smoking

Treatment of BHR typically involves the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and other medications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as lung volume reduction or bronchial thermoplasty may be necessary. Environmental modifications, such as avoiding triggers and using HEPA filters, can also help manage symptoms.

In summary, bronchial hyperreactivity is a condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli, leading to increased smooth muscle contraction and narrowing of the bronchi. It is commonly seen in asthma and other respiratory diseases, and can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Treatment typically involves medications and environmental modifications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction.

There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Tachycardias: These are fast heart rhythms that can be too fast for the body's needs. Examples include atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
2. Bradycardias: These are slow heart rhythms that can cause symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. Examples include sinus bradycardia and heart block.
3. Premature beats: These are extra beats that occur before the next regular beat should come in. They can be benign but can also indicate an underlying arrhythmia.
4. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles, such as atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.
5. Ventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Cardiac arrhythmias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and holter monitors. Treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias vary depending on the type and severity of the condition and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or implantable devices like pacemakers or defibrillators.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

The main symptoms of OSA are:

1. Loud snoring
2. Pauses in breathing during sleep (apneas)
3. Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
4. Morning headaches
5. Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day

OSA is caused by a physical blockage of the airway, usually due to excess tissue in the throat or a large tongue. This can be exacerbated by factors such as being overweight, having a small jaw or narrow airway, or drinking alcohol before bedtime.

If left untreated, OSA can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Treatment options for OSA include lifestyle changes (such as weight loss and avoiding alcohol), oral appliances (such as a mandibular advancement device), and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove excess tissue in the throat or widen the airway.

It is important for individuals who suspect they may have OSA to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A sleep study can be conducted to determine the severity of the condition and rule out other potential causes of sleep disruptions.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

Absolute altitude - altitude in terms of the distance above the ground directly below True altitude - altitude in terms of ... These types of altitude can be explained more simply as various ways of measuring the altitude: Indicated altitude - the ... Calculate true altitude with these JavaScript applications Find the altitude of any place How to Get Rid of Altitude Sickness ( ... high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema. The higher the altitude, the more likely are serious effects. ...
... , alt-azimuth, or alt-az may refer to: Horizontal coordinate system, or altitude-azimuth coordinates Altazimuth ... mount, a two-axis telescope mount This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Altitude-azimuth. If an ...
AIM Aviation became AIM Altitude in 2014. It is situated to the west of the A318 in Byfleet in Surrey, between the M25 and A318 ... AIM Altitude (Aircraft Interiors Manufacturers) is a main British manufacturer of aircraft cabins, and their components, for ... December 1960 Flight International August 1962 AIM Composites Flight International September 1987 Flitelam AIM Altitude ( ...
... may refer to: Flight altitude record, the highest altitude to have been reached in an aircraft World altitude ... altitude to have been reached by mountaineers This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Altitude record ...
Look up altitude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Altitude is the height of an object over a datum. It may also refer to: ... a 2D aerial combat game released in 2009 Altitude (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe Altitude Sports ... Altitude (astronomy), one of the angular coordinates of the horizontal coordinate system Altitude (triangle), in geometry, a ... the album by pop punk band Yellow Second Altitude (Joe Morris album), the album by jazz guitarist Joe Morris Altitude (building ...
Altitude is an unincorporated community in eastern Prentiss County, Mississippi, United States, about 7.1 miles from downtown ... "Altitude". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. v t ...
... à la conquête de la planète Les Affairs: Altitude Sports : de détaillant vieillissant à entreprise techno La ... Altitude Sports announces the return of the Alti Action donation program for Fall 2019 The Great Trail: Altitude Sports helps ... COMMERCE DE DÉTAIL/ALTITUDE SPORTS QUITTE SAINT-DENIS Devenir Entrepreneur: Altitude Sports: e-Growth Maxime Dubois's Story CBC ... The Altitude-sports.com website was created in 1999 and was one of the first online outdoor retail sites in Canada.[citation ...
"Altitude Montreal". SkyscraperPage. Altitude Montreal at IMTL.org Official website (Articles with short description, Short ... Altitude Montreal is a 33-storey, 124 m (407 ft) skyscraper in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is located at 1225 Robert-Bourassa ... 1] Altitude Montreal consists of luxury condominiums and offers hotel-style services to residents such as a pool, spa, fitness ... Altitude Montreal was designed by architecture firm Jean-Pierre Lagacé Architects, Nicolet Chartrand Knoll are the structural ...
... altitude of the ground reference. The pivotal altitude is the altitude at which, for a given groundspeed, the projection of the ... The pivotal altitude does not vary with the angle of bank unless the bank is steep enough to affect the groundspeed. A rule of ... Pivotal altitude is the height for a given ground speed at which the line of sight from the cockpit directly parallel to the ... A good rule of thumb for estimating the pivotal altitude is to square the groundspeed, then divide by 15 (if the groundspeed is ...
... is the altitude in the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) with the same atmospheric pressure as that of ... Pressure altitude is primarily used in aircraft-performance calculations and in high-altitude flight (i.e., above the ... QNH Flight level Cabin altitude Density altitude Standard conditions for temperature and pressure Barometric formula "Pressure ... Pressure altitude (PA) = Elevation + 30 × ( 1013 − QNH ) . {\displaystyle {\text{Pressure altitude (PA)}}={\text{Elevation}}+30 ...
"Altitude Air gets new Airbus chopper". The Himalayan Times. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019. "Altitude Air chopper crashes ... The Altitude Air fleet consists of the following aircraft (as of April 2019): 8 September 2018 - A Eurocopter AS 350 helicopter ... "Altitude Air". Helis.com. Retrieved 1 September 2018. "How Yeti Group benefited from its connections with PM Oli". Republica ... Altitude Air Pvt. Ltd is a helicopter airline based at Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu, Nepal, operating chartered ...
... may refer to: Altitude FC (Belize), a Belizean football team Altitude FC (Canada), a Canadian soccer team See also ... Altitude FC and competed as Altitude Assassins FC This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Altitude FC ...
Altitude decompression may occur as a decompression from saturation at a lower altitude, or as decompression from an excursion ... Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), altitude illness, hypobaropathy, or soroche, is a pathological ... Altitude decompression is the natural consequence of unprotected elevation to altitude, while hypobaric decompression is due to ... Altitude decompression sickness often resolves on return to the saturation altitude, but sometimes treatment on elevated ...
... can be simulated through use of an altitude simulation tent, altitude simulation room, or mask-based ... Altitude training can produce slow recovery due to the stress of hypoxia. Exposure to extreme hypoxia at altitudes above 16,000 ... Effects of high altitude on humans West, JB (October 1996). "Prediction of barometric pressures at high altitude with the use ... Altitude training is the practice by some endurance athletes of training for several weeks at high altitude, preferably over ...
1 Croydon Nestlé Tower Building of Altitude 25 published by Skyscrapernews.com Facts of the Altitude 25 project[dead link] ... Altitude 25 is an apartment building on Fairfield Road in the London Borough of Croydon, London. It is Croydon's fourth tallest ... Altitude 25 Coordinates: 51°22′21″N 0°05′29″W / 51.37250°N 0.09139°W / 51.37250; -0.09139 (All articles with dead external ... The building was completed in 2009, and has 26 floors of apartments up to floor 25, hence the name Altitude 25, a roof height ...
An altitude tent is a sealed tent used to simulate a higher altitude with reduced oxygen. Living or training at altitude causes ... An altitude tent is one way to enable athletes living at any elevation to sleep in a high altitude-like environment. A more ... Gamow bag Altitude training Hypoxicator Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Oxygen tent Beresini, Erin (May 24, 2013). "Do Altitude Tents ... While normal air contains 20.9% oxygen independent of altitude, the air in an altitude tent contains as little as 12% oxygen ( ...
Altitude acclimatization is necessary for some people who move rapidly from lower altitudes to higher altitudes. The drug ... However, in extreme cases, altitude sickness can be fatal. High altitude illness can be classified according to the altitude: ... At very high altitude, humans can get either high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE). The ... Descent to lower altitudes may save those affected by HACE. Altitude sickness can first occur at 1,500 metres (4,900 ft), with ...
The intersection of the extended base and the altitude is called the foot of the altitude. The length of the altitude, often ... Altitudes can be used in the computation of the area of a triangle: one half of the product of an altitude's length and its ... Thus, the longest altitude is perpendicular to the shortest side of the triangle. The altitudes are also related to the sides ... The sum of the ratios on the three altitudes of the distance of the orthocenter from the base to the length of the altitude is ...
Altitude at IMDb Altitude at the TCM Movie Database Altitude at AllMovie Altitude at Rotten Tomatoes (Webarchive template ... The trailer for Altitude premiered at the 2010 San Diego Comic Con. Altitude was released on DVD and Blu-ray on October 26, ... "Blu-Ray Review: Altitude (2010)". Retrieved September 20, 2018. "Film Review: Altitude (2010) , HNN". horrornews.net. Retrieved ... Altitude is a Canadian horror direct-to-video film directed by Canadian comic book writer and artist Kaare Andrews. Anchor Bay ...
... is a collection of venues in the 387 ft (118 m)-high Millbank Tower, a skyscraper in central London. Covering ... Altitude 360 London, along with The River Room London, The MillBank Cinema & Media Centre and The View Collection make up ... Altitude 360 London Homepage Coordinates: 51°29′32″N 0°07′33″W / 51.4922°N 0.1259°W / 51.4922; -0.1259 (Use dmy dates from ... One of the final parts to open was the Altitude Viewing Gallery on the 29th floor. Etzin sold the business to the current ...
Altitude, formerly known as 96 Iconic Tower, is a proposed skyscraper dedicated to the Sri Lankan Victory in the 1996 Cricket ... "Altitude". Reza Kabul Architects website. Retrieved 11 March 2016. "BOI signs $ 300 m investment deal to build Sri Lanka's ...
... is a method of celestial navigation to calculate an observer's latitude. It notes the altitude angle of an ... A few minutes before this time the observer starts observing the altitude of the object with a sextant. The altitude of the ... As the object passes the meridian a maximum altitude will be observed. The time in UTC of this is observed. The altitude ... If he were to measure the height of the Sun above the horizon with a sextant, he would find that the altitude of the Sun was 90 ...
If an altitude-aware computer is not used, altitude decompression tables must be used. At altitude, atmospheric pressure is ... MD Diving At Altitude - John Ware, PhD At-Altitude Arithmetic - Larry "Harris" Taylor, PhD Altitude Diving Calculator - Online ... "Highest altitude scuba dive". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2020-03-23. "Marcel Korkuś sets New World Record in Altitude ... Altitude Diving: Understanding the Tables - Todd Stedl, PhD and PADI Instructor Altitude Exposure after Diving - Edmond Kay, ...
The density altitude is the altitude relative to standard atmospheric conditions at which the air density would be equal to the ... The density altitude can also be considered to be the pressure altitude adjusted for a non-standard temperature. Both an ... In hot and humid conditions, the density altitude at a particular location may be significantly higher than the true altitude. ... This is an easier formula to calculate (with great approximation) the density altitude from the pressure altitude and the ISA ...
30West acquired a minority stake in Altitude Film Entertainment. On 4 March that same year, Altitude created Altitude Factual, ... Altitude Film Distribution is a British film distribution company, part of the Altitude Film Entertainment group. The parent ... Altitude Film Entertainment is a British entertainment Company.The company comprises Altitude Film Production led by Will ... "30West to Acquire Stake in British Film Company Altitude". Variety. Retrieved 26 April 2020. Ed Meza (4 March 2020). "Altitude ...
Altitude was the only studio album to date released by ALT, the grouping of Tim Finn, Andy White & Liam O'Moanlai. Also ... Altitude at AllMusic Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts 1988-2010 (pdf ed.). Mt. Martha, VIC, Australia: Moonlight ...
pp.56-59). Official website High Altitude Observatory on Facebook High Altitude Observatory's channel on YouTube NCAR ... The High Altitude Observatory (HAO) conducts research and provides support and facilities for the solar-terrestrial physics ... The founding director of the High Altitude Observatory was Walter Orr Roberts. The current director is Scott McIntosh. A list ... High Altitude Observatory Remembering Walt Roberts. (1991). University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, p.13. Hallgren, E ...
In aviation, minimum reception altitude (MRA) is the lowest altitude on an airway segment where an aircraft can be assured of ... Above ground level Minimum en route altitude (MEA) Minimum obstacle clearance altitude (MOCA) Minimum safe altitude https://www ... When the MRA at the fix is higher than the MEA, an MRA is established for the fix, and is the lowest altitude at which an ... An MRA is determined by FAA flight inspection traversing an entire route of flight to establish the minimum altitude the ...
... high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Research at high altitude is also an important ... The most obvious and direct application of high-altitude research is to understand altitude illnesses such as acute mountain ... Travelling to high altitude is often used as a way of studying the way the body responds to a shortage of oxygen. It is ... The percentage of oxygen in the air at sea level is the same at high altitudes. But because the air molecules are more spread ...
These altitudes are listed as "MSL" on IFR planning charts, and are thus the altitudes which would be indicated on the ... For a published procedure, the greater of these two altitudes is the altitude which must be adhered to during that segment, and ... Minimum obstacle clearance altitude (MOCA), an altitude which provides a predetermined vertical clearance from known obstacles ... In aviation (particularly in air navigation), lowest safe altitude (LSALT) is an altitude that is at least 500 feet above any ...
They include high altitude headache, acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral oedema, and high altitude pulmonary oedema ... High altitude headache and acute mountain sickness often occur a few hours after arrival at altitudes over 3000 m ... Awareness of potential altitude related problems is important even for healthcare practitioners working at lower altitude, ... High altitude pulmonary oedema is a rare but potentially life threatening condition that occurs 1-4 days after arrival at ...
Music, in-depth features, artist content (sample packs, project files, mix downloads), news, and art, for only $3.99/month.. ...
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) are manifestations of the brain pathophysiology, while ... high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is that of the lung (see image shown below). ... Altitude illness refers to a group of syndromes that result from hypoxia. ... The golden rules of altitude illness are as follows:. * If a person feels sick at altitude, his or her condition is altitude ...
Most stock quote data provided by BATS. Market indices are shown in real time, except for the DJIA, which is delayed by two minutes. All times are ET. Disclaimer. Morningstar: © 2019 Morningstar, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factset: FactSet Research Systems Inc.2019. All rights reserved. Chicago Mercantile Association: Certain market data is the property of Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. and its licensors. All rights reserved. Dow Jones: The Dow Jones branded indices are proprietary to and are calculated, distributed and marketed by DJI Opco, a subsidiary of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and have been licensed for use to S&P Opco, LLC and CNN. Standard & Poors and S&P are registered trademarks of Standard & Poors Financial Services LLC and Dow Jones is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC. All content of the Dow Jones branded indices © S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC 2019 and/or its affiliates. © 2022 Cable News Network. A Warner Bros. Discovery Company. All Rights Reserved ...
Altitude Illness Syndromes. Altitude illness is divided into 3 syndromes: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral ... Preventing Severe Altitude Illness or Death. The main point of instructing travelers about altitude illness is not to eliminate ... Altitude Illness. Risk to Travelers. Susceptibility and resistance to altitude illness are, in part, genetically determined ... Abbreviations: AMS, acute mountain sickness; HACE, high-altitude cerebral edema; HAPE, high-altitude pulmonary edema; IM, ...
The air pressure outside of your body changes as altitude changes. This creates a difference in pressure on the two sides of ... High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The air pressure outside of your body changes as altitude changes. This creates a difference in pressure on the two sides of ... Swallowing or yawning can unclog blocked ears when you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire ...
White House announces that a second high altitude object shot down over Alaska out of an abundance of caution. ...
Categories Posted in TechTags 3D Printing, Altitude Training, Fabrics, Fitness, Flexweave, MODLA, Reebok, Shoes, Sneakers, ... Reebok + Modla Flexweave Altitude Training Mask. Applying the sneaker brands innovative, forthcoming material to a fitness ... And Londons Modla ventured into the territory of high altitude training masks. These items all employ the future-forward ...
A minimum safe altitude (MSA) is published for emergency use on instrument approach charts. Flying at or above the MSA will ... Question: A minimum safe altitude (MSA) is published for emergency use on instrument approach charts. Flying at or above the ...
Altitude has a direct influence on SpO2 as the air pressure decreases. Therefore, we introduce an altitude-​adaptive SpO2 model ... Altitude-​adaptive SpO2 model (code). The software for estimating SpO2 based on altitude is open source (matlab scripts, MIT ... The proposed altitude-​specific abnormal SpO2 threshold might be more appropriate than rigid guidelines for administering ... Normal oxygen saturation (SpO2) is dependent on altitude. We propose a computer model based on the oxygen cascade to predict ...
The Ariat Altitude Down Jacket is expertly engineered for protection against the elements. It features an eco-friendly finish ... The Ariat Altitude Down Jacket is expertly engineered for protection against the elements. It features an eco-friendly finish ... Ariat Altitude Down Jacket is rated 4.7 out of 5 by 7. ...
Altitude is a multiplayer 2D plane combat game, as cartoony as you can get, letting players engage in online aerial battles ... And all credit to Nimbly Games for organising players of their game, Altitude, into emailing us to write about it. It worked. ...
Forest Flame or Japonica are rated for your zone, but both will require protection from sun and wind. Also, they dont do well with salts in the soil (which you most likely have in your area), so when you irrigate, be sure to water slowly and deeply to leach salts past the root zone, at least 2-3 feet. Both require consistent moisture, especially in sandy soil, which doesnt retain water that well ...
Stations de recherches concernant les hautes altitudes: rapport du Directeur général  Conseil exécutif, 2 (‎Organisation ...
Look Cycle, carbon bikes manufacturer for road bicycling, track, triathlon, gravel & e-bike. Inventor and leader of the automatic pedal.
When it comes to training for a marathon, its not just about drive or determination. Elevation can play a role as well. Thats why some Chicagoans are...
The pines thinned with the altitude as we crossed over 10,000 feet and on to 11, 000 feet. Big open glades featured burned-out ... We hit the bunks early with tired bodies ready for some recuperation at high altitude. Before I fell asleep near the window, a ...
Ensure you have the required travel documents needed to attend Workday Altitude-including the Workday Altitude invitation ... Workday Altitude is an in-person event.. Select sessions will be available on demand after the event. Please try your best to ... If you feel sick and/or test positive for COVID-19 while at Workday Altitude, please isolate yourself. We will have a limited ... We cant wait to see you at Workday Altitude. To ensure you have the best experience possible, please review the following ...
Financial education for the next generation of family business owners.
Me and my friend here, Iron Chef Walter, are off to Taos for a week. My appearances are likely to be intermittent for the next seven days or so. In fact I make not make it back if Im hanging
... On the flight out from #ServiceNow #DeveloperDayBengaluru did some app development ...
Emotional altitude measures the intensity of positive emotional energy at any given time. It is the task of the sales ... Emotional altitude: How to accelerate a sale by creating an emotional crescendo. Client emotions are key to homebuying ... Internally, your emotional altitude is sky-high. Externally, you are all logic, analysis and business-like. ... The burden of sustaining emotional altitude rests on the shoulders of the sales professional. You are charged with protecting ...
MAG Aerospace Wins U.S. Army High-Altitude Sensing Award is published in Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, an Aviation Week ...
... and he used electronics to launch it as a high altitude balloon. ... and he used electronics to launch it as a high altitude balloon ...
Altitude is a revision of our Toque Campaign providing youth (18-29) facing barriers to employment with training and meaningful ... To learn more about Altitude and know what our Brand Ambassadors are up to follow the hashtag #WeAreAltitude on our social ... Raising the Roof is hosting two Altitude pilots, one summer cohort (April to August 2018) and one winter cohort (November 2018 ... Pending completion of two successful pilots, Raising the Roof will prepare to take Altitude to scale across Canada to support ...
100 Nights of Jazz - Altitude Jazz and Beyond ALTITUDE: Jazz and Beyond is a modern performing Jazz quartet with an upbeat vibe ... 100 Nights of Jazz - Altitude Jazz and Beyond Classic Pianos presents 100 Nights of Jazz featuring "Altitude Jazz and Beyond." ...
Last month, Facebook abandoned its high-altitude project Aquila namely because of competition from other companies developing ... many global companies have entered the business of beaming the internet from low-orbiting satellites or high-altitude drones ...
Triangle ABC has altitudes AD, BE, and CF. If AD = 12, BE = , and CF is a positive integer, then find the largest possible ...
... - Movies, Reference, Facts, Pictures & Videos of Aircraft, Airlines, Airplanes & Flight. ... The highest altitude obtained in an unpowered aeroplane is 50,699 feet (15,453 m) on 30th August 2006 by Steve Fossett (pilot) ... Aircraft Charter , Amelia Earhart Story , Heavy Traffic Airports , Jet Contrails , Future Airliners , Altitude In Aviation , ... Walter Brookins, in a Wright biplane, broke the worlds aeroplane record for altitude today, when he soared to a height of ...
  • They include high altitude headache, acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral oedema, and high altitude pulmonary oedema. (bmj.com)
  • Acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) are manifestations of the brain pathophysiology, while high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is that of the lung. (medscape.com)
  • The high altitude environment generally refers to elevations over 1500 m (4900 ft). (medscape.com)
  • Very high altitude refers to elevations of 3500-5500 m (11,500-18,000 ft). (medscape.com)
  • Although unnecessary for diagnosis, pulse oximetry is very helpful for in-the-field differentiation of HAPE, high-altitude cough, and other less serious respiratory problems. (medscape.com)
  • Hypoxia is the primary physiological insult on ascent to high altitude. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with inadequate carotid body response (genetic or acquired, eg, after surgery or radiation) or pulmonary or renal disease may have an insufficient ventilatory response and thus not adapt well to high altitude. (medscape.com)
  • And London's Modla ventured into the territory of high altitude training masks. (coolhunting.com)
  • Swallowing or yawning can unclog blocked ears when you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is the task of the sales professional to keep their client's emotional altitude at a high level. (inman.com)
  • Internally, your emotional altitude is sky-high. (inman.com)
  • MAG Aerospace Wins U.S. Army High-Altitude Sensing Award is published in Aerospace Daily & Defense Report , an Aviation Week Intelligence Network (AWIN) Market Briefing and is included with your AWIN membership. (aviationweek.com)
  • Aaron used a military-type balloon he found on Ebay, and he used electronics to launch it as a high altitude balloon. (digi.com)
  • To address this gap, many global companies have entered the business of beaming the internet from low-orbiting satellites or high-altitude drones and balloons. (nextgov.com)
  • Last month, Facebook abandoned its high-altitude project Aquila namely because of competition from other companies developing next-generation technologies. (nextgov.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the growth of schoolboys in a high-altitude area of Saudi Arabia, and to investigate the appropriateness of using the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards for the assessment of children's growth in such areas. (who.int)
  • The city of Abha, capital of Asir Province (population 1 200 000) in southwestern Saudi Arabia, lies in the high mountains of Asir, at an altitude of about 2250 metres above sea level, and approximately 200 kilometres from the northern border of Yemen. (who.int)
  • Data on the pattern of growth of Saudi children in a high-altitude area of Saudi Arabia such as Abha are available for preschool children but not yet for the school population [4,5]. (who.int)
  • Gassmann explains that the air at high altitude does not contain less oxygen compared to the air we breathe at sea level. (nih.gov)
  • What happens at high altitude is that the air pressure becomes lower, which reduces air (and oxygen) uptake in the lungs. (nih.gov)
  • Even though these populations can live at high altitude, others will never be able to live in or even visit there. (nih.gov)
  • Some people will never get acclimatized to high altitudes. (nih.gov)
  • Life at high altitudes : proceedings of the special session held during the Fifth Meeting of the PAHO Advisory Committee on Medical Research, 15 June 1966. (who.int)
  • Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure / investigators' report, James J. McGrath. (who.int)
  • High-Altitude Andean H194R HIF2A Allele Is a Hypomorphic Allele. (bvsalud.org)
  • For over 10,000 years, Andeans have resided at high altitude where the partial pressure of oxygen challenges human survival . (bvsalud.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Deaths due to rapid high altitude climbing (ASCEND). (who.int)
  • High altitude pulmonary edema develops in people who make a rapid ascend to a high altitude and the body is not able to acclimatize itself. (who.int)
  • Have you been exposed to cold or have you been at a high altitude? (nih.gov)
  • There are a few populations around the world who have adapted to higher altitudes, including Andeans and Tibetans. (nih.gov)
  • The fraction of oxygen in the atmosphere remains constant (0.21), but the partial pressure of oxygen decreases along with barometric pressure on ascent to altitude. (medscape.com)
  • Ideally, a person should begin his or her ascent to higher altitudes at 2,500 meters. (nih.gov)
  • Although arterial oxygen saturation is well maintained at these altitudes, low PO 2 results in mild tissue hypoxia, and altitude illness is common. (medscape.com)
  • HAPE demonstrates arterial oxygen desaturation relative to normal for the altitude at which measurement is made. (medscape.com)
  • Normal oxygen saturation (SpO2) is dependent on altitude. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Tüshaus L, Moreo M, Zhang J, Hartinger SM, Mäusezahl D, Karlen W. Physiologically driven, altitude-​adaptive model for the interpretation of pediatric oxygen saturation at altitudes above 2,000 m a.s.l. (uni-ulm.de)
  • The proposed altitude-​specific abnormal SpO2 threshold might be more appropriate than rigid guidelines for administering oxygen that currently are only available for patients at sea level. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Acute altitude illnesses are potentially serious conditions that can affect otherwise fit individuals who ascend too rapidly to altitude. (bmj.com)
  • Altitude illness can develop before the acute acclimatization process is complete, but not afterwards. (cdc.gov)
  • When someone experiences acute mountain sickness, it's important to get him or her to lower altitudes as soon as possible. (nih.gov)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Altitude. (who.int)
  • The number of people travelling to altitude for work (soldiers, miners, construction workers, and astronomers) or for recreation (skiing, trekking, mountain biking, and climbing) is rising, and increased media attention towards these activities has also raised the profile of altitude related illness. (bmj.com)
  • Awareness of potential altitude related problems is important even for healthcare practitioners working at lower altitude, because patients may ask for advice about the safety of a proposed journey and how to prevent illness at altitude. (bmj.com)
  • Altitude illness refers to a group of syndromes that result from hypoxia. (medscape.com)
  • Susceptibility and resistance to altitude illness are, in part, genetically determined traits, but there are no simple screening tests to predict risk. (cdc.gov)
  • Any unacclimatized traveler proceeding to a sleeping elevation of ≥8,000 ft (≈2,450 m)-and sometimes lower-is at risk for altitude illness. (cdc.gov)
  • This process, termed ventilatory acclimatization, requires approximately 4 days at a given altitude and is greatly enhanced by acetazolamide. (medscape.com)
  • Altitude has a direct influence on SpO 2 as the air pressure decreases. (uni-ulm.de)
  • If a regular caffeine user, continue using to avoid a withdrawal headache that could be confused with an altitude headache. (cdc.gov)
  • Raising the Roof is hosting two Altitude pilots, one summer cohort (April to August 2018) and one winter cohort (November 2018 to March 2019). (raisingtheroof.org)
  • Individuals must progressively acclimatize to intermediate altitudes to reach extreme altitude. (medscape.com)
  • above this altitude, successful long-term acclimatization is not possible and, in fact, deterioration ensues. (medscape.com)
  • The air pressure outside of your body changes as altitude changes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment involves moving patients to lower altitudes, which many don't want to do for family reasons, Gassmann noted. (nih.gov)
  • Usually, a person can acclimate to higher-altitude conditions, but it can take up to 10 days to do so. (nih.gov)
  • People are naturally adapted to live at or close to sea level, where the body's oxygenation is more optimal than in higher-altitude environments, said Dr. Max Gassmann in the Clinical Center's FAES Education and Conference Suite recently. (nih.gov)
  • Everyone traveling to altitude is at risk, regardless of age, prior medical history, level of physical fitness, or previous altitude experience. (medscape.com)
  • To analyze the risk factors associated with different levels of eye discomfort due to video terminal use among college students at different altitudes. (nih.gov)
  • In all likelihood, the collective emotional altitude in the room would be much, much higher. (inman.com)
  • Ensure you have the required travel documents needed to attend Workday Altitude-including the Workday Altitude invitation letter . (workday.com)
  • Altitude is a revision of our Toque Campaign providing youth (18-29) facing barriers to employment with training and meaningful work experience. (raisingtheroof.org)
  • Chewing gum the entire time you are changing altitudes helps by causing you to swallow often. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Emotional altitude measures the intensity of positive emotional energy at any given time. (inman.com)
  • Check out the Workday Altitude FAQs , or send us an email . (workday.com)
  • And we can do so by paying close attention to the customer's "emotional altitude. (inman.com)
  • If you feel sick and/or test positive for COVID-19 while at Workday Altitude, please isolate yourself. (workday.com)