A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Complement Pathway, Alternative
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Animal Testing Alternatives
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
Amino Acid Sequence
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA Splice Sites
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Complement Factor B
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
Gene Expression Regulation
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sensitivity and Specificity
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Complement Pathway, Classical
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Complement Factor D
Gene Expression Profiling
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Complement C3-C5 Convertases
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Expressed Sequence Tags
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sequence Analysis, RNA
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Complement Factor H
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid
5' Untranslated Regions
Complement System Proteins
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Animal Use Alternatives
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Open Reading Frames
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
3' Untranslated Regions
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Disease Models, Animal
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional
Transcription Initiation Site
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.
Evaluation Studies as Topic
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Complement Inactivator Proteins
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Clinical Trials as Topic
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Amino Acid Motifs
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.
Analysis of Variance
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (1/9069)On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation. (+info)
The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (2/9069)The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible. (+info)
Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (3/9069)We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology. (+info)
Differential stability of the DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit mRNA in human glioma cells. (4/9069)DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions in double-strand break repair and immunoglobulin [V(D)J] recombination. We previously established a radiation-sensitive human cell line, M059J, derived from a malignant glioma, which lacks the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) of the DNA-PK multiprotein complex. Although previous Northern blot analysis failed to detect the DNA-PKcs transcript in these cells, we show here through quantitative studies that the transcript is present, albeit at greatly reduced (approximately 20x) levels. Sequencing revealed no genetic alteration in either the promoter region, the kinase domain, or the 3' untranslated region of the DNA-PKcs gene to account for the reduced transcript levels. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that the rate of DNA-PKcs transcription in M059J and DNA-PKcs proficient cell lines was similar, but the stability of the DNA-PKcs message in the M059J cell line was drastically (approximately 20x) reduced. Furthermore, M059J cells lack an alternately spliced DNA-PKcs transcript that accounts for a minor (5-20%) proportion of the DNA-PKcs message in all other cell lines tested. Thus, alterations in DNA-PKcs mRNA stability and/or the lack of the alternate mRNA may result in the loss of DNA-PKcs activity. This finding has important implications as DNA-PKcs activity is essential to cells repairing damage induced by radiation or radiomimetric agents. (+info)
Selection and characterization of pre-mRNA splicing enhancers: identification of novel SR protein-specific enhancer sequences. (5/9069)Splicing enhancers are RNA sequences required for accurate splice site recognition and the control of alternative splicing. In this study, we used an in vitro selection procedure to identify and characterize novel RNA sequences capable of functioning as pre-mRNA splicing enhancers. Randomized 18-nucleotide RNA sequences were inserted downstream from a Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA enhancer-dependent splicing substrate. Functional splicing enhancers were then selected by multiple rounds of in vitro splicing in nuclear extracts, reverse transcription, and selective PCR amplification of the spliced products. Characterization of the selected splicing enhancers revealed a highly heterogeneous population of sequences, but we identified six classes of recurring degenerate sequence motifs five to seven nucleotides in length including novel splicing enhancer sequence motifs. Analysis of selected splicing enhancer elements and other enhancers in S100 complementation assays led to the identification of individual enhancers capable of being activated by specific serine/arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors (SC35, 9G8, and SF2/ASF). In addition, a potent splicing enhancer sequence isolated in the selection specifically binds a 20-kDa SR protein. This enhancer sequence has a high level of sequence homology with a recently identified RNA-protein adduct that can be immunoprecipitated with an SRp20-specific antibody. We conclude that distinct classes of selected enhancers are activated by specific SR proteins, but there is considerable sequence degeneracy within each class. The results presented here, in conjunction with previous studies, reveal a remarkably broad spectrum of RNA sequences capable of binding specific SR proteins and/or functioning as SR-specific splicing enhancers. (+info)
Alterations in the conserved SL1 trans-spliced leader of Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate flexibility in length and sequence requirements in vivo. (6/9069)Approximately 70% of mRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans are trans spliced to conserved 21- to 23-nucleotide leader RNAs. While the function of SL1, the major C. elegans trans-spliced leader, is unknown, SL1 RNA, which contains this leader, is essential for embryogenesis. Efforts to characterize in vivo requirements of the SL1 leader sequence have been severely constrained by the essential role of the corresponding DNA sequences in SL1 RNA transcription. We devised a heterologous expression system that circumvents this problem, making it possible to probe the length and sequence requirements of the SL1 leader without interfering with its transcription. We report that expression of SL1 from a U2 snRNA promoter rescues mutants lacking the SL1-encoding genes and that the essential embryonic function of SL1 is retained when approximately one-third of the leader sequence and/or the length of the leader is significantly altered. In contrast, although all mutant SL1 RNAs were well expressed, more severe alterations eliminate this essential embryonic function. The one non-rescuing mutant leader tested was never detected on messages, demonstrating that part of the leader sequence is essential for trans splicing in vivo. Thus, in spite of the high degree of SL1 sequence conservation, its length, primary sequence, and composition are not critical parameters of its essential embryonic function. However, particular nucleotides in the leader are essential for the in vivo function of the SL1 RNA, perhaps for its assembly into a functional snRNP or for the trans-splicing reaction. (+info)
Mammalian staufen is a double-stranded-RNA- and tubulin-binding protein which localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (7/9069)Staufen (Stau) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and localization in Drosophila. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mRNA transport in mammals, we cloned human (hStau) and mouse (mStau) staufen cDNAs. In humans, four transcripts arise by differential splicing of the Stau gene and code for two proteins with different N-terminal extremities. In vitro, hStau and mStau bind dsRNA via each of two full-length dsRNA-binding domains and tubulin via a region similar to the microtubule-binding domain of MAP-1B, suggesting that Stau cross-links cytoskeletal and RNA components. Immunofluorescent double labeling of transfected mammalian cells revealed that Stau is localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), implicating this RNA-binding protein in mRNA targeting to the RER, perhaps via a multistep process involving microtubules. These results are the first demonstration of the association of an RNA-binding protein in addition to ribosomal proteins, with the RER, implicating this class of proteins in the transport of RNA to its site of translation. (+info)
Expression of novel alternatively spliced isoforms of the oct-1 transcription factor. (8/9069)Analysis of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the human and mouse oct-1 genes, combined with their exon-intron structure, show a high level of evolutionary conservation between these two species. The differential expression of several oct-1 isoforms was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on the 3' region of the murine oct-1 cDNA. Variations in the relative levels and patterns of expression of the isoforms were found among different tissues. Three novel isoforms originating from the 3'-distal region of oct-1, were isolated and sequenced: Two were derived from testis, and one from myeloma cells. Splicing out of different exons as revealed in the structure of these isoforms results in reading frameshifts that presumably lead to the expression of shortened Oct-1 proteins, with distinct C-terminal tails. Altogether, six out of the eight known murine oct-1 isoforms may have distinct C-termini, implying that these multiple tails have different functional roles in cellular differentiation and physiology. (+info)
Nick Cooney - Fermentation-Enabled Alternative Protein Summit
Company: Lever VC. Job title: Founder & Managing Partner. Bio:. Nick Cooney is the Founder and Managing Partner at Lever VC, a venture capital fund investing in early-stage companies in the alternative protein segment. This segment includes plant-based and cultivated dairy, egg, and meat companies. Lever VC functions internationally, with offices in the U.S. and Hong Kong and staff in Hong Kong, the U.S., Israel, and Europe. Nick has been working in the alternative protein segment for more than fifteen years. Lever VC was established by Nick Cooney and his partners in 2019.. Nicks earlier investments in this alternative protein segment comprise Miyokos Kitchen, Beyond Meat, Good Catch Foods, and Sunfed Meats. His investments in clean meat companies include Avant Meats, Memphis Meats, and Aleph Farms. Through Lever VC and his earlier fund, Nick has invested in numerous dozen alternative protein organizations internationally, with a net mutual value of more than $7 billion.. Mr. Cooney functions ...
Global Neutral Alternative Protein Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 : ReportsnReports
[115 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Neutral Alternative Protein Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 report by Global Info Research. Alternative proteins, such as plant-based meat substitutes and edible...
Co-transcriptional commitment to alternative splice site selection. - Oxford Neuroscience
Production of mRNA in eukaryotic cells involves not only transcription but also various processing reactions such as splicing. Recent experiments have indicated that there are direct physical connections between components of the transcription and processing machinery, supporting previous suggestions that pre-mRNA splicing occurs co-transcriptionally. Here we have used a novel functional approach to demonstrate co-transcriptional regulation of alternative splicing. Exon 3 of the alpha-tropomyosin gene is specifically repressed in smooth muscle cells. By delaying synthesis of an essential downstream inhibitory element, we show that the decision to splice or repress exon 3 occurs during a limited window of opportunity following transcription, indicating that splice site selection proceeds rapidly after transcription.
How to silence two different alternative splicing sequences - siRNA, microRNA and RNAi - BioForum
How to silence two different alternative splicing sequences - posted in siRNA, microRNA and RNAi: I need to silence 2 different alternative splicing sequences. does anyone knows how can i do it? Thanx Dr. andrew [email protected]
Demand for Alternative Proteins to Double by 2024 | 2016-11-10 | Prepared Foods
The market for alternative proteins - beyond fish and meat - will grow at 14% annually by 2024. Developers will race to explore new sources and create new formulations to mitigate the negative environmental impact of the existing protein supply chain, as total protein demand will double to 943.5 million metric tons in 2054, according to Lux Research. Based on their nutritional content and commercial value, soybean, pea and oat have emerged as the dominant plant sources. Still, technology is key to improving protein flavor . . .
Surge in alternative proteins as Nestlé and Tesco praised by investors for plant-based shift - The Pig Site
London, 13 February 2018 - As alternative proteins become mainstream, Nestlé and Tesco are named the best declared companies, while Costco has been called out for its inadequate response
Alternative splicing takes control of cytokine signaling
Immune responses must be tightly controlled for dose, location, strength and duration using genetic, epigenetic or biochemical regulation. Among these, the generation of alternatively-spliced transcripts is an efficient and dynamic way to increase transcriptional and proteomic diversity. Specifically, this thesis explains how splice variation dictates the biological functions of interleukin-22 (IL-22) binding protein (IL-22BP) and interferon lambda 4 (IFNλ4), two proteins that participate in key cytokine responses to infection and inflammation. IL-22BP is a soluble receptor for IL-22 that is expressed as three isoforms in humans, IL-22BPi1, IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3. The murine homolog of IL-22BPi2 has been characterized as an antagonist of IL-22 while the physiological relevance of IL-22BPi1 and IL-22BPi3 are unknown. Here, we present findings demonstrating that alternative splicing tailors IL-22BP activity to specific spatiotemporal conditions. Inclusion of a unique third exon renders IL-22BPi1 ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Elevated Oestrogen Receptor Splice Variant ERαΔ5 Expression in Tumour-adjacent Hormone-responsive...
Susceptibility to prostate or endometrial cancer is linked with obesity, a state of oestrogen excess. Oestrogen receptor (ER) splice variants may be responsible for the tissue-level of ER activity. Such micro-environmental regulation may modulate cancer initiation and/or progression mechanisms. Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantitatively assess the levels of four ER splice variants (ERαΔ3, ERαΔ5, ERβ2 and ERβ5), plus the full-length parent isoforms ERα and ERβ1, in high-risk [tumour-adjacent prostate (n = 10) or endometrial cancer (n = 9)] vs. low-risk [benign prostate (n = 12) or endometrium (n = 9)], as well as a comparison of UK (n = 12) vs. Indian (n = 15) benign prostate. All three tissue groups expressed the ER splice variants at similar levels, apart from ERαΔ5. This splice variant was markedly raised in all of the tumour-adjacent prostate samples compared to benign tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis for ERβ2 in prostate tissue
The undertranslated transcriptome reveals widespread translational silencing by alternative 5 transcript leaders | Genome...
Because this is the first large-scale study relating ribosome loading to transcript structure, the frequency with which these regulated changes in transcript structure occur across nature is unknown. However, the suggestion that 9-18% of mammalian transcripts may have alternative first exons  is provocative. Two mammalian genes, in which alternative first exons were found to modify translation, are the gene encoding TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases) and the oncogene mdm2. With both of these genes, the translational efficiencies of the transcripts are regulated by changes in promoter utilization, which lead to altered 5 leaders [36, 37].. In yeast, use of alternative promoters has been shown in some cases to produce different proteins. The SUC2 and KAR4 genes both contain multiple promoters, which generate different protein products with different biologic activities [38, 39]. Similarly, the short forms of the CRH1, KAR5, PRM2, PRP39, PRY3, ASP3, and AQY1 mRNAs identified in this ...
CCDC150 - Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 150 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CCDC150 gene & protein
p>This subsection of the ,a href=http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection>Sequence,/a> section indicates if the ,a href=http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms>canonical sequence,/a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.,p>,a href=/help/sequence_status target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Sequence statusi: Complete.. This entry describes 4 ,p>This subsection of the Sequence section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform. This section is only present in reviewed entries, i.e. in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.,p>,a href=/help/alternative_products target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align. Add to basketAdded to ...
George Vielhauer, PhD | College of Pharmacy - University of Arizona
My PhD project focused on the cloning and characterization of mRNA alternative splice variants of the human prostaglandin F2 alpha (FP) receptor. Initially, our hypothesis was based on identification of an ovine FPB but includes any splice variant of the FP receptor. Interestingly, we identified a 6-TM mRNA splice variant designated hFPs. hFPs is the first putative 6-TM prostaglandin receptor splice variant identified in humans and was cloned from human heart and placenta. Methods include utilizing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR, subcloning, southern and northern blot analysis, and DNA sequencing to obtain FP receptor clones. DNA sequences were analyzed using MacVector computer software. Once FP isoforms were identified, sequences were confirmed using RT-PCR and receptor characterization was determined utilizing radioligand binding assays, functional studies as well as protein chemistry and immunohistochemical labeling of human tissue. Radioligand binding assays were done using cell ...
Oestrogen receptor splice variants in the pathogenesis of disease. - Semantic Scholar
The full-length oestrogen receptor (ER) exists in most vertebrates as two separately encoded isoforms. ER splice variants represent truncated or otherwise modified versions of the full-length alpha or beta isoforms of the parent receptor. ERalpha is found on chromosome 6q and encodes a 595 amino acid protein, while ERbeta is found on chromosome 14q and encodes a 530 amino acid protein. These receptors possess differing ligand affinities, are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific fashion and may act antagonistically. Their altered expression has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a diverse range of conditions from cancer progression in hormone-responsive tissues to neurodegenerative disease. Variously co-expressed with full-length ERs, ER splice variants may have a positive or negative influence on transcription either by modifying the effect of the parent receptor or through their own intrinsic activity. To date, the vast majority of studies have used generic primers or antibodies against
Cell Cycle | The EMBO Journal
Iain F Davidson, Daniela Goetz, Maciej P Zaczek, Maxim I Molodtsov, Pim J Huis in t Veld, Florian Weissmann, Gabriele Litos, David A Cisneros, Maria Ocampo‐Hafalla, Rene Ladurner, Frank Uhlmann, Alipasha Vaziri, Jan‐Michael Peters ...
OpenHelix: Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity (ASTD) database
OpenHelix provides on-line and onsite training on bioinformatics and genomics resources. OpenHelix encourages faster and more effective research by enabling the efficient use of publicly available tools to access biological data. OpenHelix tutorial suites on publicly available biomedical resources include an online narrated tutorial as well as PowerPoint slides, handouts and exercises. Customers can effectively and efficiently learn to use a resource and save time and money when teaching others by using the downloadable materials.
Analyses of the Interleukin32 Transcript Variants in Breast Cancer Cell Lines | Science Publications
Recent data show the IL32 gene has at least nine transcript variants. The aim of this current study is to characterize the different transcript variants based on the latest sequencing data deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and determine which variants are responsible for the differential pattern of gene expression previously observed in MCF7 compared to MDA MB231 cell lines. Analyses of the nine transcript variants showed their sequences were incredibly similar. Other than variant 9, all of the variants differed from variant 1 by deletions. PCR analyses showed that the longer transcript variants contributed more to differential gene expression observed in the MDA MB231 compared to MCF7 cell lines. Because of the similarities between the variant sequences, when determining differential expression in the breast cell lines, investigators should consider strategies that target analyses of a combination of the longer IL32 transcript variants.
Analysis Of Global Cancer Data Shines Light On Alternative Gene Switches In Tumours - dotlah!
Prior to this study, cancer researchers lacked a comprehensive survey of alternative promoters in cancer genes, and whether different promoters leads to differences in clinical behaviour of cancer patients.. To fill the gap, the team designed a specialised software called proActiv to detect activated promoters on a genome-wide scale. The underlying algorithm in proActiv is applicable to RNA-profiling data, which is routinely produced by hundreds of laboratories worldwide to study cancer. The team applied proActiv to a large collection of publicly-available data from over 18,000 cancer samples, and discovered that promoters in cancer genes are frequently different from their cancer-free counterparts. They also uncovered specific activated promoters that are linked to the survival rate of cancer patients, representing a new class of biomarkers.. Dr Jonathan Göke, Computational Biologist at the GIS and co-senior author of the study, explained, We designed proActiv to work on RNA-profiling and it ...
Identification of a novel splice variant of AML1b in ovarian cancer patients conferring loss of wild-type tumor suppressive...
Dive into the research topics of Identification of a novel splice variant of AML1b in ovarian cancer patients conferring loss of wild-type tumor suppressive functions. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Alternative protein practical | STEM
I run this as an assessed practical, students must choose their own recipe from http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/ and should change the protein for a vegetarian alternative.
Structural variations in catalytic and ubiquitin -associated domains of Human protein kinase MARK1 and MARK3 | ediss.sub.hamburg
MARKs are involved in diverse cellular processes such as polarity, metabolism, cell cycle regulation and fertility. Disruption of MARK activities leads to deleterious effects in different kinds of cells. In humans, MARK is encoded by four isoforms and several splice variants. MARK kinases are relatively long proteins and exhibit a unique domain arrangement consisting of an N-terminal header, a kinase domain of Ser/Thr kinase architecture, an ubiquitin associated domain, and a tail or KA1 domain. The structure of MARK2 construct which comprised the catalytic and the UBA domain had shown that the kinase had a typical kinase bi-lobe structure consisting of an N- and a C-lobe and that the UBA domain binds at the distal side on the N-lobe. The binding of the UBA domain to the kinase enforces the kinase to be in catalytically nonproductive (open) conformation. The UBA domain was made of three alpha helices and an atypical fold in which the last helix was inverted as compared to the conventional UBA ...
Database of solutions for the alternative protein industry (2021) | GFI
Explore startup ideas, commercial opportunities, research projects, and investment priorities throughout the alt protein supply chain.
Insects, Elk, and the Rise of Alternative Proteins - QSR magazine
Here are three statements that shouldnt come as a shock to anyone in the foodservice industry: Todays diners are increasingly health-conscious, they care more about where their food comes from than generations past, and a rapidly growing number consider themselves
Download Equipment Management In The Post Maintenance Era A New Alternative To Total Productive Maintenance Tpm
download equipment management in the post maintenance era a new alternative to demonstrate curricular to see pupil care. download equipment management in the post maintenance era a new alternative open Indian to Get flow . download equipment management in the post maintenance era a new alternative are solid to choose optimism honour.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor splice variants are stable markers of oncogenic transforming growth factor β1 signaling in...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Function of the alternative proteome in neurodegenerative diseases | cettesemaine.utoronto.ca
A typical fully processed mRNA includes one reference-protein coding ORF (RefORF) or coding sequence. This overly simplistic view is however challenged by recent evidence of translation of alternative ORFs (AltORFs). AltORFs are defined as ORFs occurring either in untranslated regions, or overlapping the RefORF in the non-canonical +2 and +3 reading frames. The use of alternative translation initiation is well-described for viruses and provide small viral genomes with an increased coding capacity, but has been overlooked in eukaryotes. To address this issue, we generated a database of predicted AltORFs in the human transcriptome. We identified 83,886 AltORFs with a minimum size of 40 codons. This threshold was established to increase the chances of detecting the predicted alternative proteins by proteomic techniques, including tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry, and SDS-PAGE. For the majority of mRNAs (87.58 %) we found at least one predicted AltORF and, on average, 3.88 predicted AltORFs ...
Sandwalk: Debating alternative splicing (part I)
I recently had a chance to talk science with my old friend and colleague Jack Greenblatt. He has recently teamed up with some of my other colleagues at the University of Toronto to publish a paper on alternative splicing in mouse cells. Over the years I have had numerous discussions with these colleagues since they are proponents of massive alternative splicing in mammals. I think most splice variants are due to splicing errors.. Theres always a problem with terminology whenever we get involved in this debate. My position is that its easy to detect splice variants but they should be called splice variants until it has been firmly established that the variants have a biological function. This is not a distinction thats acceptable to proponents of massive alternative splicing. They use the term alternative splicing to refer to any set of processing variants regardless of whether they are splicing errors or real examples of regulation. This sometimes makes it difficult to have a discussion ...
Alternative pay models shouldnt set off kickback fears, hospitals say
Hospitals called on HHS to relax anti-kickback rules that could affect alternative pay models, saying payments between providers in the models shouldnt violate the regulations.
On the Comparison of Sets of Alternative Transcripts | SpringerLink
Alternative splicing is pervasive among complex eukaryote species. For some genes shared by numerous species, dozens of alternative transcripts are already annotated in databases. Most recent studies
Alternative Gene Expression S.L. - Publications des agents du Cirad
Cette s lection propose, par institution dappartenance des coauteurs, la liste des publications cosign es par le Cirad et ses partenaires depuis 2008 : articles de revues, ouvrages et chapitres douvrages, actes de congr s, th ses et m moires HDR r f renc s dans la base de donn es documentaires du Cirad, Agritrop. Un acc s au texte int gral est propos lorsquil est disponible. ...
Mutagenetix > Incidental...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Fibulin 1 is a secreted glycoprotein that becomes incorporated into a fibrillar extracellular matrix. Calcium-binding is apparently required to mediate its binding to laminin and nidogen. It mediates platelet adhesion via binding fibrinogen. Four splice variants which differ in the 3' end have been identified. Each variant encodes a different isoform, but no functional distinctions have been identified among the four variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
ESMA publishes table showing compliance with guidelines on alternative performance measures
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has published a table showing (intended) compliance with its final Guidelines on Alternative Performance Measures (APMs) for listed issuers.
Experts and Doctors on alternative splicing in United States
Genomes and Genes, Research Topics, Locale, Scientific Experts, Species, Publications about Experts and Doctors on alternative splicing in United States
Transcript: P2rx7-204 (ENSMUST00000121489.7) - Summary - Mus musculus - Ensembl genome browser 90
p,Transcript Support Level 1, when transcripts are supported by at least one non-suspect mRNA.,/p,,p,The ,a href=https://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgc?hgsid=423831555_sqRhAapgi8atmzzBPBAz8Me5797J&c=chr14&o=94517268&t=94547548&g=wgEncodeGencodeCompV19&i=ENST00000544005.1#tsl target=_self,Transcript Support Level,/a, (TSL) is a method to highlight the well-supported and poorly-supported transcript models for users. The method relies on the primary data that can support full-length transcript structure: mRNA and EST alignments supplied by UCSC and Ensembl.,/p,TSL:1The GENCODE set is the gene set for human and mouse. ,a href=/Help/Glossary?id=500 class=popup,GENCODE Basic,/a, is a subset of representative transcripts (splice variants).GENCODE basic,p,PRINCIPAL1 - APPRIS candidate principal isoform.,/p,,p,,a class=popup href=/Homo_sapiens/Help/Glossary?id=521,APPRIS,/a, is a system to annotate alternatively spliced transcripts based on a range of computational methods.,/p,APPRIS P1 ...
Detection of BORIS expression from different alternativ | Open-i
Detection of BORIS expression from different alternative promoters and stability of BORIS alternative transcripts. (A) Unique BORIS cDNA sequences attached to p
Gene: SORT1 (ENSG00000134243) - Summary - Homo sapiens - Ensembl genome browser 90
p,Transcript Support Level 1, when transcripts are supported by at least one non-suspect mRNA.,/p,,p,The ,a href=https://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgc?hgsid=423831555_sqRhAapgi8atmzzBPBAz8Me5797J&c=chr14&o=94517268&t=94547548&g=wgEncodeGencodeCompV19&i=ENST00000544005.1#tsl target=_self,Transcript Support Level,/a, (TSL) is a method to highlight the well-supported and poorly-supported transcript models for users. The method relies on the primary data that can support full-length transcript structure: mRNA and EST alignments supplied by UCSC and Ensembl.,/p,TSL:1The GENCODE set is the gene set for human and mouse. ,a href=/Help/Glossary?id=500 class=popup,GENCODE Basic,/a, is a subset of representative transcripts (splice variants).GENCODE basic,p,PRINCIPAL1 - APPRIS candidate principal isoform.,/p,,p,,a class=popup href=/Homo_sapiens/Help/Glossary?id=521,APPRIS,/a, is a system to annotate alternatively spliced transcripts based on a range of computational ...
Merging Absolute and Relative Quantitative PCR Data to Quantify STAT3 Splice Variant Transcripts | Protocol
Tandem splicing events occur at sites less than 12 nucleotides apart. Quantifying ratios of such splice variants is feasible using an...
Intro to ERVs: LTR GATOR! - erv
These little variations endogenous LRTs cause, in protein structure or protein expression, could be a huge driving force behind speciation and diversity! (microRNAs have a role in this too!). Well, weve got a minor problem trying to address the impact of LTRs on gene expression in humans. We do, like, these huge data mining experiments which tell us OMG LIEK THEIR ALL ACTIVE!… but then you have to go back by hand to figure out whether the LTR activity is random noise, a minor contributor to gene expression, creating an alternative protein, or the sole promoter for the gene.. A review was just published that consolidates a lot of what we know about ERV LTRs and human genes.. ...
Susan Lindquist, pioneering biologist and former director of Whitehead Institute, dies at 67 | MIT News
MIT Professor Susan Lee Lindquist, a member and former director of the Whitehead Institute, and one of the nations most lauded scientists, has died of cancer at age 67. She made invaluable contributions to the study of protein folding, demonstrating that alternative protein conformations can have profound and unexpected influences.
Wellness Complete Health® Adult Lamb & Barley (formerly Wellness Super5Mix® Complete Health Lamb, Barley and Salmon Meal Recipe...
Wellness® Super5Mix® Lamb Formula is a complete, balanced blend of thoughtfully chosen ingredients for active, adult dogs that require or prefer an alternative protein sour...
Wellness Complete Health® Adult Lamb & Barley (formerly Wellness Super5Mix® Complete Health Lamb, Barley and Salmon Meal Recipe...
Wellness® Super5Mix® Lamb Formula is a complete, balanced blend of thoughtfully chosen ingredients for active, adult dogs that require or prefer an alternative protein sour...
Mutagenetix > Incidental...
FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that function in the nervous system as receptors and cell adhesion molecules. Extensive alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants for this gene, but the full-length nature of many of these variants has not been determined. Transcripts that initiate from an upstream promoter encode alpha isoforms, which contain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) sequences and laminin G domains. Transcripts initiating from the downstream promoter encode beta isoforms, which lack EGF-like sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012 ...
As this eMedTV segment explains, there are many different alternatives to Kazano (alogliptin and metformin), including other oral drugs, insulin, and lifestyle changes. This page explains these options in detail with specific examples.
Cloning, expression, and pharmacology of four human 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor isoforms produced by alternative splicing in...
We report here the molecular cloning of three new splice variants of the human serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine4 (h5-HT4) receptor, which we named h5-HT4(b), h5-HT4(c), and h5-HT4(d). The sequence following the splicing site at Leu358 in the C-terminal tail of h5-HT4(b) displays a 74% protein identity …
Joseba Etxeberria Our Way Of Playing And Thinking Wont Change - Inside Athletic
The break has helped Bilbao Athletic recover key players who were dealing with injuries. Iñigo Baqué is the only one ruled out for Saturdays fixture, but the Kumeak will finally have all of the strikers available.. Aside from Baqué, who is recovering from his ligament injury and had some discomfort this past week, everyone is well. Were very happy to have different alternatives in the attacking positions. Ewan Urain and Andoni Tascón have recovered. Guruzeta will be with us too and Nico Serrano who can give us something different.. On the other hand, both Oihan Sancet and Dani Vivian will be unavailable if the first team is still in the race for Europe this weekend. Etxeberria has no problems losing both because fighting for a top seven finish is the most important goal for the club as a whole right now.. The coordination between the teams has been very good. The first team is the priority. If Gaizka is going to count on them them we will count on Basconia players. The first team is ...
ESMA publishes new Q&A on Alternative Performance Measures Guidelines
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has published a new Questions and Answers (Q&A) document, comprising six questions, on the implementation of its Guidelines on the Alternative Performance Measures for listed issuers.
The blastp of the GRMZM2G012966 model gives the most complete alignment to lyce1, so that model is likely the most correct model. The lyce1 alignment for Models 1 and 2 are truncated at the 3 end, suggesting that the models have a framshift mutation somewhere in exon 8. Models 1 and 2 do provide some additional information, however. The 3 end of the sequence contains a protein kinase-like (PKc_like superfamily) region, which suggests that both models should in fact be split up into two different genes. This means that the cDNA (gb,BT037027.1; GENE ID: 100216601 LOC100216601 ) is not part of the lcye1 gene, confirming that the gene is confined between coordinates 82,726 and 85,759 (or 138882727 and 138885760 in the Reference Genome).. The blastx results of Model 2 show that exons 8 and 9 (the ones not contained in Model 1 or GRMZM2G012966) aligns to lyce1 (see reading frame +1 between 2000 and 2500 of the query). This supports the idea that an alternative gene model involving alternatively ...
OK....Im into something new. Instead of early morning cable TV infomercials, its now advice columns. And this is a piece on Alternative Advice Columns. Now, whether that means its an alternative to advice columns, or just some alternative advice; Ill let you figure that one out. Heres a little gem, worthy of comment by one…
CSAM hits up Citi for new alternatives sales head - Investment Magazine
Credit Suisse Asset Management (CSAM) has lured Citis domestic alternatives head to run sales, as part of its global push to strengthen its alternatives
Alternative RNA Splicing in Evolution | Jon Lieff, M.D.
With just 20,000 genes but more than 100,000 proteins, human beings have become increasingly unique because of alternative RNA splicing in evolution.
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens RAD52 motif 1 (RDM1), transcript variant 3 as transfection-ready DNA - RC228100 - 10...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens RAD52 motif 1 (RDM1), transcript variant 3 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Alternative Synthetic Magnetic Big Uns Frag Station | Sea Life Center
Todays Deals: Save 29% on Alternative Synthetic Magnetic Big Uns Frag Station by The Alternative Reef. Hurry, quantities are limited.
... , or alternative RNA splicing, or differential splicing, is an alternative splicing process during gene ... mRNAs undergoing alternative splicing and alternative splicing events or to study the functional impact of alternative splicing ... Research Group dealing with alternative Splicing issues and mis-splicing in human diseases Alternative Splicing of ion channels ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alternative splicing. A General Definition and Nomenclature for Alternative Splicing ...
Alternative Splicing Annotation Project
... (ASAP) in computational biology was a database for alternative splicing data maintained ... Lee, Christopher; Atanelov, Levan; Modrek, Barmak; Xing, Yi (2003-01-01). "ASAP: the Alternative Splicing Annotation Project". ... analysis and comparative genomics of alternative splicing in 15 animal species". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 35 (Database issue ... AspicDB ECgene RNA splicing Kim, Namshin; Alekseyenko Alexander V; Roy Meenakshi; Lee Christopher (Jan 2007). "The ASAP II ...
Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database
Alternative Splicing Annotation Project AspicDB RNA splicing Koscielny, Gautier; Le Texier, Vincent; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa ... "Alternative Splicing Database Project , EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2020-03-04. ... The Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database (ASTD) was a database of transcript variants maintained by the ... The Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database". Genomics. United States. 93 (3): 213-20. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno. ...
Human-transcriptome DataBase for Alternative Splicing
The Human-transcriptome DataBase for Alternative Splicing (H-DBAS) is a database of alternatively spliced human transcripts ... Alternative splicing Takeda, Jun-ichi; Suzuki Yutaka; Nakao Mitsuteru; Kuroda Tsuyoshi; Sugano Sumio; Gojobori Takashi; ... alternative splicing database of completely sequenced and manually annotated full-length cDNAs based on H-Invitational". ... RNA splicing, All stub articles, Biological database stubs). ...
This phenomenon is then called alternative splicing. Alternative splicing can occur in many ways. Exons can be extended or ... DNA damage also has an impact on the splicing and alternative splicing of genes intimately associated with DNA repair. For ... The major spliceosome splices introns containing GU at the 5' splice site and AG at the 3' splice site. It is composed of the ... This type of splicing is termed canonical splicing or termed the lariat pathway, which accounts for more than 99% of splicing. ...
Splicing quantitative trait loci
... (abbreviated sQTLs or splicing QTLs) are quantitative trait loci that regulate alternative ... Ongen H, Dermitzakis ET (October 2015). "Alternative Splicing QTLs in European and African Populations". American Journal of ... April 2016). "RNA splicing is a primary link between genetic variation and disease". Science. 352 (6285): 600-4. Bibcode: ... Takata A, Matsumoto N, Kato T (February 2017). "Genome-wide identification of splicing QTLs in the human brain and their ...
Alternative trans-splicing includes intragenic trans-splicing and intergenic trans-splicing. Intragenic trans-splicing involves ... Trans-splicing differs from cis-splicing in that there is no 5' splice site on the pre-mRNA. Instead the 5' splice site is ... splice site upstream. When the 5' outron in spliced, the 5' splice site of the spliced leader RNA is branched to the outron and ... trans-splicing can also be the mechanism behind certain oncogenic fusion transcripts. Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is ...
Exonic splicing silencer
... splice site usage regulating alternative 3' splice site usage Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is most noticeably caused by inheriting ... "Alternative splicing and genetic diversity: silencers are more frequently modified by SNVs associated with alternative exon/ ... ESSs silence splice sites adjacent to them by interfering with the components of the core splicing complex, such as the snRNP's ... Exonic splicing silencers work by inhibiting the splicing of pre-mRNA strands or promoting exon skipping. The single stranded ...
Alternative splicing differs from RNA editing in that alternative splicing does not change the mRNA sequence like RNA editing ... Alternative splicing is a mechanism by which different proteins can be produced from a single gene by means of using ... This includes alternative splicing during transcription, whether the viral genome is segmented, the host range of viruses, ... Viruses may make use of alternative splicing solely to produce multiple proteins from a single pre-mRNA strand or for other ...
Alternative splicing produces ∆Elk1. This variant lacks part of the DNA-binding domain that allows interaction with SRF. On the ... Elk1 also interacts with BRCA1 splice variants, namely BRCA1a and BRCA1b. This interaction enhances BRCA1-mediated growth ... "c-Fos oncogene regulator Elk-1 interacts with BRCA1 splice variants BRCA1a/1b and enhances BRCA1a/1b-mediated growth ...
Evidence for alternative splicing". J. Mol. Biol. 207 (3): 491-503. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(89)90459-2. PMID 2760922. Buvoli M, ... Buvoli M, Cobianchi F, Bestagno MG, Mangiarotti A, Bassi MT, Biamonti G, Riva S (1990). "Alternative splicing in the human gene ... and may modulate splice site selection. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene but ... These variants have multiple alternative transcription initiation sites and multiple polyA sites. Post translational ...
Kelemen O, Convertini P, Zhang Z, Wen Y, Shen M, Falaleeva M, Stamm S (February 2013). "Function of alternative splicing". Gene ... Another mechanism for the correct regulation of gene expression is achieved through alternative splicing. This is a co- ... Latorre E, Mesonero JE, Harries LW (November 2019). "Alternative splicing in serotonergic system: Implications in ... including utilization of alternative splice acceptor sites, exon skipping, rare exon usage, and intron retention. There are a ...
Alternative splicing, polyadenylation, and isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (34): 20112-22. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. Cluster of differentiation ...
Alternative splicing of transcription products". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (28): 17843-50. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Several alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which encode distinct isoforms, have been identified. Additional ... "Multi-forms of human MTH1 polypeptides produced by alternative translation initiation and single nucleotide polymorphism". ...
Alternative splicing, polyadenylation, and isoforms". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (34): 20112-22. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.34.20112. PMID ... 2004). "Activity and tissue distribution of splice variants of alpha6-fucosyltransferase in human embryogenesis". Glycobiology ... large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes". Genome Res. 16 (1): 55-65. ...
Teplova M, Patel DJ (December 2008). "Structural insights into RNA recognition by the alternative-splicing regulator ... Muscleblind Like Splicing Regulator 1 (MBNL1) is an RNA splicing protein that in humans is encoded by the MBNL1 gene. It has a ... The repressive function of Human MBNL1 by sequestering at normal splice sites has been shown to lead to RNA-splicing defects ... autoregulate alternative splicing of the MBNL1 pre-mRNA transcript. The founding member of the human MBNL family of proteins ...
Alternative splicing, polyadenylation, and isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (34): 20112-22. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Kim N; Lee C (2008). Bioinformatics detection of alternative splicing. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 452. pp. 179-97. doi: ... can be aligned to a sequenced genome to find where there are genes and get information about alternative splicing and RNA ... BLAST was developed to provide a faster alternative to FASTA without sacrificing much accuracy; like FASTA, BLAST uses a word ... Optical computing approaches have been suggested as promising alternatives to the current electrical implementations, yet their ...
"Medical Definition of ALTERNATIVE SPLICING". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 20 December 2021. "UniProtKB - Q5SQI0 (ATAT_HUMAN ... ATAT1 presents seven different isoforms due to alternative splicing, a process which consists in the combination of exons ...
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
Lareau LF, Green RE, Bhatnagar RS, Brenner SE (June 2004). "The evolving roles of alternative splicing". Current Opinion in ... In 2022, it was discovered that aminoacyl-trna synthetases may incorporate alternative amino acids during shortages of their ...
Myosin binding protein C, cardiac
Woodley L, Valcárcel J (Oct 2002). "Regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing". Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics ... the mutant pre-mRNA and the therapeutic pre-trans-splicing molecule carrying the wild-type sequence are spliced together to ... masking exonic splicing enhancer sequences and therefore preventing binding of the splicing machinery and therefore resulting ... Wally V, Murauer EM, Bauer JW (Aug 2012). "Spliceosome-mediated trans-splicing: the therapeutic cut and paste". The Journal of ...
Alternative splicing occurs for this gene; however, the full-length nature of all transcript variants has not yet been ...
... others may be expressed in soluble form through alternative splicing. Like the similar KIR family, LILR genes are found in the ... "Extensive Alternative Splicing of KIR Transcripts". Frontiers in Immunology. 9: 2846. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02846. PMC 6288254 ... as well as in alternative splicing. This family has undergone significant diversification in primate lineages. The leukocyte ...
Alternative splicing results in multiple variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2017]. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186487 ...
This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing; although ten transcript variants have been described, the full length ... Functional diversity of GIT2 through alternative splicing". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (29): 22373-80. doi: ...
Alternative splicing Alternative Splicing Annotation Project AspicDB ChimerDB TassDB Kim, Pora; Kim Namshin; Lee Younghee; Kim ... ECgene in computational biology is a database of genomic annotations taking alternative splicing events into consideration. ... genome annotation for alternative splicing". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 33 (Database issue): D75-9. doi:10.1093/nar/gki118. ... RNA splicing, Gene expression, All stub articles, Biological database stubs). ...
Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. The LRRs and NTF2-like domains are required for export activity. The ... "Multipotent genetic suppression of retrotransposon-induced mutations by Nxf1 through fine-tuning of alternative splicing". PLOS ... is a component of the splicing-dependent exon-exon junction complex". The EMBO Journal. 20 (22): 6424-33. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ...
Alternative splicing occurs for this gene; however, the full-length nature of all transcript variants has not yet been ...
Barta, Andrea; Schumperli, Daniel (2010). "Editorial on alternative splicing and disease". RNA Biology. 7 (4): 388-389. doi: ... the ribosomes would try to bind to both the un-spliced primary RNA transcript and the spliced mRNA, which would result in a ... "Human Splicing Finder: an online bioinformatics tool to predict splicing signals". Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (9): e67. doi: ... and that would define the splice junctions. Senapathy found that almost all splice junctions in eukaryotic genes contained stop ...
Alternative splicing generates 2 transcript variants. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000174233 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
"EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer". Cell Metabolism ...
DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ...
NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates Glial fibrillary acidic protein and YKL-40 in astrocytes. Nfix has been shown to ... is generated by alternative RNA processing". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (16): 10739-10745. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.16.10739. PMID 9099724. ... Apt D, Liu Y, Bernard HU (1994). "Cloning and functional analysis of spliced isoforms of human nuclear factor I-X: interference ...
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding different isoforms. GABRG2 has been shown to interact ... Kananura C, Haug K, Sander T, Runge U, Gu W, Hallmann K, Rebstock J, Heils A, Steinlein OK (July 2002). "A splice-site mutation ...
Handsome (Handsome album)
... slashing hardcore spliced to a twinkly chorus, unfamiliar bedfellows only seeking coexistence." Kerrang! included Handsome on a ... "incredible potential but did not quite fit anywhere within the worlds of alternative, metal and the nightmarish arrival of nu ...
Some of these are believed to affect the shape of nucleic acids (see for example RNA self-splicing), but this is only sometimes ... and the square brackets indicate an alternative (see below for further details about notation). Usually, however, the first ...
Stoss O, Schwaiger FW, Cooper TA, Stamm S (1999). "Alternative splicing determines the intracellular localization of the novel ... "Alternative splicing determines the intracellular localization of the novel nuclear protein Nop30 and its interaction with the ... splicing factor SRp30c". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (16): 10951-62. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.16.10951. PMID 10196175. ... nuclear protein Nop30 and its interaction with the splicing factor SRp30c". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (16): 10951-62. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes". Genome Res. 16 (1): 55-65. ...
CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 5
... encoded by six different alternative splices of its gene, CMTM5; CMTM5-v1 is the most studied of these isoforms. The CMTM5 gene ...
DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ...
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in mRNA splicing and may play a role in site selection in alternative splicing. ... Li J, Hawkins IC, Harvey CD, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Patton JG (November 2003). "Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 and ... Tran Q, Roesser JR (February 2003). "SRp55 is a regulator of calcitonin/CGRP alternative RNA splicing". Biochemistry. 42 (4): ... Nagel RJ, Lancaster AM, Zahler AM (January 1998). "Specific binding of an exonic splicing enhancer by the pre-mRNA splicing ...
Soak Up the Sun
The song became a number-one hit on two other Billboard charts: the Adult Alternative Songs chart and the Adult Top 40. On the ... Retrospectively, Raymond Cummings of popular culture website Splice Today gave the song a negative review, referring to is as ... "Adult Alternative Airplay: The Week of May 25, 2002". Billboard. May 25, 2002. Archived from the original on August 24, 2021. ... Cummings, Raymond (March 27, 2013). "Sheryl Crow's "Soak Up the Sun": Just Shoot Me". Splice Today. Archived from the original ...
Alternative splicing has been identified, with observed variation resulting in the presence or absence of domains. In addition ... splicing occurs in the 5' UTR but transcripts including these variations have not been described completely. ENSG00000273572 ... Large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes". Genome Res. 16 (1): 55-65. ...
Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on ...
An alternative splice variant has been described but its full length sequence has not been determined. FMNL1 has been shown to ...
... as a result of alternative splicing. This contributes to the evolutionary difference between the nervous system of mammals and ... "An alternative splicing event amplifies evolutionary differences between vertebrates". Science. 349 (6250): 868-873. Bibcode: ... "The MicroRNA miR-124 promotes neuronal differentiation by triggering brain-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing". Molecular ... Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. In brains of mammals, transcripts ...
Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the ... identification of novel MAGE-A10 splice variants". Clin. Cancer Res. 10 (17): 5708-16. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0468. PMID ...
DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ...
There are two isoforms of the gene transcript that exist by alternative splicing, and one gene precursor. SLF2 (FAM178A) is an ... The molecular weight of the protein is 76.5 kilodaltons, and the isoelectric point is 5.47.The gene has 6 transcript splice ... Gene: FAM178B (ENSG00000168754) - Splice variants - Homo sapiens - Ensembl genome browser 95. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, ... 2019, from http://useast.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Gene/Splice?db=core;g=ENSG00000168754;r=2:96875882-96986592 Bipolar disorder ...
DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ...
... pseudogenes and alternative-splice variants". Pharmacogenetics. 14 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1097/00008571-200401000-00001. PMID ...
Additionally, some proteome samples of vertebrates have a large number of paralogs, and alternative splicing in higher ... Targeted proteomics using SRM and data-independent acquisition methods are often considered alternatives to shotgun proteomics ...
Homma K, Kikuno RF, Nagase T, Ohara O, Nishikawa K (November 2004). "Alternative splice variants encoding unstable protein ...
Mu W, Cheng Q, Yang J, Burt DR (2002). "Alternative splicing of the GABA(A) receptor alpha 4 subunit creates a severely ...
SON is required for genome stability by ensuring the efficiency of RNA splicing of weak constitutive and alternative splice ... Aberrant SON-mediated RNA splicing results from the accumulation of mis-spliced transcripts. The mis-spliced RNA products are ... The presence of these domains is necessary for SON to mediate constitutive and alternative splicing. The RS-rich domain serves ... Juan-Mateu, Jonàs; Villate, Olatz; Eizirik, Décio L (May 2016). "MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Alternative splicing: the new ...
January 2009). "CD96 interaction with CD155 via its first Ig-like domain is modulated by alternative splicing or mutations in ... Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]. GRCh38 ... It may also function in antigen presentation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript ...
Chris Connelly (musician)
He has since established himself as an alternative singer-songwriter, and continues to release solo albums, as well as perform ... "The Allure of the Obsolete". Splice Today. Retrieved 22 October 2016. "Chris Connelly Interview". Art Interviews.com. Retrieved ...
Krick R, Jakubiczka S, Arnemann J (2003). "Expression, alternative splicing and haplotype analysis of transcribed testis ...
Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. SF3B1 has been shown to interact with ... This gene encodes subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and ... Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. The carboxy-terminal two-thirds of subunit 1 have 22 ... "Entrez Gene: SF3B1 splicing factor 3b, subunit 1, 155kDa". Ajuh P, Kuster B, Panov K, Zomerdijk JC, Mann M, Lamond AI (December ...
Li J, Hawkins IC, Harvey CD, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Patton JG (Nov 2003). "Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 and its ... Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified but their biological nature has not ... and other hnRNP G proteins interact with Tra2beta and affect splicing". Human Molecular Genetics. 9 (5): 685-94. doi:10.1093/ ...
Genome-wide alternative splicing ... preview & related info | Mendeley
Among the DEAS genes, the least and most abundant alternative splicing types were alternative 5′ splice site (5.23%) and exon ... We investigated the alternative splicing pattern in the posterior kidney of brown trout during PKD. Results: RNA-seq data were ... Genome-wide alternative splicing profile in the posterior kidney of brown trout (Salmo trutta) during proliferative kidney ... Sudhagar, A., El-Matbouli, M., & Kumar, G. (2022). Genome-wide alternative splicing profile in the posterior kidney of brown ...
A Functional Alternative Splicing Mutation in AIRE Gene Causes Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 | PLOS ONE
... causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a ... Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the ... Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may ... In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. ...
talks.cam : Alternative Splicing in Tumors: Detection and Interpretation
Alternative Splicing in Tumors: Detection and Interpretation. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... Then I will briefly discuss some of the additional issues which arise when we seek to enumerate such alternative splicing ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Statistics , Alternative Splicing in Tumors: Detection and Interpretation ... Next I will outline the way in which we use such data in our attempts to identify exon-tumor combinations exhibiting splicing ...
Detection of Proteome Diversity Resulted from Alternative Splicing is Limited by Trypsin Cleavage Specificity
Exon-exon junction spanning peptides provide direct evidence for the translation of specific splice isoforms and are critical ... Alternative splicing dramatically increases transcriptome complexity but its contribution to proteome diversity remains ... Detection of Proteome Diversity Resulted from Alternative Splicing is Limited by Trypsin Cleavage Specificity Mol Cell ... Alternative splicing dramatically increases transcriptome complexity but its contribution to proteome diversity remains ...
GitHub - ratschlab/spladder: Tool for the detection and quantification of alternative splicing events from RNA-Seq data.
Tool for the detection and quantification of alternative splicing events from RNA-Seq data. - ... This README describes the software SplAdder, short for Splicing Adder, a toolbox for alternative splicing analysis based on RNA ... augments the splicing graph with additional information extracted from the read data, extracts alternative splicing events from ... Tool for the detection and quantification of alternative splicing events from RNA-Seq data. ...
Variable window binding for mutually exclusive alternative splicing | Academic Commons
Results: We describe variable window binding - a mechanism used for mutually exclusive alternative splicing by which a ... Conclusion: On the basis of comparative sequence analysis, we propose efficient biologic mechanisms of alternative splicing of ... in the sense that only one exon is included in the mature mRNA out of a cluster of alternative choices, often arranged in a ... Genes of advanced organisms undergo alternative splicing, which can be mutually exclusive, ...
Rapid and dynamic alternative splicing impacts the arabidopsis cold response transcriptome | The James Hutton Institute
Genome-wide profiling of alternative splicing in glioblastoma and their clinical value | BMC Cancer | Full Text
Then, splicing correlation network was constructed based on these AS events and associated splicing factors. LASSO regression ... An AS correlation network, including 54 AS events and 94 splicing factors, was constructed, and further functional enrichment ... Alternative splicing (AS), one of the main post-transcriptional biological regulation mechanisms, plays a key role in the ... Cancer-associated SF3B1 mutations affect alternative splicing by promoting alternative branchpoint usage. Nat Commun. 2016;7(1 ...
Triple-negative breast cancer cells respond to T cells severely at the alternative splicing layer | Zhao | Electronic Journal...
Triple-negative breast cancer cells respond to T cells severely at the alternative splicing layer ... Triple-negative breast cancer cells respond to T cells severely at the alternative splicing layer ... Triple-negative breast cancer cells respond to T cells severely at the alternative splicing layer ... Triple-negative breast cancer cells respond to T cells severely at the alternative splicing layer. Lina Zhao, Xi Yang, Chun ...
Recherche uO Research: Alternative splicing regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in Dahl rats
Alternative splicing regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in Dahl rats. Description. Title: Alternative splicing ... Two coding (a and b) and two non coding (c and d) alpha ENaC alternatively spliced forms were identified whose mRNA levels were ... To examine the putative biological function of alpha ENaC alternatively spliced forms when co-expressed with alpha ENaC-wt. The ... kidney is associated with alternatively spliced forms, and their corresponding mRNA levels, should they exist, in Dahl S versus ...
Abstract P231: Multigenomic characterization of context-dependent alternative splicing in normal and neoplastic cells |...
Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) supports the dynamic and regulated diversification of cells by allowing the production of ... Abstract P231: Multigenomic characterization of context-dependent alternative splicing in normal and neoplastic cells Elizabeth ... Multigenomic characterization of context-dependent alternative splicing in normal and neoplastic cells [abstract]. In: ... Multigenomic characterization of context-dependent alternative splicing in normal and neoplastic cells. Mol Cancer Ther 1 ...
Genome-wide identification of cancer-specific alternative splicing in circRNA | Molecular Cancer | Full Text
... that could identify internal alternative splicing in circRNA and compare differential circRNA splicing events between different ... Furthermore, cancer-specific alternative splicing of circRNA is less likely to be identified. Here, we proposed a de novo ... However, the internal structure of circRNA is difficult to determine due to alternative splicing that occurs in its exons and ... This study is the first comprehensive view of cancer-specific circRNA alternative splicing, which could contribute ...
Temporal requirement of the alternative-splicing factor Sfrs1for the survival of retinal neurons | Development | The Company of...
Alternative splicing (AS) is the mechanism by which exons of a single gene can be spliced in various combinations to encode a ... Ultraconserved elements are associated with homeostatic control of splicing regulators by alternative splicing and nonsense- ... Temporal requirement of the alternative-splicing factor Sfrs1for the survival of retinal neurons Rahul N. Kanadia, Rahul N. ... the current investigation focuses on understanding the role of an alternative-splicing factor (ASF) called splicing factor ...
Combining genetic constraint with predictions of alternative splicing to prioritize deleterious splicing in rare disease...
This ensemble machine learning approach combines regional splicing constraint with multiple per-nucleotide alternative splicing ... Several existing tools predict the likelihood that a genetic variant causes alternative splicing. We sought to extend such ... Our metric combines genetic variation in the Genome Aggregate Database with alternative splicing predictions from SpliceAI to ... A particularly challenging barrier to diagnosis is identifying variants that cause deleterious alternative splicing at intronic ...
OPUS 4 | Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes
... is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of ... Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes. Carsten Münk, Thomas Beck, Jörg Zielonka, ... is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of ...
High-Resolution Expression Map of the Arabidopsis Root Reveals Alternative Splicing and lincRNA Regulation. | [email protected]
High-Resolution Expression Map of the Arabidopsis Root Reveals Alternative Splicing and lincRNA Regulation. ... High-Resolution Expression Map of the Arabidopsis Root Reveals Alternative Splicing and lincRNA Regulation. Journal Article ( ... Coordinated alternative splicing across developmental stages pointed to a role in regulating differentiation. Consistent with ... Comparisons across cell types revealed that alternative splicing tends to remove parts of coding regions from a longer, major ...
CIPSM - An alternative splice variant of human αA-crystallin modulates the oligomer ensemble and the chaperone activity of α...
An alternative splice variant of human αA-crystallin modulates the oligomer ensemble and the chaperone activity of α- ... Thus, alternative mRNA splicing of human αA-crystallin leads to an additional, formerly not characterized αA-crystallin species ... Here, we analyzed a previously uncharacterized, alternative splice variant (isoform 2) of human αA-crystallin with an exchanged ...
Alternative Spliced CD1D Transcripts in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells - The Jenner Institute
9781628087208 - Nova Science Publishers
Correcting splicing-factor defects in disease
... w will reveal the role of splicing-factor defects in cardiac or neurological disorders, cancer and more. ... Following transcription, a process called alternative RNA splicing enables the creation of different spliced mRNA versions that ... Splicing factors are RNA-binding proteins that regulate splicing, and manipulating splicing-factor levels could lead to ... A Jackson Laboratory (JAX) research team led by Olga Anczuków-Camarda, Ph.D.Investigates how alternative RNA splicing ...
Neuronal impact of patient-specific aberrant NRXN1α splicing | Nature Genetics
... derived neurons well represent the diversity of NRXN1α alternative splicing observed in the human brain, cataloguing 123 high- ... NRXN1 undergoes extensive alternative splicing, and non-recurrent heterozygous deletions in NRXN1 are strongly associated with ... Targeted combinatorial alternative splicing generates brain region-specific repertoires of neurexins. Neuron 84, 386-398 (2014 ... An alternative splicing switch shapes neurexin repertoires in principal neurons versus interneurons in the mouse hippocampus. ...
Undergraduate Honors Thesis | The Association of DCC mRNA Alternative Splicing with Colorectal Cancer | ID: 1831ck330 | CU...
It has been observed that alternative splicing of the DCC can affect its activity and that alternative splicing of DCC can be ... In this way, we determined that 29 of 35 CRC cell lines had altered splice patterns, indicating the alternative splicing may be ... The Association of DCC mRNA Alternative Splicing with Colorectal Cancer Public Deposited ... we sought to determine the association of alternative splicing of the DCC with colorectal cancer in cells without the deletion ...
CD44 isoform expression mediated by alternative splicing: tissue-specific regulation in mice. - MRC Weatherall Institute of...
... shows heterogeneity in molecular expression as a result of post-translational modification as well as alternative splicing of ... The use of exon-specific primers allowed detection of multiple alternatively spliced mRNA species involving expression of at ... Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the mouse expresses multiple variably spliced CD44 isoforms and that expression ... Interestingly, different mouse tissues, including lymphoid cells, showed unique patterns of alternative CD44 mRNA in Southern ...
SRSF8 serine and arginine rich splicing factor 8 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
The encoded protein functions as a pre-mRNA splicing factor. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 7. Alternative ... serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 8. Names. SR splicing factor 8. pre-mRNA-splicing factor SRP46. splicing factor, arginine/ ... Increased expression of splicing factor SRp20 mRNA in bipolar disorder patients. Watanuki T, et al. J Affect Disord, 2008 Sep. ... Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 8 (SRSF8) is identified to interact with HIV-1 Tat mutant Nullbasic in HeLa cells by LC MS ...
The human DNA polymerase β gene structure. Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression<...
Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression. Yau jan Chyan, Susan Ackerman, Nancy S. Shepherd, O. Wesley Mcbride, ... Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression",. abstract = "DNA polymerase β (β-pol) is a single-copy gene that is ... Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression. Nucleic acids research. 1994 Jul 25;22(14):2719-2725. doi: 10.1093/nar/ ... Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression. In: Nucleic acids research. 1994 ; Vol. 22, No. 14. pp. 2719-2725. ...
Scipio | Help | Alternative Splicing
ASPicDB: a database of annotated transcript and protein variants generated by alternative splicing
Alternative splicing is emerging as a major mechanism for the expansion of the transcriptome and proteome diversity, ... ASPicDB: a database of annotated transcript and protein variants generated by alternative splicing. Martelli, PL;DAntonio, M; ... Alternative splicing is emerging as a major mechanism for the expansion of the transcriptome and proteome diversity, ... 2011). ASPicDB: a database of annotated transcript and protein variants generated by alternative splicing. NUCLEIC ACIDS ...
Frontiers | Tumor Hypoxia Drives Genomic Instability
... via promoting alternative intronic retention splicing and splice-dependent intron-retention nonsense mediated decay (Han et al ... For example, the lack of 53BP1 foci may be due to hypoxia-induced transcriptional and alternative splicing of TP53BP1 (Memon et ... 2017). Hypoxia is a key driver of alternative splicing in human breast cancer cells. Sci. Rep. 7, 1-17. ... Another driving force of genomic instability is the hypoxia-induced alternative splicing of DDR and DNA repair genes (Salas- ...
Novel skin phenotypes revealed by a genome-wide mouse reverse genetic screen | Nature Communications
Constructing Social Reality Glossary - Annenberg Learner
Alternative splicing. A biological process in which introns are removed from RNA in different combinations to produce different ... The alternative hypothesis is contradictory to H0 and is judged the more plausible claim when H0 is rejected. ... Alternative Hypothesis or H(a). The claim in a significance test that we are trying to gather evidence for - the researchers ... The emphasis on Eastern religion, alternative states of reality, hedonism, and nature suggests that these poets were seeking to ...
- Among the DEAS genes, the least and most abundant alternative splicing types were alternative 5′ splice site (5.23%) and exon skipping (70.59%), respectively. (mendeley.com)
- In this talk I will discuss using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Exon and Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays for the detection of genes spliced differently in some tumors in comparison with others. (cam.ac.uk)
- Background: Genes of advanced organisms undergo alternative splicing, which can be mutually exclusive, in the sense that only one exon is included in the mature mRNA out of a cluster of alternative choices, often arranged in a tandem array. (columbia.edu)
- Alternative splicing (AS) is a common phenomenon in eukaryotes and occurs in approximately 90% of human genes [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) supports the dynamic and regulated diversification of cells by allowing the production of multiple distinct proteins from individual genes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Multi-omics data integration revealed sensitivity to cirtuvivint was associated with alterations in splicing genes and that drug-induced ASEs were significantly associated with disease-promoting biology across lineage and oncogenic driver contexts. (aacrjournals.org)
- Alternative splicing is the primary mechanism by which a limited number of protein-coding genes can generate proteome diversity. (biologists.com)
- This ensemble machine learning approach combines regional splicing constraint with multiple per-nucleotide alternative splicing scores to guide the prediction of deleterious splicing variants in protein-coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Whether joining together pieces of film or our genes, splicing controls how information is conveyed. (jax.org)
- Unproductive splicing of SR genes associated with highly conserved and ultraconserved DNA elements. (nih.gov)
- Human genes undergo various patterns of pre-mRNA splicing across different tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- According to studies using large-scale expressed sequence tags (EST), as high as 60% of human genes are estimated to undergo alternative splicing [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Study Design: Inferring a plausible statistical model of exon combinatorics from the annotated models of human genes during RNA splicing. (who.int)
- The power-law behavior of exons during RNA splicing gives the unique characteristics to human genes. (who.int)
- To determine whether alternative splicing played a role in adult muscle maintenance, we disrupted the process in adult mice by knocking out the genes Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 only in skeletal muscles. (besthealtharticle.com)
- Two weeks after knocking out the genes Rbfox1 and Rbfox2, hundreds of other genes altered their expression and other genes their alternative splicing, including the capn3 gene, which switched splicing to produce an active form of a protease, an enzyme that degrades proteins. (besthealtharticle.com)
- For protein-encoding genes the splicing reactions are catalyzed by an RNA/protein complex called a spliceosome. (blogspot.com)
- Specifically, we found that differentially spliced genes (DSGs) and differentially expressed genes (DEG) share very limited overlapping under all kinds of stresses, suggesting that gene expression regulation and AS seemed to play independent roles in response to stresses. (bvsalud.org)
- Availability of the complete genomes of 34 invertebrates, together with transcriptomes and ESTs, allowed us to systematically investigate the gene structure and alternative splicing of FABP genes over a wide range of phyla. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Example code to retrieve Alternative Splicing events from a set of genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Beyond Genes: Inclusion of Alternative Splicing and Alternative Polyadenylation to Assess the Genetic Architecture of Predisposition to Voluntary Alcohol Consumption in Brain of the HXB/BXH Recombinant Inbred Rat Panel. (ucdenver.edu)
- They say, for example, that genes don't always code just a single protein but get spliced up into different versions. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Results: We describe 'variable window binding' - a mechanism used for mutually exclusive alternative splicing by which a segment ('window') of a conserved nucleotide 'anchor' sequence upstream of the exon 6 cluster in the pre-mRNA of the fruitfly Dscam gene binds to one of the introns, thereby activating selection of the exon directly downstream from the binding site. (columbia.edu)
- Conclusion: On the basis of comparative sequence analysis, we propose efficient biologic mechanisms of alternative splicing of the Drosophila Dscam gene that rely on the inherent structure of the pre-mRNA. (columbia.edu)
- Two coding (a and b) and two non coding (c and d) alpha ENaC alternatively spliced forms were identified whose mRNA levels were elevated in Dahl R versus S rats. (uottawa.ca)
- The CDC2-like kinases (CLKs) and dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) are thought to govern the efficiency and specificity of AS by directly phosphorylating serine/arginine-rich splicing factors (SRSFs) and thereby influencing pre-mRNA splice junction selection. (aacrjournals.org)
- Early experiments estimated that about 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing, [ 26 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, alternative mRNA splicing of human αA-crystallin leads to an additional, formerly not characterized αA-crystallin species which is able to modulate the properties of the canonical ensemble of α-crystallin oligomers. (cipsm.de)
- Following transcription, a process called alternative RNA splicing enables the creation of different spliced mRNA versions that, in turn, can produce proteins with different functions. (jax.org)
- CD44 is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein which shows heterogeneity in molecular expression as a result of post-translational modification as well as alternative splicing of CD44 mRNA. (ox.ac.uk)
- These observations have raised the possibility that structural modifications of CD44, including those resulting from alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms, are involved in the functional heterogeneity of CD44. (ox.ac.uk)
- Interestingly, different mouse tissues, including lymphoid cells, showed unique patterns of alternative CD44 mRNA in Southern blotting analysis. (ox.ac.uk)
- The use of exon-specific primers allowed detection of multiple alternatively spliced mRNA species involving expression of at least seven variable exons. (ox.ac.uk)
- Cloning and sequencing of these PCR products revealed sequence identity with recently identified genomic CD44 sequences and confirmed that the PCR products correspond to mature mRNA expressing alternatively spliced CD44 exons. (ox.ac.uk)
- The encoded protein functions as a pre-mRNA splicing factor. (nih.gov)
- Increased expression of splicing factor SRp20 mRNA in bipolar disorder patients. (nih.gov)
- See 10 reference mRNA sequence splice variants for the RHD gene. (nih.gov)
- Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a major mechanism of diversifying the protein coding potential of eukaryotic genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- More complicated regulatory mechanisms involving the combination of large numbers of trans -acting RBPs (RNA binding proteins that bind to the cis -acting RNA elements to control pre-mRNA splicing) and cis -acting elements (binding sites of trans -acting RNA binding proteins) remain unclear and further studies are warranted. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our findings suggest that PTK7 is evolutionarily distinct from other RPTKs, and that the alternative splicing of PTK7 mRNA may contribute to its diverse function in cell signaling. (elsevier.com)
- The underlying genetic mechanism for differential mRNA splicing is an ancient intronic deletion [del(ctc)] within A3H haplotype II sequence. (uthscsa.edu)
- More importantly, the introns are spliced out and the exon sequences are fused to form the mature mRNA. (blogspot.com)
- In the publication entitled " Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing ," the scientists highlight the importance of understanding alternative splicing in neurexins. (pacb.com)
- Alternative pre-mRNA processing is a central element of eukaryotic gene regulation. (umassmed.edu)
- Schematic representation of the 2 human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) mRNA PCR products, illustrating alternative splicing. (cdc.gov)
- Interestingly, several species including one trematode, one nematode and four arthropods generated FABP mRNA variants via alternative splicing. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING). (bireme.br)
- A group of closely-related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in pre-mRNA splicing. (bireme.br)
- However, the internal structure of circRNA is difficult to determine due to alternative splicing that occurs in its exons and introns. (biomedcentral.com)
- Alternative splicing (AS) is the mechanism by which exons of a single gene can be spliced in various combinations to encode a diverse set of proteins. (biologists.com)
- Consequently, potential splicing variants lying within introns or exons are commonly ignored during clinical diagnosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- We hypothesize that poison-exons play a critical role in maintaining a tight regulation of splicing-factor levels, which is necessary for normal cell functions," she says. (jax.org)
- For instance, previous studies have reported that modulation in the relative concentrations of hnRNP A/B proteins and SR proteins can control both the alternative splice site choice and the inclusion/exclusion ratio of selected alternative exons [ 11 - 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Grinev Vasily V., Nazarov Petr V., Klimov Eugene A.. Power-law Behavior of the Alternative Splicing of Exons in Human Transcriptome. (who.int)
- Predictors of the combinatorial index values and functional outcomes of the predefined behavior of exons during splicing were also determined. (who.int)
- Results: Power-law is the most plausible statistical model describing the combinatorics of exons during RNA splicing. (who.int)
- Power-law behavior of exons during RNA splicing pre-determines structural diversity of transcripts, low sensitivity of splicing process to random perturbations and its high vulnerability to manipulation with highly combinative exons. (who.int)
- Conclusion: Exons widely involved in alternative splicing are a part of the common power-law phenomenon in human cells. (who.int)
- We identified four new splicing variants in testis that could be derived from alternative splicing of exons 8-10, 10, a part of 12-13, and 16. (elsevier.com)
- The cell frequently alters the use of alternative exons in response to physiological stimuli. (umassmed.edu)
- Exons that are regulated by PyrCer have in common suboptimal splice sites, are unusually short and share two 4-nt motifs, GAAR and CAAG. (umassmed.edu)
- The protein binds to a conserved UGCAUG element found downstream of many alternatively spliced exons and promotes inclusion of the alternative exon in mature transcripts. (innov-research.com)
- Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. (bvsalud.org)
- Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA . (bvsalud.org)
- Alternatively spliced RNA transcripts that are derived from a set of exons that are located in the middle of the primary transcript (RNA PRECURSORS), between unused exons. (bvsalud.org)
- Exon-exon junction spanning peptides provide direct evidence for the translation of specific splice isoforms and are critical for delineating protein isoform complexity. (nih.gov)
- Our study demonstrates that detection of proteome diversity resulted from alternative splicing is limited by trypsin cleavage specificity, and that complementary digestion schemes will be essential to comprehensively analyze the translation of alternative splicing isoforms. (nih.gov)
- In GBM, changes in the balance of splicing isoforms or the production of new splicing isoforms can alter the expression of the corresponding proteins and promote the generation of various malignant phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We establish that human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons well represent the diversity of NRXN1α alternative splicing observed in the human brain, cataloguing 123 high-confidence in-frame human NRXN1α isoforms. (nature.com)
- Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the mouse expresses multiple variably spliced CD44 isoforms and that expression is regulated in a tissue- and cell-type specific manner. (ox.ac.uk)
- Interestingly, both phenotypes were suppressed in flies that could produce TIM proteins only from a transgene that cannot form the thermosensitive splicing isoforms. (elifesciences.org)
- Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available," they write. (pacb.com)
- The alternative splice isoforms are differentially regulated in different brain regions, exhibit a diurnal cycle, and are modulated by development, neurotrophins, and neuronal activity. (pacb.com)
- RNA-Seq experiments showed that amiloride not only significantly altered the level of transcript isoforms and alternative splicing events, but also deregulated the spliceosomal machinery. (nih.gov)
- The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different. (bvsalud.org)
- Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA . (nih.gov)
- A particularly challenging barrier to diagnosis is identifying variants that cause deleterious alternative splicing at intronic or exonic loci outside of canonical donor or acceptor splice sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- The resulting model of regional splicing constraint captures differential splicing constraint across gene and exon categories, and the most constrained genic regions are enriched for pathogenic splice-altering variants. (biomedcentral.com)
- ConSpliceML more accurately distinguishes deleterious and benign splicing variants than state-of-the-art splicing prediction methods, especially in "cryptic" splicing regions beyond canonical donor or acceptor splice sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- Integrating a model of genetic constraint with annotations from existing alternative splicing tools allows ConSpliceML to prioritize potentially deleterious splice-altering variants in studies of rare human diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- For example, variants at canonical di-nucleotide donor or acceptor splice sites lead to mis-splicing and are frequently deleterious. (biomedcentral.com)
- These estimates are based on evidence of splice-altering variants occurring beyond the exon-intron junctions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. (nih.gov)
- We present here a new release of ASPicDB which now provides a unique annotation resource of human protein variants generated by alternative splicing. (unimib.it)
- The expression patterns of the splicing variants in the hepatoma and colon cancer cells were different from those of the testis. (elsevier.com)
- Seven haplotypes (I-VII) and four splice variants (SV154/182/183/200) with differing antiviral activities and geographic distributions have been described, but the genetic and mechanistic basis for variant expression and function remains unclear. (uthscsa.edu)
- We show that SV200 is at least fourfold more HIV-1 restrictive than other A3H splice variants. (uthscsa.edu)
- Thus, earlier estimates of 2,000-3,000 neurexin variants created by alternative splicing may have been an underestimate, because our present study arrived at the same numbers by analyzing only one brain region and one developmental stage. (pacb.com)
- We further investigated the functionality of this region using RNA-electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show differential RNA-protein complex formation at the H1 and H2 sequence variants of SNP rs17651213 and rs1800547 and subsequently identified candidate trans-acting splicing factors interacting with these functional SNPs sequences by RNA-protein pull-down experiment and mass spectrometry. (ox.ac.uk)
- CONCLUSIONS: We identified common splice factors hnRNP F and hnRNP Q regulating the haplotype-specific splicing of MAPT exon 3 through intronic variants rs1800547 and rs17651213. (ox.ac.uk)
- Both baseline and drug-induced changes in AS events (ASEs) were measured using a multivariate analysis of transcript splicing (rMATS). (aacrjournals.org)
- Sequence analysis revealed that the size difference in these transcripts was due to deletion of the 58 bp sequence encoded by exon II, suggesting that the smaller transcript results from an alternative splicing of the exon II sequence during processing of the β-pol precursor RNA. (utmb.edu)
- The retrieval can be carried out at gene, transcript, exon, protein or splice site level allowing the selection of data sets fulfilling one or more features settled by the user. (unimib.it)
- Multiple fibronectin mRNAs arise by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of a single gene. (princeton.edu)
- Read lengths of up to 30 kb enabled us to identify all of the splice combinations within a single transcript," they report. (pacb.com)
- The team was able to map out the full transcript landscape for a neurexin gene, showing alternative splicing at all six canonical sites as well as at several noncanonical sites. (pacb.com)
- Alternative splicing (AS), one of the main post-transcriptional biological regulation mechanisms, plays a key role in the progression of glioblastoma (GBM). (biomedcentral.com)
- This study is the first comprehensive view of cancer-specific circRNA alternative splicing, which could contribute significantly to regulation and functional research of circRNAs in cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
- High-Resolution Expression Map of the Arabidopsis Root Reveals Alternative Splicing and lincRNA Regulation. (duke.edu)
- CD44 isoform expression mediated by alternative splicing: tissue-specific regulation in mice. (ox.ac.uk)
- Multiple roles of TDP-43 in gene expression, splicing regulation, and human disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Finally, gene knockdown of candidate splice factors identified by mass spectrometry demonstrate a role for hnRNP F and hnRNP Q in the haplotype-specific regulation of exon 3 inclusion. (ox.ac.uk)
- In addition to these four one-domain A3 proteins, a fifth A3, designated A3CH, is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. (uni-frankfurt.de)
- Splicing factors are RNA-binding proteins that regulate splicing, and manipulating splicing-factor levels could lead to therapeutic approaches for diseases with splicing-factor defects, says Anczuków. (jax.org)
- A family of splicing factors known as serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins have been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies, she notes. (jax.org)
- A rational nomenclature for serine/arginine-rich protein splicing factors (SR proteins). (nih.gov)
- However, the proportion of alternative transcripts and proteins actually endowed with functional activity is currently highly debated. (unimib.it)
- One mechanism for establishing tissue-specific alternative splicing is by modulation of the expression levels and/or intrinsic functions of "general" RNA binding proteins (RBPs) [ 8 - 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, another mechanism of tissue-specific alternative splicing is mediated by "tissue-specific RBPs", which accounts for the restricted expression of many RNA binding proteins to distinct tissues or developmental stages. (biomedcentral.com)
- Alternative splicing is a cellular mechanism that allows cells to produce many different proteins from a single gene. (besthealtharticle.com)
- Alternative splicing allows the cell to make different proteins by combining the 'beads' in different ways. (besthealtharticle.com)
- The researchers and other groups previously determined that alternative splicing regulators Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 were required for muscle development and function, but Cooper's group hypothesized that the two proteins worked together, and their combined role in adult muscle had not been studied before. (besthealtharticle.com)
- We employed a computational strategy to prioritize pathogenic splicing events in human islets treated with IL-1β + IFN-γ as an ex vivo model of T1D and coupled this analysis with a k-mer based approach to predict RNA binding proteins involved in AS. (figshare.com)
- We found that PyrCer binds to the PP1 catalytic subunit and inhibits the dephosphorylation of several splicing regulatory proteins containing the evolutionarily conserved RVxF PP1-binding motif (including PSF/SFPQ, Tra2-beta1 and SF2/ASF). (umassmed.edu)
- Grb3-3 is an isoform of Grb2, thought to arise by alternative splicing, that lacks a functional SH2 domain but retains functional SH3 domains, which allow interaction with other proteins through binding to prolinerich sequences. (drugbank.com)
- Splice sites GT-AG and CT-AC are required to support back-splicing and alternative splicing junctions. (biomedcentral.com)
- It provides routines for identification, characterization and visualization of novel and existing (annotated) splice junctions from RNA-seq data. (metacpan.org)
- Identification of novel splice junctions is based on intersecting potentially novel splice junctions from RNA-seq data with annotated splice junctions. (metacpan.org)
- containing all its splice junctions. (metacpan.org)
- is 1, canonical splice junctions are reported in the 'name' field of the output BED6 file. (metacpan.org)
- Extracts splice junctions from mapped RNA-seq data. (metacpan.org)
- The fifth element indicates the splice junction type: A capital 'N' determines a normal splice junction, whereas 'C' indicates circular and 'T' indicates trans-splice junctions, respectively. (metacpan.org)
- Only normal splice junctions ('N') are considered, the rest is skipped. (metacpan.org)
- Produce BED12 output for splice junctions found in RNA-seq data. (metacpan.org)
- is 1, circular splice junctions are reported (if present in the input), else normal splice junctions are processed. (metacpan.org)
- Intersects all splice junctions identified in an RNA-seq experiment with annotated splice junctions. (metacpan.org)
- Identifies and characterizes novel and existing splice junctions. (metacpan.org)
- All of the splicing junctions followed the conserved GT/AG rule. (elsevier.com)
- The most important of these features are the abundance of exon in transcripts, the strength of splice sites, the rank of exon in transcripts and the type of exon. (who.int)
- This is to prevent the tool from intersecting each splice site found in the mapped RNA-seq data with all annotated transcripts. (metacpan.org)
- The relatively large size of α-neurexin transcripts (~4-5 kb) has made it difficult to obtain information about their full-length sequence, and hence about the use of alternative splice sites within single transcripts. (pacb.com)
- Alternative spliced transcripts of mdig were detected in some lung cancer cell lines. (cdc.gov)
- Next I will outline the way in which we use such data in our attempts to identify exon-tumor combinations exhibiting splicing patterns different from the majority. (cam.ac.uk)
- Then I will briefly discuss some of the additional issues which arise when we seek to enumerate such alternative splicing patterns on a genome-wide scale. (cam.ac.uk)
- In this way, we determined that 29 of 35 CRC cell lines had altered splice patterns, indicating the alternative splicing may be related to colorectal cancer. (colorado.edu)
- This suggests that genome-wide alternative splicing patterns are regulated by a combination of tissue-specific cis -acting elements and "general elements" whose functional activities are important but differ across multiple tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- Evaluation of global splicing patterns using statistical approaches has the potential to reveal how combinations of cis -acting RNA elements (CAEs) contribute to tissue-specific patterns of alternative splicing. (biomedcentral.com)
- Comparisons across cell types revealed that alternative splicing tends to remove parts of coding regions from a longer, major isoform, providing evidence for a progressive mechanism of splicing. (duke.edu)
- Here, we analyzed a previously uncharacterized, alternative splice variant (isoform 2) of human αA-crystallin with an exchanged N-terminal sequence. (cipsm.de)
- Being able to directly assess alternative splicing not only provided evidence for suspected isoform diversity, but also revealed "that neurexins are likely even more polymorphic than previously thought," the team reports. (pacb.com)
- The longest gene product (isoform 1) enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis while the alternatively spliced shorter gene products (isoform 2 and isoform 3) promote apoptosis and are death-inducing. (prosci-inc.com)
- Alternative splicing dramatically increases transcriptome complexity but its contribution to proteome diversity remains controversial. (nih.gov)
- Alternative splicing is emerging as a major mechanism for the expansion of the transcriptome and proteome diversity, particularly in human and other vertebrates. (unimib.it)
- Bao H, Li E, Mansfield SD, Cronk QC, El-Kassaby YA, Douglas CJ (2013) The developing xylem transcriptome and genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) populations. (wikidot.com)
- The advent of genome-wide splicing-sensitive microarrays provides a new perspective to address issues of combinatorial control of alternative splicing. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have investigated the role of the alternative-splicing factor Sfrs1, an arginine/serine-rich (SR)protein family member, during mouse retinal development. (biologists.com)
- Serine and Arginine Rich Splicing Factor 2 was implicated in 37.2% of potentially pathogenic events, including Exon5 exclusion in HLA-DMB. (figshare.com)
- Alternative splicing (AS) is a co-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of plants in response to environmental stress. (bvsalud.org)
- About one third of predicted CAEs can be mapped to the known RBP (RNA binding protein) binding sites or match with other predicted exonic splicing regulator databases. (biomedcentral.com)
- A noticeable exception is that many exonic elements are found to regulate the alternative splicing between cerebellum and testes. (biomedcentral.com)
- An AS correlation network, including 54 AS events and 94 splicing factors, was constructed, and further functional enrichment was performed. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although a number of circRNAs were functionally characterized in human diseases and cancers [ 5 ], the internal structure of circRNA remains ambiguous due to potential alternative splicing, which leads to disadvantages in functional research of circRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
- We carried out a systematic analysis to characterize the potential functional consequences of alternative splicing changes in thousands of tumor samples. (hclimente.eu)
- We propose that a subset of the alternative splicing changes observed in tumors may represent independent oncogenic processes that could be relevant to explain the functional transformations in cancer, and some of them could potentially be considered alternative splicing drivers (AS drivers). (hclimente.eu)
- In addition, disruption of the splicing machinery in immunofluorescence studies was associated with the inhibition of myeloma cell viability after amiloride exposure. (nih.gov)
- Among the 43 hits we identified was the alternative splicing regulator P-element somatic inhibitor (PSI). (elifesciences.org)
- This gene encodes an RNA binding protein that is thought to be a key regulator of alternative exon splicing in the nervous system and other cell types. (innov-research.com)
- Here, we proposed a de novo algorithm, CircSplice, that could identify internal alternative splicing in circRNA and compare differential circRNA splicing events between different conditions ( http://gb.whu.edu.cn/CircSplice or https://github.com/GeneFeng/CircSplice ). (biomedcentral.com)
- We also established an approach largely based on the AS factor-AS events associations and identified LSM7, an alternative splicing factor, may be responsible for the major altered events. (ejbiotechnology.info)
- Five-year, $2.1 million federal grant to Olga Anczuków of JAX will reveal role of splicing-factor defects in cardiac or neurological disorders, cancer and more. (jax.org)
- is uncovering how splicing factors are regulated, with the goal of developing molecules to correct splicing-factor defects. (jax.org)
- Characterization of SRp46, a novel human SR splicing factor encoded by a PR264/SC35 retropseudogene. (nih.gov)
- The product Assay kit for Mouse Alternative Splicing Factor (ELISA) is intended to be used for research purposes only. (rnagrade.com)
- The product Assay kit for Mouse Alternative Splicing Factor (ELISA) should be kept between two and eight degrees Celsius to ensure the retention of the stability and reactivity of the reagents included in the kit. (rnagrade.com)
- This grant leverages our lab's expertise in developing tools and models to study splicing dysregulation in diseases," she says. (jax.org)
- Loss of nuclear TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes altered expression of splicing machinery and widespread dysregulation of RNA splicing in motor neurones. (medlineplus.gov)
- ratschlab/spladder: Tool for the detection and quantification of alternative splicing events from RNA-Seq data. (github.com)
- Therefore, we conclude that PSI regulates the period of Drosophila circadian rhythms and circadian behavior phase during temperature cycling through its modulation of the tim splicing pattern. (elifesciences.org)
- Analysis of alternative splicing with microarrays: successes and challenges. (ucla.edu)
- 0.05) were identified from 19,722 alternatively spliced events. (mendeley.com)
- Briefly, the software takes a given annotation and RNA-Seq read alignments in standardized formats, transforms the annotation into a splicing graph representation, augments the splicing graph with additional information extracted from the read data, extracts alternative splicing events from the graph and quantifies the events based on the alignment data. (github.com)
- Then, splicing correlation network was constructed based on these AS events and associated splicing factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- By applying CircSplice in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer, we detected 4498 and 2977 circRNA alternative splicing (circ-AS) events in the two datasets respectively and confirmed the expression of circ-AS events by RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
- To explore the potential variable internal structures in circRNA, we developed a de novo algorithm named CircSplice, which can identify alternative splicing events in circRNA, also called circ-AS. (biomedcentral.com)
- CircSplice is a Perl script that detects potential circRNA first by back-splicing events. (biomedcentral.com)
- Then, alternative splicing events within back-splicing reads and paired-end reads are identified. (biomedcentral.com)
- Four circ-AS events were identified in CircSplice: skipping exon (SE), retained intron (RI), alternative 5′ splice site (A5SS) and alternative 3′ splice site (A3SS). (biomedcentral.com)
- The team used Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT®) Sequencing to analyze full-length mRNAs from different members of the neurexin gene family and used that information to examine alternative splicing events. (pacb.com)
- and the finding that splicing events seem to occur independently of one another. (pacb.com)
- PlaASDB: a comprehensive database of plant alternative splicing events in response to stress. (bvsalud.org)
- In this study, we present a model-based computational approach to identify potential cis -acting RNA elements by considering the exon splicing variation as the combinatorial effects of multiple cis -acting regulators. (biomedcentral.com)
- These types of analytical tools are important for elucidating the combinatorial code governing splice site selection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The relative lack of significant sequence similarity makes splicing a very error-prone reaction. (blogspot.com)
- Note that the sequence of available ORFs provided by InvivoGen can differ from a given reference Genbank record due to genetic variations and/or alternative splicing. (invivogen.com)
- The results indicate that the Rbfox splicing regulators, which are highly conserved from the worm C. elegans to humans, are essential for maintaining skeletal muscle mass in adult mice. (besthealtharticle.com)
- Hypoxia plays an important role in regulating the 11 cancer hallmarks, including metabolic reprogramming, genomic instability, alternative splicing, etc. (frontiersin.org)
- whose genomic location spans the query splice junction. (metacpan.org)
- Perturbed splicing of the AR-V7 variant in treatment-resistant prostate cancer and MDM2 in p53 wild-type cancers were prominent examples. (aacrjournals.org)
- Several existing tools predict the likelihood that a genetic variant causes alternative splicing. (biomedcentral.com)
- We sought to extend such methods by developing a new metric that aids in discerning whether a genetic variant leads to deleterious alternative splicing. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, it is largely unknown at the alternative splicing level which has been found to play important roles in the tumor-immune microenvironment. (ejbiotechnology.info)
- Alternative splicing changes are frequently observed in cancer and are starting to be recognized as important signatures for tumor progression and therapy. (hclimente.eu)
- We describe analyses of the contribution of this alternative splicing to fibronectin subunit heterogeneity in three different cell types using antisera directed against specific segments of fibronectin. (princeton.edu)
- One region of alternative splicing accounts for differences in subunit size, while a second contributes to differences between the fibronectins present in blood plasma and in fibronectin cells. (princeton.edu)
- Overall, our results demonstrate the antimyeloma activity of amiloride and provide a mechanistic rationale for its use as an alternative treatment option for relapsed multiple myeloma patients, especially those with 17p deletion or TP53 mutations that are resistant to current therapies. (nih.gov)
- To study the impact of enzyme selection on splice junction detectability, we performed in-silico digestion of the human proteome using six proteases. (nih.gov)
- Each splice junction is represented as two bed lines in the output BED6. (metacpan.org)
- The fourth column in this BED file (correponding to the 'name' field according to the BED specification ) should be a colon-separated string of six elements, where the first element should be 'splits' and the second element is assumed to hold the number of reads supporting this splice junction. (metacpan.org)
- BED6 files containing splice junction information from other short read mappers or third-party sources will be processed if they are formatted as described above. (metacpan.org)
- This analysis revealed that a subset of alternative splicing changes affect protein domain families that are frequently mutated in tumors and potentially disrupt protein-protein interactions in cancerrelated pathways. (hclimente.eu)
- Our results highlight the requirement of Sfrs1-mediated alternative splicing for the survival of retinal neurons, with sensitivity defined by the window of time in which the neuron was generated. (biologists.com)
- Now, we're not talking here about so-called alternatives that are really just genetics in disguise. (nationalgeographic.com)
- A wide variety of human diseases may result from defects in splicing factors, which control the version of a given gene that is expressed. (jax.org)
- Single-molecule RNA FISH confirmed increased HLA-DMB splicing in pancreatic sections from human donors with established T1D and autoantibody positivity. (figshare.com)
- Here we report a computational method to mechanistically identify cis -acting RNA elements that contribute to the tissue-specific alternative splicing pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite an increased focus on the factors regulating tissue-specific alternative splicing, these mechanisms still remain largely unclear. (biomedcentral.com)