Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Tenuazonic Acid: 3-Acetyl-5-sec-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one. A metabolite found in a strain of the fungus Alternaria tenuis Auct. which functions as an antibiotic with antiviral and antineoplastic properties, and may also act as a mycotoxin.Alternariosis: Opportunistic fungal infection by a member of ALTERNARIA genus.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.zeta Carotene: A carotenoid produced in most carotenogenic organisms. It is one of several sequentially synthesized molecules that are precursors to BETA CAROTENE.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Tissue Conditioning (Dental): The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Sasa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.Forensic Genetics: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Denture Liners: Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Replica Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue specimens for visualization using an electron microscope, usually a scanning electron microscope. The methods involve the creation of exact copies of the specimens by making a mold or cast (i.e., replica) of the specimen.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.CyclobutanesTrichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.

Sensitivity distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi to antibiotics. (1/261)

The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of various antibiotics and fungicides for Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas coronafaciens var. atropurpurea, P. lachrymans, Alternaria mali, A. kikuchiana, Pyricularia oryzae, Botrytis sp. and Sclerotinia sp. isolated from diseased plants in various localities of Japan were examined to enable the isolates to be gruoped into sensitive and resistant strains. To minimize the effects of various variable conditions, MIC of isolates were pooled for either 2 or 3 years and were plotted in a single figure. The grouping values were determined on the basis of MIC values of the antibiotics and agricultural chemicals on phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi under investigations. The relationships between grouping values for isolates of bacteria and fungi and the control of disease on the plants correlated to each other were studied.  (+info)

Multiple epoxide hydrolases in Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and their relationship to medium composition and host-specific toxin production. (2/261)

The production of Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici host-specific toxins (AAL toxins) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity were studied during the growth of this plant-pathogenic fungus in stationary liquid cultures. Media containing pectin as the primary carbon source displayed peaks of EH activity at day 4 and at day 12. When pectin was replaced by glucose, there was a single peak of EH activity at day 6. Partial characterization of the EH activities suggests the presence of three biochemically distinguishable EH activities. Two of them have a molecular mass of 25 kDa and a pI of 4.9, while the other has a molecular mass of 20 kDa and a pI of 4.7. Each of the EH activities can be distinguished by substrate preference and sensitivity to inhibitors. The EH activities present at day 6 (glucose) or day 12 (pectin) are concomitant with AAL toxin production.  (+info)

Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. (3/261)

The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone of the wild-type strain was isolated. Structural and functional analyses of an 8.0-kb region corresponding to the tagged site indicated the presence of two genes. One, designated AKT1, encodes a member of the class of carboxyl-activating enzymes. The other, AKT2, encodes a protein of unknown function. The essential roles of these two genes in both AK-toxin production and pathogenicity were confirmed by transformation-mediated gene disruption experiments. DNA gel blot analysis detected AKT1 and AKT2 homologues not only in the Japanese pear pathotype strains but also in strains from the tangerine and strawberry pathotypes. The host-specific toxins of these two pathotypes are similar in structure to AK-toxin. Homologues were not detected in other pathotypes or in non-pathogenic strains of A. alternata, suggesting acquisition of AKT1 and AKT2 by horizontal transfer.  (+info)

Requirement of functional ethylene-insensitive 2 gene for efficient resistance of Arabidopsis to infection by Botrytis cinerea. (4/261)

Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola results in systemic induction of genes encoding a plant defensin (PDF1.2), a basic chitinase (PR-3), and an acidic hevein-like protein (PR-4). Pathogen-induced induction of these three genes is almost completely abolished in the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1. This indicates that a functional ethylene signal transduction component (EIN2) is required in this response. The ein2-1 mutants were found to be markedly more susceptible than wild-type plants to infection by two different strains of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, no increased fungal colonization of ein2-1 mutants was observed after challenge with avirulent strains of either Peronospora parasitica or A. brassicicola. Our data support the conclusion that ethylene-controlled responses play a role in resistance of Arabidopsis to some but not all types of pathogens.  (+info)

A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1. (5/261)

The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which cause inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in vitro and are toxic for some plant species and mammalian cell lines. Sphingolipids can be determinants in the proliferation or death of cells. We investigated the tomato Alternaria stem canker (Asc) locus, which mediates resistance to SAM-induced apoptosis. Until now, mycotoxin resistance of plants has been associated with detoxification and altered affinity or absence of the toxin targets. Here we show that SAM resistance of tomato is determined by Asc-1, a gene homologous to the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1 and that susceptibility is associated with a mutant Asc-1. Because both sphingolipid synthesis and LAG1 facilitate endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast, we propose a role for Asc-1 in a salvage mechanism of sphingolipid-depleted plant cells.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cyclic peptide synthetase gene from Alternaria alternata apple pathotype whose product is involved in AM-toxin synthesis and pathogenicity. (6/261)

Afternaria afternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), with primers designed to conserved domains of peptide synthetase genes, amplified several products from A. alternata apple pathotype that showed high similarity to other fungal peptide synthetases and were specific to the apple pathotype. Screening of a Lambda Zap genomic library with these PCR-generated probes identified overlapping clones containing a complete cyclic peptide synthetase gene of 13.1 kb in length with no introns. Disruption of this gene, designated AM-toxin synthetase (AMT), by transformation of wild-type A. afternata apple pathotype with disruption vectors resulted in toxin-minus mutants, which were also unable to cause disease symptoms on susceptible apple cultivars. AM-toxin synthetase is therefore a primary determinant of virulence and specificity in the A. alternata apple pathotype/apple interaction.  (+info)

Report of successful prolonged antifungal therapy for refractory allergic fungal sinusitis. (7/261)

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is an increasingly recognized cause of refractory chronic sinusitis in the young immunocompetent host, analogous to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a related process in the lower respiratory tract. Most patients experience remittent disease despite corticosteroid therapy and aggressive sinus surgery. Because controlled trials have shown adjunctive antifungal therapy to be of benefit in treating ABPA, long-term oral itraconazole was used in a young man with remittent AFS, which was able to break the cycle of relapsing disease.  (+info)

Structural and functional complexity of the genomic region controlling AK-toxin biosynthesis and pathogenicity in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. (8/261)

The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-specific AK-toxin and causes black spot of Japanese pear. Previously, a cosmid clone, pcAKT-1, was isolated that contains two genes, AKT1 and AKT2, within a 5.0-kb region required for AK-toxin biosynthesis. The wild-type strain has multiple, nonfunctional copies of these genes. In the present study, two additional genes, AKTR-1 and AKT3-1, downstream of AKT2 were identified. Transformation of the wild type with AKTR-1- and AKT3-1-targeting vectors produced toxin-deficient (Tox-), nonpathogenic mutants. DNA gel blot analysis, however, demonstrated that the fragments targeted in Tox- mutants were different from those containing AKTR-1 and AKT3-1 on the transforming vectors. A cosmid clone, pcAKT-2, containing the targeted DNA was isolated and shown to carry two genes, AKTR-2 and AKT3-2, with high similarity to AKTR-1 and AKT3-1, respectively. Transcripts from not only AKTR-2 and AKT3-2 but also AKTR-1 and AKT3-1 were found in the wild type. DNA gel blot analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AKTR and their homologues are on a single chromosome. These results indicate the structural and functional complexity of the genomic region controlling AK-toxin biosynthesis.  (+info)

*Alternaria

... causes leaf blight on carrot Alternaria carthami Alternaria celosiae Alternaria cinerariae Alternaria citri Alternaria ... infests cole crops Alternaria gaisen - causes ringspot disease of pear Alternaria helianthi Alternaria helianthicola Alternaria ... causes ginseng blight Alternaria perpunctulata Alternaria petroselini - causes parsley leaf blight Alternaria porri Alternaria ... grows on various cucurbits Alternaria dauci - grows on carrot Alternaria dianthi Alternaria dianthicola Alternaria eichhorniae ...

*Alternaria brassicae

... is a plant pathogen able to infect most Brassica species including important crops such as broccoli, ... 30 August 2012), Alternaria black bpot of crucifers: Symptoms, importance of disease, and perspectives of resistance breeding, ... "Alternaria brassicae". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Alternaria brassicae host list : Pathogens of Plants of Hawaii Nowicki, Marcin; et al ...

*Alternaria mali

... , also called Alternaria blotch of apple, is a pathogenic fungus affecting plants. It is prevalent in the ... Yoder, K.S., & Biggs, A.R. (n.d.). Alternaria Blotch, Alternaria mali. Retrieved November 10, 2007 Sawamura, K. (1990) ... n.d.). Alternaria mali. Retrieved November 10, 2007 Campbell, N.A.,&Reece, J.B. (n.d.). International edition biology: Plant ... 2004). (translation: apple alternaria blotch)."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2007-09-12 ...

*Alternaria dauci

Alternaria Leaf Blight is a foliar disease of carrots caused by the fungus Alternaria dauci. Alternaria dauci is included in ... Soylu, S.; Kurt, S.; Soylu, E. M.; Tok, F. M. (2005). "First report of Alternaria leaf blight caused by Alternaria dauci on ... "Influence of rate of soil fertilization on alternaria leaf blight (alternaria dauci) in carrots". Phytoparasitica. 27 (3): 193- ... Alternaria dauci is most well known for its characteristic dark lesions on the leaves of carrots. These lesions are most often ...

*Alternaria brassicicola

... is a plant pathogen. It causes brassica dark leaf spot on most Brassica species, including economically ... 30 August 2012), Alternaria black bpot of crucifers: Symptoms, importance of disease, and perspectives of resistance breeding, ...

*Alternaria japonica

... is a fungal plant pathogen. It is a cause of black spot disease in cruciferous plants. It is not a major ... This fungus is not thought to be a cause of disease in humans, unlike other members of Alternaria. Occurrences of black spot ... Bassimba, D. D. M.; Mira, J. L.; Vicent, A. (2013-05-22). "First Report of Alternaria japonica Causing Black Spot of Turnip in ... Ren, X. X.; Zhang, G. Z.; Dai, W. A. (2012-06-26). "First Report of Damping-off Caused by Alternaria japonica on Chinese ...

*Alternaria citri

The life cycle of Alternaria alternata can be used as a proxy for information on Alternaria citri. However, Alternaria citri ... Alternaria citri is a fungal plant pathogen. Alternaria citri is an ascomycete fungal plant pathogen that causes black rot in ... "Citrus: Alternaria Rot". UC IPM: UC Management Guidelines for Alternaria Rot on Citrus. Retrieved 21 October 2015. Timmer, L. W ... Signs and symptoms of Alternaria citri do not develop until after the fruit is harvested. Alternaria alternata has no known ...

*Alternaria limicola

... is a plant pathogen affecting citruses. It is the cause of the Mancha foliar de los citricos disease. List ...

*Alternaria solani

... is a deuteromycete with a polycyclic life cycle. Alternaria solani reproduces aesexually by means of conidia ... Free water is required for Alternaria spores to germinate; spores will be unable to infect a perfectly dry leaf. Alternaria ... Alternaria solani Resistance to Alternaria solani in Hybrids Between a Solanum tuberosum Haploid and S. raphanifolium. B. Weber ... Alternaria solani is a fungal pathogen, that produces a disease in tomato and potato plants called early blight. The pathogen ...

*Alternaria padwickii

... is a plant pathogen that attacks rice. It is associated with the disease stackburn, otherwise known as ... alternaria leaf spot. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database. ...

*Chocophorus alternaria

... is a moth of the family Pterophoridae. It is found in Argentina, Chile and Ecuador. The wingspan is 13- ...

*Alternaria tenuissima

Davis, ND; Diener, UL; Morgan-Jones, G (August 1977). "Tenuazonic acid production by Alternaria alternata and Alternaria ... Alternaria tenuissima in MycoBank. Alternaria tenuissima in Index Fungorum. ... Alternaria tenuissima is a prolific producer of the allergen Alt a 1. Exposure to this protein can induce an allergic reaction ... Alternaria tenuissima is a saprophytic fungus and opportunistic plant pathogen. It is cosmopolitan in distribution, and can ...

*Alternaria triticina

... is a plant pathogen that causes leaf blight on wheat. It was first identified in India in 1962 and still ... Leaf blight of wheat caused by a new species of Alternaria. Indian Phytopathology 15, 292-293.. ...

*Alternaria alternata

... has many different hosts depending on its forma species. In this review, only Alternaria alternate f. sp. ... Dewdney, M. M. "Alternaria Brown Spot1." EDIS New Publications RSS. Web. 22 October 2015.[2] "Biocontrol of Alternaria ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Japanese Fungi on Plants: Alternaria alternata Mycology Online: Alternaria alternata ... "Alternaria Infection in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Invasive Alternaria ...

*Alternaria panax

... is a plant pathogen, who causes Alternaria blight of Ginseng. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Japanese ...

*Alternaria dianthi

Ataques de Alternaria Dianthi Stevens y Hall, en cultivos de clavel standard [Attacks of Alternaria Dianthi Stevens and Hall, ... Alternaria dianthi, sometimes known as carnation blight, is a fungal pathogen of the Dianthus genus. Alternaria dianthi ... Fourteen gene sequences of Alternaria dianthi have been published as of April 11, 2014 Alternaria dianthi can infect healthy ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Bickerton, J. M., 1943: Alternaria blight of Carnations caused by Alternaria dianthi ...

*Alternaria black spot of canola

Alternaria spp. require 95% relative humidity and temperature between 15° C to 20° C for conidial germination. Alternaria Black ... www.canolacouncil.org/canola-encyclopedia/diseases/alternaria-black-spot/] [Diagnosing alternaria black spot in canola. (n.d ... Alternaria black spot of canola can be found all over the world, but it is most prevalent in mild, humid climates. The ... Alternaria Black Spot of Canola or grey leaf spot is an ascomycete fungal disease caused by a group of pathogens including: ...

*Clark Thomas Rogerson

Alternaria". Trans Kansas Acad 62: 252-256. 1960. ---, ---, ---. "Kansas aeromycology V: Penicillium and Aspergillus". ...

*Fungal keratitis

Alternaria spp. Curvularia Acremonium Yeasts Candida Fusarium spp. is most common then Aspergillus spp. and thirdly Dematitious ...

*Ulocladium botrytis

This is due to the production and detection of Alt a 1, the major allergen produced by Alternaria alternata, in U.botrytis. In ... After much study, it was found that Alternaria maritima was in fact Ulocladium botrytis. Although Ulocladium is now a genus of ... De Hoog, G. S.; Horré, R. (October 2002). "Molecular taxonomy of the alternaria and Ulocladium species from humans and their ... During the late 1900s, a mycologist named Curran described Alternaria maritima as a species new to Ireland. However, Curran's ...

*Archegozetes longisetosus

and Alternaria sp., and some filter papers made of cellulose-rich wood fibres. They fed preferentially on the algae and also ... consumed the Alternaria but rejected the Stachybotrys and the filter papers. After about ten days they started to secrete ...

*Altechromone A

... was isolated from an Alternaria sp. in 1992. It has since been isolated from fungi species such as Hypoxium ... Gu, Wen (May 23, 2009). "Bioactive metabolites from Alternaria brassicicola ML-PO8, an endophytic funus residing in Malus ... trancatum, Ascomycota sp., and Alternaria brassicicola. Researchers have come to the conclusion that Altechromone A is a common ...

*Cladosporium herbarum

and Alternaria spp. spores in Zagreb (Croatia) and effects of some meteorological factors. Ann Agric Environ Med., 2004, 11, ... II Cladosporium und Alternaria Sporen. Acta Allergol 1977, 32, (English Abstract).. ...

*Ulocladium

However, Ulocladium, unlike Alternaria, do not produce alternariols, tenuazonic acid, altersolanols, or macrosporin. The ... 2013). "Alternaria redefined". Studies in Mycology. 75 (1): 171-212. doi:10.3114/sim0015. PMID 24014900. Ulocladium species ... Species of Ulocladium resemble those of genus Alternaria with which they were once included. Several DNA-based phylogenetic ... 2013). "Alternaria redefined". Studies in Mycology. 75 (1): 171-212. doi:10.3114/sim0015. PMID 24014900. ...

*Paclitaxel

It has since been reported in a number of other endophytic fungi, including Nodulisporium sylviforme, Alternaria taxi, ... Alternaria alternata var. monosporus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Nigrospora sp., Pestalotiopsis versicolor, and Taxomyces ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Filamentous allergenic fungus (Alternaria alternata). Alternaria is a dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungus commonly isolated from plants, soil, food, and indoor building environment. They are causative agents of phaeohyphomycosis and other respiratory allergies. It is one of the main fungal causes of allergy, being a common type I and III allergen. It is the most common species isolated from human infections. Cases of onychomycosis, sinusitis, ulcerated cutaneous infections, and keratitis, as well as visceral infections and osteomyelitis have been reported. The production of melanin-like pigment is one of its major morphological characteristics. These moulds are characterized by their dark pigmentation due to melanin, which absorbs harmful UV-radiation. Alternaria alternata also causes leaf spots, rots and blights in plants. Magnification: x400 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3055
Brassica species produce the antifungal indolyl compounds brassinin and its derivatives, during microbial infection. The fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola detoxifies brassinin and possibly its derivatives. This ability is an important property for the successful infection of brassicaceous plants. Previously, we identified a transcription factor, Bdtf1, essential for the detoxification of brassinin and full virulence. To discover genes that encode putative brassinin-digesting enzymes, we compared gene expression profiles between a mutant strain of the transcription factor and wild-type A. brassicicola under two different experimental conditions. A total of 170 and 388 genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than the wild type during the infection of host plants and saprophytic growth in the presence of brassinin, respectively. In contrast, 93 and 560 genes were expressed, respectively, at lower levels in the mutant than the wild type under the two conditions. Fifteen of these ...
Cet article est une ébauche concernant les champignons. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en laméliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. Consultez la liste des tâches à accomplir en page de discussion. Alternaria Chaîne de conidies dAlternaria sp. Genre Alternaria Nees Von Esenb. ex Fries, 1816 Alternaria est un genre de champignons deutéromycètes de la famille des Pleosporaceae. Ce genre renferme un grand nombre despèces (plus de soixante) parasites ou saprophytes. Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la bienvenue ! Comment faire ? Le genre Alternaria comporte 299 espèces. Selon Catalogue of Life (21 août 2017) : Alternaria abietis Tengwall, 1924 Alternaria abundans (E.G. Simmons) Woudenberg & Crous, 2013 Alternaria abutilonis (Speg.) Schwarze, 1917 Alternaria acalyphae (Nelen) E.G. Simmons, 1994 Alternaria acalyphicola E.G. Simmons, 1994 Alternaria achyranthis J.Z. Zhang & T.Y. Zhang, 1999 ...
The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state of Paraíba, Brazil, its occurrence on
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. AU - Tanaka, Aiko. AU - Shiotani, Hiroshi. AU - Yamamoto, Mikihiro. AU - Tsuge, Takashi. PY - 1999/8. Y1 - 1999/8. N2 - The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone of the wild-type strain was isolated. Structural and functional ...
FANTA, NORA; ORTEGA, XIMENA and PEREZ, LUZ M. The development of Alternaria alternata is prevented by chitinases and ß-1,3- glucanases from Citrus limon seedlings. Biol. Res. [online]. 2003, vol.36, n.3-4, pp.411-420. ISSN 0716-9760. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602003000300012.. In addition to phytoalexin synthesis, the defense response of intact Citrus limon seedlings against Alternaria alternata involves both constitutive and induced enzyme activities such as chitinases (Ch) and ß-1,3-glucanases (Glu). A. alternata conidial germination was prevented by protein extracts from inoculated lemon seedlings, but also by extracts from mock-inoculated specimens. On the other hand, degradation of mycelia was accomplished only by protein extracts from inoculated seedlings. The presence of six Ch isoenzymes and of four Glu isoenzymes was detected in protein extracts from mock-inoculated seedlings. As a result of fungal inoculation, the isoenzyme pattern of Ch and Glu changed, making possible the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium. AU - Saito, Mikako. AU - Shinya, Tomonori. AU - Hanai, Kazunari. AU - Katagi, Tetsuya. AU - Matsuoka, Hideaki. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - BY-2 cells form a linear linkage of several cells. Such a unique configuration is thought to be suitable for the cell-to-cell communication analysis in vivo that is the basis of the elucidation of the systemic acquired resistance in plants. Since chitinase is one of the typical stress response proteins in plants, BY-2 cells were treated with various biotic and abiotic stresses to investigate if chitinase could be induced in BY-2 cells. Among 33 stresses, the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium could induce at least three chitinase isozymes. The amount of each isozyme was very small but the most abundant one, TBC-1, could be successfully isolated at the yield of 2μg from 2.4kg wet matter of BY-2 cells. The N-terminal ...
The production of mycotoxins by Alternaria alternata in cellulosic ceiling tiles was examined with thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography procedures. Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were found in ceiling tile extracts, whereas extracts of control rice cultures of all three isolates produced these...
Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse
The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and ...
Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A-C (1-3), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 | 50 μM). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 | 10 μM). Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.
Bethke G., Grundman R.E., Sreekanta S., Truman W., Katagiri F., Glazebrook J.. Pectins, major components of dicot cell walls, are synthesized in a heavily methylesterified form in the Golgi and are partially deesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) upon export to the cell wall. PME activity is important for the virulence of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Here, the roles of Arabidopsis PMEs in pattern-triggered immunity and immune responses to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterial hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) were studied. Plant PME activity increased during pattern-triggered immunity and after inoculation with either pathogen. The increase of PME activity in response to pathogen treatment was concomitant with a decrease in pectin methylesterification. The pathogen-induced PME activity did not require salicylic acid or ethylene signaling, but was dependent on jasmonic acid signaling. In the case of ...
div class=field field-name-field-author-conf-abstracts field-type-text-long field-label-hidden view-mode-rss,,div class=field-items,,div class=field-item even,Stéphanie Pochon, Sandrine Pigné, Nelly Bataillé8208;Simoneau, Marjorie Juchaux, Emmanuel Jaspard, Philippe Simoneau, Thomas Guillemette,/div,,/div,,/div,,section class=field field-name-field-full-title-conf-abstracts field-type-text-long field-label-inline clearfix view-mode-rss,,h2 class=field-label,Full title: ,/h2,,div class=field-items,,div class=field-item even,Structural and Functional analyses of Dehydrin8208;like proteins in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola,/div,,/div,,/section,,section class=field field-name-field-abstract-conf-abstract field-type-text-long field-label-above view-mode-rss,,h2 class=field-label,Abstract: ,/h2,,div class=field-items,,div class=field-item even,Dehydrins (DHN) are a protein subclass of Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEA) which, in plants, ...
Diferentes aspectos epidemiológicos, básicos e aplicados, relativos à pinta preta (Alternaria solani) (PP) e à requeima (Phytophthora infestans) (RQ), foram estudados com o objetivo de gerar informações necessárias ao manejo dessas doenças foliares do tomateiro e batateira. Os estudos básicos foram realizados com o propósito de determinar: a dinâmica de conídios de A. solani ao longo do ano; a sobrevivência do patógeno em restos de folíolos e hastes de tomateiro enterrados ou mantidos sobre a superfície do solo; e a influência da densidade de plantio na intensidade de PP em batateira e tomateiro e RQ em batateira. Foram também geradas informações epidemiológicas aplicadas, com: a validação de sistemas de previsão para PP do tomateiro (FAST, CUFAST e TOMCAST) e para RQ da batateira (BLITECAST, SIMCAST, NEGFRY, Wallin) na região de Viçosa, e o desenvolvimento de um modelo de previsão simples para a PP do tomateiro baseado em precipitação pluviométrica. Maior ...
Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, steroids, terpenoids, pyranones, quinones, and phenolics. This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their occurrences, biological activities and functions. Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi are also discussed.
Alternaria Nees, Syst. Pilze, Suppl. (Würzburg): 72 (1816). Alternaria è un genere di funghi che comprende specie che causano un tipo di muffa, particolarmente diffusa in Italia, che cresce su frutta e verdura in decomposizione e in ambienti particolarmente umidi (caratterizzati da una temperatura che varia tra i 18° e i 32° ed un tasso di umidità superiore al 65%) rilasciando le sue spore soprattutto su carta da parati, tappeti e terriccio. È una delle principali cause di reazioni allergiche quali asma, congiuntivite, rinite e dermatiti. Linsorgenza degli attacchi avviene principalmente tra metà luglio e settembre, periodo nel quale si ha la massima concentrazione di spore nellaria, ma in generale il rischio sussiste a temperature superiori ai 18 °C. Il genere Alternaria comprende specie saprofite e specie parassite; queste ultime causano svariate patologie soprattutto su piante erbacee. Dal punto di vista fitopatologico le specie più importanti di questo fungo sono: Alternaria ...
ALTERNARIA :: Information about ALTERNARIA -- FindTheWord.info is a search engine for English words. FindTheWord.info searches for partial words (both crossword solver and part of word), help with cheating in Scrabble and Wordfeud, finds anagrams, palindromes, and words in word, and much more.The dictionary used contains more than 589,000 English words.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Visando entender os mecanismos envolvidos na resistência de quatro cultivares de batata à pinta preta, esse trabalho teve por objetivos: 1) quantificar os componentes epidemiológicos da resistência dos cultivares Aracy, Delta, Desirée e Bintje que apresentam diferentes níveis de resistência à pinta preta, e estudar o efeito da idade dos tecidos nesses componentes; 2) realizar a análise histológica do processo infeccioso nesses cultivares, visando identificar possíveis mecanismos estruturais e relacionados com os níveis de resistência dos cultivares, e com a resistência de tecidos jovens; 3) verificar se a expressão diferencial de genes homólogos aos genes que codificam as proteínas PR gluB (glucanase básica de tabaco) e chiB (quitinase básica de feijão) respectivamente, se correlaciona com os níveis de resistência dos cultivares analisadas, e com a maior resistência dos tecidos jovens. Os componentes epidemiológicos da resistência, período de incubação (PI), número ...
Michigan State University Extension applies research from MSU to help Michigan residents solve everyday problems in agriculture, community development, nutrition, family finances, youth development and more.
The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, has its main locations in Uppsala, Umeå and Alnarp. Phone:+46 18-67 10 00 • Fax: +46 18-67 20 00 • VAT nr: SE202100281701 • Contact SLU • About SLUs websites. ...
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
Environmental microbiology laboratory providing identification of fungi (mold) and bacteria testing of spore traps, culturable air, tape lift, bulk, and water samples. ERMI and DNA testing offered.
The A. brassicicola-DiG pathosystem has the features of a compatible interaction, producing expanding necrotic lesions. This suggests that there may be a fundamental difference between this interaction and an incompatible one, rather than merely a graded increase in sensitivity relative to Col-0. If this is so, the defense responses of the plant should differ between the compatible and incompatible interactions. As extensive transcriptional profiling has already been reported for incompatible A. brassicicola-Arabidopsis interaction (incompatible), an initial study of the A. brassicicola-DiG pathosystem was performed. The set of transcripts detected overlaps partially with those induced in resistant (Col-0) or relatively sensitive (pad3 in Col-0 background) interactions, but most of the SSH clones represent transcripts that had not been identified before as defense-related. Of a test set of 9 genes from the SSH library tested by RT-PCR, three were differentially expressed at 72 hai in the DiG-A. ...
uuid": "92760a94-6b7c-4874-b96f-b8f7f4c2989e", "type": "records", "etag": "75305ecf4940f8ca4a79006c992225ec8d448ab5", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "238", "dwc:specificEpithet": "solani", "dwc:kingdom": "Fungi", "dwc:recordedBy": "Spiegelberg", "dwc:order": "Pleosporales", "dcterms:references": "http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=1350946", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "(Ellis & G. Martin) L.R. Jones & Grout", "dwc:occurrenceID": "1350946", "dwc:stateProvince": "Washington", "dwc:eventDate": "1924-08-25", "dwc:country": "USA", "idigbio:recordId": "urn:uuid:be5c98a8-fd6b-4ef6-94c3-bf0c559340e4", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Alternaria", "dwc:family": "Pleosporaceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": "Spiegelberg", "symbiota:verbatimScientificName": "Alternaria solani", "dwc:rights": "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/", "dwc:phylum": "Ascomycota", "dwc:locality": "Seaview", "dwc:institutionCode": "BPI", "dwc:class": ...
Brown spot fungal disease (Alternaria alternata) seems to appear from nowhere, revealing itself with full-blown symptoms. Once the fungal pathogens jump into action, you cant eradicate the disease, but you can fight to keep the fungus in check. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment work to stop brown spot fungus ...
Alternaria induces a rapid innate eosinophilia and ILC2 response which is suppressed by HESAlternaria, without OVA, was administered intransally to BALB/c mice
An interaction between the soil and a different fungus was found to a possible cause; the Glomus Mosseae, which attaches itself to the plants root hair, forming a symbiotic relationship with the plant. In other words, this warns the plant, through the roots, to create defenses against Alternaria solani. Researchers are certain that, based on this discovery, "the mycorrhizal network can extend from one set of plant roots to another, its possible that the network of fungal mycelia acts like telephone wires, allowing the plants to communicate underground" (Coombs, 2013). However, this is currently just a hypothesis; not much is known to researchers about the specific details of this mechanism, so how this relationship works is not completely understood yet. If this hypothetical communication were understood and proven to be correct, then scientists would use this as a way to prevent disease in plants by cultivating a mix of good microbes into the soil to accomplish this goal. The benefit from ...
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uuid": "a594619d-1195-40e5-8296-caf83a1fc816", "type": "records", "etag": "9633b029771f37823275667f71a98815eeeea046", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "288", "dwc:specificEpithet": "brassicae", "dwc:kingdom": "Fungi", "dwc:recordedBy": "Sanchez A.; Ocampo E.; Zenteno M.", "dwc:order": "Pleosporales", "dcterms:references": "http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=1350313", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "(Berk.) Sacc.", "dwc:occurrenceID": "1350313", "dwc:eventDate": "1950-10-15", "dwc:country": "Mexico", "idigbio:recordId": "urn:uuid:a1170e27-3679-414b-9b00-d6bfb861360a", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Alternaria", "dwc:family": "Pleosporaceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": "Zenteno M.", "symbiota:verbatimScientificName": "Alternaria brassicae", "dwc:rights": "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/", "dwc:phylum": "Ascomycota", "dwc:locality": "Chapingo", "dwc:institutionCode": "BPI", "dwc:class": "Dothideomycetes", "dwc:catalogNumber": "BPI ...
Crude aqueous extracts from Arabidopsis leaves were subjected to chromatographic separations, after which the different fractions were monitored for antimicrobial activity using the fungus |i|Neurospora crassa|/i| as a test organism. Two major fractions were obtained that appeared to have the same abundance in leaves from untreated plants versus leaves from plants challenge inoculated with the fungus |i|Alternaria brassicicola|/i|. One of both major antimicrobial fractions was purified to homogeneity and identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography/electron impact mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry as 4-methylsulphinylbutyl isothiocyanate (ITC). This compound has previously been described as a product of myrosinase-mediated breakdown of glucoraphanin, the predominant glucosinolate in Arabidopsis leaves. 4-Methylsulphinylbutyl ITC was found to be inhibitory to a wide range of fungi and bacteria, producing 50% growth inhibition in vitro at
Background & Aims: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways which is associated with the triad of cough, wheezing and dyspnea. Allergic asthma is often associated with a personal or family history of allergic diseases and mostly begins at early childhood. Mold is one of the most common irritants of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the last 20 years there has been 30% increase in the prevalence of moldsrelated asthma. Methods: In this study the prevalence of mold allergy in asthmatic patients of less than 18 years old who refrred to Semnan allergy clinic during 2007-2008 was determined. Skin prick test with standard mold allergens was performed and sensitivity to the most prevalent molds like Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, cladosporium and mucor was evaluated. Results: From 220 studied subjects, 35% (95% Confidence Interval: 28.7-41.3%) were shown to be sensitive to at least one mold. The prevalence rates of sensitivity to molds were as follow: Alternaria14.5%, Aspergillus 12.7%,
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Alt a 1 is recognised by approximately 80% to 100% of all Alternaria-allergic patients (29,55). rAlt a 1 has been shown to be similar to natural Alt a 1. In a study of A. alternata-sensitised individuals, 85.7% to ,90% were shown to be sensitised to to rAlt a 1 (25,29). Similarly, in a study of patients with A. alternata allergy, sensitisation could be detected by means of skin test. No false-positive results were obtained with control patients, even at the highest concentration (14). Evaluation of recombinant Alt a 1 using skin test was positive in 6 of 7 individuals allergic to Alternaria. In contrast, in a study using commercially available A. alternata extracts, researchers failed to correctly diagnose Alternaria-allergic patients in 2/10 cases (25 ...
The mechanism for vesicle formation is largely unknown, but it is found in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of bacteria, and used for several different purposes. In pathogenic bacteria the vesicles often contain virulence factors, which can destroy or damage host cells. in the wild, they may also bind to or destroy other bacteria. In less-virulent strains they have been shown to act as a method of removing misformed or unwanted proteins from the periplasmic space (the space between the two membranes). They can also play a part in antibiotic resistance, its not yet certain how but my guess is that they pump the antibiotic into the periplasmic space then vesicle it off to stop it just diffusing back in again ...
Complete information for ACTRT1 gene (Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein T1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ACTRT3 gene (Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein T3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Sorry, I could only read the abstracts I am aware of high radiation-tolerant microbes commonly growing in buildings. The common Hyphomycete genus Alternaria is a good example. Its RH growth requirement: over 80%. I also known that thermophiles grow in animal sheds, mainly in compost piles. That they can be found in school dust, at much lower levels though, only illustrates that school surfaces are sinks for these microbes, not sources. A lot of microbes showing up in buildings as spores, though viable, cannot grow in the building environment, unless it can be documented.. ...
The lining of your respiratory system, extending from your nose through the airways of your lungs, is coated with mucus. This clear, sticky substance helps...
Many people have brown spots or age spots on their face and skin, and even though they are not very scary, people who have them do not feel self-confident. They
Hello, I am 34 weeks pregnant. This is my first baby, so I am completely new to this. A few days ago after urinating I noticed a couple of brown spots with
It has been proved across the time that more and more people tend to give an increased importance to the way one individual looks. Nowadays the image is crucial, it is the image that sells, the image that promotes the individual. It is the image who can give that plus required to get a better job or that something which can attract possible partners. With such an increased attention on image, it is no wonder that people with skin imperfections feel marginalized, are afraid of making their way out in the world, are afraid of trying and unconfident in their success, in themselves and their potential.. One of the most banal skin conditions which can seriously shake ones confidence in themselves is the spotted skin or brown spots as they are known by population. These brown spots have more causes of appearance, starting with excessive exposure to sun, rashes, wounds or damages and ending with hormonal imbalances or other internal problems. Because their highly anesthetic aspect most people try to ...
Read 13 responses to: I am 33 years old and have pretty nice skin. No... Find the best answer on Mamapedia - mom trusted since 2006.
Please specify your age. It can be due to some vitamin deficiency. May be your are living in a cold place, where there is less sun light.
The number of cases of both acetonaemia and displaced abomasums both increased significantly in January, however in neither case did the increase result in the number of cases being above average.
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This study was carried out to identify unknown Alternaria species or less known as plant pathogenic anamorphic fungi from Benghazi District. Plant materials with fungal signs and symptoms were collected and examined to identify causal agents. Five species-A. brassicae (on Eruca sativa), A. longipes (on Nicotiana glauca), A. tenuissima (on Ficus carica), A. triticicola (on Hordeum vulgare L.) and Alternaria state of Pleospora infectoria (on Avena sativa)-were reported as plant pathogenic and new to Libyan mycobiota.
European Journal of Academic Essays 1(9): 20-23, 2014 ISSN (online): 2183-1904 ISSN (print): 2183-3818 www.euroessays.org Alternaria alternata Isolated From Lemons (Citrus lemon) in Libya El-Gali, Zahra Ibrahim Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida Libya. [email protected] Abstract: Lemons (Citrus lemon Burmann) is one of the citrus fruits of Libya. Blight symptoms was observed on plants were grown in homes gardens. I isolated and examined a fungus which causes leaf lesions and blight and fruits drop on lemons by using morphological method. Baseded on classification keys, the pathogen was compared on basis of morphological and characteristics, the recovered isolate from the plant tissues was identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, and identified was confirmed by pathogenicity test. Keywords: Lemons, Blight, Alternaria alternata, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Libya. ...
The concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores was monitored throughoutthe year 2002 in Lublin (Eastern Poland). Fungal spores were sampled with Lanzoni VPPS 2000 volumetricspore trap. The total annual spore concentrations of Alternaria and Cladosporium reached 30,880 and...
The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between meteorologicalconditions and Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in the air of Zagreb in August 2002 andAugust 2003. These months were chosen because they represented climatic extremes. A 7-day VPPS 2000 Hirstvolumetric...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression that post-transcriptionally regulate transcription factors involved in plant physiological activities. Little is known about the effects of miRNAs in disease resistance in apple (Malus×domestica). We globally profiled miRNAs in the apple cultivar Golden Delicious (GD) infected or not with the apple leaf spot fungus Alternaria alternaria f.sp. mali (ALT1), and identified 58 miRNAs that exhibited more than a two-fold upregulation upon ALT1 infection. We identified a pair of miRNAs that target protein-coding genes involved in the defense response against fungal pathogens; Md-miR156ab targets a novel WRKY transcription factor, MdWRKYN1, which harbors a TIR and a WRKY domain. Md-miR395 targets another transcription factor, MdWRKY26, which contains two WRKY domains. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 levels increased, while MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression decreased in ALT1-inoculated leaves; furthermore, the overexpression of
The world potato is facing major economic losses due to disease pressure and environmental concerns regarding pesticides use. This work aims at addressing these two issues by isolating indigenous bacteria that can be integrated into pest management strategies. More than 2,800 strains of Bacillus-like and Pseudomonas-like were isolated from several soils and substrates associated with potato agro-systems in Belgium. Screenings for antagonistic activities against the potato pathogens Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani (BCCM-MUCL5492), Pectobacterium carotovorum (ATCC 15713), Phytophthora infestans (CRA-W10022) and Rhizoctonia solani (BCCM-MUCL 51929) were performed, allowing the selection of 52 Bacillus spp. and eight Pseudomonas spp. displaying growth inhibition of at least 50% under in vitro conditions, particularly against P. infestans. All 60 bacterial isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and further characterized for the production of potential bio-active secondary metabolites.
REFERENCES. BELLAVITE, P; MARZOTTO, M; OLIOSO, D; MORATTI, E; CONFORTI, A. 2014. High-dilution effect revisited. 1. Physicochemical aspects. Homeopathy103: 4-21. [ Links ] BETTI, L; LAZZARATO, L; TREBBI, G; BRIZZI, M; CALZONI, GL; BORGHINI, F; NANI, D. 2003. Effects of homeopathic arsenic on tobacco plant resistance to TMV: theoretical suggestions about system variability, based on a large experimental data set. Homeopathy92: 195-202. [ Links ] BETTI, L; TREBBI, G; MAJEWSKY, V; SCHERR, C; SHAH-ROSSI, D; JÄGER, T, BAUMGARTNER, S. 2009. Use of homeopathic preparations in phytopathological models and in field trials: a critical review. Homeopathy 98: 244-266. [ Links ] BORKOW, G; GABBAY, J. 2005. Copper as biocidal tool. Current Medicinal Chemistry 12: 2163-2175. [ Links ] BRIZZI, M; NANI, D; PERUZZI, M; BETTI, L. 2000. Statistical analysis of the effect of high dilutions of arsenic in a large data set from a wheat germination model. British Homeopathic Journal 89: 63-67. [ Links ] CARNEIRO, ...
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Alternaria leaf blight has been observed in no fewer than a dozen cotton fields in northeast Louisiana, and damage appears to be greatest in fields with low potash levels.
0065] Albugo spp. (white rust) on ornamentals, vegetables (e.g. A. candida) and sunflowers (e.g. A. tragopogonis); Alternaria spp. (Alternaria leaf spot) on vegetables, rape (A. brassicola or brassicae), sugar beets (A. tenuis), fruits, rice, soybeans, potatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata), tomatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata) and wheat; Aphanomyces spp. on sugar beets and vegetables; Ascochyta spp. on cereals and vegetables, e.g. A. tritici(anthracnose) on wheat and A. hordei on barley; Bipolaris and Drechslera spp. (teleomorph: Cochliobolus spp.), e.g. Southern leaf blight (D. maydis) or Northern leaf blight (B. zeicola) on corn, e.g. spot blotch (B. sorokiniana) on cereals and e.g. B. oryzae on rice and turfs; Blumeria (formerly Erysiphe) graminis (powdery mildew) on cereals (e.g. on wheat or barley); Botrytis cinerea (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana: grey mold) on fruits and berries (e.g. strawberries), vegetables (e.g. lettuce, carrots, celery and cabbages), rape, flowers, ...
The study investigated the effect of a Bacillus globisporus strain and produced supernatants on growth of selected plant pathogens, i.e. Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Verticillium dahliae. The highest fungistatic activity of bacterial cultures was found against R. solani, S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea and T. roseum, whereas in case of the supernatant, it was found against R. solani and S. sclerotiorum. At identical concentrations, the fungistatic activity of B. globisporus culture appeared stronger than that of the supernatant. No significant effect of bacterial culture concentration in the medium was observed. Growth of Cladosporium spp., V. dahliae, T. viride, and A. alternata was found both after seven and 10 days of the experiment. In case of the supernatant, this situation was observed only for F. oxysporum, after seven days.
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The search for environmentally biocompatible and cost-effective methods to control filamentous fungi in agriculture is becoming increasingly urgent. In vitro antimicrobial activity of three synthetic peptides was investigated against some filamentous fungi with agricultural relevance. The peptides were an analog of Temporin called Temporizina, a fragment from Pleurocidin termed Plc-2, and a peptide identified from sesame seeds named Pses3. Antimicrobial activity of these peptides towards filamentous fungi has not been previously reported. Seven plant pathogenic or mycotoxigenic fungal species, isolated from plant tissues were assayed: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fulvia fulvum, Fusarium oxisporum, Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium digitatum. Values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined and compared with the commercially available fungicide Captan as a positive control. The peptides showing greatest
MANTECON, Jorge D. Control of potato early blight with triazole fungicide using preventive and curative spraying, or a forecasting system. Cienc. Inv. Agr. [online]. 2009, vol.36, n.2, pp.291-296. ISSN 0718-1620. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202009000200013.. During the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons, two field trials were conducted at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station (Argentina) to study the control of potato early blight (Alternaria solani). Uncut virus-free seed tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Pampeana PNTA that were susceptible to early blight and resistant to late blight were machine planted in 0.20-m intervals in rows spaced 0.8 mapart. Each plot consisted of 4 rows that were 5 meters long. Difenoconazole (Bogard 25EC) was sprayed weekly at a rate of 0.25 L· ha-1 or bi-weekly at a rate of 0.50 L· ha-1 on a preventive program and on a curative program. The same treatments and rates were also applied when the forecast model (Specware 6.02) reached 300 P-Days after ...
Respiratory Allergy Profile Region XIII: CA, Southern Coast Test Code 10655 CPT Code(s) 82785, 86003 (x24) Includes IgE allergy testing for: Alder (t2) Alternaria alternata (a mold) (m6) Aspergillus fumigatus (m3) Bermuda grass (g2) Cat dander (e1) Cladosporium herbarum (m2) Cocroach (i6) Common ragweed (short) (w1) Cottonwood (t14) Dermatophagoides farinae (d2) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (d1) Dog dander (e2) Elm (t8) Johnson grass (g10) Mountain cedar (t6) Mouse Urine Proteins (e72) Mugwort (sagebrush) (w6) Mulberry (t70) Oak (t7) Olive (t9) Penicillium notatum (m1) Rough pigweed (w14) Russian Thistle (prickly saltwort) (w11) Timoth grass (g6) Walnut tree (t10) Immunoglobulin E Preferred Specimen(s) 4 mL serum Minimum Volume 2.5 mL Transport Container Serum Separator Tube (SST ) Transport Temperature Room temperature
... CPT Code(s) 82785, 86003 (x23) Includes IgE allergy testing for: Alternaria alternata (a mold) (m6) Aspergillus fumigatus (m3) Bermuda grass (g2) Cat dander (e1) Cladosporium herbarum (m2) Cockroach (i6) Common ragweed (short) (w1) Cottonwood (t14) Dermatophagoides farinae (d2) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (d1) Dog dander (e2) Elm (t8) Maple (box elder) (t1) Mountain cedar (t6) Mouse Urine Proteins (e72) Mugwort (sagebrush) (w6) Oak (t7) Olive (t9) Penicillium notatum (m1) Rough pigweed (w14) Russian Thistle (prickly saltwort) (w11) Timothy grass (g6) White Mulberry (t70) Immunoglobulin E Methodology Immunoassay (IA)
Microbes emit volatile compounds that affect plant growth and development. However, little or nothing is known about how microbial emissions may affect primary carbohydrate metabolism in plants. In this work we explored the effect on leaf starch metabolism of volatiles released from different microbial species ranging from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to fungi. Surprisingly, we found that all microbial species tested (including plant pathogens and species not normally interacting with plants) emitted volatiles that strongly promoted starch accumulation in leaves of both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Starch content in leaves of plants treated for 2 d with microbial volatiles was comparable with or even higher than that of reserve organs such as potato tubers. Transcriptome and enzyme activity analyses of potato leaves exposed to volatiles emitted by Alternaria alternata revealed that starch overaccumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of sucrose synthase, invertase inhibitors, ...
The news that tangerines can help protect people from cancer sounds a little too good to be true. After all, billions of dollars have been used for cancer research, and nearly everyone expects the cure or prevention for this disease to take the form of a complicated chemical medicine. Recent research on mice, however, has shown that a flavonoid chemical in tangerines called nobiletin can protect against heart attacks, stroke, obesity, and cancer.. Flavonoids are found in a wide variety of fresh fruits like the Minneola Tangerine and vegetables, but research is just starting to understand the effects of these chemicals. In a study by researchers at the University of Western Ontario, a group of scientists fed a group of mice a diet high in fat and sugar, but added concentrated nobelitin. When this group was compared to one with a similar diet but no nobelitin, the mice that were given the added flavonoid gained less weight and had lower blood sugar levels. In other studies, when the chemical was ...
The distinct sweet, juicy flavor of sun ripened tangerines fill our Tangerine Marmalade with sunny good taste. Top an English muffin with Tangerine Marmalade or spoon some on to a just-out-of-the-oven popover for an incredible treat
The strain dubbed Tangerine derives its name from its scent and taste which resemble tangerines with hints of pineapple or mangoes buried beneath an aromatic surface. After being cured, its nuggets look like chunky peppers with thin, burnt orange pistils scattered within its flowers. THC levels average...
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Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of fiber, including the tangerine. Tangerines have a similar...
Buy Whole Foods 2chic Ultra-Volume Conditioner for Fine, Limp Hair Tangerine & Papaya Butter online in Houston, San Antonio. Get best deal on all 2chic Ultra-Volume Conditioner for Fine, Limp Hair Tangerine & Papaya Butter delivery online in Austin at grocery delivery website - Burpy.com
The Tangerine Foam Cleanser from Qyo Qyo keeps the skin moist and bright even after cleaning. The fine foam of this facial cleanser with Jeju tangerine peel ...
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Page 1 of 1: [attach=1] Edgar Froese, the founder of pioneering electronic band Tangerine Dream, has died at the age of 70. According to Tangerine Dream s Faceboo
Nuestro Centro está focalizado en el estudio y tratamiento del Asma Bronquial de niños y adultos, Sinusitis y Enfermedades Alérgicas, con una experiencia acumulada de más de 40 años. En esta página encontrará información de los diferentes servicios que podemos ofrecerle. También encontrará documentación sobre enfermedades alérgicas, recuentos de pólenes y hongos de Madrid y productos útiles para combatir el asma, la sinusitis y la alergia.
Black Spot (Blackspot) - Help and advice on how to identify and get rid of black spot disease on roses and other plants in home gardens.
Black spot on back of throat - Im seeing black spot at back of throat. Is this normal? No. The black spot at back of throat is normal. Black and white spots oral mucous should be checked out by ent.
A fungus causes black spot on roses. Some cultural practices may be helpful in controlling it. These include planting varieties resistant to the disease, ensuring your plants are in a location with good air circulation, and avoiding wetting the leaves when watering. Clean up and destroy any infected leaves, especially in the fall to minimize reinfection from year to year. A clean layer of organic mulch (such as shredded bark or chopped leaves) applied before the plants leaf out again in spring should also help prevent reinfection. The mulch helps keep fungal spores from splashing up onto the plant and the new foliage ...
Fortunately, now you can cultivate your own tangerines at home, whether in the garden or in flowerpots! In this article, we are going to show you how you can cultivate this wonderful citric fruit and you will realize that it is very easy and economic ...
Youngevity Order Line - 888.244.8948 Beyond Tangy Tangerine BTT contains a base of Majestic Earth Plant Derived Minerals blended with vitamins, amino acids and other beneficial nutrients, to make a balanced and complete daily supplement.
Experts say that hormones, genetics, diet and life-style plays vital role in development of this fat. These factors start pushing the fat through collage fiber and get settled right under the skin. Luckily its not accompanied by any serious health ailment. But, its a great cosmetic concern for few people.. Over the counter medicines failed to fulfill their claims about treating cellulite and its not recommend as chemical ingredients in those creams may irritate your skin.. Natural nutrients and vitamins in tangerine essential oil can help to get rid of cellulite and enhance healthy functioning of the skin. (However, there is no strong scientific evidence to back this claim). ...
Who says meringue is only for summer? Add rich dark chocolate and pair with walnuts, madeira-spiked cream and tangerine for a wonderful winter dessert
Dr. Wallachs Majestic Earth Ultimate Tangy Tangerine The most advanced liquid vitamin, mineral and amino acid supplement on the market. The unique properties make it the ultimate in absorption and completeness. Dr Wallach and Youngevity
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There are 25 calories in 1 packet (0.3 oz) of Emergen-C Pink or Tangerine Flavored Fizzy Drink Mix, dry. Youd need to walk 7 minutes to burn 25 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
Does the Eight Skincare Tangerine Hand Crème actually work? Click here to read the full review from Truth In Aging experts and find out for yourself.
A zesty oil that will surely perk up your morning because of its tangy scent and calming effect, find out more about tangerine essential oil through this article.
Update your sleeping space with this beautiful tangerine wingback bed. Cal King is 89" long, 79 1/2" wide. King is 85" long, 83 1/2" wide. Style # 4K160 at Lamps Plus.
Hi everyone, I bought an imac G3 (tangerine)... does anyone know where I can find a diagram on the motherboard (parts, etc)? And can we use the G3 powermacs processor and RAM card to the imac G3...
It could be pollution, but there are four different fungal diseases that cause black spots on hibiscus leaves. Just in case it is a disease, remove the affected leaves to keep it from spreading. Smaller than normal flowers might indicate overwatering or overfertilization. If buds drop before opening, its because of overwatering. To encourage blooms, pinch out the tips of growing stems. You can remove old wood this spring to encourage more new stem growth, as well as maintain the plants vigor ...
Roses are flowering perennial plants prized for their beautiful flowers, which are made up of delicate and layered petals. One of the best ways to propagate new roses is to take a cutting from an existing plant and grow it into a whole new rose bush. When you grow roses from a cutting, you cut a stem from a healthy plant and root it in a growing medium so it grows into an independent plant of its own. However, you can also propagate roses by dividing an existing plant, but this requires a little more effort than with cuttings. To propagate by division, you have to dig up an entire rose bush, cut the root system in half, and replant the two halves as separate bushes ...
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How to treat black spot: Get expert advice on how to treat black spot on your roses from Tom Petherick. Plus find out top tips on planting roses.
I see black spots! Please, help me! Do I have some disease? These black spots appear all of sudden and disappear without any reason. This topic is answered by a medical expert.
What you usually find in the consumer probiotic industry is products with lactic acid bacteria, distributed by food manufacturers with large portfolios of food supplements ranging from vitamins to phytos and some probiotics.. SymbioPharm, on the other hand, is a pharmaceutical company producing probiotic OTC drugs under GMP standards based on living Enterococcus and Escherichia coli. On a worldwide basis, one finds very few probiotic drugs - SymbioPharm holds three of them and is very proud of this.. As a complement to these, it also carries a wide range of food supplements with lactic acid bacteria. Over 90% of SymbioPharms sales are based on probiotic products. Furthermore, it invests heavily in clinical and preclinical studies on its existing products and innovations.. Specifically, the immune-modulating effect of its OTC drugs Symbioflor 1, Symbioflor 2 and Pro-Symbioflor is very different to the effect of probiotics based on lactic acid bacteria.. The non-pathogenic strains of Enterococcus ...
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A flavonoid (a type of antioxidant) in this citrus fruit may protect the body against the triad of diseases known as metabolic syndrome - coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes - according to research from the University of Western Ontario published in the journal Diabetes. When researchers fed mice a typical "western" diet (high in fat and refined sugar) that was supplemented with the tangerine antioxidant nobiletin, the mice experienced no increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, or blood sugar, but mice who didnt get the nobiletin did see a rise. Other long-term animal studies have found that the compound prevents atherosclerosis, the hardening of the arteries that can lead to a heart attack or stroke. Tangerines may also help cancer-proof your body - if you eat the peel. A compound in the peel called salvestrol Q40 halts the activity of an enzyme that incites the growth of cancer cells, a British study found. Try some tangerine zest in your tea or sprinkled on a salad ...
Fungicide with protectant, curative, eradicant, translaminar and systemic properties. Control the following pathogens: Erysiphe graminis, Puccinia spp., Leptosphaeria nodorum, Septoria tritici and Pyrenophora teres on temperate cereals; Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani on rice; Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator on vines; Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucurbitaceae; Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani on potato and tomato; Mycosphaerella arachidis, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii on peanut; Monilinia spp. and Cladosporium carpophilum on peach; Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on turf; Mycosphaerella spp. on banana; Cladosporium caryigenum on pecan; Elsino? fawcettii, Colletotrichum spp. and Guignardia citricarpa on citrus; Colletotrichum spp. and Hemileia vastatrix on coffee ...
0048]In a preferred embodiment the esterase is a lipolytic enzyme, more preferably, a lipase. As used herein, "lipolytic enzymes" refers to lipases and phospholipases (including lyso-phospholipases). The lipolytic enzyme is preferably of microbial origin, in particular of bacterial, fungal or yeast origin. The lipolytic enzyme used may be derived from any source, including, for example, a strain of Absidia, in particular Absidia blakesleena and Absidia corymbifera, a strain of Achromobacter, in particular Achromobacter iophagus, a strain of Aeromonas, a strain of Alternaria, in particular Alternaria brassiciola, a strain of Aspergillus, in particular Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, a strain of Achromobacter, in particular Achromobacter iophagus, a strain of Aureobasidium, in particular Aureobasidium puliulans, a strain of Bacillus, in particular Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus strearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis, a strain of Beauveria, a strain of Brochothtix, in particular ...
A DNA mold analysis that detects 13 species of mold and provides a moldiness index of the building tested. Organisms included in this assay are: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Eurotium amstelodami, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Wallemia sebi, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Cladosporium herbarum. This test is more comprehensive than the Mold Investigator, but not as comprehensive as the ERMI mold test. It is a good value for more advanced analysis. Sampling device included with purchase.. ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl ether(EM) (CAS 109-86-4) Industry Market Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl ether(EM) Industry,...
Toshihiro Kawamoto.; Koji Matsuno.; Fujio Kayama.; Manabu Hirai.; Keiichi Arashidani.; Yoshikawa Masahiro.; Yasushi Kodama. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes. Toxicology. 1990, 62 (3), 265-274.. Amalendu Pal.; Yoginder P. Singh. Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities for Glycol Ether-Water Solutions at the Temperature 308.15 K:? Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl, Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl, and Triethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ethers. J. Chem. Eng. Data. 1996, 41 (3), 425-427.. ...
Introduction: This is a part of extensive research including food and inhalant allergen sensitizations evaluated in the same study in a moist Sakarya province of Turkey, Sakarya.. Aim: Aim of this study was to explore what kind of allergens play a role in sensitizations of atopic dermatitis patients during childhood in Sakarya Province of Turkey.. Methods: 191 patients, 0-18 years of age, who thought to have atopic dermatitis referred to only pediatric allergy outpatient clinic in Sakarya for an allergic evaluation between May 2013-April 2015. Multiple skin prick test system was used as a test apparatus to detect sensitization. For dust mite testing Dermat. pter. / farinae; animals: cat/dog; molds: Alternaria/Cladosporium; grasses: meadow fescue, nettle, mugwort, fathen, weed mix, cereal mix and grass mix; trees: cypress, ash, pine and olive; for foods: cows milk, egg, peanut, hazelnut and fish extracts were utilized. Skin prick test evaluation criteria are as follows: Equal positive response ...

Diversity among Isolates of the Tangerine Pathotype of Alternaria alternataDiversity among Isolates of the Tangerine Pathotype of Alternaria alternata

The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state ... Alternaria diseases of citrus caused by Alternaria spp. (mainly Alternaria alternata) are important diseases with worldwide ... Alternaria brown spot, caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissler is the principal fungal disease of ... The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state ...
more infohttp://www.scirp.org/html/7-2603483_81987.htm

The development of Alternaria alternata is prevented by chitinases and ß-1,3- glucanases from Citrus limon seedlingsThe development of Alternaria alternata is prevented by chitinases and ß-1,3- glucanases from Citrus limon seedlings

FANTA, NORA; ORTEGA, XIMENA and PEREZ, LUZ M. The development of Alternaria alternata is prevented by chitinases and ß-1,3- ... In addition to phytoalexin synthesis, the defense response of intact Citrus limon seedlings against Alternaria alternata ...
more infohttps://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0716-97602003000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium<...A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium<...

A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium. / Saito, Mikako ... A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium. In: Plant ... title = "A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium", ... keywords = "Alternaria alternata, Amino acid sequence, BY-2 cells, Chitinase isozyme, Defense response", ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/a-novel-chitinase-isozyme-in-tobacco-by-2-cells-induced-by-the-au

Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives - Danish National...Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives - Danish National...

Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus ... Alternaria; MALDI-TOF; Molecular identification; Phylogeny; Plant pathology; Pleosporales Main Research Area: Science/ ... Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives. * ... This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains ...
more infohttp://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/235077075

Alternaria Leaf Blight-lesionsAlternaria Leaf Blight-lesions

Alternaria leaf spot lesions can be quite large in size and take on a target-like appearance. ...
more infohttp://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/PhotoPages/Cucurbit/Foliar/FoliarFS6.htm

Plant Pathogenic Alternaria Species in LibyaPlant Pathogenic Alternaria Species in Libya

... and Alternaria state of Pleospora infectoria (on Avena sativa)-were reported as plant pathogenic and new to Libyan mycobiota. ... This study was carried out to identify unknown Alternaria species or less known as plant pathogenic anamorphic fungi from ... Rude, S.V., Duczek, L.J. and Seidle, E. (1999) The Effect of Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria raphani and Alternaria alternata ... Alternaria Species, A. brassicae, A. longipes, A. tenuissima, A. triticicola and Alternaria State of Pleospora infectoria, in ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/Journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=68480

Endopolygalacturonase - Alternaria alternata (Alternaria rot fungus)Endopolygalacturonase - Alternaria alternata (Alternaria rot fungus)

Alternaria tenuissima. Alternaria arborescens. Alternaria sp. FH-2014. Alternaria mali. Alternaria sp. Acitri-1. Alternaria ... Alternaria tenuissima. Alternaria arborescens. Alternaria sp. FH-2014. Alternaria mali. Alternaria sp. Acitri-1. Alternaria ... Alternaria citriarbusti. Alternaria sp. EAP2. Alternaria sp. EAY1. And more. 379. UniRef100_A0A177DXD0. Cluster: ... Alternaria citriarbusti. Alternaria sp. EAP2. Alternaria sp. EAY1. And more. 379. UniRef90_Q9C4A0. Cluster: ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q7Z7T8

Alternaria Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: An OverviewAlternaria Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: An Overview

... Laura Escrivá,1 Souheib Oueslati,2,3 Guillermina Font,1 and Lara Manyes1 ... M. E. H. Müller and U. Korn, "Alternaria mycotoxins in wheat - A 10 years survey in the Northeast ofGermany," Food Control, vol ... P. López, D. Venema, T. de Rijk et al., "Occurrence of Alternaria toxins in food products in The Netherlands," Food Control, ... Q. He, J. Li, X. Kong, A. Yue, and S. Wu, "Simultaneous determination of four Alternaria toxins in apple juice concentrate by ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2017/1569748/ref/

Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone:  - Nucleotide - NCBIAlternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone: - Nucleotide - NCBI

Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone: AM-BAC-14 Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, ... Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone: AM-BAC-14. GenBank: AB525198.1 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AB525198.1

ORNAMENTALS - POINSETTIA AND MARIGOLD - LEAF SPOT ALTERNARIA | GreenbookORNAMENTALS - POINSETTIA AND MARIGOLD - LEAF SPOT ALTERNARIA | Greenbook

ORNAMENTALS. Heritage Fungicide is recommended for control of certain pathogens causing foliar, aerial, and root diseases, including leaf, tip, and flower blights, leaf spots, downy mildew, powdery mildew, anthracnose, and rusts of ornamental plants. Heritage Fungicide may be used to control certain diseases of container, bench, flat, plug, bed or field-grown ornamentals in greenhouses, shade-houses, outdoor nurseries, retail nurseries, and other landscape areas.. Integrated Pest (Disease) Management: Heritage Fungicide should be integrated into an overall disease management strategy that includes selection of varieties with disease tolerance, optimum plant populations, proper fertilization, winter and/or spring pruning, plant residue management and proper timing and placement of irrigation. Immunoassay detection kits and diagnostic services can assist in the early and accurate identification of causal organisms and corresponding selection of the proper fungicide when required.. Resistance ...
more infohttps://www.greenbook.net/node/50587

Allergy Medications for an Allergy to Alternaria Tenuis Fungus | LIVESTRONG.COMAllergy Medications for an Allergy to Alternaria Tenuis Fungus | LIVESTRONG.COM

An allergic reaction to an indoor/outdoor fungus such as Alternaria tenuis can occur at any time of year. Like exposure to ... Like exposure to other molds, inhaling the spores of Alternaria tenuis, also known as Alternaria alternata, causes hay fever- ... National Institutes of Health: Exposure to Alternaria Alternata in US Homes * American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ... Allergy Medications for an Allergy to Alternaria Tenuis Fungus by NANCY CLARKE Aug. 14, 2017. ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/190934-allergy-medications-for-an-allergy-to-alternaria-tenuis-fungus/

Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Metabolites from Alternaria Fungi and Their Bioactivities | NotesMolecules | Free Full-Text | Metabolites from Alternaria Fungi and Their Bioactivities | Notes

At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen- ... This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their ... Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi ... Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/18/5/5891/notes

Toxins | Free Full-Text | Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and ToxicokineticsToxins | Free Full-Text | Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics

Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated ... Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/9/7/228

Allergenic fungus Alternaria alternata, SEM - Stock Image C032/3055 - Science Photo LibraryAllergenic fungus Alternaria alternata, SEM - Stock Image C032/3055 - Science Photo Library

Alternaria alternata). Alternaria is a dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungus commonly isolated from plants, soil, food, and indoor ... Alternaria alternata also causes leaf spots, rots and blights in plants. Magnification: x400 when shortest axis printed at 25 ... Caption: Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Filamentous allergenic fungus (Alternaria alternata). Alternaria is a ... Keywords: 23269b, allergen, allergenic, allergic, allergies, allergy, alternaria, alternata, and, ascomycota, asthma, black, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/799922/view/allergenic-fungus-alternaria-alternata-sem

Alternaria alternata  - Phadia - Setting the Standard - Phadia.comAlternaria alternata - Phadia - Setting the Standard - Phadia.com

Alternaria alternata/Alternaria tenuis Source material: Spores and mycelium Family: Pleosporaceae Common names: Alternaria ... Alternaria is one of the main allergens affecting children. In temperate climates, airborne Alternaria spores are detectable ... Modern buildings may be conducive to the creation of an environment for Alternaria to grow. Alternaria, present in the drip pan ... Sensitised children display symptoms even in the absence of airborne Alternaria spores. Alternaria spore concentration, as well ...
more infohttp://www.phadia.com/en/Products/Allergy-testing-products/ImmunoCAP-Allergens/Molds-and-other-Microorganisms/Allergens/Alternaria-alternata-/

Alternaria - WikipediaAlternaria - Wikipedia

... causes leaf blight on carrot Alternaria carthami Alternaria celosiae Alternaria cinerariae Alternaria citri Alternaria ... infests cole crops Alternaria gaisen - causes ringspot disease of pear Alternaria helianthi Alternaria helianthicola Alternaria ... causes ginseng blight Alternaria perpunctulata Alternaria petroselini - causes parsley leaf blight Alternaria porri Alternaria ... grows on various cucurbits Alternaria dauci - grows on carrot Alternaria dianthi Alternaria dianthicola Alternaria eichhorniae ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria

Identification of  Alternaria  spp. on wheat by pathogenicity assays and sequencingIdentification of Alternaria spp. on wheat by pathogenicity assays and sequencing

The pathogenicity of Alternaria spp. isolated from wheat leaves collected in regions where alternaria leaf blight has been ... Alternaria triticina isolates were distinguished from other Alternaria species by Simmons and Roberts sporulation pattern 6 ... triticina from other nonpathogenic Alternaria species. Alternaria triticina isolates yielded longer ITS sequences than A. ... Alternaria leaf blight symptoms were produced by the A. triticina isolates only on durum wheat cv. Bansi, while A. alternata, A ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/plpa/200608000/00010489-200608000-00003

SEM of the fungus Alternaria alternata - Stock Image - B250/0589 - Science Photo LibrarySEM of the fungus Alternaria alternata - Stock Image - B250/0589 - Science Photo Library

... of the fungus Alternaria alternata, a causative agent of respiratory allergies. Here, fungal threads of the vegetative mycelium ... Alternaria alternata is a cause of both allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in which inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose ... Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fungus Alternaria alternata, a causative agent of respiratory allergies. Here, fungal ...
more infohttps://www.sciencephoto.com/media/13519/view/sem-of-the-fungus-alternaria-alternata

Naturally occurring mixtures of Alternaria toxins: anti-estrogenic and genotoxic effects in vitro | SpringerLinkNaturally occurring mixtures of Alternaria toxins: anti-estrogenic and genotoxic effects in vitro | SpringerLink

Therefore, a naturally occurring mixture of Alternaria toxins was generated as an extract from Alternaria alternata strain DSM ... Generation and characterization of Alternaria extracts. A complete extract (CE) of rice infected with the Alternaria alternata ... Estrogenic impact of Alternaria extracts, a alone or b on the activity of E2, as measured by the AlP assay. All values are ... Chemical structures of selected Alternaria toxins, grouped as a tenuazonic acid, b dibenzo-α-pyrones, c perylene quinones and d ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00204-019-02545-z

Alternaria-induced allergic inflammation to Ovalbumin ( | Open-iAlternaria-induced allergic inflammation to Ovalbumin ( | Open-i

Alternaria-induced allergic inflammation to Ovalbumin (OVA) challenge is suppressed by H. polygyrus Excretory-Secretory (HES) ... potently suppress inflammation induced by allergens from the common fungus Alternaria alternata. Alternaria extract, when ... potently suppress inflammation induced by allergens from the common fungus Alternaria alternata. Alternaria extract, when ... Schematic of the Alternaria model: OVA protein (20 μg) was administered to BALB/c mice intranasally, with or without 50 μg ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4016792_emss-56142-f0001&req=4

Alternaria brassicae - WikipediaAlternaria brassicae - Wikipedia

Alternaria brassicae is a plant pathogen able to infect most Brassica species including important crops such as broccoli, ... 30 August 2012), Alternaria black bpot of crucifers: Symptoms, importance of disease, and perspectives of resistance breeding, ... "Alternaria brassicae". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Alternaria brassicae host list : Pathogens of Plants of Hawaii Nowicki, Marcin; et al ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_brassicae

Nimbya and Embellisia revisited, with nov. comb for Alternaria celosiae and A. perpunctulata | SpringerLinkNimbya and Embellisia revisited, with nov. comb for Alternaria celosiae and A. perpunctulata | SpringerLink

... within the genera Nimbya and Embellisia reside within a large monophyletic clade that also includes the genera Alternaria, ... Simmons EG (1992) Alternaria taxonomy: current status, viewpoint, challenge. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A (eds) Alternaria ... and molecular characterization of Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology 92: ... Simmons EG (1967) Typification of Alternaria, Stemphylium, and Ulocladium. Mycologia 59:67-92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11557-011-0793-7

Alternaria triticina - Semantic ScholarAlternaria triticina - Semantic Scholar

Cutaneous infection with Alternaria triticina in a Bilateral lung transplant recipient.. *María del Carmen González-Vela, ... Effects of Alternaria triticina and foliar fly ash deposition on growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments, protein and lysine ... A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of Alternaria triticina with and without foliar dusting of fly ash ( ... E-CLINICAL CASE Cutaneous Infection with Alternaria triticina in a Bilateral Lung Transplant Recipient ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Alternaria-triticina/911276

Genomic characterization of the conditionally dispensable chromosome in Alternaria arborescens provides evidence for horizontal...Genomic characterization of the conditionally dispensable chromosome in Alternaria arborescens provides evidence for horizontal...

Genomic characterization of the conditionally dispensable chromosome in Alternaria arborescens provides evidence for horizontal ... Alternaria.. arborescens is a major pathogen of tomato, with its virulence determined by the presence of a conditionally ... Genomic characterization of the conditionally dispensable chromosome in Alternaria arborescens provides evidence for horizontal ...
more infohttp://7thspace.com/headlines/411798/genomic_characterization_of_the_conditionally_dispensable_chromosome_in_alternaria_arborescens_provides_evidence_for_horizontal_gene_transfer.html

Early Interaction of Alternaria infectoria Conidia with Macrophages | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEarly Interaction of Alternaria infectoria Conidia with Macrophages | Springer for Research & Development

Alternaria infectoria brain abscess in a child with chronic granulomatous disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;28(4): ... Alternaria-induced release of IL-18 from damaged airway epithelial cells: an NF-κB dependent mechanism of Th2 differentiation? ... Modulation of Alternaria infectoria cell wall chitin and glucan synthesis by cell wall synthase inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents ... Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11046-019-00339-6
  • Most spores of Alternaria are produced by lesions on mature leaves on the tree, or recently fallen infected leaves on the grove floor. (scirp.org)
  • Some genera of fungi with airborne spores, such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium , are found throughout the world (1). (phadia.com)
  • In temperate climates, airborne Alternaria spores are detectable from May to November, with peaks in late summer and autumn (3). (phadia.com)
  • Dispersion of Alternaria spores occurs during dry periods. (phadia.com)
  • Counts of Alternaria on dry, windy days can be in the range of 500 to 1,000 spores per cubic metre in grass- or grain-growing areas. (phadia.com)
  • Alternaria has also been found in house dust samples in the absence of outdoor environmental mold spores (8). (phadia.com)
  • Sensitised children display symptoms even in the absence of airborne Alternaria spores. (phadia.com)
  • Alternaria spores appear in the atmosphere of Sydney year-round, although they peak over spring, summer, and autumn. (phadia.com)
  • A number of meteorological factors, including mean, minimum, and maximum temperature, dew point temperature, and air pressure, are significantly correlated with the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores. (phadia.com)
  • Fungi of the genus Alternaria are ubiquitous indoor and outdoor airborne agents, and individuals are daily exposed to their spores. (springer.com)
  • Our aim was to study the early interaction of Alternaria infectoria spores with macrophages, the first line of immune defense. (springer.com)
  • Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe. (springer.com)
  • Causes for cole crops with alternaria leaf spot include infected seed and spores that spread quickly by rain, overhead irrigation, machinery, animals or humans. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Significant concentrations of Alternaria allergens, between 3.0 and 1000 U/g of dust, have been found in house dust of allergic children, supporting the hypothesis that fungal allergen exposure is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma (6-7). (phadia.com)
  • But Alternaria is predominantly an outdoor allergen favouring damp spots, and most indoor concentrations may derive from outdoor primary sources. (phadia.com)
  • Hong SG, Cramer RA, Lawrence CB, Pryor BM (2005) Alt a1 allergen homologs from Alternaria and related taxa: analysis of phylogenetic content and secondary structure. (springer.com)
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of Alternaria toxins in feed and food," EFSA J , pp. 2407-2504, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • P. M. Scott, W. Zhao, S. Feng, and B. P.-Y. Lau, "Alternaria toxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in grain foods in Canada. (hindawi.com)
  • Impact of Alternaria toxins on CYP1A1 expression in different human tumor cells and relevance for genotoxicity," Toxicology Letters , vol. 240, no. 1, pp. 93-104, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods to Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , vol. 64, no. 24, pp. 5101-5109, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well. (mdpi.com)
  • Together with other compounds including altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (iso-ALT) or altenuisol (ATL), they form the dibenzo-α-pyrone group of Alternaria toxins (Fig. 1 b). (springer.com)
  • Strobilurin-insensitive isolates of Alternaria solani were reported by Dr. Neil Gudmestad (North Dakota State University) for samples of the disease taken from potato fields in southwest Michigan and Dr. Walt Stevenson (University of Wisconsin) for samples taken in Tuscola County, Michigan in 2005. (msu.edu)
  • Conn, K.L. and Tewari, J.P. (1990) Survey of Alternaria Black Spot and Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Central Alberta in 1989. (scirp.org)
  • Alternaria, present in the drip pan of an air conditioner unit, was reported to result in allergic rhinitis and asthma in a sensitised individual (10). (phadia.com)
  • Alternaria is a dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungus commonly isolated from plants, soil, food, and indoor building environment. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Although its importance in human infections and, particularly in respiratory allergies, there are no studies of how Alternaria spp. (springer.com)
  • Identification of Alternaria spp. (ovid.com)
  • Alternaria: An Identification Manual. (apsnet.org)
  • In this model, HES coadministration with Alternaria/OVA suppressed early IL-33 release, innate lymphoid cell (ILC) production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and localized eosinophilia. (nih.gov)
  • Administration of recombinant IL-33 at sensitization with Alternaria/OVA/HES abrogated HES suppression of OVA-specific responses at challenge, indicating that suppression of early Alternaria-induced IL-33 release could be central to the anti-allergic effects of HES. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, the present study indicates AhR-mediated anti-estrogenic effects as a novel mechanism of naturally co-occurring Alternaria toxin mixtures. (springer.com)