A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
A species of THIOCAPSA which is facultatively aerobic and chemotrophic and which can utilize thiosulfate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An inland sea between Europe and Asia. It is connected with the Aegean Sea by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
MutS homolog 2 protein is found throughout eukaryotes and is a homolog of the MUTS DNA MISMATCH-BINDING PROTEIN. It plays an essential role in meiotic RECOMBINATION and DNA REPAIR of mismatched NUCLEOTIDES.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.

The effect of motility and cell-surface polymers on bacterial attachment. (1/69)

Recently it was shown that motility of Vibrio alginolyticus facilitated cell attachment to glass surfaces. In the present study the same relationship between motility and cell attachment was confirmed for Alcaligenes and Alteromonas spp. These findings clearly answer a long-standing question: does motility facilitate attachment? However, they are contradictory to a general view on cell attachment that the energy barrier due to electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged bacterial cells and a glass surface is much greater than both the thermal kinetic energy of the bacterial cell and the bacterial swimming energy. It is shown that the energy barrier becomes far less than that usually estimated when bacterial cells are rich in polymers at their surfaces. This finding reasonably explains the dependence of bacterial attachment rate on cell motility and demands reconsideration of the mechanism of bacterial attachment.  (+info)

Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase that is induced by growing Alteromonas sp. Strain KE10 in a low concentration of organic nutrients. (2/69)

The protein composition of Alteromonas sp. strain KE10 cultured at two different organic-nutrient concentrations was determined by using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cellular levels of three proteins, OlgA, -B, and -C, were considerably higher in cells grown in a low concentration of organic nutrient medium (LON medium; 0.2 mg of carbon per liter) than cells grown in a high concentration of organic nutrient medium (HON; 200 mg of C liter(-1)) or cells starved for organic nutrients. In the LON medium, the cellular levels of the Olg proteins were higher at the exponential growth phase than at the stationary growth phase. A sequence of the gene for OlgA revealed that the amino acid sequence had a high degree of similarity to the NAD(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases of several bacteria. OlgA, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The aldehyde dehydrogenase activity of KE10 was higher in cells growing exponentially in LON medium than in HON. OlgA may be involved in the growth under low-nutrient conditions. The physiological role of OlgA is discussed here.  (+info)

Reclassification of Alteromonas distincta Romanenko et al. 1995 as Pseudoalteromonas distincta comb. nov. (3/69)

The 16S rRNA gene of Alteromonas distincta KMM 638T was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence was aligned with sequences of representative strains of Alteromonas, Moritella, Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella. Results of phylogenetic analysis, using neighbour-joining and Fitch-Margoliash methods, clearly indicated that this species should be assigned to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. On the basis of polyphasic data obtained from previous work and this study, it is proposed that the species Alteromonas distincta be reclassified as Pseudoalteromonas distincta comb. nov. with type strain KMM 638T (= ATCC 700518T).  (+info)

Assignment of Alteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T and five strains isolated from spot-wounded fronds of Laminaria japonica to Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii comb. nov. and the extended description of the species. (4/69)

A marine bacterium, Alteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T, which was described recently, and five strains isolated from spot-wounded fronds of Laminaria japonica have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and geno- and phenotypic characterization. The phenotypic features of Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii strains were closely related to that of Pseudoalteromonas espejiana IAM 12640T, but utilization of three carbon compounds (D-mannose, L-tyrosine and trehalose) distinguished both species. The G+C content of Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii was between 38.5 and 38.9 mol%. Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T and the five Laminaria isolates constitute a single species different from any other Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas species as revealed by DNA-DNA hybridization data, especially Pseudoalteromonas distincta KMM 638T (52.4%), Pseudoalteromonas citrea KMM 216 (49.5%), Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora NCIMB 302T (46.9%) and Pseudoalteromonas espejiana IAM 12640T (29.9%). All the data indicated that Alteromonas elyakovii KMM 162T should be reclassified as Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii and five strains isolated from Laminaria japonica have to be included in the species. Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii comb. nov. (type strain, KMM 162T = ATCC 700519T) is proposed and a set of phenotypic features which differentiate the Pseudoalteromonas species is described.  (+info)

A DNA ligase from the psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis gives insights into the adaptation of proteins to low temperatures. (5/69)

The cloning, overexpression and characterization of a cold-adapted DNA ligase from the Antarctic sea water bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis are described. Protein sequence analysis revealed that the cold-adapted Ph DNA ligase shows a significant level of sequence similarity to other NAD+-dependent DNA ligases and contains several previously described sequence motifs. Also, a decreased level of arginine and proline residues in Ph DNA ligase could be involved in the cold-adaptation strategy. Moreover, 3D modelling of the N-terminal domain of Ph DNA ligase clearly indicates that this domain is destabilized compared with its thermophilic homologue. The recombinant Ph DNA ligase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mass spectroscopy experiments indicated that the purified enzyme is mainly in an adenylated form with a molecular mass of 74 593 Da. Ph DNA ligase shows similar overall catalytic properties to other NAD+-dependent DNA ligases but is a cold-adapted enzyme as its catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) at low and moderate temperatures is higher than that of its mesophilic counterpart E. coli DNA ligase. A kinetic comparison of three enzymes adapted to different temperatures (P. haloplanktis, E. coli and Thermus scotoductus DNA ligases) indicated that an increased kcat is the most important adaptive parameter for enzymatic activity at low temperatures, whereas a decreased Km for the nicked DNA substrate seems to allow T. scotoductus DNA ligase to work efficiently at high temperatures. Besides being useful for investigation of the adaptation of enzymes to extreme temperatures, P. haloplanktis DNA ligase, which is very efficient at low temperatures, offers a novel tool for biotechnology.  (+info)

Differentiation of chitinase-active and non-chitinase-active subpopulations of a marine bacterium during chitin degradation. (6/69)

The ability of marine bacteria to adhere to detrital particulate organic matter and rapidly switch on metabolic genes in an effort to reproduce is an important response for bacterial survival in the pelagic marine environment. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between chitinolytic gene expression and extracellular chitinase activity in individual cells of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 attached to solid chitin. A green fluorescent protein reporter gene under the control of the chiA promoter was used to evaluate chiA gene expression, and a precipitating enzyme-linked fluorescent probe, ELF-97-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide, was used to evaluate extracellular chitinase activity among cells in the bacterial population. Evaluation of chiA expression and ELF-97 crystal location at the single-cell level revealed two physiologically distinct subpopulations of S91 on the chitin surface: one that was chitinase active and remained associated with the surface and another that was non-chitinase active and released daughter cells into the bulk aqueous phase. It is hypothesized that the surface-associated, non-chitinase-active population is utilizing chitin degradation products that were released by the adjacent chitinase-active population for cell replication and dissemination into the bulk aqueous phase.  (+info)

Spatial and temporal variations in chitinolytic gene expression and bacterial biomass production during chitin degradation. (7/69)

Growth of the chitin-degrading marine bacterium S91 on solid surfaces under oligotrophic conditions was accompanied by the displacement of a large fraction of the surface-derived bacterial production into the flowing bulk aqueous phase, irrespective of the value of the surface as a nutrient source. Over a 200-h period of surface colonization, 97 and 75% of the bacterial biomass generated on biodegradable chitin and a nonnutritional silicon surface, respectively, detached to become part of the free-living population in the bulk aqueous phase. Specific surface-associated growth rates that included the cells that subsequently detached from the substrata varied depending on the nutritional value of the substratum and during the period of surface colonization. Specific growth rates of 3.79 and 2.83 day(-1) were obtained when cells first began to proliferate on a pure chitin film and a silicon surface, respectively. Later, when cell densities on the surface and detached cells as CFU in the bulk aqueous phase achieved a quasi-steady state, specific growth rates decreased to 1.08 and 0.79 day(-1) on the chitin and silicon surfaces, respectively. Virtually all of the cells that detached from either the chitin or the silicon surfaces and the majority of cells associated with the chitin surface over the 200-h period of surface colonization displayed no detectable expression of the chitin-degrading genes chiA and chiB. Cells displaying high levels of chiA-chiB expression were detected only on the chitin surface and then only clustered in discrete areas of the surface. Surface-associated, differential gene expression and displacement of bacterial production from surfaces represent adaptations at the population level that promote efficient utilization of limited resources and dispersal of progeny to maximize access to new sources of energy and maintenance of the population.  (+info)

A serine protease-encoding gene (aprII) of Alteromonas sp. Strain O-7 is regulated by the iron uptake regulator (Fur) protein. (8/69)

The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) box-like sequence was located upstream of the serine protease-encoding gene (aprII) from a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. strain O-7. To clarify whether the production of AprII (the gene product of aprII) is regulated by the environmental iron concentrations, this strain was cultured under iron-depleted or iron-rich conditions and the level of AprII in the culture supernatant was analyzed by Western blotting. The production of AprII was significantly repressed under iron-rich conditions. Northern hybridization analysis demonstrated that AprII biosynthesis was regulated by iron through the control of transcription. These results indicate that aprII is a new member of the iron regulon and plays an important role in the iron acquisition system of the strain. Furthermore, the gene encoding Fur was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned Fur showed high sequence similarity with that from gram-negative bacteria.  (+info)

Vitalii V. Klochko,* Liubov B. Zelena, Sergei I. Voychuk, and Andriy N. Ostapchuk. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genetic peculiarities of 5 deep strains of Alteromonas macleodii (isolated from Adriatic and Ionian Sea water from a depth of 1,000‒3500 m) and 5 strains of the same species isolated from the surface layer of Aegean, Andaman, Black Sea and Atlantic Ocean water near the British shore have been studied. Electron microscopy has shown that the deep strains cells were, on average, two times longer (2.1 ±0.2× 0.7±0.1 μm) than the surface strains (1.1 ±0.1×0.6±0.1 μm). Using fatty acid analysis (particularly the mono-unsaturated C16:1 and C18:1 fatty acids contents) the deep and surface isolates were clearly separated into two clusters. Distinctions between them were also found in different lectin binding capacity, which is probably determined by the structure of their extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Analysis of the results of PCR with primers to repeated nucleotide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and characterization of a novel β-agarase from an alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. E-1. AU - Kirimura, Kohtaro. AU - Masuda, Noriyoshi. AU - Iwasaki, Yousuke. AU - Nakagawa, Hiroyuki. AU - Kobayashi, Reijiro. AU - Usami, Shoji. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - A novel β-agarase (EC 3.2.1.81) was purified from an agar-degrading alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. E-1 isolated from the soil. This enzyme was obtained from a cell-free extract after sonication and purified 40.9-fold through treatment with streptomycin, ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatography on anion-exchange and gel filtration columns. The molecular weight was estimated to be 82 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 180 kDa by Superdex 200 gel filtration. The enzyme was inhibited by Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Zn2+ and Hg2+, and activated by K+, Na+ and EDTA, and its optimum pH and temperature for agarose degradation were 7.5 and 40°C, respectively. This ̄-agarase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and Genome Sequence of Marine Alteromonas gracilis Phage PB15 Isolated from the Yellow Sea, China. AU - Gao, Yu. AU - Liu , Qian AU - Wang, Min. AU - Zhao, Guihua. AU - Jiang, Yong. AU - Malin, Gill. AU - Gong, Zheng. AU - Meng, Xue. AU - Liu, Zhaoyang. AU - Lin, Tongtong. AU - Li, Yutong. AU - Shao, Hongbing. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - A novel marine Alteromonas gracilis siphovirus, phage PB15, was isolated from the surface water of the Yellow Sea in August 2015. It has a head diameter of 58 ± 5 nm head and a contractile tail approximately 105 ± 10 nm in length, and overall the morphology suggests that PB15 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. PB15 phage is stable at over the temperature range 0-60oC. The best MOI of these phage was 0.1 and infectivity decreased above 60oC. The results suggest that phage is stable at pH value ranging between 3.0 and 11.0. Chloroform test shows that PB15 is not a lipid-containing phage. A one-step growth curve with a strain ...
Although numerous marine bacteria are known to produce antibiotics via hybrid NRPS-PKS gene clusters, none have been previously described in
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved biological pathway that plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability. MMR corrects DNA mismatches generated during DNA replication, thereby preventing mutations from becoming permanent in dividing cells. MMR also suppresses homologous recombination and was recently shown to play a role in DNA damage signaling. Defects in MMR are associated with genome-wide instability, predisposition to certain types of cancer including HNPCC, resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents, and abnormalities in meiosis and sterility in mammalian systems. The Escherichia coli MMR pathway has been extensively studied and is well characterized. In E. coli, the mismatch-activated MutS-MutL-ATP complex licenses MutH to incise the nearest unmethylated GATC sequence. UvrD and an exonuclease generate a gap. This gap is filled by pol III and DNA ligase. The GATC sites are then methylated by Dam. Several human MMR proteins have been identified based on their homology to ...
Ubiquinone (UQ), also called coenzyme Q, and plastoquinone (PQ) are electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively. The quinoid nucleus of ubiquinone is derived from the shikimate pathway; 4-hydroxybenzoate is directly formed from chorismate in bacteria, while it can be formed from either chorismate or tyrosine in yeast. The following biosynthesis of terpenoid moiety involves reactions of prenylation, decarboxylation, and three hydroxylations alternating with three methylations. The order of these reactions are somewhat different between bacteria and yeast. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), and tocopherol (vitamin E) are fat-soluble vitamins. Phylloquinone is a compound present in all photosynthetic plants serving as a cofactor for photosystem I-mediated electron transport. Menaquinone is an obligatory component of the electron-transfer pathway in bacteria ...
Interactions between copper ions and exopolymer from the marine film-forming bacterium Alteromonas atlantica were evaluated by a two-phase model that treats the polymer as if it exists in a phase separate from the bulk solution. The model takes into account electrostatic interactions and molecular volume changes within the polymer phase to determine the copper activity in the domain where copper interacts with the ligands on the polymer molecule(s). The volume of the polymer phase varied with pH, ionic strength, and copper ion concentration. Exopolymer recovered from chemostat cultures grown at different dilution rates exhibited unique interligand distances, number of ionizable ligands, and molecular volumes. The variations in physical properties, in part, reflected differences in polymer chemistry. The exopolymer contained a lower density of ionizable groups and a smaller molecular volume per number of ionizable groups than alginic acid. The numerical procedure yielded a stability constant of 1 ...
Alteromonas Ferment Extract, from deep sea algae, is a polysaccharide containing hydration, repair and restorative, and anti-inflammatory properties.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Heterologous expression of AltDE hydrogenase HynSL in S. elongatus.A. Western blotting of protein extracts from S. elongatus cell cultures. Each lane contains 2
Jeanthon, C., LHaridon, S., Reysenbach, A.L., Vernet, M., Messner, P., Sleytr, U.B., and Prieur,D. Methanococcus infernus sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic lithotrophic methanogen isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1998) 48:913-919 ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Alteromonadales; Alteromonadaceae; Alteromonas; Alteromonas ...
Proteome IDi ,p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the ,a href=http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual>proteome,/a>. It consists of the characters UP followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.,p>,a href=/help/proteome_id target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for B4RZH3 (OBG_ALTMD), GTPase Obg. Alteromonas mediterranea (strain DSM 17117 / CIP 110805 / LMG 28347 / Deepecotype)
A gentle, effective formula that thoroughly cleanses the skin and prepares it for a complete daily routine. FEATURES & BENEFITS: Alteromonas Ferment Extract (AFE) protects skin from inflammation Contains antioxidant properties Efficiently removes makeup, oil and other impurities Daily use soothes and brightens skin
Aprii la Partita Iva , una sorta di coltellata statale che da un lato ti soddisfa da un altro ti dissangua , un masochismo lavorativo per quelli come me che speravano da una vita di fare della propria passione un lavoro ...
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Looking for online definition of Alteromonas in the Medical Dictionary? Alteromonas explanation free. What is Alteromonas? Meaning of Alteromonas medical term. What does Alteromonas mean?
Two Alteromonas sp. strains isolated from deep seawater were grown to promote the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS, E611 and E805), which were incorporated into chitosan solutions to develop films. The combination of the major marine polysaccharides (chitosan and the isolated bacterial EPS) resulted in the formation of homogenous, transparent, colorless films, suggesting good compatibility between the two components of the film-forming formulation. With regards to optical properties, the films showed low values of gloss, in the range of 5-10 GU, indicating the formation of non-glossy and rough surfaces. In addition to the film surface, both showed hydrophobic character, with water contact angles higher than 100 º, regardless of EPS addition. Among the two EPS under analysis, chitosan films with E805 showed better mechanical performance, leading to resistant, flexible, easy to handle films ...
Found on night trolls and werebeasts. Implies that the creature is a night creature, and shows its description in legends mode entry. The creature is always hostile and will ruthlessly kill anybody it comes across. Also removes the creatures materials from stockpile settings list. This tag causes the usual behaviour of werebeasts in worldgen, that is, fleeing towns upon being cursed and conducting raids from a lair. If this tag is absent from a deity curse, the accursed will simply be driven out of towns in a similar manner to vampires. When paired with SPOUSE_CONVERTER, a very small population of the creature will be created during worldgen (sometimes only a single individual will be created), and their histories will be tracked (that is, they will not spawn spontaneously later, they must either have children or convert other creatures to increase their numbers). The creature will settle in a lair and go on rampages during worldgen. It will actively attempt to seek out potential conversion ...
An energy creature is a stereotypical figure. An energy creature is someone who is articulate, has time to spare, access to the net, and a craving for negative attention. Sometimes called trolls, or griefers, one individual energy creature can stir up dozens or hundreds of other people, fuelling their emotions and provoking a reaction. Every negative response feeds the creature and encourages them on. Energy creatures derive from Star Trek, where phaser blasts made an energy creature stronger.
Jul 14, 2021 - Explore Sherri Ports board Ocean creatures, followed by 640 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about ocean creatures, sea creatures, sea animals.
Jan 10, 2017 - Explore Mary Julians board Underwater plants on Pinterest. See more ideas about sea creatures, ocean creatures, marine life.
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Knitted Creatures - Hand Knitted Animals. Knitted creatures and animals are crafted using organic cotton or recycled yarn. Creatures are individually hand made creating a unique product.
Save 50% Beast Sports Nutrition - Creature 180 Capsules Creatine Complex Five Advanced Forms of Creatine Fuel Muscle Growth Increase Strength Accelerates Recovery Increase Endurance Faster Recovery* The Creatine Behind Creature Creatine fuels intense weight training and endurance activities to push harder, go faster and recover quicker. In the process, it stimulates lean muscle mass, acts as a support system to prevent against muscle breakdown, and aids in muscle recovery. Creature is a blend of five top quality types of creatine.*
Another mysterious creature has been announced today. This time its a flyer that looks like a pretty normal vulture. This is the third mystery creature (1st and 2nd) and from the looks they all fit in a desert biome (but that could be us). Of course it could also be something entirely different; maybe it has to do with ascension or a new boss arena that contains these creature.. who knows?. ...
We strongly believe that drugs are not a good solution for any Automatonophobe, but you should always follow your physicians advice with regard to drugs/meds and Animatronic Creature Phobia. The root cause of being Automatonophobic is an unconscious mental association that links dummies to powerful feelings of fear. Meds can mask the awful feelings for a while, but never break the mental patterns at the core of the problem. No drug has ever been developed specifically for Animatronic Creature Phobia, by the way - so its hard to justify popping a pill as a healthy solution with all the uncertainty that surrounds potential side effects.. The good news is with our program, your Animatronic Creature Phobia will be history, without resorting to meds.. ...
Kija: When eaten, you can always be recovered and do not die. Once eaten, each round the creature will digest you. This digestion causes you damage as the creature gains it. If you are dead inside the creature for four rounds, you are considered to be completely digested and cannot be recovered. Within the creature, there are three options: Attack, irritate, resist. When using attack, you will do damage of one weak hit. Irritate allows you to irritate the creature to vomit you up. There is a base chance of irritate to be successful; however, if your level is higher than the creatures, the difference increases the chance. This difference does not work for the creatures if his level is higher than yours. If you resist the creature, the damage done from digestion is reduced ...
Originally, in Alpha, creature types were largely used for flavor-related reasons. This was continued until Fallen Empires, when creatures types had in-game mechanical implications. The first block in which creature types mattered was Tempest, particularly via the Licids and Slivers, both of...
One hundred one antibacterial Pseudoalteromonas strains that inhibited growth of a Vibrio anguillarum test strain were collected on a global research cruise (Galathea 3), and 51 of the strains repeatedly demonstrated antibacterial activity. Here, we profile secondary metabolites of these strains to determine if particular compounds serve as strain or species markers and to determine if the secondary metabolite profile of one strain represents the bioactivity of the entire species. 16S rRNA gene similarity divided the strains into two primary groups: One group (51 strains) consisted of bacteria which retained antibacterial activity, 48 of which were pigmented, and another group (50 strains) of bacteria which lost antibacterial activity upon sub-culturing, two of which were pigmented. The group that retained antibacterial activity consisted of six clusters in which strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, Pseudoalteromonas aurantia, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica, Pseudoalteromonas ...
original description Tanaka, N., Romanenko, L.A., Frolova, G.M., and Mikhailov, V.V. 2010. Aestuariibacter litoralis sp. nov., isolated from a sandy sediment of the Sea of Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60:317-320. [details] ...
So I did a fair amount of thought about this and the problem is that pretty much all judgments end up confused in some cases or other. This means that it is very different for a GM to make a ruling thats consistent with other rules and with versimilitude, and that means that the books failure to do so begins to look like a tactical omission rather than a conscious decision to acknowledge unique cases.. - The one thing that RAW determines is that an invisible creature can choose to be willing to permit another creature to move through its space.. - This is not on its own ideal, as it implies that a Huge creature occupying a 3x3 grid of spaces can permit a creature to pass through its centre. (A Huge creature is not three sizes larger than a Medium creature, so the rule about moving through larger creatures does not come into play.) Thats acceptable for that but triggers some other issues below.. - What, however, if it chooses to prevent it? The only RAW is that the move cannot be made. There ...
There is no doubt that Chic was discos greatest band. Working in a heavily producer-dominated field, they were most definitely a band. By the time Chic appeared in the late 70s, disco was already heading toward mainstream saturation and an inevitable downfall. Chic bucked the trend by stripping discos sound down to its basic elements. Specializing in stylish grooves with a uniquely organic sense of interplay, Chics sound was anchored by the scratchy chucking-style rhythm guitar of Nile Rodgers, the indelible, widely imitated, and sometimes outright stolen basslines of Bernard Edwards, and the powerhouse drumming of Tony Thompson. As producers, Rodgers and Edwards used keyboard and string embellishments economically, which kept the emphasis on rhythm. Chics distinctive approach not only resulted in some of the eras finest singles, including the number one hits Le Freak and Good Times -- only two of several classics off the platinum albums Cest Chic (1978) and Risqué (1979) -- but ...
We discovered that some of the amphioxus GFPs are able to transform blue light into green light with 100 percent efficiency (current engineered GFPs-traditionally rooted in the Cnidarian phylum-only reach 60 to 80 percent efficiency), which combines with other properties of light absorbance to make the amphioxus GFPs about five times brighter than current commercially available GFPs, resulting in effect to a huge difference, said Deheyn. It is also interesting that the same animal will also express similar GFPs with an efficiency of about 1,000 times less.. The exact mechanism that controls this ability of perfect efficiency during light transformation from blue to green remains unknown, Deheyn said, but this study opens doors towards its understanding.. The most unique part of this discovery perhaps lays in the fact that for the first time, we show that different GFPs seem to have different functions within the same individual and unrelated to their ability to produce light, thus probably ...
Researchers are trying to find out how their tissue interacts with microbes, and how the metabolic processes in their outer skin fend off enemies. They have successfully bred genetically-modified cnidarians in which the antibacterial defence molecules are visible. This enables them to examine the living creature to see both where the antibodies are released and where they are deployed. It seems amazing that such weak and insignificant little creatures can survive in an environment that is literally teeming with potential pathogens, despite their lack of an immune system and patrolling immune cells. As we know, the exterior surface of many marine creatures, such as sponges, is permanently colonized by bacteria. And furthermore, a litre of seawater can contain up to 2 trillion bacteria and an even greater number of viruses. These microorganisms include many potential pathogens. Despite all this the creatures survive. If we wish to gain greater insight into how the body interacts with its ...
The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has published an amazing photo set showing us the smallest marine creatures living in our planets seas and oceans. They look like Hubble photos of nebulas and stars. |a href=http://www.gizmodo.co.uk/2015/01/these-nearly-invisible-sea-creatures-fill-the-ocean-with-stellar-beauty|See more >|/a|
The newest contender for the strongest material is found in the sea. Science has discovered recently that teeth belonging to tiny marine creatures called limpets are so incredibly tough they could be used to construct boats.
Saving Throw Will negates; Spell Resistance yes. DESCRIPTION. This potent curse weighs upon the targets soul, hastening a living creatures journey to Purgatory upon death or weakening an undead creatures animating force. A living creature that dies during the spells duration cannot be affected by breath of life or similar effects, and the period during which attempts to restore the target to life can succeed is reduced to 1 hour/level (for raise dead), 1 day/level (for resurrection), or 10 days/level (for true resurrection). Reincarnate and similar effects work normally on a creature killed under this spells effects.. An undead creature affected by this spell cannot gain temporary hit points, and any existing channel resistance the undead may have is reduced by half as long as the curse persists.. Creatures whose souls are separate from their bodies (such as liches) or are merged with their bodies (such as non-native outsiders) are unaffected by hasten judgment.. ...
4 Extremely Territorial Creature IDs: Deathworm, Rubble Golem, Rock Elemental, Alpha Deathworm and Deathworm... Dino Name Tag, Ark Creature ID, Category and Type... 4 total...
2 27 Creature IDs: Pachyrhinosaurus, Velonasaur and Pachyrhinosaurus... Category, Dino Name Tag, Ark Creature ID and Type... 2 total...
Transform your beloved animals into magical creatures! Join artist Meaghan McLaughlin in this Live Demo on how to use shapes to build the foundations of your fantastical creatures. Finish off your artwork with soft pastel watercolours to complete the whimsical look!
Are you an agent developer with nothing to do? Are you itching to make a 3D model, but havent a clue what to make it for? Never fear! The Creatures Wiki has a cumulative list of ideas for budding developers. Feel free to add your own concepts to the list.
SpongeBob SquarePants: Creature from the Krusty Krab Credit Information on GameFAQs, with a list of all games developed by SpongeBob SquarePants: Creature from the Krusty Krab.
Component Creatures: Component Creatures is a classic soldering project that doesnt require really knowing what any of the components actually do. Instead of soldering components together to build circuits, we are going to combine them creatively to create little figur…
Adult tiexos ixsu are among the largest creatures in the world, and possibly one of the most easily recognizable, with their huge heads, massive bodies, and small forelimbs. Too large to live inside buildings, they are happiest in the lush tropical rainforests they originally came from, where theyre surprisingly adept at hiding themselves despite their size. Adult ixsu are territorial and extremely protective of their mates and hatchlings, as well as their magi and even their magis family. A mated ixsu pair can easily run off most other predators within their territory, especially as an adult ixsu must consume massive quantities of meat. Magi have found that ixsu consider goats a special treat, although it would take an entire herd to satisfy an ixsus appetite. As adults, ixsu have complete control of their vocal power, able to use combinations of growls, croons, and outright roars as protection, in battle, and to control creatures around them. Their size means that they arent very fast, but ...
If you just scratched your head at those quotes, you are in good company. Science does not know what to do with this thing. The head has no sensory organs or anything else that would make people definitely call it a head; there also seem to be no locomotive appendages whatsoever. One scientist said, and this is paraphrasing, OK, lets call this blob the head and assume that this creature walked on these tentacles along the bottom. One can only picture all the other guys in the room smiling and nodding. Other possibilities have been explored, but there is no escaping the sheer trip of this creature ...
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for B4RZX7 (PUR5_ALTMD), Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase. Alteromonas mediterranea (strain DSM 17117 / CIP 110805 / LMG 28347 / Deepecotype)
Environmental stressors can really take a toll on skin, but NIODs Survival 20 serum makes it easy to keep yours protected. Its formulated with mineral SPF20 to shield against harmful UVA and UVB rays, while Yeast-Derived Superoxide Dismutase and Dimethylmethoxy Chromanol help neutralize free radicals that lead to premature aging. When youre on your laptop or phone, Purified Lutein works to counteract the effects of blue light exposure. - Free from gluten - Vegan - Antioxidant-rich Fractionated Melanin strengthens the skins natural barrier, while helping improve texture and tone - Pycnogenol® and Tomato Carotenoid Complex minimize redness and inflammation caused by spending time in the sun - Prebiotic Complex of Gluco-Oligosaccharides and Inulin support healthy microorganisms that reside on the skin - Purified Deep-Sea Algae (Alteromonas Ferment) provides a physical barrier against pollution - Purified Mediterranean Brown Algae (Padina Pavonica) promotes moisture retention - Purified Knotgrass
Other reviews in the set: White, Blue, Black, Red, Green, Artifacts, Multicolored and Lands.. Multicolored. Diregraf Captain - 1UB - Creature - Zombie Soldier - U - Deathtouch. Other Zombie creature you control get +1/+1. Whenever another Zombie you control dies, target opponent loses 1 life. 2/2. The worst of the four lords in the set. Makes your zombies hard to kill but only makes them useful if they die. Yeah, no.. Drogskol Catain - 1WU - Creature - Spirit Soldier - U - Flying. Other Spirit creatures you contol get +1/+1 and have hexproof. 2/2. Best lord in the set. Seeing this in pack one will make me play Spirit tribal unless my rare is something worth big money. As for Standard, its fighting with Geist of Saint Traft for the slot in the deck but it still might see play in Delver Blade.. Droskol Reaver - 5WU - Creature - Spirit - M - Flying, double strike, lifelink. Whenver you gain life, draw a card. 3/5. This draws me two cards per combat, gains me six life, and flies when means its ...
A recent Bigfoot sighting reported a few days ago in Milan NH, I do not think they saw a Bigfoot but rather the Littlefoot creature due to the fact that it is the type of hominid which primarily inhabits the northern forests. Littlefoot is the timid missing link creature or the true man / ape. Evolved and adapted to the north eastern regions they are able to move in the tree tops as well as on the ground. These creatures can jump from tree to tree distances of two hundred feet making amazing leaps which I have observed on more than one occasion in NH forests. Similar facial features and extremities to the chimpanzee yet more like a man in some ways such as a bridged nose and small manlike ears which are not noticeable due to an abundance of hair which covers their body. You will notice in this video of the Littlefoot creature the hands and feet have bullet shaped claws used when tree climbing, also notice the arms are much larger then a chimpanzee as this creature is bigger in size than a ...
Master-Release bearbeiten. Creatures of the Night ist das zehnte Studioalbum der US-amerikanischen Hard-Rock-Band Kiss, das erschien. Creatures of the Night ist das zehnte Studioalbum der US-amerikanischen Hard-​Rock-Band Kiss, das erschien. Diese LP stellte - zusammen mit dem. Creatures of the Night steht für: Creatures of the Night (Album), Studioalbum der Rockband Kiss aus dem Jahr ; englisch für nachtaktive Tierarten, siehe. Aus vertraglichen Gründen wurde er zwar auf Creatures Of The Night noch als Lead-Gitarrist genannt, tatsächlich waren jedoch diverse Gast-Sechssaiter, allen​. This is one of a nu African Vampire Hunter. A Gargoyle is a living monster that was made of a stone-like substance during the day.. Werewolf by Staples. I think this is concept art from Van Helsing, the Hugh Jackman monster movie it stank, even with Hugh Jackman becoming a werewolf for 12 seconds.. Dark Fae. Aggressive Bittersweet Druggy. Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental. Sexy Trippy All ...
This will summon an Ankylosaurus at a random level and with random colors. If you want to have a creature of specific level, you can take a look at this post on advanced summoning. There another command is used which gives you the possibility to state the level of the dino you want to summon.. Please note that this list also included some upcoming creatures, since the ARK Devkit already contains those blueprints. These creatures are colored red in the table and cannot be spawned in-game yet.. A little tip that might come in handy when summoning creatures: it is possible to force-tame them by looking in the creatures direction and using the following command:. ...
Huge and unexplained bloom has fishers racing to save their nets, and scientists hurrying to study the rare animal. A rare, tiny marine creature known as the unicorn of the sea has swarmed in its millions on the west coast of America, ruining fishermens nets and baffling scientists who are scrambling to find out more about them.. Fishers along the west coast have told researchers that in some places they are unable to catch anything because the pyrosome clusters are so dense and tightly packed. Their hooks, when pulled from the ocean, wriggle with the odd-looking creatures, which are sometimes referred to as sea pickles or fire bodies.. The distinctive animals - only a few millimetres long - have washed up on popular beaches, bemusing local residents.. Hilarie Sorensen, a graduate student at the University of Oregon who is part of a new research team set up to study the bloom, said: Right now we are scrambling to learn as much as possible while we have the opportunity.. […]. Pyrosomes ...
Remains of 10-centimetre (four-inch) worm-like creatures were found in shale beds in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.. The sediment dates back to the mid-Cambrian, a period when the number of species exploded and life forms became more complex.. The long-dead animal, named Spartobranchus tenuis, is an ancestor of the acorn worm, a marine animal that thrives in shallow mud and sand, according to the study, appearing in the journal Nature.. Identifying it means that a link in the marine ecosystem, a group of animals called enteropneusts, emerged 200 million years earlier than thought.. ...
View Notes - Prokaryotes 2 Kingdoms from SCI 101 at Arizona Western College. Prokaryotes: 2 Kingdoms Common Characteristics: Bacteria are the simplest living creatures - They do not have a nucleus -
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The ocean is filled with creatures that range from eye-catching and adorable to spine-chillingly deadly, but scientists just discovered a bizarre natural phenomenon that might be even more interesting than the strangest sea monsters.
These vibrant and beachy sports watches feature a design inspired by the creatures that dwell deep in our seas. Both their cases and woven yarn straps are
Even in 2017, were still learning more about the ocean everyday. Just when we think weve discovered the strangest creatures lurking at the botto
An extraordinary find of a fossil of 250-million-year-old air-breathing sea creature shows that it must have given birth on land, ...
JUL160175 (W) Neil Gaiman (A/CA) Michael Zulli Two magical stories featuring strange creatures that are not quite what they seem! In The Price, a mysterious feline engages in a nightly conflict with an unseen, vicious foe. The Daughter of Owls recounts a tale of an orphan girl-and how those who wronged her faced bizarre consequences! In Shops: Nov 16, 2016 SRP: $12.99
I. Sianne Ngai came to mind when watching Designs in Airs multi-site work Creatures from the Deep (2020) at this years Spectra festival What was being depicted here were alien creatures, large and inflatable, and oceanic in nature. There were waving tentacles on top of MsQ1, a coral-tower with an inferno of orange flagella as a head, and a bulbous vermillion sea-flower-thing outside Marischal College. This would be the fare of Lovecraft - the unknown god-like creatures, wobbling way beyond our heads (literally, figuratively) driving us mad - if it wasnt for the exact way these creatures were depicted. They were neon-coloured; some were clad in polka dots; children found them friendly.. If this was the Weird it has been disarmed. We might not know what these are, their genera or material or names, but we sure found these colossal entities, waving in the frigid Aberdeen air, hella cute.. Hence Ngai. In her book Our Aesthetic Categories: Zany, Cute, Interesting, she describes the cute object ...
"Characterization of Alteromonas denitrificans sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. Reading, UK: Society ...
Michel G, Chantalat L, Fanchon E, Henrissat B, Kloareg B, Dideberg O (October 2001). "The iota-carrageenase of Alteromonas ...
The Genus Alteromonas and Related Proteobacteria". In Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., Stackebrandt, E. (eds.). The ... The animals do not produce TTX themselves; instead, it is produced by bacteria such as Alteromonas sp., Vibrio sp., and ... For the relationship between Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, and Pseudomonas species, which has been redefined in recent ... bacteria such as Alteromonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio species infect or cohabit with the animal species from which TTX is ...
These include the opportunistic copiotroph, Alteromonas macleodii. The archaea (Greek for ancient) constitute a domain and ... "Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: The life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph". Scientific ... "Biogeography of the ubiquitous marine bacterium Alteromonas macleodiidetermined by multilocus sequence analysis". Molecular ...
In both Alteromonas carrageenovora and Pseudoalteromonas sp. CL19, lambda-carrageenase is encoded by the cglA gene. The product ... The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora (also known as Alteromonas carrageenovora) strain ATCC 43555, which was ...
In 2000, Alteromonas distincta was reclassified and added to Pseudoalteromonas distincta. Ivanova, E. P.; Chun, J.; Romanenko, ... L. A.; Matte, M. E.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Frolova, G. M.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R. (2000). "Reclassification of Alteromonas ...
Some species within it were formerly classed as Alteromonas. Shewanella consists of facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods ...
It was originally described in 1990 as Alteromonas tetraodonis but was reclassified in 2001 to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. ... "Retrieval of the species Alteromonas tetraodonis Simidu et al. 1990 as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis comb. Nov. And emendation ...
Leon O, Quintana L, Peruzzo G, Slebe JC (1992). "Purification and Properties of an Extracellular Agarase from Alteromonas sp. ... From species within genus Vibrio to Alteromonas, the presence of agarase allows agar-degrading bacteria an abundant food source ...
"Two New Species of Alteromonas: Alteromonas espejiana and Alteromonas undina". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology ... It was originally classified as Alteromonas undina but was reclassified in 1995 to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Euzéby, J.P. ( ... Gauthier, G.; Gauthier, M.; Christen, R. (1995). "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, and Moritella ... Using Genes Coding for Small-Subunit rRNA Sequences and Division of the Genus Alteromonas into Two Genera, Alteromonas (Emended ...
nov., isolated from tidal flat sediment, and emended description of Alteromonas macleodii". International Journal of Systematic ...
Originally named Alteromonas citrea, nearly two decades later it was reclassified as part of the Genus Pseudoalteromonas. ... Gauther, M. J. (October 1977). "Alteromonas citrea, a New Gram-Negative, Yellow-Pigmented Species from Seawater" (PDF). ... Gauthier, G.; Gauthier, M.; Christen, R. (October 1995). "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, and ... Alteromonas (Emended) and Pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and Proposal of Twelve New Species Combinations". International Journal ...
However, this name was amended to Alteromonas luteoviolacea in 1982 to comply with standard bacterial naming. In 1995, several ... Gauthier, G.; Gauthier, M.; Christen, R. (1995). "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, and Moritella ... Gauthier, M. J. (1982). "Validation of the Name Alteromonas luteoviolacea". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. ... P. luteoviolacea was originally isolated in 1976 and named Alteromonas luteo-violaceus. ...
They share many traits with the sister genus Alteromonas, the type genus of the family (Alteromonadaceae) and order ( ... nov., isolated from tidal flat sediment, and emended description of Alteromonas macleodii". International Journal of Systematic ...
Alteromonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio species; in the following animals, specific bacterial species have been ... Alteromonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio species from the Southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa, Vibrio ...
"Processing and hydrolytic mechanism of the cgkA-encoded kappa-carrageenase of Alteromonas carrageenovora". European Journal of ...
A highly active form of the enzyme is typically isolated from the marine bacteria Alteromonas undina for laboratory study. This ... Elashvili, I, DeFrank, JJ, and Culotta, VC, Purification and characterization of DFPase from Alteromonas haloplanktis ATCC ... Alteromonas prolidase for the organophosphorus G-agent decontamination, Chemico-Biological Interactions 119-120(1999) 455-462. ... "Purification and properties of a highly active organophosphorus acid anhydrolase from alteromonas undina". Applied and ...
Alteromonas elyakovii was isolated from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus in Troitsa Bay in 1985. In 2000, A. elyakovii was ... Sawabe, T.; Tanaka, R.; Iqbal, M. M.; Tajima, K.; Ezura, Y.; Ivanova, E. P.; Christen, R. (2000). "Assignment of Alteromonas ...
This group includes bacteria species from the Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Alteromonas and Flavobacterium genera. ... This group includes bacteria species from the Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Alteromonas, ...
As an example, rubrenoic acids were purified from Alteromonas rubra, compounds which showed bronchodilatatoric properties. ...
29660 Alteromonas undina" (pdf). Aberdeen Proving Ground: Edgewood. OCLC 74239874. Report ECBC-TR-229. Bajgar J (1998). "Some ...
In 1995, Gauthier et al proposed Pseudoalteromonas as a new genus to be split from Alteromonas. The Pseudoalteromonas species ... 2014) Gauthier, G.; Gauthier, M.; Christen, R. (October 1995). "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, ... Alteromonas (Emended) and Pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and Proposal of Twelve New Species Combinations". International Journal ... and Moritella Using Genes Coding for Small-Subunit rRNA Sequences and Division of the Genus Alteromonas into Two Genera, ...
"Induction of antifouling diterpene production by Streptomyces cinnabarinus PK209 in co-culture with marine-derived Alteromonas ...
They are now one of several families in the order Alteromonadales, including Alteromonas and its closest relatives. Species of ... "Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: emended description of the family Alteromonadaceae and ...
Ivanova, E.P.; Flavier, S.; Christen, R. (Sep 2004). "Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: ...
Elena P. Ivanova, Sébastien Flavier and Richard Christen: "Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like ... "Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: emended description of the family Alteromonadaceae and ...
"Alteromonas Myovirus V22 Represents a New Genus of Marine Bacteriophages Requiring a Tail Fiber Chaperone for Host Recognition ...
Lastly, G. polaris has a fatty acid profile similar to other genera to include Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Glaciecola. ...
"Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: emended description of the family Alteromonadaceae and ...
In 1979, Gauthier and Breittmayer first named it Alteromonas aurantia to include it in the genus Alteromonas that was described ... In 1995, Gauthier et al renamed Alteromonas aurantia to Pseudoalteromonas aurantia to include it in their proposed new genus, ... Gauthier, M. J.; Breittmayer, Violette A. (October 1979). "A New Antibiotic-Producing Bacterium from Seawater: Alteromonas ... Gauthier, G.; Gauthier, M.; Christen, R. (October 1995). "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, and ...
This proteome is part of the Alteromonas naphthalenivorans pan proteome (fasta) Alteromonas sp. (strain SN2) is a marine ... "Complete genome sequence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Alteromonas sp. strain SN2.". Jin H.M., ...
Akagawa-Matsushita, M.; Matsuo, M.; Koga, Y.; Yamasato, K. (1992). "Alteromonas atlantica sp. nov. And Alteromonas ... to give Alteromonas, another monad Members of the genus Alteromonas can be referred to as alteromonads (viz. Trivialisation of ... "Alteromonas genovensis sp. Nov., isolated from a marine electroactive biofilm and emended description of Alteromonas macleodii ... Alteromonas is a genus of Proteobacteria found in sea water, either in the open ocean or in the coast. It is Gram-negative. Its ...
Alteromonas simiduii is a marine bacterium. Euzéby, J.P. (March 23, 2012). "Alteromonas". List of Prokaryotic names with ... Type strain of Alteromonas simiduii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e. ...
Crystal structures of the psychrophilic alpha-amylase from Alteromonas haloplanctis in its native form and complexed with an ...
Mismatch repair - Alteromonas macleodii Balearic Sea AD45 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle) - Alteromonas mediterranea DE [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Boscia has incorported alteromonas ferment extract to soothe and protect skin in its latest launchmdash;a multifunctional ... Boscia has incorported alteromonas ferment extract to soothe and protect skin in its latest launch-a multifunctional concealer ... In addition to alteromonas ferment extract, the cream contains methylsilanol hydroxyproline aspartate to promote skin ... Multifunctional Skin Product With Alteromonas, Beta-glucan and Willow Herb. June 8, 2011 , Contact Author , By: Katie Schaefer ...
In this study, we describe in detail a novel hybrid NRPS-PKS cluster identified in the plasmid of the Alteromonas macleodii ... that has even been found inserted into the chromosome of some Alteromonas macleodii strains. The cluster contains separate ... none have been previously described in an Alteromonas species. ...
There are genomes available of the species Alteromonas macleodii from different locations around the world and an Alteromonas ... Actually the genomes of all the Alteromonas species known to date seem to preserve synteny quite well with the only exception ... Overall the hydrolytic activities of the Alteromonas genus as a whole are impressive and fit with its known capabilities to ... as the recently described species Alteromonas australica, and isolated from opposite ends of the world; A. australica DE170 was ...
Alteromonas / classification*, genetics. DNA, Bacterial / genetics. DNA, Ribosomal / genetics. Gammaproteobacteria / ... Retrieval of the species Alteromonas tetraodonis Simidu et al. 1990 as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis comb. nov. and emendation ... originally described as Alteromonas tetraodonis, whereas strain A-M belongs to the species Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. ... it is proposed that the species Alteromonas tetraodonis be retrieved and recognized as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis comb. nov ...
Description of a new polymer-secreting bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, Alteromonas macleodii subsp. fijiensis, and ... Description of a new polymer-secreting bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, Alteromonas macleodii subsp. fijiensis, and ... Description of a new polymer-secreting bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, Alteromonas macleodii subsp. fijiensis, and ... Description of a new polymer-secreting bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, Alteromonas macleodii subsp. fijiensis, and ...
Thedomain showed sequence identities of 54% to the ChtBD of Alteromonas sp. ChiC (37), 44% to the ChtBD of Alteromonas sp. ChiD ... Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 was grown at 27°C in Bacto Marine Broth 2216 (Difco) and used as the source of chromosomal DNA. E. ... Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 is a marine bacterium that grows in the range of 10 to 37°C (33). To examine whether expression of ... Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 is a marine bacterium that grows at temperatures ranging from 10 to 37°C (33). The amounts of chiB ...
Alteromonas explanation free. What is Alteromonas? Meaning of Alteromonas medical term. What does Alteromonas mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alteromonas in the Medical Dictionary? ... Alteromonas. Also found in: Wikipedia. Alteromonas. (altĕr-ō-mōnăs), A genus of gram-negative bacteria with curved rods, and ... Alteromonas , definition of Alteromonas by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alteromonas ...
The Alteromonas stellipolaris strains PQQ-42 and PQQ-44, previously isolated from a fish hatchery, have been selected on the ... Adaptations of Alteromonas sp. 76-1 to Polysaccharide Degradation: A CAZyme Plasmid for Ulvan Degradation and Two Alginolytic ... We report the draft whole-genome sequence of Alteromonas sp. strain RKMC-009, which was isolated in situ from the sponge ... Draft Genome Sequence of Alteromonas sp. Strain RKMC-009, Isolated from Xestospongia muta via In Situ Culturing Using an ...
Here we quantified the ability of a single Alteromonas strain [Alteromonas sp. strain Scripps Institution of Oceanography ( ... Alt, Alteromonas sp. AltSIO pure culture; SW, seawater community; S + A, coculture of SWC and AltSIO. All values are mean ± SD ... Alteromonas sp. strain AltSIO is a model organism that represents an ecologically adaptive strategy for survival in the ocean: ... Alteromonas sp. AltSIO Survival in Size-Fractionated Seawater.. Whole seawater was collected from Scripps Pier, passed through ...
Alteromonas Ferment Extract, from deep sea algae, is a polysaccharide containing hydration, repair and restorative, and anti- ... Alteromonas Ferment Extract. Alteromonas Ferment Extract. Extracted from a deep sea algae. Contains polysaccharide properties ... Alteromonas is an extract from the gram-negative bacteria, Alteromonas macleodii which grows in deep sea waters. This bacteria ...
These results indicated that strain S35T represents a novel species of the genus Alteromonas, for which the name Alteromonas ... similarity with the type strains of Alteromonas lipolytica, Alteromonas mediterranea and Aestuariibacter halophilus . ... Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain S35T belonged to the genus Alteromonas. The strain contained ubiquinone-8 as the ... Ivanova EP, Bowman JP, Lysenko AM, Zhukova NV, Gorshkova NM et al. Alteromonas addita sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; ...
Graphical representation of Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation (Alteromonas sp. SN2) (PNG image hosted by the ... Model of "Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation" in "Alteromonas sp. SN2". ...
Two Alteromonas sp. strains isolated from deep seawater were grown to promote the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS, E611 ...
Alteromonas macleodii subsp. fijiensis biovar deepsane is a deep-sea ecotype exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria isolated from ... Alteromonas macleodii subsp. fijiensis biovar deepsane is a deep-sea ecotype exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria isolated from ... Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and biodegradation by a marine hydrothermal Alteromonas sp. strain. Type. Article. ... Marine Alteromonas macleodii sp strain, Bacterial exopolysaccharides, Microbial extracellular enzymes, Endogenous enzymatic ...
... Click on the pictures below to ... Home > Genomes > Alteromonas sp. SN2 > Nitrite/Sulfite reductase N-terminal domain-like > View all domain architectures ...
Koch, Hanna; Duerwald, Alexandra; Schweder, T.; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Simon, M.; Wietz, Matthias ...
... ... Interactions between copper ions and exopolymer from the marine film-forming bacterium Alteromonas atlantica were evaluated by ... "Two-phase model for describing the interactions between copper ions and exopolymers from alteromonas atlantica," Canad. J. ...
Alteromonas macleodii (strain English Channel 673). Loading... A0A0F4Q3N2 Histidine kinase. Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica. ...
The κ-carrageenase production further increased to 2.9U/ml (14.1U/mg protein) when ,i,Alteromonas macleodii,/i, KS62 was grown ... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting κ-carrageenan degrading bacterium of species ,i,Alteromonas ... Based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequence the isolate was identified as ,i,Alteromonas macleodii,/i, KS62. ... macleodii,/i,. κ-carrageenase enzyme production of 1.6U/ml (12.5U/mg protein) was obtained when ,i,Alteromonas macleodii,/i, ...
Alteromonas portus sp. nov., an alginate lyase-excreting marine bacterium.. Huang H, Mo K, Li S, Dongmei S, Zhu J, Zou X, Hu Y ...
Alteromonas Ferment Extract, Haematococcus Pluvialis Extract, Polyglyceryl 10 Stearate, Cyclopentasiloxane, PEG 11 Methyl Ether ...
Alteromonas Ferment Extract, Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, May Contain (+/-):, Iron Oxide (CI 77499), Black 2 ( ...
Alteromonas sp.. Sparus auratus [50]. Stress tolerance. B. subtilis, L. acidophilus, S. cerevisiae Paralichthys olivaceus [51] ... decreased in relation to concentrations obtained when the fish feed was supplemented with the probiotic Alteromonas sp. Strain ...
Suzuki, S.; Odagami, T. Low-temperature-active thiol protease from marine bacterium Alteromonas haloplanktis. J. Biotechnol. ... Stability and structural analysis of α-amylase from the Antarctic psychrophile Alteromonas haloplanctis A23. Eur. J. Biochem. ... Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of α-amylase from the Antarctic psychrophile Alteromonas haloplanctis ... characterization of nucleotide sequence of the thermolabile α-amylase from Antarctic psychrotroph Alteromonas haloplanktis A23 ...
  • Boscia has incorported alteromonas ferment extract to soothe and protect skin in its latest launch-a multifunctional concealer, moisturizer and anti-aging product. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • In addition to alteromonas ferment extract, the cream contains methylsilanol hydroxyproline aspartate to promote skin elasticity and reduce the appearance of fine lines. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Lanacityn INCI name: glycerin (and) water (and) alteromonas ferment extract(and) chrysanthellum indicum extract Use levels: 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • alteromonas ferment extract (and) butylene glycol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alteromonas is an extract from the gram-negative bacteria, Alteromonas macleodii which grows in deep sea waters. (bellatorra.com)
  • This extract from the deep sea Alteromonas species of bacteria is a concentrated polysaccharide (complex sugar) that has water retention and soothing properties. (motivescosmetics.com)
  • Alteromonas is a genus of Proteobacteria found in sea water, either in the open ocean or in the coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • to give Alteromonas, another monad Members of the genus Alteromonas can be referred to as alteromonads (viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alteromonas is a genus of marine bacteria that is very easy to isolate and grow in the laboratory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall the hydrolytic activities of the Alteromonas genus as a whole are impressive and fit with its known capabilities to exploit sudden inputs of organic matter in their environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain S35 T belonged to the genus Alteromonas . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These results indicated that strain S35 T represents a novel species of the genus Alteromonas , for which the name Alteromonas oceani sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Ecophysiological diversity of a novel member of the genus Alteromonas, and description of Alteromonas mediterranea sp. (callaghaninnovation.govt.nz)
  • Phenotypic characterization carried out in laboratory showed that this Gram negative bacterium might belonged to Bacillus or Alteromonas genus. (academicjournals.org)
  • An emended description of the genus Alteromonas is given. (labome.org)
  • 1984. Genus Alteromonas , p. 343-352. (springer.com)
  • From these results, it is concluded that strains KMM 458T and IAM 14160T comprise a separate species, originally described as Alteromonas tetraodonis, whereas strain A-M belongs to the species Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A strain of Alteromonas haloplanktis, a bacterium isolated from the gonad of the Chilean scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) displayed in vitro inhibitory activity against the known pathogens Vibrio ordalii. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we quantified the ability of a single Alteromonas strain [ Alteromonas sp. (pnas.org)
  • 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain S35 T shared 97.38-98.55% similarity with the type strains of Alteromonas lipolytica , Alteromonas mediterranea and Aestuariibacter halophilus . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genetic peculiarities of 5 deep strains of Alteromonas macleodii (isolated from Adriatic and Ionian Sea water from a depth of 1,000 ‒ 3500 m) and 5 strains of the same species isolated from the surface layer of Aegean, Andaman, Black Sea and Atlantic Ocean water near the British shore have been studied. (vmurol.com.ua)
  • Phylogenetic tree of some representatives of the γ-subclass of the class Proteobacteria showing the position of 16S rDNA sequences from some ''Alteromonas macleodii''-related strains and clone sequences from picoplankton DNA from the Mediterranean Sea mesocosm experiment. (kenyon.edu)
  • Although numerous marine bacteria are known to produce antibiotics via hybrid NRPS-PKS gene clusters, none have been previously described in an Alteromonas species. (pasteur.fr)
  • Prochlorococcus lacks the gene catalase, an enzyme that destroys the toxic build-up of hydrogen peroxide, so it relies on bacteria like Alteromonas to perform this service. (columbia.edu)
  • If no other bacteria steps up and fills the important, helpful role of Alteromonas, this change in interaction could have a profound effect on Prochlorococcus growth, abundance, and activities in the future ocean," she said. (columbia.edu)
  • There are genomes available of the species Alteromonas macleodii from different locations around the world and an Alteromonas sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actually the genomes of all the Alteromonas species known to date seem to preserve synteny quite well with the only exception of the sediment isolate SN2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The type species Alteromonas macleodii is found worldwide but mostly at temperate or tropical latitudes due to its mesophilic nature (grows between 10 and 45°C) (López-Pérez and Rodriguez-Valera, in press). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other species of Alteromonas ( e.g . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retrieval of the species Alteromonas tetraodonis Simidu et al. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, genomic fingerprint patterns, DNA-DNA hybridization data and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, it is proposed that the species Alteromonas tetraodonis be retrieved and recognized as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis comb. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting κ-carrageenan degrading bacterium of species Alteromonas macleodii . (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Some of the most common among these viruses in the open ocean are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages (phages) that infect many abundant and biogeochemically important groups of bacterioplankton, such as Prochlorococcus , Synechococcus , and numerous heterotrophic bacterial species in common genera such as Roseobacter , Alteromonas , Pelagibacter , and Puniceispirillum ( 1 - 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Complete genome sequence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Alteromonas sp. (uniprot.org)
  • in 1972, but was emended by Novick and Tyler 1985 to accommodate Alteromonas luteoviolacea (now Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea), Gauthier et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was initially called Alteromonas tetraodonis , but has been reclassified as Alteromonas haloplanktis then to Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis from the phylogenetic assays that was done by [1]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequence the isolate was identified as Alteromonas macleodii KS62. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Purification and characterization of a novel β-agarase from an alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Purification and characterization of a novel β-agarase from an alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. (elsevier.com)
  • Purification and Characterization of Bifunctional Alginate Lyase from Alteromonas sp. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Description of a new polymer-secreting bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, Alteromonas macleodii subsp. (asm.org)
  • Alteromonas macleodii subsp. (ifremer.fr)
  • in 2004 to accommodate Alteromonas stellipolaris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name Alteromonas stellipolaris sp. (labome.org)
  • Douillet and Langdon (1994) demonstrated that Pacific oyster larvae fed with algae and Alteromonas sp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, we documented the unexpectedly large contribution of Alteromonas to total bacterial production in the bloom. (asm.org)
  • Alteromonas gracilis sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A novel marine Alteromonas gracilis siphovirus, phage PB 15 , was isolated from the surface water of the Yellow Sea in August 2015. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Alteromonas communis Baumann et al. (dsmz.de)
  • Chitosan Films Incorporated with Exopolysaccharides from Deep Seawater Alteromonas sp. (ehu.es)
  • Seawater isolates, including Alteromonas agarlyticus GJ1B (Potin et al. (springer.com)
  • Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and biodegradation by a marine hydrothermal Alteromonas sp. (ifremer.fr)
  • Prochlorococcus is able to thrive in the nutrient-poor conditions found in the vast regions of the open ocean due to microbial helpers like Alteromonas, which takes care of some activities tiny Prochlorococcus can't perform on its own. (columbia.edu)
  • Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation - Alteromonas sp. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Purification of an Antiviral Substance Produced by Alteromonas sp. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Alteromonas simiduii is a marine bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of biofilms of the marine bacterium Alteromonas colwelliana (LST) on set of the oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interactions between copper ions and exopolymer from the marine film-forming bacterium Alteromonas atlantica were evaluated by a two-phase model that treats the polymer as if it exists in a phase separate from the bulk solution. (montana.edu)
  • Intracellular alginate-oligosaccharide degrading enzyme activity that is incapable of degrading intact alginate from a marine bacterium Alteromonas sp. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • Intracellular homo-and hetero-polymeric blocks degrading enzyme activity incapable of degrading intact sodium alginate was detected in Alteromonas sp. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • Scripps's Byron Pedler, Lihini Aluwihare, and Farooq Azam found that a single bacterium called Alteromonas could consume as much dissolved organic carbon as a diverse community of organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • κ-carrageenase enzyme production of 1.6U/ml (12.5U/mg protein) was obtained when Alteromonas macleodii KS62 was grown in a medium containing κ-carrageenan as carbon source. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Scientists at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and their colleagues found rising carbon dioxide levels influence the activity of two ocean-dwelling microbes, Prochlorococcus and Alteromonas, breaking up their helpful partnership. (columbia.edu)
  • To better understand the partnership between Prochlorococcus and Alteromonas, Hennon and her colleagues grew the microbes together in the lab under the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today, 400 parts per million. (columbia.edu)
  • When Prochlorococcus and Alteromonas were grown under 800 parts per million - the amount of carbon dioxide expected to be in the atmosphere by 2100 - Prochlorococcus had a greater mortality rate and appeared to have more free radicals. (columbia.edu)
  • Under higher levels of carbon dioxide, Alteromonas doesn't provide the same level of ecosystem services. (columbia.edu)
  • The growth of Alteromonas and Betaproteobacteria was especially strongly correlated with organic matter supply. (asm.org)