G(M2) Activator Protein: An essential cofactor for the degradation of G(M2)GANGLIOSIDE by lysosomal BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES. Genetic mutations resulting in loss of G(M2) activator protein are one of the causes of TAY-SACHS DISEASE, AB VARIANT.Sphingolipid Activator Proteins: A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Saposins: A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.G(M2) Ganglioside: A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Hexosaminidase A: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein: A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLTranscription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gangliosidoses: A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Gangliosidoses, GM2: A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Tay-Sachs Disease: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset in infancy of an exaggerated startle response, followed by paralysis, dementia, and blindness. It is caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of the HEXOSAMINIDASE A resulting in lipid-laden ganglion cells. It is also known as the B variant (with increased HEXOSAMINIDASE B but absence of hexosaminidase A) and is strongly associated with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred BALB CGlycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Hexosaminidase B: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic: An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate (SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fos-Related Antigen-2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is closely related to C-FOS PROTEINS. It forms heterodimeric complexes with C-JUN PROTEINS to regulate GENE transcription.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Sphingolipidoses: A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of SPHINGOLIPIDS primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and to a variable degree in the visceral organs. They are classified by the enzyme defect in the degradation pathway and the substrate accumulation (or storage). Clinical features vary in subtypes but neurodegeneration is a common sign.Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2: Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genes, jun: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Mice, Inbred C3HDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Clodronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sandhoff Disease: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Galactosylceramidase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes galactose from ceramide monohexosides. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause globoid cell leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, GLOBOID CELL). EC 3.2.1.46.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Scavenger Receptors, Class A: A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Macrophage-Activating Factors: Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.ZymosanLipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

*Macrophage polarization

... classically activated macrophages) or M2 (alternatively activated macrophages). These specific phenotypes depend on the tissue ... activator protein 1 (AP-1) and STAT1. Typical are pro - inflammatory molecules (e.g. IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-23, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, ... Granulocyte - macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) stimulates M1 too. Alternatively activated macrophages cover a ... "Macrophage polarization: tumour-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes." Trends in ...

*Resolvin

All of these receptors activate their parent cells through standard GPR-mobilized pathways (see G protein-coupled receptor#G- ... stimulate macrophages to convert from a M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype to a tissue repairing and wound healing M2 phenotype ... The latter intermediate may be reduced by cellular peroxidases to RvD5n-3DPA or, alternatively, convert to a 7,8-epoxide or 16, ... analog of RvE1 are full activators while RvE2 is a partaial actiator of the CMKLR1 receptor which is also known as the chemR23 ...

*Lipoxin

... between epithelium or M2 Macrophages/monocytes and neutrophils; and endothelium or skeletal muscle and neutrophils. The ... Wu L, Li HH, Wu Q, Miao S, Liu ZJ, Wu P, Ye DY (2015). "Lipoxin A4 Activates Nrf2 Pathway and Ameliorates Cell Damage in ... FPR2, which is now termed the ALX, ALX/FPR, or ALX/FPR2 receptor, is a G protein coupled receptor initially identified as a ... LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 are high affinity receptor ligands for and activators of the FPR2 receptor. ...
Looking for online definition of macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor in the Medical Dictionary? macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor explanation free. What is macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor? Meaning of macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor medical term. What does macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor mean?
In molecular biology a saposin protein domain is a region of the saposin protein that has a certain conserved sequence or structure that defines a domain. Saposins are small lysosomal proteins that serve as activators of various lysosomal lipid-degrading enzymes. They probably act by isolating the lipid substrate from the membrane surroundings, thus making it more accessible to the soluble degradative enzymes. All mammalian saposins are synthesized as a single precursor molecule (prosaposin) which contains four Saposin-B domains, yielding the active saposins after proteolytic cleavage, and two Saposin-A domains that are ...
The cellular mechanisms which account for the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption associated with enlarging benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours of bone are uncertain. Osteoclasts are marrow-derived, multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells which express a macrophage phenotype. We have determined whether tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. Macrophages were cultured on both coverslips and dentine slices for up to 21 days with UMR 106 osteoblastic cells in the presence of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 ...
Large populations of macrophages are a prominent feature of tuberculous granulomas, yet there are many unanswered questions surrounding the spatial organization of macrophage subsets in granulomas and whether macrophages have microenvironment-specific homeostatic or bactericidal functions. Much of what we know about granuloma macrophages comes from animal models that may not represent the spectrum of pathology seen in humans or has been derived from cells removed from the context of the granuloma. To address these questions, we used ...
The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many macrophage subsets are found within atherosclerotic lesions and it is not well understood how monocytes differentiate into these subsets. We focused on characterizing macrophages derived in vitro from human peripheral blood monocytes treated with IL-15, IL-4 or IL-10. We show these macrophages to have differing phenotypes: CD209+CD64+, CD209+CD23+, or CD209+CD163+ for macrophages derived from IL-15, IL-4, or IL-10 respectively. To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, it is not clear whether inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 predominate among the resident macrophages in the synovium. In the present study, we set out to investigate the impact of TLR stimulation on monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophage function and phenotype by mimicking the exposure to abundant TLR agonists as occurs in the context of RA. The response of macrophage subsets to TLR2 and TLR4 activation was evaluated on cluster of differentiation (CD) marker profile; cytokine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BCL6 suppresses RhoA activity to alter macrophage morphology and motility. AU - Pixley, Fiona J.. AU - Xiong, Ying. AU - Yu, Raymond Yick Loi. AU - Sahai, Erik A.. AU - Stanley, E. Richard. AU - Ye, B. Hilda. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - BCL6 is a potent transcriptional repressor that plays important roles in germinal center formation, T helper cell differentiation and lymphomagenesis and regulates expression of several chemokine genes in macrophages. In a further investigation of its role in macrophages, we show that BCL6 inactivation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages leads to decreased polarization, motility and cell spreading accompanied by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased muscle proteolysis after local trauma mainly reflects macrophage-associated lysosomal proteolysis. AU - Farges, M C AU - Balcerzak, Denis Pierre. AU - Fisher, B D AU - Attaix, D AU - Bechet, D AU - Ferrara, M AU - Baracos, V E PY - 2002/2. Y1 - 2002/2. N2 - Rat gastrocnemius showed increased protein degradation (+75-115%) at 48 h after traumatic injury. Injured muscle showed increased cathepsin B activity (+327%) and mRNA encoding cathepsin B (+670%), cathepsin L (+298%), cathepsin H (+159%), and cathepsin C (+268%). In in situ hybridization, cathepsin B mRNA localized to the mononuclear cell infiltrate in injured muscle, and only background levels of hybridization were observed either over muscle cells in injured ...
Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase that manifests with storage of glycolipids in lysosomes, particularly in macrophages. Available cell lines modeling Gaucher disease do not demonstrate lysosomal storage of glycolipids; therefore, we set out to develop two macrophage models of Gaucher disease that exhibit appropriate substrate accumulation. We used these cellular models both to investigate altered macrophage biology in Gaucher disease and to evaluate candidate drugs for its treatment. We generated and characterized monocyte-derived macrophages from 20 patients carrying different Gaucher disease mutations. In addition, we created induced pluripotent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Gα(i2) mimics several aspects of LPS priming in a murine macrophage-like cell line. AU - Kugi, M.. AU - Kitamura, K.. AU - Cottam, G. L.. AU - Miller, R. T.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Priming of macrophages with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the ability of substances that act through heterotrimeric G proteins to stimulate immune cell functions. Although LPS-induced alterations in the expression and functions of G proteins of the α(i) family have been reported in hematopoietic cells, their effects on subsequent steps in LPS priming of macrophages have not been ...
It is widely known that macrophages can be activated to kill tumor cells. It is also known that tumor-infiltrating macrophages can be immunosuppressed. The mechanisms of both tumor killing by activated macrophages and tumor-induced macrophage suppression are not entirely clear. To better understand the mechanisms that macrophages use to kill tumor cells, a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was fixed with paraformaldehyde, subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and co-cultured with tumor cells. Macrophage activity was ...
In this study we immunophenotypically differentiate subpopulations of brain macrophages into perivascular macrophages and parenchymal microglia and demonstrate that perivascular macrophages are the major cell productively infected by SIV in the CNS of macaques. Preferential infection of perivascular macrophages in the CNS may account for several important observations concerning infection of the CNS, viral dynamics in the CNS, and the role of the CNS as a viral sanctuary or reservoir.. Although it has not been directly demonstrated, it is generally assumed that lentiviruses enter the CNS by the traffic of infected ...
Macrophage activation is characterized by pronounced metabolic adaptation. Classically activated macrophages show decreased rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and acquire a glycolytic state together with their pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages require oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for their anti-inflammatory function. Although it is evident that mitochondrial metabolism is regulated during macrophage polarization and essential for macrophage function, little is known on the regulation and role of peroxisomal β-oxidation during ...
Inflammation is associated with macrophage activation, and this process has been shown to occur during atherogenesis. Macrophages (J774A.1) that were activated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, or phorbol ester demonstrated a 30-35% increased uptake and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in comparison with nonactivated cells. This phenomenon was also shown for LDL cellular binding, and it resulted in macrophage cholesterol accumulation, as evidenced by cholesterol mass determination and flow cell cytometric analysis. Enhanced uptake of LDL was also obtained with two other types of macrophages: mouse peritoneal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lentivirus delivery of IL-10 to promote and sustain macrophage polarization towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. AU - Boehler, R. M.. AU - Kuo, R.. AU - Shin, S.. AU - Goodman, A. G.. AU - Pilecki, M. A.. AU - Leonard, J. N.. AU - Shea, L. D.. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - Gene delivery from biomaterials can create an environment that promotes and guides tissue formation. However, the immune response induced upon biomaterial implantation can be detrimental to tissue regeneration. Macrophages play a central role in mediating early phases of this response, and functional "polarization" of macrophages towards ...
Macrophages are usually found in tumor infiltrates where they exert cytostatic/cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The tumoricidal activity is enhanced by activation of macrophages with bacterial products or cytokines (1,2). Recently nitric oxide (NO) has been indicated as a critical effector molecule for macrophage anti-tumor activity (3,4). Macrophages can be induced to release NO upon stimulation with a variety of stimuli such as bacterial products or cytokines (3,5). More recently it has been reported that mycoplasma-treated macrophages release large amounts of NO (6).. YAC-1 tumor cells have been classically used as targets for natural killer (NK) ...
Macrophage recognition of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is facilitated by pattern recognition receptors that interact with the fungal pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Dectin-1 is the major macrophage receptor that is known to recognize fungal Beta-glucans leading to induction of various immune responses. This receptor is also known to be required for in vivo protection against C. albicans (Taylor et al., 2007). We recently showed that the Dectin-1 mediated protection in vivo is strain-dependent, and that C. albicans can adapt to modulate immune recognition by Dectin-1 (Marakalala et al., 2013). In vitro analysis, however, showed a Dectin-1-dependent and pro-inflammatory responses against all strains tested. This protocol describes in detail the in vitro ...
To elucidate the differentiation mechanisms of macrophages in the murine omentum, we studied the repopulation of these cells and the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the milky spots and omental tissues in mice depleted of macrophages following administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (clodronate). The macrophages in the omentum were spindle or dendritic in shape, expressed several macrophage-specific antigens and Ia antigen, and phagocytized intraperitoneally injected carbon particles. In the milky spots, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential mRNA expression of prostaglandin receptor subtypes in macrophage activation. AU - Hubbard, Neil. AU - Lee, S. H.. AU - Lim, D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Assessing the regulation of macrophage receptors for prostaglandin (PGE2) is essential to understanding the control which that potent lipid mediator has in modulating macrophage activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential mRNA expression of PGE2 receptor subtypes (EP) during macrophage exposure to activating and transducing agents. RAW 264.7 macrophages constitutively expressed mRNA for EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor subtypes. Messenger RNA for EP4 was expressed at a much higher level when compared to EP2 in ...
Macrophages persist indefinitely at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI) and contribute to both pathological and reparative processes. While the alternative, anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype is believed to promote cell protection, regeneration, and plasticity, pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages persist after SCI and contribute to protracted cell and tissue loss. Thus, identifying non-invasive, clinically viable, pharmacological therapies for altering macrophage phenotype is a challenging, yet promising, approach for treating SCI. Azithromycin (AZM), a commonly used macrolide antibiotic, drives anti-inflammatory macrophage activation in rodent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-cell contact with proinflammatory macrophages enhances the immunotherapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells in two abortion models. AU - Li, Yanhong. AU - Zhang, Di. AU - Xu, Ling. AU - Dong, Lin. AU - Zheng, Ji. AU - Lin, Yikong. AU - Huang, Jiefang. AU - Zhang, Yanyun. AU - Tao, Yu. AU - Zang, Xingxing. AU - Li, Dajin. AU - Du, Meirong. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are pluripotent cells with immunomodulatory properties, have been considered good candidates for the therapy of several immune disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, concanavalin A-induced liver injury, ...
Prosaposin also known as PSAP is a highly conserved glycoprotein which is a precursor for 4 cleavage products: saposins A, B, C, and D. Saposin is an acronym for Sphingolipid Activator PrO[S]teINs. Each domain of the precursor protein is approximately 80 amino acid residues long with nearly identical placement of cysteine residues and glycosylation sites. Saposins A-D localize primarily to the lysosomal compartment where they facilitate the catabolism of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide groups. The precursor protein exists both as a secretory protein and as an integral membrane protein and has neurotrophic activities.Saposins A-D are required for the hydrolysis of certain shingolipids by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β2-Agonist clenbuterol suppresses bacterial phagocytosis of splenic macrophages expressing high levels of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure. AU - Shirato, Ken. AU - Sato, Shogo. AU - Sato, Madoka. AU - Hashizume, Yoko. AU - Tachiyashiki, Kaoru. AU - Imaizumi, Kazuhiko. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Splenic marginal zone macrophages expressing macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) contribute to the clearance of blood-borne pathogens. We determined a splenic adherent cell fraction abundantly containing cells expressing a higher level of MARCO by flow cytometry, and examined the effects of daily administration of an anabolic dose of β2-agonist clenbuterol on the phagocytic capacity ...
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a potent human and animal pathogen. Its principal survival mechanism is rapid intracellular multiplication. The mechanisms that enables it to multiply intracellularly have been ill-defined and the thesis focused on characterizing the outcome of the macrophage-Francisella interaction and also if the interactions differ between the various subspecies of F tularensis. The nature of host cell death was examined and the correlation of macrophage killing with intramacrophage Francisella growth was investigated by in vitro infection of J774A.1 macrophages with either the live vaccine (LVS) strain of F. tularensis, belonging to subspecies holarctica, or the subspecies novicida strain U112 ...
Cellular proliferation and macrophage influx precede interstitial fibrosis in cyclosporine nephrotoxicity is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component in the tumor microenvironment of many solid tumors. The functional competence of TAMs varies depending on the type of tumors and their respective microenvironments. The classically activated M1 macrophages exhibit antitumor functions, whereas the alternatively activated M2 macrophages exhibit protumor functions that contribute to tumor development and progression. Although TAMs have been detected in oral squamous cell ...
Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is used for osteoarthritis management to reduce pain, and pre-clinical studies have shown that TA limits osteophyte formation. Osteophyte formation is known to be facilitated by synovial macrophage activation. TA injections might influence macrophage activation and subsequently reduce osteophytosis. Although widely applied in clinical care, the mechanism through which TA exerts this effect remains unknown. In this animal study, we investigated the in vivo effects of TA injections on macrophage activation, osteophyte development and joint degeneration. Furthermore, in vitro macrophage differentiation experiments were conducted to further explain working ...
Looking for online definition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the Medical Dictionary? macrophage colony-stimulating factor explanation free. What is macrophage colony-stimulating factor? Meaning of macrophage colony-stimulating factor medical term. What does macrophage colony-stimulating factor mean?
The cDNA of the human GM2-activator protein was cloned into the expression vector pHX17. The plasmid encodes a fusion protein with a hexahistidine tail and a Factor Xa cleavage site at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein was purified from cell homogenates under denaturing conditions by metal-ion affinity chromatography in a single step and then was refolded. The hexahistidine tail could be removed when desired by digestion with Factor Xa. In a functional assay, the GM2-activator thus generated from Escherichia coli and renatured, with or without the hexahistidine tail, was as active as the native GM2-activator protein that was purified from ...
BACKGROUND: The expression of the two types of ferritin subunits, the H-subunit and L-subunit, has been shown to be differentially regulated by cytokines. The primary aim of the present study was to quantitatively measure the expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron in patients with chronic T-helper cell type-1 immune stimulation. METHODS: The expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron was quantitatively evaluated by post-embedding immunolocalisation with immunogold transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The present study showed up-regulation ...
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have become a focus of attention recently because they have been shown to accumulate with an increase in fat mass and to be involved in the genesis of insulin resistance in obese mice. However, the phenotype and functions of human ATMs are still to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study, performed on human subcutaneous AT, showed that ATMs from lean to overweight individuals are composed of distinct macrophage subsets based on the expression of several cell surface markers: CD45, CD14, CD31, CD44, HLA-DR, CD206, and CD16, as assessed by flow cytometry. ATMs isolated by an immunoselection protocol ...
Wear particles derived from implant biomaterials induce a pronounced foreign body macrophage response in both the pseudocapsule and pseudomembrane surrounding arthroplasty components.28 29 The clinical severity and rapidly of onset of aseptic loosening can be correlated with both the amount of wear particle deposition and the extent of the macrophage response in these periprosthetic tissue.30-32 In this study we have shown that the capacity of arthroplasty macrophages to differentiate into osteoclasts is OPGL dependent and that this process is inhibited by OPG in a dose dependent fashion.. Our results show that the inflammatory foreign body macrophage infiltrate in periprosthetic tissues, surrounding loose arthroplasty components, contains ...
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a potent human and animal pathogen. Its principal survival mechanism is rapid intracellular multiplication. The mechanisms that enables it to multiply intracellularly have been ill-defined and the thesis focused on characterizing the outcome of the macrophage-Francisella interaction and also if the interactions differ between the various subspecies of F tularensis.. The nature of host cell death was examined and the correlation of macrophage killing with intramacrophage Francisella growth was investigated by in vitro infection of J774A.1 macrophages with either the live vaccine (LVS) strain of F. tularensis, belonging to subspecies holarctica, or the subspecies novicida strain U112 ...
Cathelicidins are essential in the protection against invading pathogens through both their direct antimicrobial activity and their immunomodulatory functions. Although cathelicidins are known to modulate activation by several TLR ligands, little is known about their influence on DNA-induced macrophage activation. In this study, we explored the effects of cathelicidins on DNA-induced activation of chicken macrophages and elucidated the intracellular processes underlying these effects. Our results show that chicken cathelicidin (CATH)-2 strongly enhances DNA-induced activation of both chicken and mammalian macrophages because of enhanced endocytosis of DNA-CATH-2 complexes. After endocytosis, DNA is liberated from the complex because of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced detectable CINC expression. Pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of macrophages with TGFβ resulted in suppression of CINC protein production. These studies ...
Background Macrophages/microglia are important effector cells at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI). M1-type macrophages facilitate innate immunity to remove foreign microbes and wound debris from the injury site. M2-type macrophages exhibit tissue repair properties and attenuate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulation of the polarisation of M1/M2 macrophages may affect the inflammatory response in SCI and may be related to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Electroacupuncture (EA) at GV acupuncture points can be used as an adjuvant therapy for SCI. ...
Background Macrophages/microglia are important effector cells at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI). M1-type macrophages facilitate innate immunity to remove foreign microbes and wound debris from the injury site. M2-type macrophages exhibit tissue repair properties and attenuate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulation of the polarisation of M1/M2 macrophages may affect the inflammatory response in SCI and may be related to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Electroacupuncture (EA) at GV acupuncture points can be used as an adjuvant therapy for SCI. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candida albicans stimulates arachidonic acid liberation from alveolar macrophages through α-mannan and β-glucan cell wall components. AU - Castro, M.. AU - Ralston, N. V C. AU - Morgenthaler, Timothy Ian. AU - Rohrbach, M. S.. AU - Limper, Andrew Harold. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Candida albicans is an increasingly important fungal pathogen. Alveolar macrophages respond to fungal components such as zymosan by releasing arachidonic acid (AA) and AA metabolites. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of whole fungi on macrophage eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that macrophages respond to C. albicans by releasing ...
Accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells of monocyte origin plays an important role in atherogenesis. Therefore, for determination of the mechanism of accelerated atherogenesis in Werners syndrome, studies were carried out on the metabolism of acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) by monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with this syndrome. These macrophages showed abnormally high activities for degradation and uptake of 125I-acetylated LDL, incorporation of 14C-oleate into cellular cholesteryl ester in the presence of acetylated LDL, and accumulation of cholesteryl ester derived from internalized 3H-cholesteryl linoleate-labeled acetylated LDL. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage foam cell formation is augmented in serum from patients with diabetic angiopathy. AU - Cui, Xinglong. AU - Kushiyama, Akifumi. AU - Yoneda, Masayasu. AU - Nakatsu, Yusuke. AU - Guo, Ying. AU - Zhang, Jun. AU - Ono, Haruya. AU - Kanna, Machi. AU - Sakoda, Hideyuki. AU - Ono, Hiraku. AU - Kikuchi, Takako. AU - Fujishiro, Midori. AU - Shiomi, Masashi. AU - Kamata, Hideaki. AU - Kurihara, Hiroki. AU - Kikuchi, Masatoshi. AU - Kawazu, Shoji. AU - Nishimura, Fusanori. AU - Asano, Tomoichiro. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - The differentiation of macrophages into cytokine-secreting foam cells plays a critical role in the development of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human Mesenchymal stem cells program macrophage plasticity by altering their metabolic status via a PGE 2 -dependent mechanism. AU - Vasandan, Anoop Babu. AU - Jahnavi, Sowmya. AU - Shashank, Chandanala. AU - Prasad, Priya. AU - Kumar, Anujith. AU - Jyothi Prasanna, S.. PY - 2016/12/2. Y1 - 2016/12/2. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. MSCs promoted macrophage differentiation, ...
article{f63aac35-6350-4bf7-866a-e224429f2246, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (the Mac-2 antigen) is abundantly expressed in both macrophage like cells and certain non-macrophage cells. We have studied endocytosis of galectin-3 as one important step relevant for its function, and compared it between variants of a macrophage like cell line, and non-macrophage cells. ,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, METHODS: Endocytosis of galectin-3 was observed by fluorescence microscopy and measured by flow cytometry. The endocytosis mechanism was analysed using galectin-3 mutants, galectin-3 inhibitors and endocytic pathways inhibitors in the human leukaemia THP-1 cell line differentiated into naïve (M0), classical (M1) or ...
Purpose: Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis. It is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which affects both immune compromised and immune competent patients. The cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) plays an important role in the inhibition of Toxoplasma growth. In some cell types (such as HeLa cells) IFNg induces the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) leading to tryptophan depletion and restriction of Toxoplasma growth while other cell types restrict Toxoplasma growth through an unknown mechanism. Macrophages and other innate ...
Large-scale macrophage infiltration and reactive astrogliosis are hallmarks of early spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology. The exact nature of the macrophage response and relationship between these phenomena have not been explored in detail. Here, we have investigated these responses using a combination of in vivo SCI models, organotypic and primary cultures. In vivo macrophage response was investigated using a contusive injury mouse model. Interactions between astrocytes and macrophages were studied in primary or organotypic cultures. Proliferation was assessed though MTT assay and nucleotide incorporation and gene expression changes through qPCR. Seven days following contusive SCI, a mixed M1/M2 macrophage ...
Previous studies identified a prominent role of S1PR1 in tumor progression linked to persistent STAT3 activation in tumor and myeloid cells (Lee et al., 2010; Deng et al., 2012; Degagné et al., 2014). We previously noticed STAT3 signaling downstream of S1PR1 in human macrophages, which contributed to establishing an anti-inflammatory phenotype (Weis et al., 2009). However, in the present study, S1PR1 signaling in CD11bhi CD206+ TAMs did not affect typical STAT3 target genes in macrophages. Rather, a so-far-unexplored S1PR1 signaling circuit in macrophages promoted lymphangiogenesis via NLRP3-dependent IL-1β secretion.. Our global mRNA expression data in TAMs failed to identify previously ...
Cocaine is a commonly used illicit drug among HIV-1 infected individuals and is known to increase HIV-1 replication in permissive cells including PBMCs, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Cocaines potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication in macrophages- the primary targets of the virus in the central nervous system, has been suggested to play an important role in HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis. However, the mechanism by which cocaine enhances HIV-1 replication in macrophages remain poorly understood. Here we report the identification of cocaine-induced signaling events that lead to enhanced HIV-1 transcription in macrophages. Treatment of physiologically relevant concentrations of ...
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells are primarily monocytes and macrophages, and they accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are also part of the MPS. The mononuclear phagocyte system and the monocyte macrophage system refer to two different entities, often mistakenly understood as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic cell/macrophage precursors capture exogenous antigen for MHC class I presentation by dendritic cells. AU - Mitchell, Duane A.. AU - Nair, Smita K.. AU - Gilboa, Eli. PY - 1998/6/1. Y1 - 1998/6/1. N2 - Presentation of MHC class I antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) is an important pathway in priming cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo. This study sought to identify the nature of the professional APC responsible for indirect class I presentation by examining a special feature of professional APC, namely their ability to process exogenous forms of antigen for class I presentation. Incubation of highly purified bone marrow-derived precursor cells with chicken ovalbumin (OVA) led to the efficient presentation of the major class ...
BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages are sentinels of the pulmonary mucosa and central to maintaining immunological homeostasis. However, their role in governing the response to allergen is not fully understood. Inappropriate responses to the inhaled environment manifest as asthma. METHODS: We utilized a mechanistic IL-13-driven model and a house dust mite allergen mucosal sensitization model of allergic airway disease to investigate the role of alveolar macrophages in regulating pulmonary inflammation. RESULTS: IL-13-dependent eosinophilic and Th2 inflammation was enhanced in mice depleted of ...
Abundant macrophage infiltration in tumors often correlates with a poor prognosis. T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a distinct aggressive B cell lymphoma entity showing a high macrophage content. To further elucidate the role of tumor-associated macrophages in THRLBCL, we performed gene expression profiling of microdissected histiocyte subsets of THRLBCL, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), Piringer lymphadenitis, sarcoidosis, nonspecific lymphadenitis and monocytes from peripheral blood. In a supervised principal component analysis, histiocytes from THRLBCL were most closely ...
Glucose can react non-enzymatically with amino groups of, for example, proteins, to yield derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGE), which contribute to many chronic progressive diseases associated with microvascular complications. The study aimed to determine the effect of AGE-modified albumin on THP-1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human serum albumin (HSA), modified by glucose-derived AGE, was prepared by incubation with glucose for differing periods of time. Alternatively, BSA was incubated with sodium cyanoborohydride and ...
Metachromatic leukodystrophy. Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder in which the desulfation of 3-0-sulfogalactosyl-containing glycolipids by arylsulfatase A (ASA) is defective. The clinical onset and severity of MLD is variable. The late infantile form typically presents in the second year of life, the juvenile form presents between age 4 and puberty, and the adult form may present at any age after puberty. Gait disturbance and mental regression are the earliest signs. Depending on the variant, other symptoms include blindness, seizures, and behavioral disturbances. Diagnosis of MLD is complicated by the fact that significant reduction of ASA activity may not prove ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct patterns of nitric oxide production in hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells following acute exposure of rats to endotoxin. AU - Laskin, D. L.. AU - Heck, D. E.. AU - Gardner, C. R.. AU - Feder, L. S.. AU - Laskin, J. D.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells play an important role in the clearance of endotoxin from the portal circulation. These cells are activated by endotoxin to release reactive mediators including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which have been implicated in hepatic inflammation and tissue injury. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating the production of nitric oxide by hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells following in vivo ...
Definition of Macrophage migration inhibition test with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Radiant Insights, Inc latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) (Central Nervous System) pipeline landscape. Metachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats called sulfatides in cells. Symptoms include vision problems leading to blindness, personality…
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Home » Type i IFN inhibits alternative macrophage activation during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and leads to enhanced protection in the absence of IFN-γ ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that binds to surface structures of a number of different organisms. Leishmania donovani express CRP ligand when first entering the mammalian host and CRP has been shown to alter macrophage function. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of CRP-mediated uptake of L. donovani on survival of the parasite within human macrophages and macrophage cell responses to the infection. CRP opsonized L. donovani uptake was inhibitable by including excess CRP in the fluid phase, suggesting Fc receptor usage rather than indirect complement-mediated uptake. Comparing equivalent initial infection loads, parasite survival over ...
Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) catalyses the rate limiting step in free cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and intracellular CEH levels negatively correlate with lipid accumulation in foam cells and susceptibility to atherosclerosis. We have demonstrated that macrophage-specific transgenic expression of CEH enhances cholesterol efflux from foam cells and reduces lesions in athero-susceptible LDLR−/− mice. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that expression of CEH in blood-derived macrophages and the cholesterol efflux potential of serum from human subjects correlates with the disease status. Human subjects with (n=5, age 47-72 y) or without (n=7, age 50 -71 y) established CAD were enrolled. All ...
Recognition of bacteria by PRRs is a fundamental aspect of the innate immune response to pathogens. Impaired recognition can lead to severe illness and death. For example, mutations or TLR polymorphisms that affect the interaction of TLR with either agonists or signaling proteins have been associated with greatly increased susceptibility to infection in humans (reviewed in reference 59). We demonstrated previously that F. tularensis LVS is specifically recognized by TLR2 in HEK293T/TLR2 transfectants and in murine DC (8, 30) and that F. tularensis LVS infection induces in mice or their macrophages a very strong proinflammatory response as measured at the level of gene and protein expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphine induces defects in early response of alveolar macrophages to Streptococcus pneumoniae by modulating TLR9-NF-κB signaling. AU - Wang, Jinghua. AU - Barke, Roderick A.. AU - Charboneau, Richard. AU - Schwendener, Reto. AU - Roy, Sabita. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Resident alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelium constitutes the first line of defense against invading lung pneumococci. Results from our study showed that increased mortality and bacterial outgrowth and dissemination seen in morphine-treated mice were further exaggerated following depletion of alveolar macrophages with liposomal clodronate. Using an in vitro alveolar macrophages and lung ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by numerous different cell types, and it is an important regulator and mediator of many processes including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and murine macrophage- mediated cytotoxicity for microbes and tumor cells. Although murine macrophages produce NO readily after activation, human monocytes and tissue macrophages have been reported to produce only low levels of NO in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine if stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes produce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An avocado constituent, persenone A, suppresses expression of inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in macrophages, and hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse skin. AU - Kim, Oe Kyung. AU - Murakami, Akira. AU - Takahashi, Daisuke. AU - Nakamura, Yoshimasa. AU - Torikai, Koji. AU - Kim, Ha Won. AU - Ohigashi, Hajime. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - We investigated the suppressive effects of an avocado constituent, persenone A, on lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Persenone A at concentration of 20 μM almost completely suppressed both iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. ...
Decidual macrophages (DM) are the second most abundant population in the fetal-maternal interface. Their role has been so far identified as being local immuno-modulators favoring the maternal tolerance to the fetus. Herein we investigated tissue samples from 11 cases of spontaneous miscarriages and from 9 cases of elective terminations of pregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry and dual immunofluorescence we have demonstrated that in spontaneous miscarriages the DM are significantly increased. Additionally, we noted a significant up-regulation of macrophage FasL expression. Our results further support a dual role for ...
Recently, it was reported that nitric oxide (NO) directly controls intracellular iron metabolism by activating iron regulatory protein (IRP), a cytoplasmic protein that regulates ferritin translation. To determine whether intracellular iron levels themselves affect NO synthase (NOS), we studied the effect of iron on cytokine-inducible NOS activity and mRNA expression in the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. We show here that NOS activity is decreased by about 50% in homogenates obtained from cells treated with interferon gamma plus lipopolysaccharide (IFN-gamma/LPS) in the presence of 50 microM ferric iron [Fe(3+)] as compared with extracts from cells treated with ...
Types A and B appear most often in Jewish families. Type C affects all ethnic groups and is the most common. Ataxia and dystonia are followed by supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, seizures, and dementia. Hepatosplenomegaly often coexists. Foamy (lipid-laden) cells or "sea-blue histiocytes" in the liver and bone marrow are diagnostic. Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (Arylsulfatase A or Saposin B Deficiency) Deficiency of arylsulfatase A or its activator, saposin B, leads to accumulation of cerebroside sulfate, which causes progressive (frontal-predominant) central and peripheral demyelination. ADHD affects about 5% of school-aged children worldwide, predominantly males (3:1 to 8:1). About one-third of ADHD cases have at least one ...
The fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces a melanin-like pigment in the presence of l-DOPA in vitro. We investigated whether melanization affected yeast uptake by alveolar and peritoneal macrophages, the intracellular resistance of fungal cells and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs. The interactions of melanized and nonmelanized P. brasiliensis with murine primary macrophages and J774.16 and MH-S macrophage-like cell lines were investigated. Melanized yeast cells were poorly phagocytosed by the cells even in the presence of complement. Melanization caused significant interference with the binding of cell wall components to lectin receptors on ...
Gaucher disease is caused by defective acid beta-glucosidase (GCase) function. Saposin C is a lysosomal protein needed for optimal GCase activity. To test the in vivo effects of saposin C on GCase, saposin C deficient mice (C-/-) were backcrossed to point mutated GCase (V394L/V394L) mice. The resultant mice (4L;C*) began to exhibit CNS abnormalities approximately 30 days: first as hindlimb paresis, then progressive tremor and ataxia. Death occurred approximately 48 days due to neurological deficits. Axonal degeneration was evident in brain stem, spinal cord and white matter of cerebellum accompanied by increasing infiltration of the brain stem, cortex and thalamus by CD68 positive microglial ...
Definition of macrophage-activating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macrophage-activating factor? Meaning of macrophage-activating factor as a legal term. What does macrophage-activating factor mean in law?
Date: Fri, 21 Feb 2014 00:07:31 +0100 From: magnum ,john.magnum@...hmail.com, To: [email protected]m Subject: Re: SAP-B obscure bug or intended behavior? On 2014-02-20 23:17, magnum wrote: , Im passing it on to john-dev to start with. Anyone got a clue? I know , we tested this format with a whole lot of real SAP hashes. Ill dig out , older versions of our format and check if it behaves differently. It doesnt. The very first SAP B contribution from http://marc.info/?l=john-users&m=121444075820309 cracks the supplied test vector so if its a bug, its bug-compatible with that version... The question is, like Atom says, how an actual SAP system will parse it. ...
The meconium aspiration syndrome is an important cause of respiratory distress in newborn infants. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a first line of defense in the lower respiratory tract against inhaled pathogens and particles such as meconium. In this study, we examined the effect of meconium on two primary macrophage functions: phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Short-term exposure of rat NR8383 AMs to sterile meconium from human or equine neonates (1.2-24 mg/mL) produced a dose-dependent Show moreThe meconium aspiration syndrome is an important cause ...
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Mice deficient in phagocyte oxidase (phox) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which are primary macrophage killing mechanisms, generated tissue granulomas but showed unrestrained Leishmania donovani visceral replication and suboptimal initial responsiveness to antimony treatment. Nevertheless, visceral infection was controlled post-treatment and did not recur. A phox/iNOS-independent macrophage mechanism, which was not triggered by L. donovani, emerges after chemotherapy.
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis and other immunocompromised patients. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with typical endocytic trafficking, resulting in delayed maturation of a B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia alters gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in intracellular survival and host adaptation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that specialized bacterial secretion systems are involved in the interactions between intracellular bacteria and macrophages. In this work, we characterize later-stage infection of macrophages by B. cenocepacia, showing ...
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to be less than 10,000, and the modulating activity of MSF was not altered by heating at 100°C for 30 minutes or freezing at -70°C for six months. ...
Fc gamma receptor IIIA (CD16/FcγRIIIA) on monocytes/macrophages may play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia (SMA) by promoting phagocytosis of IgG-coated uninfected red cells and by allowing the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon cross-linking by immune complexes (ICs). However, not much is known about the differential expression of this receptor on monocytes of children with severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Therefore, we investigated the expression of CD16/FcγRIIIA on monocytes of children with SMA, cerebral malaria (CM), and their ...
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Blog on Saposin C18 peptide product: The Saposin C18 n/a (Catalog #MBS8247025) is a Peptide produced from Synthetic and is intended for resear...
Stress-responsive activator protein. Molecular model of the stress-responsive activator of p300 (strap) protein. This protein is activated when certain types of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage occur. It activates a number of regulatory proteins. - Stock Image F006/9740
... (MLD) is a rare genetic condition that causes a buildup of a specific type of fat (sulfatides) in brain and spinal cord cells. This buildup causes leukodystrophy, which is progressive destruction of cells that have a myelin coating (white matter) in the brain and spinal cord. Destruction of these cells leads to the inability to think clearly and perform physical tasks. Individuals with MLD lose the ability to perform daily functions over time, such as talking and walking. As the disease progresses, individuals lose awareness of where they are and eventually become unresponsive. Blindness, seizures and hearing loss may also occur. There are three forms of MLD: late infantile form, juvenile form, and adult form. The late infantile form, which is the ...
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), an autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder, causes a deficiency of arylsulfatase A. This results in accumulation of sulfated glycolipids (sulphatide) within lysosomes of myelin forming cells in the central and peripheral nervous system and to a lesser extent in lysosomes of cells comprising the liver, kidneys, and gallbladder. The disease is characterized by progressive demyelination with wide variability in clinical onset and severity. Depending upon the age at onset and disease progression, MLD may be classified as late infantile (6 months to 4 years), early juvenile (4 to 6 years), late juvenile (6 to 16 years), and adult (,16 years). In the late infantile and early juvenile ...
The objective of this open-label, single arm, monocentric, phase I/II clinical study is to assess safety and efficacy of ARSA gene transfer in the brain of children affected with early onset forms of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD). For this purpose, an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 (AAVrh.10) vector will be used to transfer the ARSA cDNA coding for Arylsulfatase A (ARSA) enzyme into the brain of children. Five patients with early onset form of MLD, age ranging from 6 months to 4 years, will be included in this protocol and will be followed during 24 months.. Patients will be selected at presymptomatic or early stage of their disease, following clinical, neuropsychological and brain imaging criteria.. Twelve simultaneous ...
Zhou X, Sullivan P, Sun L, Hu F The interaction between progranulin and prosaposin is mediated by granulins and the linker region between saposin B and C. Journal of Neurochemistry 2017 June 22.. Zhou X, Sun L, Bracko O, Choi JW, Jia Y, Nana AL, Brady OA, Hernandez JCC, Nishimura N, Seeley WW, & Hu F. Impaired prosaposin lysosomal trafficking in frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to progranulin mutations. Nature Communications 2017 May 25.. Zhou X, Paushter DH, Feng T, Pardon CM, Mendoza CS, Hu F. Regulation of cathepsin D activity by the FTLD protein progranulin. Acta Neuropathologica. Epub ahead of print. 2017 May 10.. Zhou X, Sun L, Brady OA, Murphy KA, Hu F. Elevated TMEM106B levels exaggerate lipofuscin ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant rat TPA Tissue Plasminogen Activator protein (ab92596). Please download our general protocols booklet
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [María C Díaz Flaqué, Natalia M Galigniana, Wendy Béguelin, Rocío Vicario, Cecilia J Proietti, Rosalía Russo, Martín A Rivas, Mercedes Tkach, Pablo Guzmán, Juan C Roa, Esteban Maronna, Viviana Pineda, Sergio Muñoz, María Mercogliano, Eduardo H Charreau, Patricio Yankilevich, Roxana Schillaci, Patricia V Elizalde].
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Peptides , Saposin Related Peptides , Prosaptide TX14(A); This 14-mer prosaptide sequence is derived from the active neurotrophic region in the amino-terminal portion of the saposin C domain. Synthetic peptides derived from this region are biologically active and are named prosaptides. Prosaposin and prosaptides are active on a variety of neuronal cells, stimulating sulfatide synthesis and increasing sulfatide concentration in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. This indicates that prosaposin and prosaptides are trophic factors for myelin formation.; TaLIDNNATEEILY; H-Thr-D-Ala-Leu-Ile-Asp-Asn-Asn-Ala-Thr-Glu-Glu-Ile-Leu-Tyr-OH
Brains for Brain: An introduction to the MLD core research project consisting of four studies of the basic science of getting ARSA across the blood brain barrier, natural history and three therapies - Dr.Maurizio Scarpa & Dr. David Begley, co-founders of the Brains for Brain Consortium... March 2010 ...
Often your arrival here comes at a time of great personal trauma due to a recent diagnosis or encounter with MLD. We want you to know that you can count on us for support, information and to help you get connected with others who are also on the MLD journey.. ...
Gaucher disease is a lipid storage disease characterized by the deposition of glucocerebroside in cells of the macrophage-monocyte system. The disorder results from the deficiency of a specific lysosomal hydrolase, glucocerebrosidase (also termed acid beta-glucosidase, glucosylceramidase).
Blog on GM1b elisa kit product: The Human GM1b n/a (Catalog #MBS748616) is an ELISA Kit and is intended for research purposes only. The p...
endo-β-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8); β-glucosidase (3.2.1.21); β-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31); β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37); β-fucosidase (EC 3.2.1.38); glucosylceramidase (EC 3.2.1.45); β-1,6-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.75); glucuronoarabinoxylan endo-β-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.136); endo-β-1,6-galactanase (EC:3.2.1.164); [reducing end] β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.- ...
endo-β-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8); β-glucosidase (3.2.1.21); β-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31); β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37); β-fucosidase (EC 3.2.1.38); glucosylceramidase (EC 3.2.1.45); β-1,6-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.75); glucuronoarabinoxylan endo-β-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.136); endo-β-1,6-galactanase (EC:3.2.1.164); [reducing end] β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.- ...
Kinders, R J.; Rintoul, D A.; and Johnson, T C., "Ganglioside gm1 sensitizes tumor cells to growth inhibitory glycopeptides." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 452 ...
In the past few years there has been a growth in the use of nanoparticles for stabilizing lipid membranes that contain embedded proteins. These bionanoparticles provide a solution to the challenging...
COMMENTS: I really, really, really wanted to LOVE the CC Detergent-Free bases, including this one (especially for the free shipping!). However, Ive been comparing these ones to the SFIC natrual ones and find that the SFIC ones have a nicer, richer, more cushion-y lather. It could be that the SFIC bases DO have a few more ingredients (which might be not entirely natural) and also that the SFIC bases use more than just coconut oil, which can be drying. So I guess if you are trying to have a soap with the LEAST amount of ingredients, then this is a good choice, but SFIC feels better, so Im going with that brand for my main base. I also REALLY wish CC would make a detergent free base without propylene glycol, pretty please! Thanks for making detergent-free bases ...
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have solved a centuries-old puzzle: Do both our eyes develop from a single precursor or does each develop from a single structure
ARF6-GTP expression restores sphingolipid targeting to the Golgi.A, CtxB-AlexaFluor555 internalization in control (GM05659) and NPC mutant fibroblasts (GM03123,
The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Glycolipid and Sphingolipid Biology will be held in Lucca (Barga), Italy. Apply today to reserve your spot.
Activator Online Seminar plus Activator IV Adjusting Instrument. Registering for this package of Activator Online includes an Activator IV adjusting instrument at a reduced price! This is a $1129.00 value!. ...

The Polarization States of Microglia in TBI: A New Paradigm for Pharmacological InterventionThe Polarization States of Microglia in TBI: A New Paradigm for Pharmacological Intervention

... toward alternative M2 macrophages through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated ... azithromycin had the effect of altering the macrophage phenotype from proinflammatory M1 to alternatively activated M2 cells [ ... or activation of activator protein-1 and impairment of lysosomal functions [112]. This effect was observed not only in chronic ... the dominant phenotype of activated microglia could shift from acutely activated M2 to chronically activated M1 after TBI [26 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/5405104/

Macrophage polarization - WikipediaMacrophage polarization - Wikipedia

... classically activated macrophages) or M2 (alternatively activated macrophages). These specific phenotypes depend on the tissue ... activator protein 1 (AP-1) and STAT1. Typical are pro - inflammatory molecules (e.g. IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-23, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, ... Granulocyte - macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) stimulates M1 too. Alternatively activated macrophages cover a ... "Macrophage polarization: tumour-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes." Trends in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophage_polarization

Therapeutic Implications of PPAR in Cardiovascular DiseasesTherapeutic Implications of PPAR in Cardiovascular Diseases

... articles on advances in basic research focusing on mechanisms involved in the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated ... whereas alternatively activated macrophages (M2) play an anti-inflammatory role in atherosclerosis. Recently, it was reported ... by inhibiting the activity of transcription factors such as activator protein-1 (AP-1), signal transducers and activators of ... is a key regulator of M1/M2 polarization [29]. PPAR. agonists prime monocytes into M2 and PPAR. expression is enhanced by M2 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2010/876049/

MicroRNAs in Immune Response and Macrophage Polarization | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologyMicroRNAs in Immune Response and Macrophage Polarization | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

... or glucocorticoids induces the generation of M2-type macrophages (also called alternatively activated macrophages).63-65 M1 ... activator protein-1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBP-α), PU.1, and IFN-regulatory factor 5 participate in TLR ligand- ... 64 Macrophages activated by TLR ligands and IFN-γ are called M1 macrophages (also referred to as classically activated ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipomannan blocks TNF biosynthesis by regulating macrophage MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/33/2/170.full

JCI -
Altered adipose tissue and adipocyte function in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndromeJCI - Altered adipose tissue and adipocyte function in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

... classically activated) macrophages, while alternatively activated M2 macrophages are reduced. This change is thought to occur ... including C-reactive protein, IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and TNF-α (reviewed in ref. 149). TNF-α ... Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med. 2002;8 ... Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells attenuate adipose inflammation and obesity through polarizing M2 macrophages and ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/129187

Critical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue | Critical Care | Full TextCritical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue | Critical Care | Full Text

Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with ... We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy ... However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. ... visceral adipose tissue biopsies from non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients displayed a large increase in macrophage ...
more infohttps://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/cc10503

JCI Insight -
Loss of miR-141/200c ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reprogramming multiple signaling pathways...JCI Insight - Loss of miR-141/200c ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reprogramming multiple signaling pathways...

... "classically activated" proinflammatory macrophages or M2 "alternatively activated" antiinflammatory macrophages (22, 23). We ... In addition, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein was downregulated, whereas microsomal TG transfer protein (MTTP) protein was ... WT MCD mice (Figure 3H). Interestingly, M1 and M2 transcriptional activators HIF1α, C/EBPβ, and STAT3 remained unaltered in miR ... Treatment with LPS in BM-derived macrophages isolated from miR-200c/141-/- mice polarized macrophages toward the M2 ...
more infohttps://insight.jci.org/articles/view/96094

Batf2/Irf1 Induces Inflammatory Responses in Classically Activated Macrophages, Lipopolysaccharides, and Mycobacterial...Batf2/Irf1 Induces Inflammatory Responses in Classically Activated Macrophages, Lipopolysaccharides, and Mycobacterial...

classical macrophage. M2. alternatively activated macrophage. MOI. multiplicity of infection. qRT-PCR. quantitative real-time ... Characterization of murine BATF: a negative regulator of activator protein-1 activity in the thymus. Eur. J. Immunol. 31: 1620- ... and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) (2, 3). M2 is induced by IL-4 and IL-13 and involved in the regulation of ... compared with unstimulated or IL-4-activated alternative macrophages (M2). Batf2 knockdown experiments from IFN-γ-activated ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/194/12/6035

Frontiers | Microenvironmental Alterations in Carbon Nanotube-Induced Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis | Cell and Developmental...Frontiers | Microenvironmental Alterations in Carbon Nanotube-Induced Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis | Cell and Developmental...

... traditionally activated macrophage; M2, alternatively activated macrophage; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1; MHC II, ... The pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, are well-known target genes, and in turn activators, of NF-κB ... Correspondingly, in macrophage population, M1 cells decline, whereas M2 (alternatively activated) macrophages become ... in which alternatively activated M2 macrophages are enriched and activated (Dong and Ma, 2018b). In summary, the pulmonary ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2020.00126/full

Macrophage Polarization Signaling Pathway - Creative DiagnosticsMacrophage Polarization Signaling Pathway - Creative Diagnostics

... which is a key transcription factor related to M1 macrophage polarization. In addition, MyD88 activates activator protein 1 (AP ... M1 macrophages are pro-inflammatory and have a central role in host defense against infection, while M2 macrophages are ... Alternatively, GR complex can also interact with other transcription factors like NF-kB or AP-1. ... IRF4 and PPARγ regulate many of the genes associated with mouse M2 macrophages, such as arginase 1 (Arg1), CD206 (or macrophage ...
more infohttps://www.creative-diagnostics.com/macrophage-polarization-signaling-pathway.htm

Frontiers | Retinoic acid-related orphan receptors α and γ: key regulators of lipid/glucose metabolism, inflammation, and...Frontiers | Retinoic acid-related orphan receptors α and γ: key regulators of lipid/glucose metabolism, inflammation, and...

... is considerably diminished in RORα-deficient mice as indicated by the reduced infiltration of M1 macrophages and decreased ... is considerably diminished in RORα-deficient mice as indicated by the reduced infiltration of M1 macrophages and decreased ... "alternatively activated" (CD11c-CD206+) M2 macrophages to proinflammatory "classically activated" (CD11c+CD206-) M1 macrophages ... NF-κB and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways are constitutively activated resulting in elevated levels of circulating ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2013.00001/full

Sandra Espada Serrano
       - Institutt for klinisk medisinSandra Espada Serrano - Institutt for klinisk medisin

Furthermore, M2-polarized macrophages incubated with CC had higher levels of Bcl-2:Bax mRNA ratios and Bcl-2 protein expression ... Cholesterol crystals induce TFPI expression in alternatively activated human monocyte-derived macrophages. Vis sammendrag ... is mainly expressed by endothelial cells and is the endogenous inhibitor of the coagulation activator TF, which together with ... Cholesterol crystals (CC) were used in human M1 and M2-polarized macrophages in vitro as an inducer of ER stress. CHOP and TFPI ...
more infohttps://www.med.uio.no/klinmed/personer/vit/sespada/index.html

Early Macrophage Recruitment and Alternative Activation Are Critical for the Later Development of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary...Early Macrophage Recruitment and Alternative Activation Are Critical for the Later Development of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary...

... alternatively activated (M2), and anti-inflammatory (regulatory) macrophages.11,12 Classically activated macrophages are ... Carbon monoxide has anti-inflammatory effects involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Nat Med. 2000;6:422-428. ... Bitransgenic mice were generated by crossing Balb/c transgenic mice that harbor the tetracycline transcriptional activator ( ... Alveolar macrophages acquired an alternatively activated phenotype (M2) in response to hypoxia, characterized by the expression ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/123/18/1986

Protein Kinase C Mediates Lipopolysaccharide- and Phorbol-Induced Nitric-Oxide Synthase Activity and Cellular Injury in the Rat...Protein Kinase C Mediates Lipopolysaccharide- and Phorbol-Induced Nitric-Oxide Synthase Activity and Cellular Injury in the Rat...

1994) Activators of protein kinase C selectively mediate cellular cytotoxicity to hypoxic cells but not aerobic cells. Int J ... 1994) Properties of protein kinase C isoforms (βII, ε and ζ) in a macrophage cell line (J774) and their roles in LPS-induced ... Alternatively, these data may also indicate that the infiltrating cells that secrete a wide variety of inflammatory mediators ... The whole Western blot, demonstrating equal loading is displayed in B. (M1 is the Rainbow electrophoresis marker and M2 is the ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/295/3/1249.long

GABAC ReceptorsGABAC Receptors

M2 macrophages, also called alternatively activated macrophages, can be further subdivided into subsets called M2a, M2b, M2c, ... and chitinase-3-like protein 3 (Ym1). M2 macrophages are responsible for tuning inflammatory responses, adaptive immunity, ... such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), CCAAT- ... M1 macrophages, also known as classically activated macrophages, can be activated by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, such as ...
more infohttp://www.bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com/category/gabac-receptors/

The role of tumor-associated macrophages in tumor vascularization | Vascular Cell | Full TextThe role of tumor-associated macrophages in tumor vascularization | Vascular Cell | Full Text

Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) represent one of the most abundant cell components in the tumor environment and key ... as well as the underlying mechanisms of macrophage function in the regulation of the angiogenic switch and tumor ... Mobilization of macrophages and their polarization toward an alternatively activated or M2-like phenotype not only contributes ... Significance of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 in macrophage recruitment, angiogenesis, and survival in human breast ...
more infohttps://vascularcell.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2045-824X-5-20

Aberrant repair and fibrosis development in skeletal muscle | Skeletal Muscle | Full TextAberrant repair and fibrosis development in skeletal muscle | Skeletal Muscle | Full Text

... and they are now referred to as classically and alternatively activated macrophages, or M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively ( ... by two plasminogen activators (PAs): tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). ... including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which requires the heparin sulfate-containing proteoglycan (HSPG) ... M2a macrophages or strictly speaking, alternatively activated macrophages, are activated by the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, ...
more infohttps://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2044-5040-1-21

Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors in TAM Function | SpringerLinkRole of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors in TAM Function | SpringerLink

Raes G, Van den BR, De BP et al (2005) Arginase-1 and Ym1 are markers for murine, but not human, alternatively activated ... Wang YC, He F, Feng F et al (2010) Notch signaling determines the M1 versus M2 polarization of macrophages in antitumor immune ... JAK1 kinase forms complexes with interleukin-4 receptor and 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like protein and is activated by ... Malabarba MG, Rui H, Deutsch HH et al (1996) Interleukin-13 is a potent activator of JAK3 and STAT6 in cells expressing ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-0662-4_12

Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 9th 2018 - Fight Aging!Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 9th 2018 - Fight Aging!

... and anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Despite its value, this classification is ... Also, tumor cells overexpress a protein that tells the macrophages, "dont eat me." In this way, pro-tumorigenic macrophages ... Activation of AMPK in myofibroblasts from lungs of humans with IPF, using the drug metformin or another activator called AICAR ... M1 macrophages are aggressive and inflammatory, involved in the destruction of pathogens and harmful cells. M2 macrophages aid ...
more infohttps://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/07/fight-aging-newsletter-july-9th-2018/

Macrophage Polarization in Inflammatory DiseasesMacrophage Polarization in Inflammatory Diseases

... while M2 macrophages (alternatively activated macrophages) are associated with responses to anti-inflammatory reactions and ... activator protein (AP) 1 [17], peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ [18,19] and cAMP-responsive element-binding ... Keywords: macrophage polarization, alternatively activated macrophage, signal pathways, inflammatory diseases, immune ... the concept of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM, also known as M2) was first proposed [7]. In the following years, when ...
more infohttp://www.ijbs.com/v10p0520.htm

Resolvin - WikipediaResolvin - Wikipedia

All of these receptors activate their parent cells through standard GPR-mobilized pathways (see G protein-coupled receptor#G- ... stimulate macrophages to convert from a M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype to a tissue repairing and wound healing M2 phenotype ... The latter intermediate may be reduced by cellular peroxidases to RvD5n-3DPA or, alternatively, convert to a 7,8-epoxide or 16, ... analog of RvE1 are full activators while RvE2 is a partaial actiator of the CMKLR1 receptor which is also known as the chemR23 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resolvin

Laura Sly - Faculty Member - Researcher - SupervisorLaura Sly - Faculty Member - Researcher - Supervisor

Overview Macrophages are specialized cells of our immune system. They provide our first line of defence against invading micro- ... Alternatively activated macrophages protect mice during induced intestinal inflammation (2013). Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD ... Colitis severity correlates with reduced numbers ofArgI+ M2 macrophages in the colon, increased nitric oxide production, and is ... Innate immune stimuli induced Malt1 protein levels in murine macrophages in vitro. However, intestinal inflammation did not ...
more infohttps://www.grad.ubc.ca/researcher/14345-sly

Nutrients  | Free Full-Text | Hydroxytyrosol Modulates Adipocyte Gene and miRNA Expression Under Inflammatory Condition | HTMLNutrients | Free Full-Text | Hydroxytyrosol Modulates Adipocyte Gene and miRNA Expression Under Inflammatory Condition | HTML

... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cyclooxygenase-2, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, Cu/Zn ... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α, and glucose transporter-4. We found similar effects in adipocytes ... By such mechanisms, HT may blunt macrophage recruitment and improve AT inflammation, preventing the deregulation of pathways ... stimulated by macrophage-conditioned media. Accordingly, HT significantly counteracted miR-155-5p, miR-34a-5p, and let-7c-5p ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/10/2493/htm

Baff Binds to the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Like Molecule B Cell Maturation Antigen and Is Important for Maintaining the...Baff Binds to the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Like Molecule B Cell Maturation Antigen and Is Important for Maintaining the...

Alternatively, cells were stained plus or minus Flag-BAFF (2 μg/ml) and detected using M2 as described above. ... 1 endotoxin U/mg of protein. The half-life of this protein in mice is ∼3.5 d. The control Ig, nonbinding LFA3-Ig, was prepared ... In contrast, populations of neutrophils, macrophages, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were not significantly affected by BCMA-Ig ... The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor (BAFF) binds B cells and enhances B cell receptor- ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/192/1/129?ijkey=e53cdc8d49b0a4943220ccf5e9449dd07bac9a0b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford MedicineCommunity Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine

We have shown that persisting Salmonella exploit the metabolic immune state of alternatively activated macrophages in order to ... SipB, a protein translocated by Salmonella into the cytoplasm of macrophages, is required for activation of Caspase-1 (Casp-1, ... STm preferentially persists in granuloma macrophages reprogrammed to an M2 state, in part through the activity of the effector ... Yersinia induces apoptosis by inhibiting the translocation of the transcriptional activator, NF-kappaB, into the nucleus, which ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/pathology/denise-monack?tab=research-and-scholarship
  • This review assesses the concept of ground state in monocytes and macrophages and evaluates a role for chromatin remodeling or epigenetic status in regulating this process. (jimmunol.org)
  • Treatment with LPS in BM-derived macrophages isolated from miR-200c/141 -/- mice polarized macrophages toward the M2 antiinflammatory state by increasing Arg1 and IL-10 levels while decreasing the M1 marker iNOS. (jci.org)
  • The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and phorbol ester-induced changes in rat colonic cellular integrity and Ca 2+ -independent inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) activity was investigated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, in the present study we have examined the possibility that LPS administration activates the Ca 2+ -independent iNOS in colonic epithelial cells via an increase in PKC activity and by this route mediates the observed decreases in cellular integrity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • M1 macrophages also produce iuducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as an important factor in response of the attack by bacterial , fungal, and viral infections [ 14 , 15 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • 1 - 4 Myeloid-derived cell populations, such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes, can recognize pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns present in microbial pathogens or as cellular molecules released by damaged tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Macrophages are important regulators of innate and adaptive immunity, as well as systemic metabolism, hematopoiesis , vasculogenesis and reproduction . (omicsonline.org)
  • Salmonella-Driven Polarization of Granuloma Macrophages Antagonizes TNF-Mediated Pathogen Restriction during Persistent Infection. (stanford.edu)
  • Many intracellular bacteria can establish chronic infection and persist in tissues within granulomas composed of macrophages. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, we elucidate a host-pathogen interaction that controls granuloma macrophage polarization and long-term pathogen persistence during Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) infection. (stanford.edu)
  • STm preferentially persists in granuloma macrophages reprogrammed to an M2 state, in part through the activity of the effector SteE, which contributes to the establishment of persistent infection. (stanford.edu)
  • Alfano M, Graziano F, Genovese L, Poli G (2013) Macrophage polarization at the crossroad between HIV-1 infection and cancer development. (springer.com)
  • We found similar effects in adipocytes stimulated by macrophage-conditioned media. (mdpi.com)
  • Burke B, Tang N, Corke KP et al (2002) Expression of HIF-1alpha by human macrophages: implications for the use of macrophages in hypoxia-regulated cancer gene therapy. (springer.com)
  • Reduction in actin gene activity impaired proneural-protein-dependent expression of the neural precursor genes, as well as formation of neural precursors. (biologists.org)
  • Tumor vascularization is influenced by many molecular and cellular events in the tumor microenvironment (TME), since transformed cells secrete pro-angiogenic molecules that recruit and activate not only endothelial cells (ECs), but also stromal cells such as macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We emphasized that future investigation of the regulation mechanisms of microglial M1/M2 polarization in TBI is anticipated, which could contribute to the development of new targets of pharmacological intervention in TBI. (hindawi.com)
  • In vivo, murine peritoneal macrophages also produced high levels of IL-10 and low levels of IL-12/23p40 when treated with IVIg + LPS. (ubc.ca)
  • The methods can be used for electrical detection of molecular interactions between probe molecules bound to defined regions of an array and protein or peptide target molecules which are permitted to interact with the probe molecules. (google.com)
  • After six decades of efforts, the mechanisms with regard to killing bacteria of macrophages were gradually elucidated, but there were still no definite answers about how macrophages became more efficient bacterial killers. (ijbs.com)
  • The effect of Malt1 deficiency in macrophages and osteoclasts and their contribution to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and osteoporosis respectively have not been investigated. (ubc.ca)
  • Many studies implicate macrophage (Mø) in the pathogenesis of LN, although the exact nature of their contribution has not yet been elucidated. (omicsonline.org)