A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)
Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
The minimum acceptable patient care, based on statutes, court decisions, policies, or professional guidelines.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The voluntary industry consensus standards developed by TCIA, resulted in the ANSI A300 standard, the generally accepted ... "NVIM Quick Reference Guide. Obligations under the Biodiversity Conservation Strategy" (PDF). environment.vic.gov.au. Inc., ... High safety standards against the dangers of tree care have helped the industry evolve. Especially felling in space-limited ... "TCIA , A300 Standards". www.tcia.org. Retrieved 2018-04-06. https://tcia.org/ "News: Expert workshop on Tree Care and ...
There are two types of qualifying standard: the "A" standard and the "B" standard. Each National Olympic Committee (NOC) may ... Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-01-31. Athletics at the 1904 Summer Games: Men's 100 metres. Sports Reference. Retrieved on ... The IAAF qualifying standards for the 100 m have become progressively more stringent since 2000. On top of IAAF standards, ... Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-01-31. Athletics at the 1912 Summer Games: Men's 100 metres. Sports Reference. Retrieved on ...
The MPEG-21 standard, from the Moving Picture Experts Group, aims at defining an open framework for multimedia applications. ... "Terms of Reference". chiariglione.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-31. MPEG. "MPEG ... Among the aspirations for this standard, that the industry hope will put an end to file sharing, is that it will constitute: "A ... As an XML-based standard, MPEG-21 is designed to communicate machine-readable license information and do so in a "ubiquitous, ...
"HL7 V3 Standard - A High Level Overview". "HL7 Reference Information Model". HL7. "Tools & Resources - V3 Modeling & ... HL7 International considers the following standards to be its primary standards - those standards that are most commonly used ... a standard expression language used for clinical decision support HL7's primary standards are those standards that Health Level ... an international standards organization, and are adopted by other standards issuing bodies such as American National Standards ...
"TUOS Referencing standards". Information and Digital Literacy Tutorials. The University of Sheffield. "Oxford tops research ... "THE Europe Teaching Rankings 2018: developing continental standards". 11 July 2018. "Research Excellence Framework 2014: ... a non-loanable reference collection and over 1,000 study spaces. It replaces the 1992 St George's Library on St George's Campus ...
... provided they fit into the framework of the referenced standards. However, ISO 9660 does not specify any code pages that are ... The ISO 13346/ECMA-167 standard was designed in conjunction to the ISO 13490 standard. This new format addresses most of the ... The ECMA submitted their standard to the International Standards Organization (ISO) for fast tracking, where it was further ... Peters, Paul Evan (July 1989). "CD-ROM Standards: The Fate of Z39.60" (PDF). Information Standards Quarterly. National ...
"Basic Report 21299". National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. 2014-09-28. Archived from the original on 2014-11-07. ... An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid, when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans ... Standard Argentine pizza has a thicker crust, called "media masa" (half dough) than traditional Italian style pizza and ... The Alsatian Flammekueche (Standard German: Flammkuchen, French: Tarte flambée) is a thin disc of dough covered in crème ...
"The Acid3 Test (reference Rendering)". Web Standards Project. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 9 ... The ACID3 test is a collection of interesting tests, spread across a large set of standards. Some of those standards will see ... "Acid3 Browser Test - The Web Standards Project". Web Standards Project. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. ... "Implementing just enough of the standard to pass a test is disingenuous, and has nothing to do with standards compliance," ...
"AAC Reference Software". MultimediaWiki. 2009-02-23. Retrieved 2009-11-03. ISO (2009-10-27). "Freely Available Standards". ISO ... Only the FAAC changes to this ISO MPEG-4 reference code are licensed under the LGPL license. The ISO MPEG-4 reference software ... FAAD (FAAD1) modifications to the ISO MPEG-4 AAC reference code were distributed under the GPL. FAAC and FAAD2 are used in the ... ISO/IEC gives users of the MPEG-2 NBC/MPEG-4 Audio standards free license to this software module or modifications thereof for ...
India, a reference annual. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. 1978. p. 151. Archived from the original on 5 December ... ISBN 978-0-498-02106-0. "Elitist double standards?". India Today. 15 September 1977. Archived from the original on 28 May 2017 ...
The HTML standard also specifies display behavior, not just character encoding, so web browsers following the HTML standard ... Character Entity References for Markup-Significant and Internationalization characters". University of Chicago Press Chicago ... The GNU coding standards recommend using two spaces when coding comments. The optional Emacs mode LaTeX provides a toggling ... Main work: GNU Coding Standards WC3 1999 9.1 White Space; Lupton 2004. p. 165. How many spaces at the end of a sentence? One or ...
Hot shit can be a reference to a matter or thing of supreme importance or urgency ("This report is really hot shit!"). It can ... Canadian Broadcast Standards Council. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. "Homepage". Trailer Park Boys. Archived from ... This is often used in reference to combat situations and the action scenes in movies, but can also be used for everyday ... "Shit". dictionary.reference.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008. "Urban Legends: The ...
Emission Standards Reference Guide. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 14 November 2012. Self-Study Programme 230: ... Environmental impact Clean Air Act Congestion pricing Emission standard European emission standards Flue gas Kyoto protocol ... Emission standards focus on reducing pollutants contained in the exhaust gases from vehicles as well as from industrial flue ... Comparable with the European emission standards EURO III as it was applied on October 2000 In 2000, the United States ...
List of NCAA Division I baseball programs 49ers Color System (PDF). Charlotte 49ers Brand Standards. June 23, 2020. Retrieved ... "MLB Amateur Draft Picks who came from "University of North Carolina at Charlotte (Charlotte, NC)"". Baseball-Reference.com. ...
"USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". U.S. Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-03- ... McCann; Widdowson; Food Standards Agency (1991). "Fats and Oils". The Composition of Foods. Royal Society of Chemistry. Altar, ...
"Operator (C# Reference)". Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-07-14. "Near constant time rotate that does not violate the standards?". ... "Circular rotate that does not violate C/C++ standard?". Intel Developer Forums. Retrieved 2015-08-12. "Constant not propagated ... "INT13-C. Use bitwise operators only on unsigned operands". CERT: Secure Coding Standards. Software Engineering Institute, ... such as Object Pascal and Standard Pascal), the logical left and right shift operators are "shl" and "shr", respectively. Even ...
"SNE Conceptual Reference Model". Simulation Interoperability Workshops. Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization. ...
Duff Johnson (2010-06-10), Is PDF an open standard? - Adobe Reader is the de facto Standard, not PDF, retrieved 2014-01-19 ... Part 2 will reference XFA 3.1. ... Without a standard file format or reverse engineered converters ... Adobe's XFA Forms is a closed standard that competes with the fully open W3C Xforms standard. ".ZIP Application Note". ... ISO/TC 171/SC 2/WG 8 N 603 - Meeting Report (PDF), 2011-06-27, XFA is not to be ISO standard just yet. ... The Committee urges ...
National Institute of Standards and Technology. January 27, 2000. Retrieved January 13, 2010. Cryptography Reference on MSDN ... "FIPS PUB 186-2" (PDF). Federal Information Processing Standards. ...
Reference designator List of IEC standards "The Reference Designation System (RDS) A common naming convention" (PDF). "IEC TC3 ... Standards developed in cooperation between IEC and ISO are assigned numbers in the 80000 series) Preceding standard IEC 61346: ... defines the rules for reference designation systems (RDS). It is published as a double logo standard prepared by IEC technical ... Future developments of the standards on reference designations will be made in cooperation between the IEC and the ISO and ...
"AHPA Industry Standards". Americans for Safe Access. Retrieved 2018-04-16. "AHPA Botanical Identity References Compendium". www ... Botanical Identity References Compendium Botanical Safety Handbook Every year, AHPA presents its Botanical Congress in ...
Each specialization is also a Standard Library container, and thus the Standard Library algorithms can be applied to the code ... The common idiom to avoid such copying is to pass as a const reference: void print(const std::string& s) { std::cout << s; } In ... The C++ programming language has support for string handling, mostly implemented in its standard library. The language standard ... The C++ standard, however, does not impose any interpretation as Unicode code points or code units on these types and does not ...
... medical programming language standard specification for the National Bureau of Standards. He also wrote a reference book on ... 5-35770 with the National Bureau of Standards. Conway, Melvin E. (1983). Dayhoff, Ruth E. (ed.). Mumps Programming Reference ... "Foreword: 1977 Version of ANSI Standard". The Annotated M[UMPS] Standards. MUMPS Development Committee. 29 November 2011. ... Part I of this Standard, the MUMPS Language Specification, MDC/28, was prepared by Melvin E. Conway under Contract No. ...
In general references to M.D.s, it is more precise to use physicians rather than doctors. Thomas W. Lippman (19 March 1989). " ... Holding a PhD title has become a standard requirement for a university career. The doctor title has little to no meaning or ... is thus used after the first reference before the names of individuals who hold Ph.D.s and other doctoral degrees. Holders of ... under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a ...
"Project Fortress Reference Card" (PDF). Java.net. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-09-24. " ... "pseudocode - Standards for pseudo code?". Stack Overflow. 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2016-09-24. Josh Simons (November 22, 2006). " ... This is the Fortress version of the archetypal hello world program, as presented in the Fortress Reference Card: component ... Syntactically, it most resembles Scala, Standard ML, and Haskell. Fortress was designed from the outset to have multiple ...
Trading Standards which delivers national and regional consumer protection enforcement since 2013 and the Independent Reference ... He was also at various times a Trustee of the Safer London Foundation, the Evening Standard Blitz Memorial Trust, the Help for ... "National Crime Agency - NCA Independent Reference Group". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 2 May 2018. "No. 55219". ... www.edwardrobertson.co.uk, Edward Robertson -. "Welcome to National Trading Standards". nationaltradingstandards.uk. Retrieved ...
Though in the English language there is no standard accepted method to denote irony or sarcasm in written conversation, several ... Reference Grammar of Amharic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1995. 45. Print. Houston, Keith (2013). Shady Characters: The Secret ... "A Roadmap to the Extension of the Ethiopic Writing System Standard Under Unicode and ISO-10646" (PDF). 15th International ... ISBN 978-0-393-06442-1. "Guidance on Standards for Subtitling". ITC Guidance on Public Consultation: Codes & Guidance Notes. ...
"LGC Standards: Certified reference materials". Glycosyl hydrolases on CAZYpedia Biology portal. ...
"VGA Signal 640 x 480 @ 60 Hz Industry standard timing". PS/2 Video Subsystem Technical Reference Manual 1992 "VGA Signal ... "IBM VGA Technical Reference Manual" (PDF). This is the original IBM reference. The document provides good overview of VGA ... is a display standard developed in 1988, when NEC Home Electronics announced its creation of the Video Electronics Standards ... However, only the standard modes, or modes that at least use almost exactly the same H-sync and V-sync timings as one of the ...
Reference UCA Standards Guide (PDF). March 28, 2015. Retrieved April 2, 2016. "Division I Men's Soccer". National Collegiate ...
... and other book sources where you will be able to search for the book by its International Standard Book Number (ISBN). ... These links produce citations in various referencing styles. * Bibliographical Information on OttoBib (MLA) ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ Khanna PC, Thapa MM, Iyer RS, Prasad SS (January 2011). "Pictorial essay: The many faces of craniosynostosis ... Radiographic analysis by performing a computed axial tomographic scan is the gold standard for diagnosing craniosynostosis.[45] ... OMIM reference Gene Loeys-Dietz syndrome wide-set eyes • split uvula or cleft palate • arterial tortuosity • aortic root ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ Modell 1984: 145-157 *^ a b Bailey, Martha J. (1994). American Women in Science:A Biographical Dictionary. ... We should not try to evaluate people by our standards alone. Morality, she argued, was relative to the values of the culture in ... Benedict's Patterns of Culture (1934) was translated into fourteen languages and was published in many editions as standard ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ a b Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act, Pub.L. 92-516. Approved 1972-10-21. ... It must comply with standards set with the U.S. pesticide law ... in order to meet current health and safety standards, labeling ... any dietary risk that could be the result of a pesticide used with any food lacking consistency with the standards listed under ... The Federal Insecticide Act of 1910 set standards for chemical quality and provided consumers protection but did not address ...
References[edit]. *^ a b Various Authors (16 April 2013). The Irish Terrier - A Complete Anthology of the Dog. Read Books Ltd. ... Irish Terrier Club of America Breed Standard. *^ Pat I (1924-1941) Archived 1 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Library and ... Breed standards describe the ideal Irish Terrier as being racy, red and rectangular. Racy: an Irish Terrier should appear ...
References[edit]. *^ a b Oettel M, Schillinger E (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: Physiology and Mechanisms of ... Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ...
This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. ( ...
References[edit]. *^ Kallet, A & Schlink, F: "100,000,000 Guinea Pigs", Ch 1. Vanguard Press, 1933 ... Corn starch-filled, glucose-sweetened pie with made with sub-standard canned pineapple, artificial (citric acid) lemon flavor ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ Alenghat, Francis J.; Davis, Andrew M. (2019). "Management of Blood Cholesterol". JAMA. 321: 800. doi: ... In studies using standard doses, statins have been found to lower LDL-C by 18% to 55%, depending on the specific statin being ...
References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Diabetes Fact sheet N°312". World Health Organization. August 2011. Archived from the ... "Standards of medical care in diabetes--2015: summary of revisions". Diabetes Care. 38 Suppl (38): S4. January 2015. doi:10.2337 ... Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ... as opposed to standard blood pressure management (less than 140-160 mmHg systolic to 85-100 mmHg diastolic) results in a slight ...
Notes and references[edit]. *^ Frost, Daniel (1 April 1967). "Labor's Antitrust Exemption". California Law Review. Archived ... The United States takes a more laissez-faire approach, setting some minimum standards but leaving most workers' wages and ... raise the entire society's standard of living, reduce the hours in a work week, provide public education for children, and ... saw rising incomes and improved standards of living but the primary beneficiaries were the wealthy.[45] ...
References[edit]. *^ Martndale: The Complete Drug Reference, 35th Ed. *^ a b Heinz Reichmann (October 2006). "Budipine in ... Template:drugs.com link with non-standard subpage. *ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata ...
LNG Terminal Siting Standards Organization Advocating Government Adoption of LNG Industry Standards ... As a reference, the 2014 global production of crude oil was 92 million barrels (14.6 million cubic metres) per day[71] or 186.4 ... The standard price for a 125,000 cubic meter LNG vessel built in European and Japanese shipyards used to be US$250 million. ... "Negotiation Standards for LNG Contracts". Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2015.. ...
References[edit]. *^ Granet, Chris (12 August 2008). "Neil 'The Goliath' Grove crowned Ultimate Challenge UK champ". Mirror.co. ... As a result, they have become the standard de facto set of rules for professional mixed martial arts across the US and for cage ...
References[edit]. *^ Glover, Neal; Dudley, Trent (1990). "Practical Error Correction Design For Engineers" (Revision 1.1, 2nd ... The upcoming wireless 5G standard raises a new range of applications for the software ECCs: the Cloud Radio Access Networks (C- ... IEEE Standard, section "802.11n-2009", IEEE, 29 October 2009, accessed 21 March 2011. ... LDPC codes are now used in many recent high-speed communication standards, such as DVB-S2 (Digital Video Broadcasting - ...
References[edit]. *^ a b Thomas, Bob (September 26, 1987). "Maltese Falcon star Astor dies at 81". The Salina Journal. Kansas, ... "The Montana Standard. Montana, Butte. August 24, 1936. p. 5. Retrieved February 20, 2016 - via Newspapers.com.. ... This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please ...
Book I (Part II). Corresponding to the Book I (Part II) of the Standard English Readers. Tokyo, Institute for Research in ... References[edit]. *^ http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/research/collections/elt_archive/halloffame/palmer/archive/ ... Book II (Part I). Corresponding to the Book II (Part I) of the Standard English Readers. Tokyo, Institute for Research in ... Book II (Part II). Corresponding to Book II (Part II) of the Standard English Readers. Tokyo, Institute for Research in English ...
References[edit]. *^ Kormondy, E. J. (1996). Concepts of ecology (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. p. 559. ISBN 0-13-478116 ... and represents a standard measure of food web complexity..."[66]:12913 The distance (d) between every species pair in a web is ... Part 1. The food and feeding habits of the herring with special reference to the east coast of England". Fisheries ... ", "web of complex relations", and in reference to the decomposition actions of earthworms he talked about "the continued ...
References[edit]. *^ "New School To Train Ships Officers" Popular Science, May 1935 ... Campaign ribbons from all the conflicts in which midshipmen have taken part help to dress the battle standard.[dead link][8] ... The Merchant Marine Academy is the only Federal Service Academy granted the right to do so, and the standard is carried with ... the regiment is privileged to carry a regimental battle standard. ...
References[edit]. *^ a b c d Pubchem. "Indinavir". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-22.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... From then on, indinavir used with dual NRTIs set a new standard for treatment of HIV/AIDS. Protease inhibitors changed the ...
References. *^ a b Shapiro, Rose (2010-09-30). Suckers: How Alternative Medicine Makes Fools of Us All. Random House. ISBN ... Use of standard-of-care treatment in addition to an alternative technique being tested may produce confounded or difficult-to- ... c) Nocebo effect - an individual is convinced that standard treatment will not work, and that alternative therapies will work. ... e) Interference - Standard treatment is "complemented" with something that interferes with its effect. This can both cause ...
... safety standards, and techniques. Equipment manufacturers are aware of these changes and require the certification of ... References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type:decimal}.mw-parser-output . ...
References[edit]. *^ a b "Comment faire une tresse française ?". Wikihow.com.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ...
References[edit]. *^ "History of Product Names & Trademarks: Arm & Hammer Baking Soda".. *^ "The Straight Dope: Did tycoon ... The standard of purity. Website. armandhammer.com. Arm & Hammer is a registered trademark of Church & Dwight, a major American ...
References[edit]. *^ Nordens Ark on Gotland rabbits (in Swedish) Archived 2012-08-04 at the Wayback Machine ... Despite having never been bred towards a written breed standard until recent times, most Gotland rabbits share a distinctive ...
ReferencesEdit. FootnotesEdit. *^ "Pol Pot's daughter weds". The Phnom Penh Post. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.. .mw- ... The standard of Mao's [Chinese] revolution of 1949 stands high until now, but it has faded and is wavering: it is no longer ... The standard of the [Cambodian] revolution of April 17, 1975, raised by Comrade Pol Pot, is brilliant red, full of ... The standard of the [Bolshevik] revolution of November 7, 1917, was raised very high, but Khrushchev pulled it down. ...
ReferencesEdit. CitationsEdit. *^ Jain, Girilal (1994). The Hindu Phenomenon. New Delhi: UBS Publishers' Distributors. ISBN 978 ... "Business Standard India. Retrieved 4 May 2017.. *^ Suresh Ramabhai, Vinoba and his mission, Published by Akhil Bharat Sarv Seva ... Pradhan, Kumar L. (2012), Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806-1839, New Delhi: Concept ... "Crimes and punishments : court proceedings of Vijayanagara empire with special reference to Tamil country". doi:10.9780/ ...
Standard bell pattern[edit]. 4. 4 standard pattern and 12. 8 standard pattern Play (help·info)) and triple-pulse (12/8) form ( ... References[edit]. *Mauleón, Rebeca (1993). Salsa Guidebook for Piano and Ensemble. Petaluma, California: Sher Music. ISBN 0- ... 8 standard pattern Play (help·info); 6. 8 son clave Play (help·info); 6. 8 rumba clave Play (help·info). ... Like clave, the standard pattern is expressed in both triple and duple-pulse. The standard pattern has strokes on: 1, 1a, 2& 2a ...
References[edit]. *^ Rowland RS, Taylor R (1996). "Intermolecular nonbonded contact distances in organic crystal structures: ... 1000 times smaller than the molar volume for a gas at standard temperature and pressure. ... Please add such references to provide context and establish the relevance of any primary research articles cited. Unsourced or ...
References[edit]. *^ a b Szablowski, J. (2001). The Role of Private Universities and Colleges in the Spatial Restructuring of ... There are now 12 private institutions that occupy top positions relating to the standards of tertiary education which are ...
Main reference metadata reporting standards. The main reference metadata reporting standards used within the ESS are the ... ESS Reference Metadata Reporting Standards You will find here a general introduction to the standards used within the European ... ESMS-IP provides standard reference metadata for indicators.. The ESMS-IP is based on the Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS). ... The ESMS standard is also increasingly used for reporting of national reference metadata files to Eurostat. ...
... announces that it has grown its portfolio of reference standards to now include 3,000 items. USP Reference Standards are highly ... Regulators and manufacturers use USP Reference Standards to assess products conformity to standards of identity, quality, ... Attaining 3,000 USP Reference Standards is important for USP, of course, but also for all stakeholders interested in advancing ... USP Reference Standards are specified in the monographs of the U.S. Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF), USPs ...
Reference Materials, Standards and Guidelines Expand or Collapse. * Reference Materials and Standards ... www.nist.gov/topics/forensic-science/reference-materials-standards-and-guidelines/reference-materials-and ... Bullet casing standard reference material. Credit: NIST. NIST offers tools that help forensic crime laboratories validate their ... Some of the most popular Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) are listed below. For ordering information, see our SRM ordering ...
Molecular/Genomic reference standards are a class of controls or standards used to check the performance of molecular ... Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements NIBSC NIST Horizon Discovery Reference Standards Maine Molecular Quality ... Molecular reference standards are available in a variety of formats, each of which has strengths and weaknesses. These ... Molecular/Genomic Reference Materials (RMs) are selected or engineered to model a specific genetic biomarker as it occurs in a ...
USP standards for drug reference standards are used to demonstrate identity, strength, purity and quality for medicines, ... www.usp.org/reference-standards/reference-standards-catalog. Value beyond the vial. With USP Reference Standards, you know ... Official USP Reference Standards. With USP Reference Standards youre getting value beyond the vial. Feel confident that youve ... Our new and updated monographs and official USP Reference Standards support your need to use evolving technologies and new ...
IRC also references several industry standards such as ACI 318, ASCE 7, ASTM, and ANSI standards that cover specific load, load ... Develops standards and qualifies products for use by the general public and develops standards for materials, products, systems ... Is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world-a trusted source for technical standards for ... Develops standards for materials and testing as well as finished products.. ASSE. American Society of Sanitary Engineering, ...
The following list features never-before-released Reference Standards currently under development at USP and their anticipated ... Additional Reference Standards Tools. If you do not see a Reference Standard on this list or in the USP online store, you can ... Future Reference Standards may be added to or withdrawn from the list at any time, and Reference Standards may be released ... also suggest a new Reference Standard to our development team.. Questions About Reference Standards Under Development?. Please ...
NIST has developed and distributed Standard Reference Data in Chemistry, Engineering, Fluids and Condensed Phases, Material ... Standard Reference Data. For over 50 years, NIST has developed and distributed Standard Reference Data in Chemistry, ... NIST produces the Nations Standard Reference Data (SRD). These data are assessed by experts and are trustworthy such that ... REFPROP: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties FAQ. *Mass Spec: NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library MS Data ...
... the difference between exclusive and indicative reference to standards in regulations; how access to standards referenced in ... and the impact on the standards setting bodies and on the intellectual property embodied in the standard. ... In fact, to regulate economic and productive activities without making use of standards is now the exception, rather than the ... Legislators and authorities have long acknowledged that making use of standards is often more cost efficient and expedient than ...
Making the "Minimum Data Set" Compliant with Health Information Technology Standards U.S. Department of Health and Human ... Services Making the "Minimum Data Set" Compliant with Health Information Technology Standards John Carter, Jonathan Evans, Mark ...
Composite Honeycomb Ndi Reference Standards ARP5606. This recommended practice establishes generic reference standards that ... In certain instances, it may be desirable or necessary to design a new reference standard to accommodate a specific inspection ... been used to determine the important variables needed in a composite reference standard thus eliminating unnecessary standard ... These standards may also be appropriate for other NDT methods but will need to be assessed as appropriate prior to their use. ...
... more commonly called standards of care, are mechanisms by which courts establish the alleged negligence of health care ... Care standards, more commonly called standards of care, are mechanisms by which courts establish the alleged negligence of ... Three common standards employed by legal authorities are the national standard, the locality rule and the respectable minority ... According to Legal Match, the national standard demands that any doctor be capable of performing at a similar level to another ...
The Standard Reference Method or SRM is one of several systems modern brewers use to specify beer color. Determination of the ... "The Standard Reference Method of Beer Color Specification as the Basis for a New Method of Beer Color Reporting", J.Am.Soc. ... ASTM E-308-96 "Standard Practices for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System", ASTM International, West ... as it passes through 1 cm of beer contained in a standard 1 cm by 1 cm cuvette. The absorption is the log of the ratio of the ...
We use the phrase "the SQL standard" or "standard SQL" to mean the current version of the SQL Standard at any time. ... The SQL standard has been evolving since 1986 and several versions exist. In this manual, "SQL-92" refers to the standard ... 1.7.1 MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL. 1.7.2 MySQL Differences from Standard SQL. 1.7.3 How MySQL Deals with Constraints. ... This section describes how MySQL relates to the ANSI/ISO SQL standards. MySQL Server has many extensions to the SQL standard, ...
... hospitals and in the field must be calibrated against a national standard to ensure that measurement results are consistent ... with the International System of Units (SI). The IAEA calibrates national reference dosimeters, linking radiation dosimetry in ... These labs provide calibrations of reference dosimeters of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories. Secondary standards labs ... National standards laboratories in Member States send their reference dosimeters in for calibration and receive a calibration ...
What is a composite reference standard?. A composite reference standard is a fixed rule used to make a final diagnosis based on ... Extensions to the basic composite reference standard. The basic composite reference standard categorises patients simply as ... a method in which the reference standard is re-run or re-evaluated, or a different reference standard is used, when the first ... situations in which the reference standard is repeated or a different reference standard is applied in those patients where the ...
Air Cargo Unit Load Devices - Reference Standards AIR36105. The present Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a list of ... Special Offer: Purchase more aerospace standards and aerospace material specifications and save! AeroPaks off a customized ... the main government regulations, SAE and international standards, and standing industry recommendations applying to air cargo ...
These standards, developed by the ATSM International organization, cover plastic pipes, steel pipes, iron pipes and... ... ASTM pipe standards are used in the development, testing and evaluating of pipes. ... In addition to pipe standards, the ATSM includes over 12,000 standards for metals, plastics, textiles and rubber. The standards ... ASTM pipe standards are used in the development, testing and evaluating of pipes. These standards, developed by the ATSM ...
XML Standards Reference. XML standards are defined at breathtaking speed these days. It is also difficult to keep up with the ... Referencing Documents and Fragments. XLink. XML Linking Language. Allows elements to be inserted into XML documents in order to ... "The language to be used as the basis for a fragment identifier for any URI reference that locates an XML document or XML parsed ... It is not meant to be objective or exhaustive; longer lists are documented in the Standards links section, everything up to and ...
PDS3 Standards Reference. The following is version 3.8 of the PDS Standards Reference, dated February 27, 2009. ... Chapter 2 - Cartographic Standards*. Chapter 3 - Data Type Values and Data File Storage Formats. Chapter 4 - Data Objects and ... The following are PDF and DOC versions of the PDS Standards document. ...
... convenient Reference Standards research through hand selected websites. Scientific knowledge compiled in an easy to research ... Provides news and searchable directories of standards, meetings, publications and educational resources related to measurement ...
This detail page provides additional information about the selected specimen as well as a 5 barcode (ca. 655 bases) (FASTA format) for each specimen that can be copied for use in other applications. For some Shrimp species, there is also a reverse 3 barcode (ca. 475 bases). In addition there are photographs or links to photographs for some of the specimens.. ...
Quotes are not sourced from all markets and may be delayed up to 20 minutes. Information is provided as is and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice.Disclaimer ...
ABRF-MGRG Metagenomics Reference Standards * ABRF-MGRG 10 Strain Even Mix Genomic Material (ATCC® MSA-3001™) ATCC® Number: MSA- ... Applications: ATCC® Microbiome Standards enable the optimization of metagenomics workflows and microbiome research applications ... Applications: ATCC® Microbiome Standards enable the optimization of metagenomics workflows and microbiome research applications ... Applications: ATCC® Microbiome Standards enable the optimization of metagenomics workflows and microbiome research applications ...
drinking water reference standard water reference standard certified reference material reference standard reference material ...
Emission Standards. *All Federal Emission Standards *Light-Duty Vehicles and Trucks and Motorcycles Emission Standards ... Emission Standards Reference Guide for On-road and Nonroad Vehicles and Engines. This guide contains tables listing federal ... Emission Standards Reference Guide for On-road and Nonroad Vehicles and Engines. Contact Us ... and related fuel sulfur standards. Each table includes the standards, useful life, warranty period, and the availability of ...
Standard Interpretations. 1 2010 - 05/18/2010 - Whether use of personal protective equipment is mandatory when working under ... 2003 - 07/25/2003 - Relevance of NFPA 70E industry consensus standard to OSHA requirements; whether OSHA requirements apply to ... 1996 - 05/20/1996 - Letter requesting interpretation of the OSHA electrical standards as they apply to employees using ...
1989 - 12/26/1989 - Asbestos and the Hazard Communication Standard 4 1988 - 10/20/1988 - The OSHA analytical reference method ... Standard Interpretations. 1 1994 - 11/17/1994 - Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) requirements for ...
... and not to reference any standard that has been denied approval by ANSI. ... such as those of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society for Testing and Materials, ... Resolved that NAHB urge Congress and federal agencies to reference only standards developed through proper consensus procedures ... when referencing private sector standards in legislation and regulations, to reference only standards developed through proper ...
PRWEB) November 19, 2014 -- The OASIS Universal Business Language (UBL) Standard, version 2.1, has been designated by the ... UBL becomes one of the first consortium standards officially eligible for referencing in tenders from European public ... has been designated by the European Commission as one of the first consortium standards officially eligible for referencing in ... OASIS open standards offer the potential to lower cost, stimulate innovation, grow global markets, and protect the right of ...
  • Our new and updated monographs and official USP Reference Standards support your need to use evolving technologies and new innovations in manufacturing quality medicines. (usp.org)
  • Our expert staff and USP training resources are available worldwide to help you choose the best products for your needs, provide technical information on official USP Reference Standards and USP-NF monographs, inform you about new products and share resources and insights to facilitate your work. (usp.org)
  • Search results and drug listings now clarify which listed drugs are reference listed drugs (RLDs) and which are reference standards. (fda.gov)
  • USP relies on our volunteer experts who, with staff, set the standards, and on the manufacturers who donate the monographs and materials from which many of our standards are derived. (prweb.com)
  • Some of the most popular Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) are listed below. (nist.gov)
  • Develops standards for materials and testing as well as finished products. (cdc.gov)
  • Is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world-a trusted source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. (cdc.gov)
  • Resolved that NAHB urge Congress and federal agencies, when referencing private sector standards in legislation and regulations, to reference only standards developed through proper consensus procedures (including balanced committees and a fair and open process) such as those of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society for Testing and Materials, and not to reference any standard that has been denied approval by ANSI. (nahb.org)
  • High quality reference materials are available only from organizations with a robust quality system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34, also called Double Accreditation, represents the pinnacle of quality system achievement and allows the credible production and testing of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Note - Beginning June 15, 2015, customers will see a change in the accreditation symbols found on the Certificate of Analysis (COA) for Certified Reference Materials (CRMs)and Proficiency Testing samples (PTs) sold under Sigma-Aldrich US based CRM producers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Molecular/Genomic Reference Materials (RMs) are selected or engineered to model a specific genetic biomarker as it occurs in a patient biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reference materials (RM) are used for a calibration of the measuring system, for assessment of a measurement procedure, for assigning values to materials, or for quality control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proficiency schemes involve the distribution of blinded reference materials to subscription laboratories, and the subsequent scoring and assessment of the proficiency of those labs in their molecular diagnostic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agilent, now with former Ultra Scientific, offers a comprehensive portfolio of reference materials for environmental and food segments, elemental analysis, instrument calibration and tuning mixes, and more. (agilent.com)
  • The Standards and Guidelines Committee is responsible for advising the RUSA Board of Directors on standards and guidelines for the delivery of reference information services and materials to adults. (ala.org)
  • Monitor, examine and advise the RUSA Board of Directors on any ALA standards or guidelines related to the delivery of reference information services and of general library services and materials to adults. (ala.org)
  • In the performance of the analytical tests made by the above and similar electronic devices on blood serum and other biological samples, it is necessary to use laboratory standard materials or so-called reference standards for purposes of calibration and control of the instrument. (google.com)
  • Calibration standards and reference sources provide standard values for calibrating instruments and comparing materials and components. (globalspec.com)
  • Metals of a known hardness and heat treatment are usually calibrated to standards from the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). (globalspec.com)
  • The Paul-Ehrlich-Institut ( PEI ) provides reference materials for in vitro diagnostic medical devices ( IVD ) and reference materials for immunoglobulin preparations. (pei.de)
  • All reference materials must be clearly identifiable and labeled. (pei.de)
  • When handling reference materials, especially in refrigerated or frozen storage, care should be taken to ensure that labels are not damaged. (pei.de)
  • As a leading global provider of reference materials, we aim to support your environmental analytical testing to help ensure your results are reliable and fit for purpose. (lgcstandards.com)
  • Our ever-evolving portfolio continues to expand and adapt to changing requirements and technology, with a portfolio of products devoted to crucial global regulations, alongside leading ranges of pesticide, aqueous inorganic and stable isotope labelled reference materials. (lgcstandards.com)
  • Explore our latest reference materials for food and environmental analysis and take a look at how we can support your analytical testing. (lgcstandards.com)
  • These Secondary Standards are qualified as Certified Reference Materials. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The availability of these materials has been reviewed previously but on the completion of a recent collaborative study to evaluate candidate standards for rDNA-derived FSH and highly purified urinary FSH (urofollitropin) it is now appropriate to review the current status of these standards and to discuss the future of standardisation for FSH in particular and where appropriate to make reference to other materials. (nih.gov)
  • Cerilliant offers a wide selection of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) for the most commonly analyzed medical and recreational cannabinoids including native and stable-isotope labeled Certified Spiking Solutions® of Cannabidiol, Cannabinol, and (- ) -Δ 9 -THC. (cerilliant.com)
  • To address these issues, a multidisciplinary research team at NIST has worked to develop the metrology necessary for quantitative single-wall carbon nanotube measurements through a three-prong approach: basic measurement and separation science, documentary protocols and standards through international standards organizations, and now certified reference materials. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Refer to each table to find the applicable Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) citations which provide complete information on the standards. (epa.gov)
  • A comprehensive list of citations to this standard are listed here. (astm.org)
  • Citations are based on reference standards. (worldcat.org)
  • The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on www.astm.org. (astm.org)
  • Molecular/Genomic reference standards are a class of 'controls' or standards used to check the performance of molecular diagnostic assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizon Discovery is a leading provider of genetically defined, human genomic reference standards, including Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) cell line sections & purified genomic DNA (gDNA). (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Browse over 200 genomic reference standards available from our catalogue, or for specific requirements investigate our custom genomic reference material service. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Procainamide hydrochloride may be used as a pharmaceutical reference standard in the determination of the analyte in pharmaceutical preparations by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic techniques. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone international standards and reference preparations for the calibration of immunoassays and bioassays. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the question is no longer whether to use standards in regulations but "how" best to use them? (unece.org)
  • The present Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a list of the main government regulations, SAE and international standards, and standing industry recommendations applying to air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded with either baggage or freight on board civil transport aircraft. (sae.org)
  • The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is proud to announce the official launch of the ANSI IBR Portal , an online tool for free, read-only access to voluntary consensus standards that have been incorporated by reference (IBR) into federal laws and regulations. (ansi.org)
  • In recent years, issues related to IBR have commanded increased attention, particularly in connection to requirements that standards that have been incorporated into federal laws and regulations be "reasonably available" to the U.S. citizens and residents affected by these rules. (ansi.org)
  • The Governing Body is invited to consider draft terms of reference for the Standards Review Mechanism Tripartite Working Group, prepared pursuant to the decision taken at the 323rd Session (March 2015), and to take decisions concerning its work (see the draft decision in paragraph 5). (ilo.org)
  • Regulators and manufacturers use USP Reference Standards to assess products' conformity to standards of identity, quality, purity and strength. (prweb.com)
  • In addition to the standards and organizations listed in this section, the U.S. Justice Department enforces the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) ( http://www.ada.gov External ) and assures that products fully comply with the provisions of the act to ensure equal access for physically challenged users. (cdc.gov)
  • Develops standards, tests, and qualifies products used in gas lines and gas appliance installations. (cdc.gov)
  • Develops standards and qualifies products for plumbing and sanitary installations. (cdc.gov)
  • With a view to improving the quality of evaluation processes and products, and facilitating collaboration, this reference guide lays out standards for each phase of a typical evaluation process: from defining purpose, to planning, designing, implementing, reporting, and learning from and using evaluation results. (oecd.org)
  • Our products and services cover the complete standards development lifecycle. (ieee.org)
  • The FDA made these modifications to reflect recent clarifications published in the draft guidance for industry " Referencing Approved Drug Products in ANDA Submissions . (fda.gov)
  • Grade 0.5 (AAA), or Laboratory Master Grade, products provide the highest degree of accuracy and are used in precision or master calibration gaging operations in temperature-controlled metrology or standards laboratories. (globalspec.com)
  • The stability, uniformity and reproducibility of our fluorescent microsphere products make them ideal reference standards for flow cytometry. (thermofisher.com)
  • Products that implement 802.11 standards must pass tests and are referred to as "Wi-Fi certified. (techtarget.com)
  • We doesn't provide usp reference standards coa products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (infospaceinc.com)
  • You will find here a general introduction to the standards used within the European Statistical System (ESS) to describe the data sets disseminated on Eurostat's website, both in terms of content and quality. (europa.eu)
  • Develop and maintain a RUSA policy statement and procedure manual for the preparation of all guidelines and standards issued by RUSA in order to insure coordination of format and correlation of content of RUSA guidelines and standards. (ala.org)
  • 252-408 4 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A stable blood serum reference standard having a standard carbon dioxide content for use in multi-automated analytical procedures in which a freeze-dried blood serum component of the reference standard is reconstituted with an aqueous ammonium bicarbonate component of the reference standard. (google.com)
  • Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a stable blood serum reference standard which includes a standard carbon dioxide content. (google.com)
  • It is another object of this invention to provide a stable blood serum reference standard which includes a standand carbon dioxide content and which can be used for calibration and control of multi-automated analytical procedures. (google.com)
  • Many states and districts have adopted content standards (or 'curriculum frameworks') which describe what students should know and be able to do in different subjects at various grade levels. (fairtest.org)
  • They also have performance standards that define how much of the content standards students should know to reach the 'basic' or 'proficient' or 'advanced' level in the subject area. (fairtest.org)
  • After two years of work by the TV-Anytime forum, the content reference identifier or CRID has been accepted by the Internet Engineering Task Force as a registered URL prefix, similar to http or ftp in a web address. (informitv.com)
  • The "crid://" scheme has been devised to allow standard references to scheduled broadcasts of media content. (informitv.com)
  • Spectrum specializes in providing the top fine chemical standards but if you do not see the product, grade or form of the ingredient you require, just contact our chemical specialist at 800-772-8786. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • This document aligns with the Indiana Math Standards for first grade. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Dosimeters used to measure radiation at laboratories, hospitals and in the field must be calibrated against a national standard to ensure that measurement results are consistent with the International System of Units (SI). (iaea.org)
  • Provides news and searchable directories of standards, meetings, publications and educational resources related to measurement and measurement devices and their uses. (botw.org)
  • The quality of this data is only as good as the reference material used to calibrate the measurement device. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As an advanced example of the instrumentation that the 'Optassyst' project focuses on, the LEXT OLS4000 will help to provide measurements to check the specifications of standards and measurement procedures. (qualitymag.com)
  • National Measurement Laboratory (U.S.). Office of Standard Reference Data Publisher: Washington, For sale by the Supt. of Docs. (worldcat.org)
  • National Measurement Laboratory (U.S.). Office of Standard Reference Data. (worldcat.org)
  • This section describes how MySQL relates to the ANSI/ISO SQL standards. (mysql.com)
  • As coordinator of the U.S. standardization system, ANSI has taken a lead role in informing the public about the reality of free standards, the economics of standards setting, and how altering this infrastructure will undermine U.S. competitiveness. (ansi.org)
  • In response to concerns raised by ANSI members and partner organizations, government officials, and other stakeholders, ANSI began to develop its IBR Portal, with the goal of providing a single solution to this significant issue that also provides SDOs with the flexibility they require to safeguard their ability to develop standards. (ansi.org)
  • For this first phase of the portal, ANSI has secured the participation of thirteen major domestic and international standards developers. (ansi.org)
  • Others have posted copyrighted standards online without the permission of the organizations that developed them, triggering legal action from standards developing organizations (SDOs). (ansi.org)
  • OSHA is confirming the effective date of its direct final rule that revises the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating references to standards published by standards-developing organizations. (federalregister.gov)
  • On August 11, 2009, OSHA published the direct final rule in the Federal Register that revised the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating references to standards published by standards-developing organizations (see 74 FR 40442 ). (federalregister.gov)
  • As requested by RUSA or other ALA units, examine and comment on new or revised standards promulgated by ALA affiliated organizations, e.g. (ala.org)
  • Bullet casing standard reference material. (nist.gov)
  • For over 50 years, NIST has developed and distributed Standard Reference Data in Chemistry, Engineering, Fluids and Condensed Phases, Material Sciences, Mathematical and Computer Sciences and Physics. (nist.gov)
  • Purchase more aerospace standards and aerospace material specifications and save! (sae.org)
  • Increasingly, proficiency scheme organizers are turning to genetically modified cell lines as a sustainable and well defined source of reference material. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you need a custom reference material, partner with us to design and develop a custom standard to your specifications. (agilent.com)
  • A consistent source of positive and negative reference material on one slide offering of an industry standard for development and quality control of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays, directly improving the accuracy and reproducibility. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • This invention relates to a laboratory standard material and, more particularly, to a stable blood serum reference standard and to a method of preparation and use thereof. (google.com)
  • Reference material means a material of sufficient homogeneity of which one or more features are specified so that they can be used to calibrate measuring instruments, to assess measuring methods or to determine their values. (pei.de)
  • All Reference Material is infectious Dangerous Good and needs Shipment on Dry-Ice. (pei.de)
  • This Certified Reference Material (CRM) is produced and certified in accordance with ISO 17034 and ISO/IEC 17025 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • HDx™ Reference Standards are sustainable source of reference material for laboratories, proficiency schemes and manufacturers, providing an unprecedented level of control. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Generation of reference standards using conventional real-time PCR requires consideration of how the reference sample will initially be calibrated, its long-term stability, and whether there is sufficient reference material for completion of all future studies. (thermofisher.com)
  • NIST releases first certified reference material for single-wall carbon. (bio-medicine.org)
  • One of the issues that this reference material addresses is that ther. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued the world's first reference material for single-wall carbon nanotube soot. (bio-medicine.org)
  • One of the issues that this reference material addresses is that there's no homogeneous lot that people can buy to do comparative measurements," says Fagan. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new NIST product, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2483, "Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (Raw Soot)," will directly address the issue of comparability. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ideally, a single error-free reference test, known as a gold standard, is used to determine the final diagnosis 1 and estimate the accuracy of the test or diagnostic model under evaluation. (bmj.com)
  • Nevertheless, standard reference values have not yet been established for this important diagnostic method. (bmj.com)
  • Definition of standard reference values is therefore necessary to increase the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography. (bmj.com)
  • Radiographic film standards apply to X-ray reference radiographs and contrast shims. (globalspec.com)
  • Comments from various other test sites included "very good contrast/brightness levels at all voltages used," "easy to use," and "could become my secondary standard of choice. (emsdiasum.com)
  • In contrast, norm-referenced tests (NRTs) are made to compare test takers to each other. (fairtest.org)
  • In contrast, digital PCR is not dependent on cycle thresholds or references, yielding a simple and precise method to obtain absolute quantification. (thermofisher.com)
  • Additionally, there is a lack of consensus in the way the term composite reference standard is used and reporting of results is generally poor. (bmj.com)
  • The standards additionally cover tubes and fittings for pipes. (reference.com)
  • Additionally the company unveiled a new high efficiency multi-standard, Type-C charging adapters with aims to deliver a fast and smart charging experience. (edacafe.com)
  • The official dates of any USP-NF standards, tests, or assays requiring the use of the following new USP RS are postponed until further notice pending availability of the respective RS. (uspnf.com)
  • Their accuracy and uniformity make it easy to obtain and document traceability of measurements without placing an expensive, hard to obtain, difficult to use primary calibration standard at risk of contamination or damage. (emsdiasum.com)
  • The Silver Calibration Standard has a nominal temperature of 961.8°C. It comes standard in the STA 6000 Accessories kit, but with this part number, it can be purchased as a replacement or spare. (perkinelmer.com)
  • We take a collaborative and rigorous approach to ensure USP Reference Standards reflect the highest quality in the industry - because helping you comply with quality requirements is one of our chief goals. (usp.org)
  • Writes standards and guidelines that include uniform methods of testing for rating purposes, describe recommended practices in designing and installing equipment and provide other information to guide the industry. (cdc.gov)
  • Our threat information sharing solution, Soltra Edge, was built leveraging STIX, TAXII, and Cybox - key standards within the industry. (oasis-open.org)
  • The multi-standard solution offered by NXP's MWCT1x1x enables rapid adoption of wireless charging and uniquely eliminates the uncertainty of designing around industry standards," said Jeongyko Seo, research fellow at LG advanced R&D. "We're excited to team up with industry leaders such as NXP to introduce convenient wireless charging experience to drivers. (edacafe.com)
  • Each reference standard is traceable back to an industry standard or method and is ready to support your calibration program. (technidyne.com)
  • This paper surveys the industry of references in complex wrapper/composite types using user surveys, code review, field experience, and more to inform the conclusions. (open-std.org)
  • Cerilliant reference standards are manufactured and certified to the highest industry standards including ISO Guide 34, ISO/IEC 17025, and ISO 13485 and are compliant with ISO 17511 and ISO 15194. (cerilliant.com)
  • To confirm accuracy and reproducibility, USP Reference Standards are rigorously tested and evaluated by multiple independent laboratories including USP, commercial, regulatory, and academic labs. (usp.org)
  • The quantities used for radiation dose measurements are established in Primary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories. (iaea.org)
  • These labs provide calibrations of reference dosimeters of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories. (iaea.org)
  • The IAEA maintains the Dosimetry Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, which is the central laboratory of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories . (iaea.org)
  • National standards laboratories in Member States send their reference dosimeters in for calibration and receive a calibration certificate. (iaea.org)
  • Pharmaceutical secondary standards for application in quality control, provide pharma laboratories and manufacturers with a convenient and cost-effective alternative to the preparation of in-house working standards. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, the lack of broadly adopted standards impacts comparison between laboratories. (thermofisher.com)
  • Through direct copy number determination, digitally measured assay standards can enable laboratories to compare results, with the assurance that measurements are based on the same absolute baseline. (thermofisher.com)
  • LONG BEACH, Calif., March 21, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- NXP Semiconductor (NASDAQ:NXPI) today released the industry's first 15W multi-standard wireless charging solution simultaneously supporting both 15W WPC Qi and 5W PMA standards, further extending its wireless charging portfolio. (edacafe.com)
  • The reference design and adapters will be demonstrated at the Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC) 2016 in Long Beach, CA from May 20-24. (edacafe.com)
  • It is intended that these standards be adopted by aircraft Original Equipment Manufacturers within procedures contained contained in their Nondestructive Testing Manuals. (sae.org)
  • The International Procedures govern the process by which U.S. stakeholders participate in ISO standards development activities. (ansi.org)
  • In Information Security Policies, Procedures, and Standards: A Practitioner's Reference (Auerbach Publications ISBN 978-1482245899), author Douglas Landoll has written a helpful resource for those looking to tame the security policy beast as they embark on their journey towards creating (or updating) security policies. (rsaconference.com)
  • For anyone on their first rodeo of information security policy creation, or looking to improve their existing policy set, Information Security Policies, Procedures, and Standards: A Practitioner's Reference is a worthwhile reference. (rsaconference.com)
  • Horizon has also developed optimized Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to ensure consistency. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Accurate genetic measurements often require comparison to reference samples and assay standards. (thermofisher.com)
  • An experienced physician sonographer (HS) performed the investigations and measurements based on standard scans. (bmj.com)
  • Specifically, the loss of revenue from the sale of standards could negatively impact the business model supporting many SDOs - potentially disrupting the larger U.S. and international standardization system, a major driver of innovation and economic growth worldwide. (ansi.org)
  • Standardization of references is especially important in the field of metrology. (thermofisher.com)
  • Secondary standards labs in turn calibrate dosimeters of end users, such as hospital staff. (iaea.org)
  • Conductivity standards are used to calibrate conductivity testers, while densitometer standards are used with black and white or color images with known patterns and area density variations. (globalspec.com)
  • USP regularly tests the standards you use to ensure that they remain up-to-date and suitable for your compendial needs. (usp.org)
  • These cannabinoid reference standards are suitable for use in numerous GC/MS or LC/MS testing applications from urine drug monitoring and forensic analysis to clinical toxicology. (cerilliant.com)
  • 99% Certification ISO9001, ISO14000, KOSHER Appearance white powder Melting Point 199-202°C Suitable for Adult Standard Enterprise Standard Usage An antitumor drug. (infospaceinc.com)
  • Each standard comes with a Certificate of Analysis that includes a purity determination. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Find a wide selection of fine chemical standards at Spectrum Chemical that are manufactured to the highest standards of purity. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Consequently, PeakFlow beads serve as reference sources with emissions centered upon the expected fluorescence of the experimental sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • EPA regulates the emissions from mobile sources by setting standards for the specific pollutants being emitted. (epa.gov)
  • Emissions standards set limits on the amount of pollution a vehicle or engine can emit. (epa.gov)
  • Reference metadata describe statistical concepts and methodologies used for the collection and generation of data, and provide information on data quality. (europa.eu)
  • Contrary to structural metadata, reference metadata can be decoupled from the data, i.e. they can be generated, collected or disseminated separately from the statistics to which they refer. (europa.eu)
  • NIST produces the Nation's Standard Reference Data (SRD). (nist.gov)
  • MySQL supports a native JSON data type as defined by RFC 7159, and based on the ECMAScript standard (ECMA-262). (mysql.com)
  • ATCC ® Microbiome Standards enable the optimization of metagenomics workflows and microbiome research applications, providing reliable comparative data while improving assay consistency. (atcc.org)
  • As the main emphasis of clinical coding is data quality and accuracy this reference book will focus on the clinical coding standards that must be applied when assigning OPCS-4 codes. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • Assemble data and information as needed in the formulation of guidelines and standards. (ala.org)
  • Under OASIS leadership, we see an opportunity to better organize the good guys to fight cybercriminals by sharing cyber threat intelligence data in an automated and efficient data standard. (oasis-open.org)
  • was chosen as the primary candidate to collect data, since it is widely used and reimplemented in the C++ ecosystem and broadly represents the challenge of reference wrapping types in C++. (open-std.org)
  • NIST also provides additional reference data useful for nanotube analysis, including thermal gravimetric and Raman data, as well as informational values for ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared absorbance spectra, near-infrared fluorescence spectra, Raman scattering spectra and scanning electron microscopy images. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The TV-Anytime specification for programme information data has taken a step forward with recognition of a unique reference scheme as an internet standard. (informitv.com)
  • To address these problems, we provide an explanation of the methods for composite reference standards and make recommendations for development and reporting. (bmj.com)
  • These Supelco-brand standards are prepared, dispensed, packaged, and stored to minimize chemical degradation and provide maximum shelf life. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, seven SDOs have agreed to allow the portal to provide direct links to read-only versions of IBR standards hosted on their own websites. (ansi.org)
  • The national clinical coding standards provide a reference source primarily aimed at clinical coders. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • Gage blocks, balls, and rings provide dimensional standards for calibration. (globalspec.com)
  • However, because of the high variability in quantum yields of bound dyes and the heterogeneity of protein labeling, as well as problems with stoichiometry and accessibility in binding to targets, bead standards containing a known number of fluorophores per bead do not necessarily provide accurate information about the number of ligands bound to a cell. (thermofisher.com)
  • EMS's MXS "CE" series reference standards provide a calibrated dimension of either 300 nm or 700 nm nominal length. (emsdiasum.com)
  • Each completed or partially complete page is designed to provide information on a particular aspect of the C++ Standard Template Library. (smu.ca)
  • To serve as a resource person to the BRASS Executive Committee and the section's committees on the development of standards and guidelines and to insure that appropriate approval channels are followed. (ala.org)
  • The Standards and Guidelines Committee would also review guidelines and standards contents for conflict and/or duplication of efforts with statements of other ALA units. (ala.org)
  • As a Sponsor of the OASIS CTI Technical Committee, we are delighted to be at the forefront of advancing critically important standards like STIX, TAXII and CybOX. (oasis-open.org)
  • Brief historical analysis and user communication reveals the Standards Committee actually had a "chilling effect" on reference support in implementations in large codebases, from private companies to open source projects. (open-std.org)
  • This guide contains tables listing federal emission standards for on-road and nonroad vehicles and engines, and related fuel sulfur standards. (epa.gov)
  • So we have set sulfur standards for gasoline, on-road diesel fuel, and nonroad diesel fuel. (epa.gov)
  • ASTM International develops standards for forensic science investigations. (nist.gov)
  • This bilingual (English/Russian) publication presents the results of the international conference on "standards and Regulatory Systems" organized by UNECE on 19 November 2013 in Geneva in cooperation with the Russian Union of Industrialist and Entrepreneurs. (unece.org)
  • OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) is a non-profit, international consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. (prweb.com)
  • Based on a broad international consultative process, the DAC Quality Standards for Development Evaluation are a reference guide to good practice in development evaluation. (oecd.org)
  • The ICRC is not a normative organization and have therefore no intention to elaborate international standards. (icrc.org)
  • This document therefore provides references to existing international standards whenever possible. (icrc.org)
  • This International Standard specifies the standard reference temperature for geometrical product specifications. (iso.org)
  • WHO collaborated with the United Nations University Food and Nutrition Program, United Nations Children's Fund, CDC, several governments, and others to develop the WHO growth standards to replace the 1977 NCHS/WHO growth reference that had been used in the international community. (cdc.gov)
  • Review prepared guidelines and standards for consistency with RUSA policy and ALA policy. (ala.org)
  • We establish primary standards for helping to ensure quality in pharmaceutical development & manufacturing. (usp.org)
  • The following list features never-before-released Reference Standards currently under development at USP and their anticipated release dates. (usp.org)
  • If you do not see a Reference Standard on this list or in the USP online store , you can also suggest a new Reference Standard to our development team . (usp.org)
  • ASTM pipe standards are used in the development, testing and evaluating of pipes. (reference.com)
  • The Danish government was proud to nominate UBL for the Commission's recognition," said Ole Madsen, IT Architect for the Danish Finance Ministry's Agency for Digitisation, which has been a long-time participant in the development of the OASIS standard. (prweb.com)
  • The Essential Requirements govern the American National Standards development process. (ansi.org)
  • ATIS offers a unique and pragmatic approach to standards development. (atis.org)
  • Chris Claxton, Vice President of Investor Relations and Corporate Communications at Horizon Discovery Group PLC ( LON:HZD ) talks to Proactive about the company entering into an agreement with an unnamed global molecular diagnostics provider to develop reference standards for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). (proactiveinvestors.co.uk)
  • UBL becomes one of the first consortium standards officially eligible for referencing in tenders from European public administrations. (prweb.com)
  • The OASIS Universal Business Language (UBL) Standard, version 2.1, has been designated by the European Commission as one of the first consortium standards officially eligible for referencing in tenders from public administrations. (prweb.com)
  • Full- or part-time associate, undergrad, or graduate students are eligible to submit papers on this year's standards-based theme. (ansi.org)
  • The key advantage of the standard query parser is that it supports a robust and fairly intuitive syntax allowing you to create a variety of structured queries. (apache.org)
  • Defines a query using standard query syntax. (apache.org)
  • Although the choice of component tests and the rules used to combine them affects the estimates of accuracy of the test under study, 7 little guidance exists on how to develop and define a composite reference standard. (bmj.com)
  • Whether you require analytical reference standards for spectroscopy, chromatography or other analytical methods, we have what you need. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Examples of pipes that fall under the standards process include those used high-temperature services, very low-temperature services, ordinary residential use and special applications, such as electric resistance and high pressure. (reference.com)
  • This section presents examples of responses from the standard query parser. (apache.org)
  • These titles should not be included in the list of works cited but should be referenced in the notes following the formatting examples in the AJA Abbreviations section in Bibliographic References and Notes . (ajaonline.org)
  • Multiple-choice tests most people take to get a driver's license and on-the-road driving tests are both examples of criterion-referenced tests. (fairtest.org)
  • One of our main goals with the product is to continue to work toward compliance with the SQL standard, but without sacrificing speed or reliability. (mysql.com)
  • Cerilliant also offers a wide selection of certified reference standards for THC metabolites and their internal standards such as 11-Hydroxy-Δ 9 -THC, THC acid and its glucuronide. (cerilliant.com)
  • Authorised amendments to the reference book are compiled and issued only by NHS Digital Clinical Classifications Service. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • This reference book of national clinical coding standards is an evolving product and builds on the previously issued OPCS-4 Clinical Coding Instruction Manual. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • Determining a reference mortality rate would be useful, as it would help put results from studies in clinical context, as well as being helpful in areas of quality assessment assurance. (springer.com)
  • This recommended practice establishes generic reference standards that will accommodate nondestructive inspections (NDI) on a broad range of non-metallic composite honeycomb structures found on aircraft. (sae.org)
  • The purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to describe the design and production of composite honeycomb calibration standards to be used in ultrasonic, resonant, and tap test NDI equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of aircraft composites. (sae.org)
  • Inspection characterizations and equipment responses have been used to determine the important variables needed in a composite reference standard thus eliminating unnecessary standard configurations. (sae.org)
  • One method to reduce this bias is to use a fixed rule to combine results of several imperfect tests into a composite reference standard. (bmj.com)
  • it is better to insightfully combine component tests together into a composite reference standard. (bmj.com)
  • What is a composite reference standard? (bmj.com)
  • A composite reference standard is a fixed rule used to make a final diagnosis based on the results of two or more tests, referred to as component tests. (bmj.com)
  • The term "composite reference standard" is often loosely used as a catch-all term to describe any situation in which multiple reference tests are used to evaluate the accuracy of the index test. (bmj.com)
  • For information about configuring assured replication, see Configuring Assured Replication in Sun OpenDS Standard Edition 2.0 Administration Guide . (oracle.com)
  • Catechins may also be prepared in specifically tailored combinations of concentration, components, and solvent utilizing our custom chemical standards program. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This ARP describes a workable number of reference specimens that can meet the needs of a broad range of honeycomb structures found on aircraft. (sae.org)
  • EPA established progressively more stringent emission standards for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, starting in the mid-1970s for on-road vehicles and in the early 1990s for nonroad engines and equipment. (epa.gov)
  • Once EPA sets emission standards for a particular engine and/or vehicle category, manufacturers must produce engines that meet those standards within the timeframe of the corresponding implementation schedule. (epa.gov)
  • This capability is especially useful for calibrating reference samples and assay standards when none exist. (thermofisher.com)
  • The respective official date of each USP-NF standard, test, or assay requiring the use of the following USP RS is indicated in parentheses after the name of the RS. (uspnf.com)
  • The first sections below explain the differences between structural and reference metadata and describe the various metadata reporting structures within the ESS. (europa.eu)
  • 8 9 It has also been used to describe discrepant analysis, a method in which the reference standard is re-run or re-evaluated, or a different reference standard is used, when the first one does not agree with the index test. (bmj.com)
  • SIMS is the dynamic inventory and conceptual framework for all ESS quality and reference metadata concepts. (europa.eu)
  • Public Health supported by breadth of quality standards. (prweb.com)
  • The United States Pharmacopeial (USP) Convention is a scientific, nonprofit, standards-setting organization that advances public health through public standards and related programs that help ensure the quality, safety, and benefit of medicines and foods. (prweb.com)
  • Promotes public health through improvement of the quality of water and develops standards for valves, fittings, and other equipment. (cdc.gov)
  • Flaw standards s uch as Quantitative Quality Indicators (QQIs) used in magnetic particle inspection include artificial flaws to verify readings. (globalspec.com)
  • They are ideal for student practice and instruction, testing new ideas or applications, or other uses where you need a good quality standard but do not want to put an expensive sample at risk. (emsdiasum.com)
  • Educators often disagree about the quality of a given set of standards. (fairtest.org)
  • Some state standards have been criticized for including too much, for being too vague, for being ridiculously difficult, for undermining higher quality local curriculum and instruction, and for taking sides in educational and political controversies. (fairtest.org)
  • Even if standards are of high quality, it is important to know how well a particular test actually matches the standards. (fairtest.org)
  • A survey conducted of 110+ programmers , (private) feedback from over a dozen companies, and several analyses of optional reference usage (or not) in the wild has yielded results as to quality of implementation, existence, and prevalence of references and their use. (open-std.org)
  • The accuracy of the "CE" Series Reference Standards, allows the microscopist to use them as a secondary standard. (emsdiasum.com)