A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
Opportunistic fungal infection by a member of ALTERNARIA genus.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
3-Acetyl-5-sec-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one. A metabolite found in a strain of the fungus Alternaria tenuis Auct. which functions as an antibiotic with antiviral and antineoplastic properties, and may also act as a mycotoxin.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
Diseases of plants.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
A carotenoid produced in most carotenogenic organisms. It is one of several sequentially synthesized molecules that are precursors to BETA CAROTENE.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides (SESQUITERPENES) have been found in it.
The process of embryo initiation in culture from vegetative, non-gametic, sporophytic, or somatic plant cells.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.

Sensitivity distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi to antibiotics. (1/261)

The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of various antibiotics and fungicides for Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas coronafaciens var. atropurpurea, P. lachrymans, Alternaria mali, A. kikuchiana, Pyricularia oryzae, Botrytis sp. and Sclerotinia sp. isolated from diseased plants in various localities of Japan were examined to enable the isolates to be gruoped into sensitive and resistant strains. To minimize the effects of various variable conditions, MIC of isolates were pooled for either 2 or 3 years and were plotted in a single figure. The grouping values were determined on the basis of MIC values of the antibiotics and agricultural chemicals on phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi under investigations. The relationships between grouping values for isolates of bacteria and fungi and the control of disease on the plants correlated to each other were studied.  (+info)

Multiple epoxide hydrolases in Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and their relationship to medium composition and host-specific toxin production. (2/261)

The production of Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici host-specific toxins (AAL toxins) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity were studied during the growth of this plant-pathogenic fungus in stationary liquid cultures. Media containing pectin as the primary carbon source displayed peaks of EH activity at day 4 and at day 12. When pectin was replaced by glucose, there was a single peak of EH activity at day 6. Partial characterization of the EH activities suggests the presence of three biochemically distinguishable EH activities. Two of them have a molecular mass of 25 kDa and a pI of 4.9, while the other has a molecular mass of 20 kDa and a pI of 4.7. Each of the EH activities can be distinguished by substrate preference and sensitivity to inhibitors. The EH activities present at day 6 (glucose) or day 12 (pectin) are concomitant with AAL toxin production.  (+info)

Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. (3/261)

The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone of the wild-type strain was isolated. Structural and functional analyses of an 8.0-kb region corresponding to the tagged site indicated the presence of two genes. One, designated AKT1, encodes a member of the class of carboxyl-activating enzymes. The other, AKT2, encodes a protein of unknown function. The essential roles of these two genes in both AK-toxin production and pathogenicity were confirmed by transformation-mediated gene disruption experiments. DNA gel blot analysis detected AKT1 and AKT2 homologues not only in the Japanese pear pathotype strains but also in strains from the tangerine and strawberry pathotypes. The host-specific toxins of these two pathotypes are similar in structure to AK-toxin. Homologues were not detected in other pathotypes or in non-pathogenic strains of A. alternata, suggesting acquisition of AKT1 and AKT2 by horizontal transfer.  (+info)

Requirement of functional ethylene-insensitive 2 gene for efficient resistance of Arabidopsis to infection by Botrytis cinerea. (4/261)

Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola results in systemic induction of genes encoding a plant defensin (PDF1.2), a basic chitinase (PR-3), and an acidic hevein-like protein (PR-4). Pathogen-induced induction of these three genes is almost completely abolished in the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1. This indicates that a functional ethylene signal transduction component (EIN2) is required in this response. The ein2-1 mutants were found to be markedly more susceptible than wild-type plants to infection by two different strains of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, no increased fungal colonization of ein2-1 mutants was observed after challenge with avirulent strains of either Peronospora parasitica or A. brassicicola. Our data support the conclusion that ethylene-controlled responses play a role in resistance of Arabidopsis to some but not all types of pathogens.  (+info)

A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1. (5/261)

The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which cause inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in vitro and are toxic for some plant species and mammalian cell lines. Sphingolipids can be determinants in the proliferation or death of cells. We investigated the tomato Alternaria stem canker (Asc) locus, which mediates resistance to SAM-induced apoptosis. Until now, mycotoxin resistance of plants has been associated with detoxification and altered affinity or absence of the toxin targets. Here we show that SAM resistance of tomato is determined by Asc-1, a gene homologous to the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1 and that susceptibility is associated with a mutant Asc-1. Because both sphingolipid synthesis and LAG1 facilitate endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast, we propose a role for Asc-1 in a salvage mechanism of sphingolipid-depleted plant cells.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cyclic peptide synthetase gene from Alternaria alternata apple pathotype whose product is involved in AM-toxin synthesis and pathogenicity. (6/261)

Afternaria afternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), with primers designed to conserved domains of peptide synthetase genes, amplified several products from A. alternata apple pathotype that showed high similarity to other fungal peptide synthetases and were specific to the apple pathotype. Screening of a Lambda Zap genomic library with these PCR-generated probes identified overlapping clones containing a complete cyclic peptide synthetase gene of 13.1 kb in length with no introns. Disruption of this gene, designated AM-toxin synthetase (AMT), by transformation of wild-type A. afternata apple pathotype with disruption vectors resulted in toxin-minus mutants, which were also unable to cause disease symptoms on susceptible apple cultivars. AM-toxin synthetase is therefore a primary determinant of virulence and specificity in the A. alternata apple pathotype/apple interaction.  (+info)

Report of successful prolonged antifungal therapy for refractory allergic fungal sinusitis. (7/261)

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is an increasingly recognized cause of refractory chronic sinusitis in the young immunocompetent host, analogous to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a related process in the lower respiratory tract. Most patients experience remittent disease despite corticosteroid therapy and aggressive sinus surgery. Because controlled trials have shown adjunctive antifungal therapy to be of benefit in treating ABPA, long-term oral itraconazole was used in a young man with remittent AFS, which was able to break the cycle of relapsing disease.  (+info)

Structural and functional complexity of the genomic region controlling AK-toxin biosynthesis and pathogenicity in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. (8/261)

The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-specific AK-toxin and causes black spot of Japanese pear. Previously, a cosmid clone, pcAKT-1, was isolated that contains two genes, AKT1 and AKT2, within a 5.0-kb region required for AK-toxin biosynthesis. The wild-type strain has multiple, nonfunctional copies of these genes. In the present study, two additional genes, AKTR-1 and AKT3-1, downstream of AKT2 were identified. Transformation of the wild type with AKTR-1- and AKT3-1-targeting vectors produced toxin-deficient (Tox-), nonpathogenic mutants. DNA gel blot analysis, however, demonstrated that the fragments targeted in Tox- mutants were different from those containing AKTR-1 and AKT3-1 on the transforming vectors. A cosmid clone, pcAKT-2, containing the targeted DNA was isolated and shown to carry two genes, AKTR-2 and AKT3-2, with high similarity to AKTR-1 and AKT3-1, respectively. Transcripts from not only AKTR-2 and AKT3-2 but also AKTR-1 and AKT3-1 were found in the wild type. DNA gel blot analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AKTR and their homologues are on a single chromosome. These results indicate the structural and functional complexity of the genomic region controlling AK-toxin biosynthesis.  (+info)

The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state of Paraíba, Brazil, its occurrence on
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. AU - Tanaka, Aiko. AU - Shiotani, Hiroshi. AU - Yamamoto, Mikihiro. AU - Tsuge, Takashi. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999/8. Y1 - 1999/8. N2 - The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone ...
FANTA, NORA; ORTEGA, XIMENA and PEREZ, LUZ M. The development of Alternaria alternata is prevented by chitinases and ß-1,3- glucanases from Citrus limon seedlings. Biol. Res. [online]. 2003, vol.36, n.3-4, pp.411-420. ISSN 0716-9760. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602003000300012.. In addition to phytoalexin synthesis, the defense response of intact Citrus limon seedlings against Alternaria alternata involves both constitutive and induced enzyme activities such as chitinases (Ch) and ß-1,3-glucanases (Glu). A. alternata conidial germination was prevented by protein extracts from inoculated lemon seedlings, but also by extracts from mock-inoculated specimens. On the other hand, degradation of mycelia was accomplished only by protein extracts from inoculated seedlings. The presence of six Ch isoenzymes and of four Glu isoenzymes was detected in protein extracts from mock-inoculated seedlings. As a result of fungal inoculation, the isoenzyme pattern of Ch and Glu changed, making possible the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium. AU - Saito, Mikako. AU - Shinya, Tomonori. AU - Hanai, Kazunari. AU - Katagi, Tetsuya. AU - Matsuoka, Hideaki. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - BY-2 cells form a linear linkage of several cells. Such a unique configuration is thought to be suitable for the cell-to-cell communication analysis in vivo that is the basis of the elucidation of the systemic acquired resistance in plants. Since chitinase is one of the typical stress response proteins in plants, BY-2 cells were treated with various biotic and abiotic stresses to investigate if chitinase could be induced in BY-2 cells. Among 33 stresses, the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium could induce at least three chitinase isozymes. The amount of each isozyme was very small but the most abundant one, TBC-1, could be successfully isolated at the yield of 2μg from 2.4kg wet matter of BY-2 cells. The N-terminal ...
The production of mycotoxins by Alternaria alternata in cellulosic ceiling tiles was examined with thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography procedures. Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were found in ceiling tile extracts, whereas extracts of control rice cultures of all three isolates produced these...
Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse
The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola reveals that ascorbate reduces disease severity. AU - Botanga, Christopher J.. AU - Bethke, Gerit. AU - Chen, Zhong. AU - Gallie, Daniel R.. AU - Fiehn, Oliver. AU - Glazebrook, Jane. PY - 2012/12. Y1 - 2012/12. N2 - The interaction between the pathogenic ascomycete Alternaria brassicicola and Arabidopsis was investigated by metabolite profiling. The effect of A. brassicicola challenge on metabolite levels was substantial, with nearly 50% of detected compounds undergoing significant changes. Mutations blocking ethylene, jasmonic acid, or ethylene signaling had little effect on metabolite levels. The effects of altering levels of some metabolites were tested by exogenous application during A. brassicicola inoculation. Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) or xylitol promoted, while trehalose and ascorbate inhibited, disease severity. GABA promoted, and ascorbate strongly inhibited, fungal growth in culture. ...
Pectins, major components of dicot cell walls, are synthesized in a heavily methylesterified form in the Golgi and are partially deesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) upon export to the cell wall. PME activity is important for the virulence of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Here, the roles of Arabidopsis PMEs in pattern-triggered immunity and immune responses to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterial hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) were studied. Plant PME activity increased during pattern-triggered immunity and after inoculation with either pathogen. The increase of PME activity in response to pathogen treatment was concomitant with a decrease in pectin methylesterification. The pathogen-induced PME activity did not require salicylic acid or ethylene signaling, but was dependent on jasmonic acid signaling. In the case of induction by A. brassicicola, the ethylene response factor, but not the MYC2 branch of ...
Bethke G., Grundman R.E., Sreekanta S., Truman W., Katagiri F., Glazebrook J.. Pectins, major components of dicot cell walls, are synthesized in a heavily methylesterified form in the Golgi and are partially deesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) upon export to the cell wall. PME activity is important for the virulence of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Here, the roles of Arabidopsis PMEs in pattern-triggered immunity and immune responses to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterial hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) were studied. Plant PME activity increased during pattern-triggered immunity and after inoculation with either pathogen. The increase of PME activity in response to pathogen treatment was concomitant with a decrease in pectin methylesterification. The pathogen-induced PME activity did not require salicylic acid or ethylene signaling, but was dependent on jasmonic acid signaling. In the case of ...
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and
Optimization of polysaccharide production by Alternaria alternata By A.R.El-shamy and Nehad, E.A* From Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, National Research Center,
strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5 μL of an A. alternata conidial suspension (105 conidia/mL). Tomatoeswere treatedwith 0.6 μL/L of 1-MCP for 24 h. Spiked but untreated tomatoes were considered controls. Then, fruit were stored 6 days at 10 °C and one more week at 20 °C to simulate shelf-life. Fungal growth development and mycotoxin production (alternariol, AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether, AME) were assessed both on the first and on the second week. After the first 6 days at 10 °C, in just one variety the black mold disease was higher in the 1-MCP treated samples. However, after two weeks of storage, in all cases, tomatoes treated with 1-MCP showed more significant fungal growth disease. Regarding mycotoxin production, no large differences were observed among different ...
Fungal allergens have been found to be one of the most prevalent aeroallergens in India. Knowledge of shared/unique components among different fungi is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment of patients allergic to fungi. In the present study, crude extracts (CE) of 11 common fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Asp. fumigatus, Asp. niger, Asp. tamarii, Asp. versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia lunata, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium citrinum, and Fusarium solani) were characterized by isoelectric focusing (IEF), SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot. On IEF (pI 3-9), the number of protein bands was found to be greatest (46) in M. hiemalis extract. SDS-PAGE exhibited a varied number of bands, generally 18-40, with mol. mass ranging from 14 to 100 kDa. IgG-specific immunoprint using rabbit anti-F. solani CF antibodies demonstrated a mol. mass distribution of shared antigenic proteins of 14-100 kDa in most of the fungi. Shared allergenicity was observed in a number of allergenic proteins ...
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a common postharvest contaminant of food and feed, and some strains are plant pathogens. Many processes in A. alternata are triggered by light. Interestingly, blue light inhibits sporulation, and red light reverses the effect, suggesting interactions between light-sensing systems. The genome encodes a phytochrome (FphA), a white collar 1 (WC-1) orthologue (LreA), an opsin (NopA), and a cryptochrome (CryA) as putative photoreceptors. Here, we investigated the role of FphA and LreA and the interplay with the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. We created loss-of function mutations for fphA, lreA, and hogA using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Sporulation was reduced in all three mutant strains already in the dark, suggesting functions of the photoreceptors FphA and LreA independent of light perception. Germination of conidia was delayed in red, blue, green, and far-red light. We found that light induction of ccgA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alternaria inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced cytokine production through toll-like receptor 3. AU - Wada, Kota. AU - Kobayashi, Takao. AU - Matsuwaki, Yoshinori. AU - Moriyama, Hiroshi. AU - Kita, Hirohito. PY - 2013/4/12. Y1 - 2013/4/12. N2 - Background: Fungi may be involved in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CRS patients produce interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the presence of Alternaria. In addition, Alternaria produces potent Th2-like adjuvant effects in the airway. Therefore, we hypothesized that Alternaria may inhibit Th1-type defense mechanisms against virus infection. Methods: Dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow. The functional responses were assessed by expression of cell surface molecules by FACS (MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L). Production of IL-6, chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Westernized countries are experiencing striking increases in the prevalence of asthma. The inflammatory airway response in asthma may be the result of immune cells that are dysregulated towards environmental factors. The long-term goal of this project is to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of persistent and recurrent Th2-type airway inflammation in asthma patients. Exposure to the fungus, Alternaria, is implicated in the development and exacerbation of human asthma. After intranasal exposure to Alternaria, naive mice showed eosinophilic airway inflammation, enhanced Th2 sensitization to innocuous antigens, and airway hyperreactivity. Alternaria activated dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro; this activation induced DCs to express costimulatory molecules and certain cytokines, and it inhibited production by DCs of the IL-12 family molecules and IL-10. Bioactive enzymes from Alternaria and a novel category of innate immune receptor, ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Michigan State University Extension applies research from MSU to help Michigan residents solve everyday problems in agriculture, community development, nutrition, family finances, youth development and more.
Bacillus velezensis is an endospore-forming, free-living soil bacterium with potential as a biopesticide against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens of plants. Its potential for commercial development is enhanced by rapid replication and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, typical of Bacillus species. However, the use of beneficial microbes against phytopathogens has not gained dominance due to limitations that may be overcome with new biopesticidal strains and/or new biological knowledge. Here, we isolated B. velezensis strain 9D-6 and showed that it inhibits the in vitro growth of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, including the bacteria , Clavibacter michiganensis, Pantoea agglomerans, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria; and the fungi Alternaria solani, Cochliobolus carbonum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Gibberella pulicaris,
A severe leaf spot and stem blight disease was observed on several sweetpotato genotypes at an experimental field and in commercial plantings of the cultivar Brazlandia Roxa in the Brasilia-DF area. An Alternaria sp. was consistently isolated from the lesions. Pathogenicity tests were done under greenhouse conditions (air temperature, 18-40 C) using a spore suspension adjusted to 5 104 conidia per milliliter. The same Alternaria sp. was reisolated from leaf and petiole lesions. Even though identified as A. bataticola, the Brazilian isolates completely lacked the forked beaks in the conidia that are characteristic of this species. This is apparently the first report of A. bataticola in South America, extending the geographic range of this pathogen to the New World. ...
The A. brassicicola-DiG pathosystem has the features of a compatible interaction, producing expanding necrotic lesions. This suggests that there may be a fundamental difference between this interaction and an incompatible one, rather than merely a graded increase in sensitivity relative to Col-0. If this is so, the defense responses of the plant should differ between the compatible and incompatible interactions. As extensive transcriptional profiling has already been reported for incompatible A. brassicicola-Arabidopsis interaction (incompatible), an initial study of the A. brassicicola-DiG pathosystem was performed. The set of transcripts detected overlaps partially with those induced in resistant (Col-0) or relatively sensitive (pad3 in Col-0 background) interactions, but most of the SSH clones represent transcripts that had not been identified before as defense-related. Of a test set of 9 genes from the SSH library tested by RT-PCR, three were differentially expressed at 72 hai in the DiG-A. ...
uuid: 92760a94-6b7c-4874-b96f-b8f7f4c2989e, type: records, etag: 75305ecf4940f8ca4a79006c992225ec8d448ab5, data: { dwc:startDayOfYear: 238, dwc:specificEpithet: solani, dwc:kingdom: Fungi, dwc:recordedBy: Spiegelberg, dwc:order: Pleosporales, dcterms:references: http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=1350946, dwc:scientificNameAuthorship: (Ellis & G. Martin) L.R. Jones & Grout, dwc:occurrenceID: 1350946, dwc:stateProvince: Washington, dwc:eventDate: 1924-08-25, dwc:country: USA, idigbio:recordId: urn:uuid:be5c98a8-fd6b-4ef6-94c3-bf0c559340e4, dwc:basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen, dwc:genus: Alternaria, dwc:family: Pleosporaceae, dwc:identifiedBy: Spiegelberg, symbiota:verbatimScientificName: Alternaria solani, dwc:rights: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/, dwc:phylum: Ascomycota, dwc:locality: Seaview, dwc:institutionCode: BPI, dwc:class: ...
Brown spot fungal disease (Alternaria alternata) seems to appear from nowhere, revealing itself with full-blown symptoms. Once the fungal pathogens jump into action, you cant eradicate the disease, but you can fight to keep the fungus in check. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment work to stop brown spot fungus ...
Alternaria induces a rapid innate eosinophilia and ILC2 response which is suppressed by HESAlternaria, without OVA, was administered intransally to BALB/c mice
Isolation and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Solid Culture of the Fungus, Alternaria sonchi. by Anna Dalinova, Leonid Chisty, Dmitry Kochura, Varvara Garnyuk, Maria Petrova, Darya Prokofieva, Anton Yurchenko, Vsevolod Dubovik, Alexander Ivanov, Sergey Smirnov, Andrey Zolotarev, Alexander Berestetskiy. Biomolecules. Read more related scholarly scientific articles and abstracts.
The Alternaria japonica Yoshii (1941) is Permitted - s11 for the whole of state and is not assigned to any control category for a local government area at this time ...
An interaction between the soil and a different fungus was found to a possible cause; the Glomus Mosseae, which attaches itself to the plants root hair, forming a symbiotic relationship with the plant. In other words, this warns the plant, through the roots, to create defenses against Alternaria solani. Researchers are certain that, based on this discovery, the mycorrhizal network can extend from one set of plant roots to another, its possible that the network of fungal mycelia acts like telephone wires, allowing the plants to communicate underground (Coombs, 2013). However, this is currently just a hypothesis; not much is known to researchers about the specific details of this mechanism, so how this relationship works is not completely understood yet. If this hypothetical communication were understood and proven to be correct, then scientists would use this as a way to prevent disease in plants by cultivating a mix of good microbes into the soil to accomplish this goal. The benefit from ...
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is known to be a strong antifungal compound in vitro against different fungi. The effectiveness of benzyl isothiocyanate to control Alternaria alternata growth in vitro and in vivo was tested. BITC in vitro activity was evaluated in A alternata growing on potato dextrose agar and exposed to 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg ml(-1). In vivo activity was evaluated by expos ...
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is known to be a strong antifungal compound in vitro against different fungi. The effectiveness of benzyl isothiocyanate to control Alternaria alternata growth in vitro and in vivo was tested. BITC in vitro activity was evaluated in A alternata growing on potato dextrose agar and exposed to 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg ml(-1). In vivo activity was evaluated by expos ...
Velum® Prime manages a wide spectrum of yield-robbing nematodes and brings wide-spectrum, long-lasting nematode control for citrus growers. It helps protect root health and effectively suppresses key diseases such as Alternaria brown spot.
Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their ...
Find and save ideas about Brown spots on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Brown spots on skin, Brown spots on face and Brown spots on hands.
uuid: a594619d-1195-40e5-8296-caf83a1fc816, type: records, etag: 9633b029771f37823275667f71a98815eeeea046, data: { dwc:startDayOfYear: 288, dwc:specificEpithet: brassicae, dwc:kingdom: Fungi, dwc:recordedBy: Sanchez A.; Ocampo E.; Zenteno M., dwc:order: Pleosporales, dcterms:references: http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=1350313, dwc:scientificNameAuthorship: (Berk.) Sacc., dwc:occurrenceID: 1350313, dwc:eventDate: 1950-10-15, dwc:country: Mexico, idigbio:recordId: urn:uuid:a1170e27-3679-414b-9b00-d6bfb861360a, dwc:basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen, dwc:genus: Alternaria, dwc:family: Pleosporaceae, dwc:identifiedBy: Zenteno M., symbiota:verbatimScientificName: Alternaria brassicae, dwc:rights: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/, dwc:phylum: Ascomycota, dwc:locality: Chapingo, dwc:institutionCode: BPI, dwc:class: Dothideomycetes, dwc:catalogNumber: BPI ...
RESUMO No sistema orgânico de produção é proibido o uso de agroquímicos para o tratamento de sementes. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito da termoterapia e da aplicação de própolis sobre a germinação e vigor de sementes de couve e no controle de Alternaria brassicicola. No tratamento com termoterapia úmida foram avaliadas três temperaturas (50, 55 e 60°C) em experimentos separados. Para cada temperatura foram avaliados cinco tempos de imersão das sementes [0 (controle), 15, 30, 45 e 60 minutos]. Na termoterapia seca foram avaliados cinco tempos [0 (controle), 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas] de exposição das sementes a temperatura de 70ºC. No própolis, foram estudadas seis concentrações (0,0, 0,2, 0,4, 0,6, 0,8 e 1,0%), com posterior lavagem ou não lavagem das sementes. Depois, sementes inoculadas com A. brassicicola foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: termoterapia úmida a 50°C por 60 minutos e a 55°C por 15 minutos, além de própolis a 1,0% com e sem lavagem ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - GDSL lipase-like 1 regulates systemic resistance associated with ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. AU - Kwon, Sun Jae. AU - Jin, Hak Chul. AU - Lee, Soohyun. AU - Nam, Myung Hee. AU - Chung, Joo Hee. AU - Kwon, Soon Il. AU - Ryu, Choong Min. AU - Park, Ohkmae K.. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - Systemic resistance is induced by necrotizing pathogenic microbes and non-pathogenic rhizobacteria and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Here we show that Arabidopsis GDSL LIPASE-LIKE 1 (GLIP1) plays an important role in plant immunity, eliciting both local and systemic resistance in plants. GLIP1 functions independently of salicylic acid but requires ethylene signaling. Enhancement of GLIP1 expression in plants increases resistance to pathogens including Alternaria brassicicola, Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae, and limits their growth at the infection site. Furthermore, local treatment with GLIP1 proteins is sufficient for the activation of systemic ...
Crude aqueous extracts from Arabidopsis leaves were subjected to chromatographic separations, after which the different fractions were monitored for antimicrobial activity using the fungus |i|Neurospora crassa|/i| as a test organism. Two major fractions were obtained that appeared to have the same abundance in leaves from untreated plants versus leaves from plants challenge inoculated with the fungus |i|Alternaria brassicicola|/i|. One of both major antimicrobial fractions was purified to homogeneity and identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography/electron impact mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry as 4-methylsulphinylbutyl isothiocyanate (ITC). This compound has previously been described as a product of myrosinase-mediated breakdown of glucoraphanin, the predominant glucosinolate in Arabidopsis leaves. 4-Methylsulphinylbutyl ITC was found to be inhibitory to a wide range of fungi and bacteria, producing 50% growth inhibition in vitro at
Background & Aims: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways which is associated with the triad of cough, wheezing and dyspnea. Allergic asthma is often associated with a personal or family history of allergic diseases and mostly begins at early childhood. Mold is one of the most common irritants of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the last 20 years there has been 30% increase in the prevalence of moldsrelated asthma. Methods: In this study the prevalence of mold allergy in asthmatic patients of less than 18 years old who refrred to Semnan allergy clinic during 2007-2008 was determined. Skin prick test with standard mold allergens was performed and sensitivity to the most prevalent molds like Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, cladosporium and mucor was evaluated. Results: From 220 studied subjects, 35% (95% Confidence Interval: 28.7-41.3%) were shown to be sensitive to at least one mold. The prevalence rates of sensitivity to molds were as follow: Alternaria14.5%, Aspergillus 12.7%,
The Microbe collection is a diverse group of mAbs that recognize primarily surface components of prokaryotes including bacteria and viruses
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
احمدی­ زاده اصفهانی آ، صدروی م و کاظمی ش (1398) تاثیر نانوکیتوزان بر بیماری سوختگی زودهنگام گوجه‌فرنگی. دانش بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی 8(2):109-102. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.8.2.102 مقدمه: سوختگی زودهنگام ناشی از گونه­ های Alternaria یکی از بیماری‌های مهم­ گوجه­ فرنگی در جهان است. این بیماری از بیشتر مناطق ایران با آلودگی تا 90 درصد گزارش شده ...
Question - Do sulfa drugs cause black lips and how can this condition be treated to restore original lip color ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Rash, Ask a Dermatologist
Question - Does abortion through pills cause black bleeding assembles and severe pain ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Combined oral contraceptive pill, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
It is very common for houseplants to develop diseases when they are growing poorly or not given proper care. The black spots on houseplants are a common fungal disease.
ipl treatment for brown spots wholesale, buy ipl treatment for brown spots from 3678 ipl treatment for brown spots suppliers from China.
Alt a 1 is recognised by approximately 80% to 100% of all Alternaria-allergic patients (29,55). rAlt a 1 has been shown to be similar to natural Alt a 1. In a study of A. alternata-sensitised individuals, 85.7% to ,90% were shown to be sensitised to to rAlt a 1 (25,29). Similarly, in a study of patients with A. alternata allergy, sensitisation could be detected by means of skin test. No false-positive results were obtained with control patients, even at the highest concentration (14). Evaluation of recombinant Alt a 1 using skin test was positive in 6 of 7 individuals allergic to Alternaria. In contrast, in a study using commercially available A. alternata extracts, researchers failed to correctly diagnose Alternaria-allergic patients in 2/10 cases (25 ...
The mechanism for vesicle formation is largely unknown, but it is found in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of bacteria, and used for several different purposes. In pathogenic bacteria the vesicles often contain virulence factors, which can destroy or damage host cells. in the wild, they may also bind to or destroy other bacteria. In less-virulent strains they have been shown to act as a method of removing misformed or unwanted proteins from the periplasmic space (the space between the two membranes). They can also play a part in antibiotic resistance, its not yet certain how but my guess is that they pump the antibiotic into the periplasmic space then vesicle it off to stop it just diffusing back in again ...
The sterol biosynthesis inhibitors bromuconazole and difenoconazole and tank mixes of each fungicide with captan were applied to apples and evaluated as controls for moldy-core and fruit decay caused by Alternaria alternata. Effectiveness of a mixture of bromuconazole and captan in controlling colonization by the fungus was also evaluated. Decay formation by A. alternata on mature detached fruits was partially inhibited by bromuconazole at 0.5 μg ml−1 and was completely inhibited at 50 μg ml−1; it was significantly affected by either bromoconazole at 5 μg ml−1 or captan at 1,250 μg ml−1, and was completely inhibited by their mixture. In general, three foliar applications of bromuconazole or difenoconazole in the field, during the bloom period, reduced the numbers of infected fruits by 40-60% compared with untreated control trees. However, tank mixes of either fungicide with captan improved control of moldy-core in fruits at harvest. Tank mixtures of bromuconazole and captan also
This study was carried out to identify unknown Alternaria species or less known as plant pathogenic anamorphic fungi from Benghazi District. Plant materials with fungal signs and symptoms were collected and examined to identify causal agents. Five species-A. brassicae (on Eruca sativa), A. longipes (on Nicotiana glauca), A. tenuissima (on Ficus carica), A. triticicola (on Hordeum vulgare L.) and Alternaria state of Pleospora infectoria (on Avena sativa)-were reported as plant pathogenic and new to Libyan mycobiota.
European Journal of Academic Essays 1(9): 20-23, 2014 ISSN (online): 2183-1904 ISSN (print): 2183-3818 www.euroessays.org Alternaria alternata Isolated From Lemons (Citrus lemon) in Libya El-Gali, Zahra Ibrahim Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida Libya. [email protected] Abstract: Lemons (Citrus lemon Burmann) is one of the citrus fruits of Libya. Blight symptoms was observed on plants were grown in homes gardens. I isolated and examined a fungus which causes leaf lesions and blight and fruits drop on lemons by using morphological method. Baseded on classification keys, the pathogen was compared on basis of morphological and characteristics, the recovered isolate from the plant tissues was identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, and identified was confirmed by pathogenicity test. Keywords: Lemons, Blight, Alternaria alternata, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Libya. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential role of Alternaria and Cladosporium species in canine lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis. AU - Mercier, E.. AU - Peters, I. R.. AU - Billen, F.. AU - Battaille, G.. AU - Clercx, C.. AU - Day, M. J.. AU - Peeters, D.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Objectives To evaluate the possible role of Alternaria and Cladosporium species in the pathogenesis of canine lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis by comparing the amount of specific fungal DNA in nasal mucosal biopsies between dogs without nasal neoplasia and those with lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis or nasal neoplasia. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays detecting DNA from Alternaria and Cladosporium fungi were applied to nasal mucosal biopsies collected from dogs with lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis (n=8), dogs with nasal neoplasia (n=10) and control animals (n=10). A copy number for each sample was calculated using a standard curve of known copy number and differences amongst groups were assessed using ...
In order to study of cabbage leaf spot disease in Damavand region, Tehran province, Iran, symptomatic cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) were collected during the late summer and fall of 2017. Twenty-one isolates with the main characteristics of the genus Alternaria were isolated from lesions on the cabbage leaves. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis using multi-gene sequences, they were identified as Alternaria telliensis. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on cabbage leaves under greenhouse conditions and characteristic lesions were formed on inoculated leaves. Re-isolation of the inoculated fungus from the treated leaves confirmed Kochs postulates. Based on the available information, this is the first occurrence of A. telliensis as a new species and pathogen to cabbage plants in Iran.
The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between meteorologicalconditions and Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in the air of Zagreb in August 2002 andAugust 2003. These months were chosen because they represented climatic extremes. A 7-day VPPS 2000 Hirstvolumetric...
The world potato is facing major economic losses due to disease pressure and environmental concerns regarding pesticides use. This work aims at addressing these two issues by isolating indigenous bacteria that can be integrated into pest management strategies. More than 2,800 strains of Bacillus-like and Pseudomonas-like were isolated from several soils and substrates associated with potato agro-systems in Belgium. Screenings for antagonistic activities against the potato pathogens Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani (BCCM-MUCL5492), Pectobacterium carotovorum (ATCC 15713), Phytophthora infestans (CRA-W10022) and Rhizoctonia solani (BCCM-MUCL 51929) were performed, allowing the selection of 52 Bacillus spp. and eight Pseudomonas spp. displaying growth inhibition of at least 50% under in vitro conditions, particularly against P. infestans. All 60 bacterial isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and further characterized for the production of potential bio-active secondary metabolites.
Tangerine Peel Extract Powder manufacturer and Tangerine Peel Extract Powder supplier also factory wholesaler distributor - over 4,000 Tangerine Peel Extract Powder buyers around the world at plant-extracts.com
0065] Albugo spp. (white rust) on ornamentals, vegetables (e.g. A. candida) and sunflowers (e.g. A. tragopogonis); Alternaria spp. (Alternaria leaf spot) on vegetables, rape (A. brassicola or brassicae), sugar beets (A. tenuis), fruits, rice, soybeans, potatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata), tomatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata) and wheat; Aphanomyces spp. on sugar beets and vegetables; Ascochyta spp. on cereals and vegetables, e.g. A. tritici(anthracnose) on wheat and A. hordei on barley; Bipolaris and Drechslera spp. (teleomorph: Cochliobolus spp.), e.g. Southern leaf blight (D. maydis) or Northern leaf blight (B. zeicola) on corn, e.g. spot blotch (B. sorokiniana) on cereals and e.g. B. oryzae on rice and turfs; Blumeria (formerly Erysiphe) graminis (powdery mildew) on cereals (e.g. on wheat or barley); Botrytis cinerea (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana: grey mold) on fruits and berries (e.g. strawberries), vegetables (e.g. lettuce, carrots, celery and cabbages), rape, flowers, ...
The study investigated the effect of a Bacillus globisporus strain and produced supernatants on growth of selected plant pathogens, i.e. Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Verticillium dahliae. The highest fungistatic activity of bacterial cultures was found against R. solani, S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea and T. roseum, whereas in case of the supernatant, it was found against R. solani and S. sclerotiorum. At identical concentrations, the fungistatic activity of B. globisporus culture appeared stronger than that of the supernatant. No significant effect of bacterial culture concentration in the medium was observed. Growth of Cladosporium spp., V. dahliae, T. viride, and A. alternata was found both after seven and 10 days of the experiment. In case of the supernatant, this situation was observed only for F. oxysporum, after seven days.
Tangerine Dream weed medicinal and recreational properties. Where can you buy Tangerine Dream weed? Tangerine Dream weed origins and history. Where does Tangerine Dream weed come from?
The search for environmentally biocompatible and cost-effective methods to control filamentous fungi in agriculture is becoming increasingly urgent. In vitro antimicrobial activity of three synthetic peptides was investigated against some filamentous fungi with agricultural relevance. The peptides were an analog of Temporin called Temporizina, a fragment from Pleurocidin termed Plc-2, and a peptide identified from sesame seeds named Pses3. Antimicrobial activity of these peptides towards filamentous fungi has not been previously reported. Seven plant pathogenic or mycotoxigenic fungal species, isolated from plant tissues were assayed: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fulvia fulvum, Fusarium oxisporum, Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium digitatum. Values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined and compared with the commercially available fungicide Captan as a positive control. The peptides showing greatest
Respiratory Allergy Profile Region XV: ID (south), NV CPT Code(s) 82785, 86003 (x23) Includes IgE allergy testing for: Alternaria alternata (a mold) (m6) Aspergillus fumigatus (m3) Bermuda grass (g2) Cat dander (e1) Cladosporium herbarum (m2) Cockroach (i6) Common ragweed (short) (w1) Cottonwood (t14) Dermatophagoides farinae (d2) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (d1) Dog dander (e2) Elm (t8) Maple (box elder) (t1) Mountain cedar (t6) Mouse Urine Proteins (e72) Mugwort (sagebrush) (w6) Oak (t7) Olive (t9) Penicillium notatum (m1) Rough pigweed (w14) Russian Thistle (prickly saltwort) (w11) Timothy grass (g6) White Mulberry (t70) Immunoglobulin E Methodology Immunoassay (IA)
Respiratory Allergy Profile Region I: CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT CPT Code(s) 82785, 86003 (x26) Includes IgE allergy testing for: Alternaria alternata (a mold) (m6) Aspergillus fumigatus (m3) Bermuda grass (g2) Birch (t3) Cat dander (e1) Cladosporium herbarum (m2) Cockroach (i6) Common ragweed (short) (w1) Cottonwood (t14) Dermatophagoides farinae (d2) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (d1) Dog dander (e5) Elm (t8) Maple (box elder) (t1) Mountain cedar (t6) Mouse Urine Proteins (e72) Mugwort (w6) Oak (t7) Penicillium notatum (m1) Rough pigweed (w14) Sheep sorrel (w18) Sycamore (t11) Timothy grass (g6) Walnut tree (t10) White ash (t15) White mulberry (t70) Imunoglobulin E Methodology Immunoassay (IA)
Microbes emit volatile compounds that affect plant growth and development. However, little or nothing is known about how microbial emissions may affect primary carbohydrate metabolism in plants. In this work we explored the effect on leaf starch metabolism of volatiles released from different microbial species ranging from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to fungi. Surprisingly, we found that all microbial species tested (including plant pathogens and species not normally interacting with plants) emitted volatiles that strongly promoted starch accumulation in leaves of both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Starch content in leaves of plants treated for 2 d with microbial volatiles was comparable with or even higher than that of reserve organs such as potato tubers. Transcriptome and enzyme activity analyses of potato leaves exposed to volatiles emitted by Alternaria alternata revealed that starch overaccumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of sucrose synthase, invertase inhibitors, ...
The news that tangerines can help protect people from cancer sounds a little too good to be true. After all, billions of dollars have been used for cancer research, and nearly everyone expects the cure or prevention for this disease to take the form of a complicated chemical medicine. Recent research on mice, however, has shown that a flavonoid chemical in tangerines called nobiletin can protect against heart attacks, stroke, obesity, and cancer.. Flavonoids are found in a wide variety of fresh fruits like the Minneola Tangerine and vegetables, but research is just starting to understand the effects of these chemicals. In a study by researchers at the University of Western Ontario, a group of scientists fed a group of mice a diet high in fat and sugar, but added concentrated nobelitin. When this group was compared to one with a similar diet but no nobelitin, the mice that were given the added flavonoid gained less weight and had lower blood sugar levels. In other studies, when the chemical was ...
The distinct sweet, juicy flavor of sun ripened tangerines fill our Tangerine Marmalade with sunny good taste. Top an English muffin with Tangerine Marmalade or spoon some on to a just-out-of-the-oven popover for an incredible treat
Chronic rhinitis is definitely an extremely common disease, as the prevalence in the overall population resulted to become 40%. administration. 13%, respectively. This research suggested a significant role of sinus IgE in identifying symptoms in kids sensitized to environmental allergen, but also highlighted the current presence of other systems than or as well AS-252424 as the creation mucosal IgE, having the ability to suppress its activity (in asymptomatic kids positive for sinus IgE) or even to replace it (in symptomatic kids negative for sinus IgE)[44]. The same writers replicated similar evaluation in kids experiencing CR through the period when Alternaria spores could be present in the surroundings. Interestingly, they discovered that most kids (64.3%) had detrimental SPT for Alternaria, but were positive for sinus particular IgE; just 16.1% were positive to both lab tests and the rest of the 19.6% had a positive SPT without nasal IgE. These outcomes represented the initial pediatric ...
Although saprophytic fungi play an essential role in recycling dead and decaying organic material, they can also cause disease in both plants and animals. Plants and animals have evolved defence mechanisms against infection; one of the most important of these is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This means that pathogenic fungi, in turn, need strategies to deal with oxidative stress and researchers at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) at Virginia Tech and Montana State University have discovered a fungal protein that plays a key role in causing disease in plants and animals and which also shields the pathogen from oxidative stress.. The team looked at two different fungal pathogens; Alternaria brassicicola, which causes widespread damage in cultivated brassicas such as cabbage, broccoli and oilseed rape, and Aspergillus fumigatus, which causes severe, and usually fatal, disease in immunocompromised individuals. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improved sulfur nutrition provides the basis for enhanced production of sulfur-containing defense compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana upon inoculation with Alternaria brassicicola. AU - Kruse, C.. AU - Haas, F.H.. AU - Jost, Ricarda. AU - Reiser, B.. AU - Reichelt, M.. AU - Wirtz, M.. AU - Gershenzon, J.. AU - Schnug, E.. AU - Hell, R.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.12.017. DO - 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.12.017. M3 - Article. C2 - 22342657. VL - 169. SP - 740. EP - 743. JO - Journal of Plant Physiology. JF - Journal of Plant Physiology. SN - 0176-1617. ER - ...
About Tangerine Sage: This beautiful plant comes from a group of Sages often referred to as fruit Sages. As you may expect, the leaves of this plant have a lovely fruity, tangerine scent and flavour. This makes them ideal to add to Summer drinks and fruity dishes. But this plant is more than that, coming back every yea
The strain dubbed Tangerine derives its name from its scent and taste which resemble tangerines with hints of pineapple or mangoes buried beneath an aromatic surface. After being cured, its nuggets look like chunky peppers with thin, burnt orange pistils scattered within its flowers. THC levels average...
Best price in Australia on Trace Minerals Research Liquid CoQ10 100 mg, Tangerine - 4 oz from eVitamins.com. Find Liquid CoQ10 100 mg, Tangerine reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins. Fast and reliable shipping to the Australia. Liquid CoQ10 100 mg and other products by Trace Minerals Research for all your health needs.
Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of fiber, including the tangerine. Tangerines have a similar...
Buy Whole Foods 2chic Ultra-Volume Conditioner for Fine, Limp Hair Tangerine & Papaya Butter online in Houston, San Antonio. Get best deal on all 2chic Ultra-Volume Conditioner for Fine, Limp Hair Tangerine & Papaya Butter delivery online in Austin at grocery delivery website - Burpy.com
The Tangerine Foam Cleanser from Qyo Qyo keeps the skin moist and bright even after cleaning. The fine foam of this facial cleanser with Jeju tangerine peel ...
TANGERINE DREAM is a Progressive Electronic / Progressive Rock artist from Germany. This page includes TANGERINE DREAMs : biography, official website, pictures, videos from YouTube, MP3 (free download, stream), related forum topics, news, tour dates and events, live eBay auctions, online shopping sites, detailled reviews and ratings (top albums) and the full discography of albums: studios, live, boxset/compilations, singles/EPs/fan club/promo releases on CD, vinyl / lp or cassette and videos released on Blu-ray, DVD or VHS
Goodal Green Tangerine Vita C Serum Mask (1EA) details at Korea depart official website. Popular brand Goodal Green Tangerine Vita C Serum Mask (1EA) can be purchased at Korea depart.
United Kingdoms best source to buy Deep Steep Classic Body Lotion, Tangerine Melon - 6 fl oz at the lowest price. Read Classic Body Lotion, Tangerine Melon reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins. Fast, reliable shipping to United Kingdom
High schoolers tour newsroom, broadcast studio James McClendon, Editor-In-Chief On Wednesday Nov 2, students from the ARC of Oneida-Lewis Countys School to Work program saw the Tangerine staff in action as editors put together this weeks issue. These students are part of a program that teaches them how to transition from high school to the...
Page 1 of 1: [attach=1] Edgar Froese, the founder of pioneering electronic band Tangerine Dream, has died at the age of 70. According to Tangerine Dream s Faceboo
They resemble small moths with wings coated in a powdery white wax and are often discovered on the underside of leaves. Whiteflies can infest a wide range of vegetation and vegetable crops together with melon, eggplant, bean, cabbage, tomato and broccoli. Fruit flies are a big threat to horticulture. These insect pests can infect a wide variety of vegetables and fruits and destroy them. For a small variety of lace bugs, use a powerful jet of water from a backyard hose to knock the pests of the plant and possibly kill the nymphs. The Australian plague locust is a significant insect pests of crops and pastures throughout Australia. Sooty moulds Alternaria species †Sooty mould seems as black, dry powder on leaves similar to chimney soot.. Some issues can be merely annoying, whereas others could cause main harm. Here are solutions for safely and naturally coping with some frequent backyard issues. As with their relations the aphids, mealybugs, and scale, a whitefly population can develop ...
Black Spot (Blackspot) - Help and advice on how to identify and get rid of black spot disease on roses and other plants in home gardens.
Abstract: Control of C. papaya diseases requires intervention both on the field and post harvest. Leaf and stem diseases may spread to the fruit and result in poor fruit yields. This study described common papaya diseases of the fruit, leaf and stem with associated pathogens of C. papaya L. Powdery mildew affecting fruit, leaf and stem, necrotic stem, Phytophthora blight, stem end rot and Erwinia rots of fruits characterized field diseases while anthracnose, watery soft rot and Alternaria spots were frequent post harvest fruit rots. The primary pathogens were moulds (Alternaria, Rhizopus, Phomopsis, Phytophthora, Oidium and Colletotrichum) and a bacterium, Erwinia. The other bacteria genera isolated (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Gram positive short rods) were more of secondary invaders are importantly human pathogens and thus of health significance. Post-harvest damage of C. papaya fruit is influenced by the quality of harvested fruit, an incubating disease ...
Moradian N, Ochs HD, Sedikies C, Hamblin MR, Camargo CA Jr, Martinez JA, Biamonte JD, Abdollahi M, Torres PJ, Nieto JJ, Ogino S, Seymour JF, Abraham A, Cauda V, Gupta S, Ramakrishna S, Sellke FW, Sorooshian A, Wallace Hayes A, Martinez-Urbistondo M, Gupta M, Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A, Kelishadi R, Esteghamati A, Emam-Djomeh Z, Majdzadeh R, Palit P, Badali H, Rao I, Saboury AA, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Ahmadieh H, Montazeri A, Fadini GP, Pauly D, Thomas S, Moosavi-Movahed AA, Aghamohammadi A, Behmanesh M, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Ghavami S, Mehran R, Uddin LQ, Von Herrath M, Mobasher B, Rezaei N. ...
Black spots on the fruit itself can be caused by blossom end rot, sunscald, anthracnose, or wet rot. Black spots on the leaves can be caused by black sooty mold, fusarium, bacterial leaf spot, or tobacco mosaic virus. Black spots on the stems can be caused by phytophthora blight or sclerotinia.
Black spot on back of throat - Im seeing black spot at back of throat. Is this normal? No. The black spot at back of throat is normal. Black and white spots oral mucous should be checked out by ent.
Determination of the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of combinations of extracts from galls of Quercus infectoria with vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
A fungus causes black spot on roses. Some cultural practices may be helpful in controlling it. These include planting varieties resistant to the disease, ensuring your plants are in a location with good air circulation, and avoiding wetting the leaves when watering. Clean up and destroy any infected leaves, especially in the fall to minimize reinfection from year to year. A clean layer of organic mulch (such as shredded bark or chopped leaves) applied before the plants leaf out again in spring should also help prevent reinfection. The mulch helps keep fungal spores from splashing up onto the plant and the new foliage ...
Fortunately, now you can cultivate your own tangerines at home, whether in the garden or in flowerpots! In this article, we are going to show you how you can cultivate this wonderful citric fruit and you will realize that it is very easy and economic ...
There arent any changes from the original Herman game to be found here. That said, if you enjoyed the cell-shaded, hand-drawn art of the first game, you wont be disappointed. The backdrops are back, but you dont scroll through them as you play. As the background images were one of the best things about the first game, this kind of hurts. The basic squareness of the game hurts it though, as everything looks static. Some of the power-ups are also hard to decipher. I thought I was picking up a rock at one point, but it was just a potato. There are some fun little touches though, like the squish effect that the tangerines make when they hit.. Graphics: Enjoyable. 3. Sound: Much like the graphics, everything is brought over from the original game, except for a few power-up sounds that werent in the original game. For instance, the disembodied announcer will yell out Potato! when you pick up the potato. The music is rapidly drowned out by people talking and laughing while you play, which is a ...
Youngevity Order Line - 888.244.8948 Beyond Tangy Tangerine BTT contains a base of Majestic Earth Plant Derived Minerals blended with vitamins, amino acids and other beneficial nutrients, to make a balanced and complete daily supplement.
Tangerine Dream Strain - Everything You Need to Know & More! Intro: Every great dream begins with a dreamer - and every great toke begins with some
Experts say that hormones, genetics, diet and life-style plays vital role in development of this fat. These factors start pushing the fat through collage fiber and get settled right under the skin. Luckily its not accompanied by any serious health ailment. But, its a great cosmetic concern for few people.. Over the counter medicines failed to fulfill their claims about treating cellulite and its not recommend as chemical ingredients in those creams may irritate your skin.. Natural nutrients and vitamins in tangerine essential oil can help to get rid of cellulite and enhance healthy functioning of the skin. (However, there is no strong scientific evidence to back this claim). ...
In the land of the Nordic Trolls, Sea Trolls are the best swimmers in the kingdom. Every day before sunrise they swim out past the wave break to gather essential nutrients along the bottoms of deep Norwegian fjords to make Nordic Omega-3 Gummies™. These easy-to-chew treats provide omega-3 fish oil with a delicious tangerine taste for even the pickiest palates.. Friend of the Sea certified.. Every batch of Nordic Naturals algae oils is tested by a third-party certified lab for environmental toxins, including heavy metals. All algae oils are in the triglyceride form and surpass the strictest international standards for purity and freshness ...
This Bright Tangerine Drumstix 15mm Sterling Titanium Support Rods - 18 (Pair) is constructed from proprietary materials technology with two microns tolerance, making them the strongest and lightest support rods currently available. Learn more today!
Who says meringue is only for summer? Add rich dark chocolate and pair with walnuts, madeira-spiked cream and tangerine for a wonderful winter dessert
Wash the mandarins, the pinch all around with a fork and stick a clove in each Tangerine. Let the less 15 days in glass jar with alcohol. Make the syrup (boil the sugar with water), strain the alcohol and joining with syrup. The liqueur is ready for serving. Good luck! ...
Dr. Wallachs Majestic Earth Ultimate Tangy Tangerine The most advanced liquid vitamin, mineral and amino acid supplement on the market. The unique properties make it the ultimate in absorption and completeness. Dr Wallach and Youngevity
Alternaria". Trans Kansas Acad 62: 252-256. 1960. ---, ---, ---. "Kansas aeromycology V: Penicillium and Aspergillus". ...
Alternaria". Canadian Journal of Research. 22c (5): 217-234. doi:10.1139/cjr44c-018. "Harzia acremonioides". www.uniprot.org.. ...
Alternaria". Canadian Journal of Research. 22c (5): 217-234. doi:10.1139/cjr44c-018. "Harzia acremonioides". www.uniprot.org. " ... When H. acremonioides is isolated from seeds, the fungus is always associated with another fungus named Alternaria tenuis auct ... whereas the main recorded substrates are the seeds of different plants that are often found in association with Alternaria ... With the presence of Alternaria tenuis auct., H. acremonioides grows rapidly, producing abundant spores and mycelium, and when ...
Alternaria spp. Curvularia Acremonium Yeasts Candida Fusarium spp. is most common then Aspergillus spp. and thirdly Dematitious ...
and Alternaria sp., and some filter papers made of cellulose-rich wood fibres. They fed preferentially on the algae and also ... consumed the Alternaria but rejected the Stachybotrys and the filter papers. After about ten days they started to secrete ...
... was isolated from an Alternaria sp. in 1992. It has since been isolated from fungi species such as Hypoxium ... Gu, Wen (May 23, 2009). "Bioactive metabolites from Alternaria brassicicola ML-PO8, an endophytic funus residing in Malus ... trancatum, Ascomycota sp., and Alternaria brassicicola. Researchers have come to the conclusion that Altechromone A is a common ...
and Alternaria spp. spores in Zagreb (Croatia) and effects of some meteorological factors". Annals of Agricultural and ... Rodríguez-Rajo FJ, Iglesias I, Jato V (April 2005). "Variation assessment of airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium spores at ...
2013). "Alternaria redefined". Studies in Mycology. 75 (1): 171-212. doi:10.3114/sim0015. PMC 3713888. PMID 24014900. v t e. ... However, Ulocladium, unlike Alternaria, do not produce alternariols, tenuazonic acid, altersolanols, or macrosporin. The ... 2013). "Alternaria redefined". Studies in Mycology. 75 (1): 171-212. doi:10.3114/sim0015. PMC 3713888. PMID 24014900. ... Species of Ulocladium resemble those of genus Alternaria with which they were once included. Several DNA-based phylogenetic ...
Alternaria taxi, Cladosporium cladosporioides MD2, Metarhizium anisopliae, Aspergillus candidus MD3, Mucor rouxianus, ... Alternaria alternata var. monosporus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Nigrospora sp., Pestalotiopsis versicolor, and Taxomyces ...
And Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler". Mikrobiolohichnyi Zhurnal (Kyiv, Ukraine : 1993). 63 (3): 3-12. PMID 11785260. BBC, ...
Alternaria blight Alternaria alternata. Alternaria sp. Anthracnose Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Colletotrichum truncatum ...
Alternaria rot Alternaria alternata Angular leaf scorch Pseudopezicula tetraspora Phialophora-type (anamorph) ...
Diseases: choose disease-resistant cultivars, 2 major diseases: Alternaria cucumerina var. cyamopsidis and Xanthomonoas ...
Early blight of potato and tomato, caused by species of the ubiquitous fungal genus Alternaria Leaf blight of the grasses e.g. ... "Alternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat)". www.cabi.org. 27 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2019. Chase, A. R. (1984 ... Ascochyta species and Alternaria triticina that causes blight in wheat Bur oak blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Tubakia ...
Examples are Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Trichoderma etc. Although Fungi imperfecti/Deuteromycota is no longer formally ...
Other suggested mycorrhizal partners include Alternaria sp., Ceratorhiza sp., Chaetomium sp., Cylindrocarpon sp., Epicoccum ...
Li FQ, Toyazaki N, Yoshizawa T (April 2001). "Production of alternaria mycotoxins by Alternaria alternata isolated from weather ... Webley DJ, Jackson KL, Mullins JD, Hocking AD, Pitt JI (1997). "Alternaria toxins in weather-damaged wheat and sorghum in the ... Li F, Yoshizawa T (July 2000). "Alternaria mycotoxins in weathered wheat from China". Journal of Agricultural and Food ... originating from Alternaria spp. Some of the toxins can be present in sorghum, ragi, wheat and tomatoes. Some research has ...
... fungicide in Alternaria alternata causing alternaria late blight of pistachios in California". Plant Pathology. British Society ... Alternaria alternata on Pistachio vera in California. Pyraclostrobin was widely used throughout the United States As of 2017[ ... Pyraclostrobin is used against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Resistant populations have been identified in: ...
Gupta, D.P. (1972). "Host relation in Alternaria early blight of potato;Role of sugars". Journal of Ranchi University. VIII: ... Gupta, D.P. (1972). "Host relation in Alternaria early blight of potato;Germination of spore". Journal of Bihar Botanical ... Gupta, D.P. (1970). "Secretion of Pectic enzymes by Alternaria Solani". The Botanical Magazine, Tokyo. The Botanical Society of ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gupta, D.P. (1978). "Secretion of pectic enzymes by Alternaria triticina". Annales de ...
Chaerani, Reni; VoorripsEmail author, Roeland E. (2006). "Tomato early blight (Alternaria solani): the pathogen, genetics, and ... such as resistance towards the early blight pathogen Alternaria solani. However, this tactic has limitations, for the ...
Citrus scab and alternaria fungus disease attack Murcotts. The Murcott is one parent of the Clementine-like hybrid variously ...
I. Selenium, polonium-210, Alternaria, tar, and nicotine". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66 (1): 27-31. doi:10.1093/jnci/66.1.27. PMID ...
Breitenbach, M.; Simon-Nobbe, B. (2002). "The allergens of Cladosporium herbarum and Alternaria alternata". Chem Immunol. 81: ...
It can be associated an array of melanistic filamentous fungi including Alternaria species, Exophiala jeanselmei, and ... December 2009). "Phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria species in transplant recipients". Transpl Infect Dis. 12 (3): 242-250. ...
... is a toxic metabolite of Alternaria fungi. It is an important contaminant in cereals and fruits. Alternariol ...
... caused by Alternaria alternata; Bitter rot caused by Glomerella cingulata; Cladosporium rot or Soft rot caused by Cladosporium ...
May 2001). "First Report of Alternaria Leaf Spot of Almond Caused by Species in the Alternaria alternata Complex in California ... There are three major disease of collards: Alternaria, downy mildew, and black rot. Alternaria symptoms are small brown lesions ... Alternaria was first reported on green beans in Florida in 1951 after a hundred acres were lost to the disease in one season. ... Symptoms of Alternaria leaf spot appear as lesions with tan spots on the leaves. The centers of these lesions become black with ...
Spot disease of the violet (Alternaria violæ n. sp.). USDA Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology Bulletin, No. 23. ...
Lang." (Macrosporium carotae is a synonym for Alternaria carotae.) From 1933 to 1934 he worked for the U.S. Department of ...
... infests cole crops Alternaria gaisen - causes ringspot disease of pear Alternaria helianthi Alternaria helianthicola Alternaria ... causes ginseng blight Alternaria perpunctulata Alternaria petroselini - causes parsley leaf blight Alternaria porri Alternaria ... causes carrot decay Alternaria raphani Alternaria saponariae Alternaria selini - causes parsley crown decay Alternaria ... causes leaf blight on carrot Alternaria carthami Alternaria celosiae Alternaria cinerariae Alternaria citri - causes black rot ...
The life cycle of Alternaria alternata can be used as a proxy for information on Alternaria citri. However, Alternaria citri ... "Citrus: Alternaria Rot". UC IPM: UC Management Guidelines for Alternaria Rot on Citrus. Retrieved 21 October 2015.. ... "Stalk End Rot (Alternaria Citri)". Plantwise. Retrieved 21 October 2015.. *^ Bliss, Donald E.; Fawcett, H. S. (1944). "The ... Signs and symptoms of Alternaria citri do not develop until after the fruit is harvested. ...
Alternaria japonica is a fungal plant pathogen. It is a cause of black spot disease in cruciferous plants. It is not a major ... Alternaria japonica affects its hosts in all stages of life. Infection causes a black or grey sunken lesion with a ... This fungus is not thought to be a cause of disease in humans, unlike other members of Alternaria. Occurrences of black spot ... Bassimba, D. D. M.; Mira, J. L.; Vicent, A. (2013-05-22). "First Report of Alternaria japonica Causing Black Spot of Turnip in ...
... Laura Escrivá,1 Souheib Oueslati,2,3 Guillermina Font,1 and Lara Manyes1 ... M. E. H. Müller and U. Korn, "Alternaria mycotoxins in wheat - A 10 years survey in the Northeast ofGermany," Food Control, vol ... P. López, D. Venema, T. de Rijk et al., "Occurrence of Alternaria toxins in food products in The Netherlands," Food Control, ... Q. He, J. Li, X. Kong, A. Yue, and S. Wu, "Simultaneous determination of four Alternaria toxins in apple juice concentrate by ...
... and Alternaria state of Pleospora infectoria (on Avena sativa)-were reported as plant pathogenic and new to Libyan mycobiota. ... This study was carried out to identify unknown Alternaria species or less known as plant pathogenic anamorphic fungi from ... Rude, S.V., Duczek, L.J. and Seidle, E. (1999) The Effect of Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria raphani and Alternaria alternata ... Alternaria Species, A. brassicae, A. longipes, A. tenuissima, A. triticicola and Alternaria State of Pleospora infectoria, in ...
Alternaria tenuissima. Alternaria arborescens. Alternaria sp. FH-2014. Alternaria mali. Alternaria sp. Acitri-1. Alternaria ... Alternaria tenuissima. Alternaria arborescens. Alternaria sp. FH-2014. Alternaria mali. Alternaria sp. Acitri-1. Alternaria ... Alternaria citriarbusti. Alternaria sp. EAP2. Alternaria sp. EAY1. And more. 379. UniRef100_A0A177DXD0. Cluster: ... Alternaria citriarbusti. Alternaria sp. EAP2. Alternaria sp. EAY1. And more. 379. UniRef90_Q9C4A0. Cluster: ...
Alternaria leaf spot lesions can be quite large in size and take on a target-like appearance. ...
Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone: AM-BAC-14 Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, ... Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone: AM-BAC-14. GenBank: AB525198.1 ...
Core competence of other disciplines are as well as cooperations with partners from science and industry essential to realize our projects and services in order to grant the best possible and innovative pollen information on a scientific basis. High-quality services, which we want to provide for free, are in need of different partnerships. We pay special attention to the preservation of our independence and objectivity and not to face our users with direct advertising.. ...
At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen- ... This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their ... Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi ... Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic ...
The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state ... Alternaria diseases of citrus caused by Alternaria spp. (mainly Alternaria alternata) are important diseases with worldwide ... Alternaria brown spot, caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissler is the principal fungal disease of ... The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state ...
While we are ranked among the best childrens hospitals in the country, its our compassionate approach to treatment that makes us truly exceptional. Through a combination of revolutionary treatments and extraordinary patient experiences, our care does more than heal. It brings the entire family together for emotional support and understanding across multiple locations to reach you in the community where you live. Learn more... ...
A case of cutaneous alternariosis due to Alternaria alternata in a 47-year-old man who had the CREST (calcinosis, Raynauds ... Cutaneous Alternaria alternata infection successfully treated with itraconazole Clin Exp Dermatol. 1996 May;21(3):241-3. doi: ... A case of cutaneous alternariosis due to Alternaria alternata in a 47-year-old man who had the CREST (calcinosis, Raynauds ...
Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated ... Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, ...
An allergic reaction to an indoor/outdoor fungus such as Alternaria tenuis can occur at any time of year. Like exposure to ... Like exposure to other molds, inhaling the spores of Alternaria tenuis, also known as Alternaria alternata, causes hay fever- ... National Institutes of Health: Exposure to Alternaria Alternata in US Homes * American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ... Allergy Medications for an Allergy to Alternaria Tenuis Fungus by NANCY CLARKE Aug. 14, 2017. ...
A leaf and stem spot disease of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus) caused by Alternaria helianthi was found in Ohio for the ... Alternaria helianthi on Sunflower in Ohio. L. J. Herr, Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio Agricultural Research and ...
TRIACA, Tatiane et al. Detection of antifungal activity of plant extracts on Alternaria citrus. Summa phytopathol. [online]. ... citri, which causes Alternaria brown spot (ABS). The disease control is still performed with the massive use of agrochemicals, ... has suffered considerable losses in productivity and fruit quality as a result of the attack by the phytopathogen Alternaria ...
A strong camalexin response was elicited in wild-type plants inoculated with either Alternaria brassicicola or Botrytis cinerea ... The induction of salicylate-dependent and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent defense genes was not reduced in Alternaria-challenged ... Deficiency in phytoalexin production causes enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana to the fungus Alternaria ... this mutant is markedly more susceptible than its wild-type parental line to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria ...
ORNAMENTALS. Heritage Fungicide is recommended for control of certain pathogens causing foliar, aerial, and root diseases, including leaf, tip, and flower blights, leaf spots, downy mildew, powdery mildew, anthracnose, and rusts of ornamental plants. Heritage Fungicide may be used to control certain diseases of container, bench, flat, plug, bed or field-grown ornamentals in greenhouses, shade-houses, outdoor nurseries, retail nurseries, and other landscape areas.. Integrated Pest (Disease) Management: Heritage Fungicide should be integrated into an overall disease management strategy that includes selection of varieties with disease tolerance, optimum plant populations, proper fertilization, winter and/or spring pruning, plant residue management and proper timing and placement of irrigation. Immunoassay detection kits and diagnostic services can assist in the early and accurate identification of causal organisms and corresponding selection of the proper fungicide when required.. Resistance ...
... within the genera Nimbya and Embellisia reside within a large monophyletic clade that also includes the genera Alternaria, ... Simmons EG (1992) Alternaria taxonomy: current status, viewpoint, challenge. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A (eds) Alternaria ... and molecular characterization of Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology 92: ... Simmons EG (1967) Typification of Alternaria, Stemphylium, and Ulocladium. Mycologia 59:67-92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Therefore, a naturally occurring mixture of Alternaria toxins was generated as an extract from Alternaria alternata strain DSM ... Generation and characterization of Alternaria extracts. A complete extract (CE) of rice infected with the Alternaria alternata ... Estrogenic impact of Alternaria extracts, a alone or b on the activity of E2, as measured by the AlP assay. All values are ... Chemical structures of selected Alternaria toxins, grouped as a tenuazonic acid, b dibenzo-α-pyrones, c perylene quinones and d ...
Alternaria alternata). Alternaria is a dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungus commonly isolated from plants, soil, food, and indoor ... Alternaria alternata also causes leaf spots, rots and blights in plants. Magnification: x400 when shortest axis printed at 25 ... Caption: Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Filamentous allergenic fungus (Alternaria alternata). Alternaria is a ... Keywords: 23269b, allergen, allergenic, allergic, allergies, allergy, alternaria, alternata, and, ascomycota, asthma, black, ...
M1 also bound to naturally occurring melanin isolated from mycelia of Alternaria alternata, suggesting that epitopes remain ...
... of the fungus Alternaria alternata, a causative agent of respiratory allergies. Here, fungal threads of the vegetative mycelium ... Alternaria alternata is a cause of both allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in which inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose ... Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fungus Alternaria alternata, a causative agent of respiratory allergies. Here, fungal ...
We found the presence of plasmid DNA in strain T88-56 of the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata, which causes ... Circular DNA Plasmid in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata: Its Temperature-Dependent Curing and Association with ... Circular DNA Plasmid in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata: Its Temperature-Dependent Curing and Association with ... Circular DNA Plasmid in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata: Its Temperature-Dependent Curing and Association with ...
The pathogenicity of Alternaria spp. isolated from wheat leaves collected in regions where alternaria leaf blight has been ... Alternaria triticina isolates were distinguished from other Alternaria species by Simmons and Roberts sporulation pattern 6 ... triticina from other nonpathogenic Alternaria species. Alternaria triticina isolates yielded longer ITS sequences than A. ... Alternaria leaf blight symptoms were produced by the A. triticina isolates only on durum wheat cv. Bansi, while A. alternata, A ...
Genomic characterization of the conditionally dispensable chromosome in Alternaria arborescens provides evidence for horizontal ... Alternaria.. arborescens is a major pathogen of tomato, with its virulence determined by the presence of a conditionally ... Genomic characterization of the conditionally dispensable chromosome in Alternaria arborescens provides evidence for horizontal ...
Alternaria sonchi. by Anna Dalinova, Leonid Chisty, Dmitry Kochura, Varvara Garnyuk, Maria Petrova, Darya Prokofieva, Anton ... The fungus, Alternaria sonchi is considered to be a potential agent for the biocontrol of perennial sowthistle (Sonchus ... Isolation and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Solid Culture of the Fungus, Alternaria sonchi.. Biomolecules. (2020-01 ... Isolation and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Solid Culture of the Fungus, Alternaria sonchi. ...
... caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop ... caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop ... Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), ... Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), ... Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of ...
Optimization of polysaccharide production by Alternaria alternata By A.R.El-shamy and Nehad, E.A* From Department of Chemistry ... Home pageGMO newsOptimization of polysaccharide production by Alternaria... Optimization of polysaccharide production by ... Yeast extract gave the highest amount of EPS by Alternaria alternata, its maximum concentration for EPS was determined. ... Six strains of microorganisms were screened for Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Alternaria alternata was recognized to ...
  • Humpherson-Jones, F.M. and Phelps, K. (1989) Climatic Factors Influencing Spore Production in Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola. (scirp.org)
  • Maude, R.B. and Humpherson-Jones, F.M. (1980) Studies on the Seed-Borne Phases of Dark Leaf Spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and Grey Leaf Spot (Alternaria brassicae) of Brassicas. (scirp.org)
  • Deficiency in phytoalexin production causes enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana to the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. (nih.gov)
  • We now show that this mutant is markedly more susceptible than its wild-type parental line to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola, but not to Botrytis cinerea. (nih.gov)
  • A strong camalexin response was elicited in wild-type plants inoculated with either Alternaria brassicicola or Botrytis cinerea, whereas no camalexin could be detected in pad3-1 challenged with these fungi. (nih.gov)
  • All tested accessions of Arabidopsis are resistant to the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola . (plantphysiol.org)
  • glip1 plants were markedly more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola compared with the parental wild-type plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Two separate pathogens ( A. brassicicola and A. brassicae ) are responsible for alternaria leaf spot in cole crops, a fungal disease that wreaks havoc in cabbage , cauliflower , Brussels sprouts , broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Incidence of Alternaria brassicicola (Schw. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Samples of Brassica oleracea seed from Victoria, were tested for the presence of seed-borne Alternaria brassicicola and Alternaria brassicae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. (vt.edu)
  • The interaction of Arabidopsis with Alternaria brassicicola provides a model for disease caused by necrotrophs, but a drawback has been the lack of a compatible pathosystem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternaria brassicicola , the agent of black spot disease of crucifers, is able to infect Arabidopsis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternaria is a genus of [Deuteromycetes] fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was carried out to identify unknown Alternaria species or less known as plant pathogenic anamorphic fungi from Benghazi District. (scirp.org)
  • The genetic variability of citrus pathotypes of Alternaria alternata is associated with the conditions of the in vivo or in vitro environment in which these fungi develop. (scirp.org)
  • Black molds of the genus Alternaria are ubiquitous fungi with a still unclear relevance as food contaminants. (springer.com)
  • Some genera of fungi with airborne spores, such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium , are found throughout the world (1). (phadia.com)
  • Fungi of the genus Alternaria are ubiquitous indoor and outdoor airborne agents, and individuals are daily exposed to their spores. (springer.com)
  • Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi that are major plant pathogens. (blogspot.com)
  • An Alternaria poonensis [1] in uska species han Fungi in nahilalakip ha divisio nga Ascomycota , ngan nga ginhulagway ni Ragunath hadton 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternaria species are one of the most common fungi encountered by humans. (doe.gov)
  • Alternaria toxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that can contaminate cereals, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables. (europa.eu)
  • The fruit rot pathogen of tomato Alternaria solani was cultured at 28°C on semi ripe tomato fruit broth medium for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days. (academicjournals.org)
  • Alternaria solani , semi ripe tomato fruit medium, semi ripe tomato fruit, incubation period. (academicjournals.org)
  • Strobilurin-insensitive isolates of Alternaria solani were reported by Dr. Neil Gudmestad (North Dakota State University) for samples of the disease taken from potato fields in southwest Michigan and Dr. Walt Stevenson (University of Wisconsin) for samples taken in Tuscola County, Michigan in 2005. (msu.edu)
  • Whilst growers are familiar with using AMISTAR at planting, for improved skin finish and marketable yield, the product's label now states that it can be used for moderate control of Alternaria solani . (syngenta.co.uk)
  • Random amplified polymorphic DNAPCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis was used to investigate genetic variation among 35 isolates of Alternaria solani, the causal agent of early blight on solanaceous crops, and 30 isolates of A. alternata, an opportunistic pathogen. (elsevier.com)
  • Please confirm that you want to SAVE all your changes for 'Alternaria solani BMP0185' . (doe.gov)
  • Panels G-H. Alternaria solani conidia and conidiophores. (doe.gov)
  • The genome sequence and gene prediction of Alternaria solani BMP0185 have not been determined by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), but were provided by Christopher Lawrence and Ha X. Dang in Aug 2019 ( Alternaria Genomes Database - AGD). (doe.gov)
  • Alternaria triticina isolates yielded longer ITS sequences than A. alternata, A. tenuissima and A. arborescens isolates, leading to clear-cut differences as visualized with agarose gel electrophoresis. (ovid.com)
  • In a climate chamber experiment, wheat-ears were successively inoculated with two different strains (Alternaria tenuissima At625, Fusarium graminearum Fg23, or Pseudomonas simiae Ps9). (hu-berlin.de)
  • Airborne spores of Alternaria alternata and Alternaria tenuissima are found in very high numbers in the outdoor environment during summer. (moldbacteria.com)
  • Chen, F. 2011-05-03 00:00:00 Disease assessment to measure severity of alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria tenuissima (Fr. (deepdyve.com)
  • The most common species of this mold are Alternaria tenuissima and Alternaria alternate . (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • 잠두 잎에 발생한 병징과 병원균의 균학적 특징을 검정한 결과, 이 병을 Alternaria tenuissima에 의한 잠두 점무늬병으로 명명하고자 제안한다. (ndsl.kr)
  • The optimum temperature for growth of the fungus was about 3 $0^{\circ}C$ . This is the first report on the leaf spot of broad bean caused by Alternaria tenuissima in Korea. (ndsl.kr)
  • Alternaria rot, caused by Alternaria tenuissima , occurs infrequently and is usually not important in most strawberry-growing regions. (ufl.edu)
  • Most spores of Alternaria are produced by lesions on mature leaves on the tree, or recently fallen infected leaves on the grove floor. (scirp.org)
  • Like exposure to other molds, inhaling the spores of Alternaria tenuis, also known as Alternaria alternata, causes hay fever-like allergy and asthma symptoms in some people. (livestrong.com)
  • In temperate climates, airborne Alternaria spores are detectable from May to November, with peaks in late summer and autumn (3). (phadia.com)
  • Dispersion of Alternaria spores occurs during dry periods. (phadia.com)
  • Counts of Alternaria on dry, windy days can be in the range of 500 to 1,000 spores per cubic metre in grass- or grain-growing areas. (phadia.com)
  • Alternaria has also been found in house dust samples in the absence of outdoor environmental mold spores (8). (phadia.com)
  • Sensitised children display symptoms even in the absence of airborne Alternaria spores. (phadia.com)
  • Alternaria spores appear in the atmosphere of Sydney year-round, although they peak over spring, summer, and autumn. (phadia.com)
  • A number of meteorological factors, including mean, minimum, and maximum temperature, dew point temperature, and air pressure, are significantly correlated with the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores. (phadia.com)
  • Alternaria spores can be detected from spring through late fall in most temperate areas, and can reach levels of thousands of spores per cubic meter of air. (moldbacteria.com)
  • Alternaria spores can be at their highest concentrations during dry, windy conditions that are ideal for the spores to become airborne. (moldbacteria.com)
  • Our aim was to study the early interaction of Alternaria infectoria spores with macrophages, the first line of immune defense. (springer.com)
  • Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe. (springer.com)
  • Causes for cole crops with alternaria leaf spot include infected seed and spores that spread quickly by rain, overhead irrigation, machinery, animals or humans. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Intradiuranal variation in the Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrationswas identical in 2002 and 2003 (lowest in 2-hour interval between 06:00-08:00, and highest between 10:00-12:00).In spite of the three-fold increase in the Cladosporium spore concentration in August 2003, the borderlineconcentration of 3,000 spores/m3 air that is associated with the occurrence of allergic reactions wasonly exceeded on a single day. (aaem.pl)
  • Air concentration of Alternaria spores exceeded borderline value of 100spores/m3 air on as many as 17 days, suggesting that at that time of the year the risk of allergic reactionwas only present in individuals allergic to this spore type. (aaem.pl)
  • Due to its ubiquitous presence outdoor, the spores of Alternaria mold are often thought as the main cause of allergy cases, especially during spring and summer. (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • Perhaps more importantly, Alternaria spores, especially from A. alternata , are one of the most common and potent sources of indoor and outdoor airborne allergens. (doe.gov)
  • Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of RdRp indicated that the virus we identified in A. arborescens is a distinct member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae, designated as "Alternaria arborescens mitovirus 1" (AaMV1). (deepdyve.com)
  • An Alternaria poonensis in nahilalakip ha genus nga Alternaria , ngan familia nga Pleosporaceae . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Alternaria currently contains around 50 species. (drfungus.org)
  • The infectoria species-group within the genus Alternaria was originally conceived by Simmons in 1993 and was based upon common morphological characteristics that included the development of conidial chains with primary, secondary, and tertiary branching resulting in substantial three-dimensional complexity. (elsevier.com)
  • Alternaria species are known as major plant pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species of alternaria modify their secondary metabolites by sulfoconjugation, however the role of this process is not yet understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species include: Alternaria alternata - Causes early blight of potato, Leaf spot disease in Withania somnifera and can infest many other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • El-Alwany, A. (2015) Plant Pathogenic Alternaria Species in Libya. (scirp.org)
  • Previous phylogenetic analyses revealed that species within the genera Nimbya and Embellisia reside within a large monophyletic clade that also includes the genera Alternaria , Ulocladium , Undifilum , Sinomyces , and Crivellia with Stemphylium as the sister taxon. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, several species of Embellisia cluster individually with clades that are predominantly Alternaria , Ulocladium , or Stemphylium , yet these Embellisia spp. (springer.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis also proved effective at discriminating wheat-pathogenic A. triticina from other nonpathogenic Alternaria species. (ovid.com)
  • Alternaria is currently comprised of about 40-50 species. (moldbacteria.com)
  • This suggests the possibility that these enzymes are not only constituents of resistance but also could be used as biochemical markers for screening Compositae wild species for alternaria leaf spot resistance. (deepdyve.com)
  • Most Alternatia mold species grow on surfaces such as wood or foods, but one species called Alternaria alternata is very common on materials such as iron, tiles, bricks, plaster, wallpaper, paper, and canvas. (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • As decomposers of foodstuffs, Alternaria species are ubiquitous postharvest pathogens and contribute to the spoilage of much of our agricultural output. (doe.gov)
  • In contrast, several Alternaria species have shown promise as beneficial biocontrol agents of certain weed pests and as mycoparasites of other fungal pathogens. (doe.gov)
  • In medical mycology, Alternaria species are gaining prominence as emerging human pathogens, particularly in immune-compromised patients. (doe.gov)
  • Several Alternaria species and numerous uncharacterized Alternaria taxa have been found associated with infections of the cornea, oral and sinus cavities, respiratory tract, nails, and skin. (doe.gov)
  • Alternaria species are some of the most prodigious producers of toxic secondary metabolites, producing over 70 compounds of varying toxicity. (doe.gov)
  • The AGD contained genome sequences and associated annotations for Alternaria species. (doe.gov)
  • Some authorities suggest that Alternaria alternata is a representative species complex rather than a single species and consists of several heterogenous species. (drfungus.org)
  • Since Alternaria species are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous in nature, they are also common laboratory contaminants. (drfungus.org)
  • A phylogenetic tree showing the position of Alternaria fragaria BMP3062 among other Alternaria species. (doe.gov)
  • Alternaria raphani - Species Dictionary - UK and Ireland : iSpot Nature - Your place to share nature. (ispotnature.org)
  • Characterization of Alternaria isolates from the infectoria species-group and a new taxon from Arrhenatherum, Pseudoalternaria arrhenatheria sp. (elsevier.com)
  • These characters can overlap to varying degrees with numerous taxa in another Alternaria group, the alternata species-group, making species-group differentiation difficult. (elsevier.com)
  • However, members of the infectoria species-group are also distinguished from other small-spored Alternaria species based upon colony characteristics that typically include white or nearly white floccose colonies on DRYES medium and clumps of sporulation islands on low sugar media such as V8 agar, PCA, and weak PDA. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, the infectoria species-group contains representatives that are known to produce teleomorphs (Lewia), whereas the members of the alternata species-group and other Alternaria species-groups are strictly asexual. (elsevier.com)
  • These isolates and members of the infectoria species-group typically produce arachnoid vegetative hyphae with multiple primary conidiophores, whereas other small-spored Alternaria species produce primary conidiophores predominately directly from the agar surface. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, molecular phylogenetic analyses resolved these isolates and members of the infectoria species-group as distinctly nested amongst other sexual taxa in Allewia (Embellisia anamorph) and Macrospora (Nimbya anamorph) and phylogenetically distant to asexual lineages of Alternaria. (elsevier.com)
  • Alternaria infectoria brain abscess in a child with chronic granulomatous disease. (springer.com)
  • Cutaneous infection by Alternaria infectoria in a liver transplant recipient: a case report. (curehunter.com)
  • The causative pathogen was identified as Alternaria Infectoria, an opportunistic fungal agent. (curehunter.com)
  • While Alternaria chartarum , Alternaria dianthicola , Alternaria geophilia , Alternaria infectoria , Alternaria stemphyloides , and Alternaria teunissima are among the other Alternaria spp. (drfungus.org)
  • Differentiation of Alternaria infectoria and A. alternata based on morphology, metabolic profiles and cultural characteristics. (areo.ir)
  • isolated from wheat leaves collected in regions where alternaria leaf blight has been reported was compared with that of IMI reference isolates of A. triticina and A. alternata using two durum and two bread wheat genotypes. (ovid.com)
  • Alternaria leaf blight symptoms were produced by the A. triticina isolates only on durum wheat cv. (ovid.com)
  • In this study, generation and mechanism of metapopulation structure were investigated by microsatellite assaying 725 isolates of Alternaria alternata sampled from potato hosts at 16 locations across China. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is vitally important to commence the programme in a preventative manner, so if at all possible a grower/advisor should not need to 'react' to seeing Alternaria symptoms. (syngenta.co.uk)
  • The symptoms are caused by the fungus Alternaria macrospora, which survives on cotton residues if no living tissue or alternative host is available. (plantix.net)
  • Anthracnose and Alternaria produce distinct circular spots on infected leaves, and in most cases, symptoms begin on the older leaves. (rutgers.edu)
  • Alternaria brown spot, caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr. (scirp.org)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Filamentous allergenic fungus (Alternaria alternata). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fungus Alternaria alternata, a causative agent of respiratory allergies. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Here, we show that the soluble excretory/secretory products of H. polygyrus (HES) potently suppress inflammation induced by allergens from the common fungus Alternaria alternata. (nih.gov)
  • Nasal corticosteroids can help relieve alternaria tenuis fungus allergy. (livestrong.com)
  • An allergic reaction to an indoor/outdoor fungus such as Alternaria tenuis can occur at any time of year. (livestrong.com)
  • Hong SG, Cramer RA, Lawrence CB, Pryor BM (2005) Alt a1 allergen homologs from Alternaria and related taxa: analysis of phylogenetic content and secondary structure. (springer.com)
  • Significant concentrations of Alternaria allergens, between 3.0 and 1000 U/g of dust, have been found in house dust of allergic children, supporting the hypothesis that fungal allergen exposure is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma (6-7). (phadia.com)
  • But Alternaria is predominantly an outdoor allergen favouring damp spots, and most indoor concentrations may derive from outdoor primary sources. (phadia.com)
  • Since Alternaria mold is a common allergen, you need to remove it as soon as the first signs of infestation appear. (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • This medium extract contains the highest amount of Alt a 1, the major allergen of Alternaria alternata. (citeqbiologics.com)
  • Alternaria solan i is the causal agent of early blight disease in tomatoes ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and every year is responsible for significant economic losses suffered worldwide by the producers of this crop. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. (mdpi.com)
  • Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. (mdpi.com)
  • Alternaria molds can produce a variety of different mycotoxins, often resulting in food contamination with chemical mixtures, posing a challenge for risk assessment. (springer.com)
  • It was discovered to produce two aromatic metabolites (48 and 53), four well-known Alternaria mycotoxins including altenuene (49), isoaltenuene (50), alternariol (51) and altertoxin I (52), as well as a dicarboxylic acid (54). (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Cutaneous infection with Alternaria triticina in a Bilateral lung transplant recipient. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that Alternaria may inhibit Th1-type defense mechanisms against virus infection. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that Alternaria may inhibit host innate immunity against virus infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Investigation of the effect Alternaria alternata on seed germination of wheat were tested on three varieties of Victory, Renaissance and NS 40 S. Seed germination is the ISTA rules, in order to elucidate the effect of primary and secondary infection pathogen A.alternata on seed natural and conditioned seeds were placed tests with seeds untreated, treated with NaOCl and fungicide Tycoon included. (ac.rs)
  • Here, we describe the molecular characterization of a novel mycovirus isolated from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria dianthicola, which we have named "Alternaria dianthicola dsRNA virus 1" (AdRV1). (springer.com)
  • Moriyama, Hiromitsu 2016-07-01 00:00:00 The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. (deepdyve.com)
  • The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. (deepdyve.com)
  • Alternaria alternata's conidia disperse via air currents, and their release from the lesions can be triggered by rainfall, or even just a sudden increase in humidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. (scirp.org)
  • We found the presence of plasmid DNA in strain T88-56 of the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata , which causes black spot of certain cultivars of Japanese pear by producing host-specific AK-toxin. (genetics.org)
  • caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata , is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hayashi N, Tsuge T, Kobayashi H, Nishimura S (1988) The presence of double stranded RNAs in Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype and their participation in AK-toxin productivity. (springer.com)
  • Mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens Fusarium and Alternaria are a leading cause of loss in cereal production. (hu-berlin.de)
  • While Alternaria mold is not a pathogen, there may be rare cases where opportunistic pathogens attack people with compromised immune system, such as those with HIV or in chemotherapy. (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • As plant pathogens, thousands of Alternaria /host associations are recorded in the USDA Fungal Host Index. (doe.gov)
  • Alternaria is one of the main allergens affecting children. (phadia.com)
  • Since it is very common during spring and summer, Alternaria mold is thought as one of the most common allergens. (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • Shamsi W, Sato Y, Jamal A, Shahi S, Kondo H, Suzuki N, Bhatti MF (2019) Molecular and biological characterization of a novel botybirnavirus identified from a Pakistani isolate of Alternaria alternata . (springer.com)
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of Alternaria toxins in feed and food," EFSA J , pp. 2407-2504, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • P. M. Scott, W. Zhao, S. Feng, and B. P.-Y. Lau, "Alternaria toxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in grain foods in Canada. (hindawi.com)
  • Impact of Alternaria toxins on CYP1A1 expression in different human tumor cells and relevance for genotoxicity," Toxicology Letters , vol. 240, no. 1, pp. 93-104, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods to Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , vol. 64, no. 24, pp. 5101-5109, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well. (mdpi.com)
  • The infestation of crops designated for human consumption may result in the occurrence of a variety of toxic metabolites-the so-called Alternaria toxins-in food products. (springer.com)
  • Together with other compounds including altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (iso-ALT) or altenuisol (ATL), they form the dibenzo-α-pyrone group of Alternaria toxins (Fig. 1 b). (springer.com)
  • For approximately 15 years, Brazilian citriculture has suffered considerable losses in productivity and fruit quality as a result of the attack by the phytopathogen Alternaria alternata f.sp. (scielo.br)
  • Alternaria alternata f.sp. (wa.gov.au)
  • Neeraj, B. and Verma, S. (2010) Alternaria Diseases of Vegetable Crops and New Approaches for Its Control. (scirp.org)
  • Alternaria diseases of citrus caused by Alternaria spp. (scirp.org)
  • mainly Alternaria alternata) are important diseases with worldwide distributions. (scirp.org)
  • All cucurbit growers should be on high alert for foliar diseases such as anthracnose and Alternaria as well as downy mildew. (rutgers.edu)
  • For MICs of various antifungal agents so far reported for Alternaria , see our N/A(L):susceptibility database . (drfungus.org)
  • Maiti CK, Sen S, Paul AK, Acharya K (2007) First Report of Alternaria dianthicola Causing Leaf Blight on Withania somnifera from India. (springer.com)
  • In summary, few fungal taxa can match the global impact of Alternaria on humans and human activities. (doe.gov)
  • Effects of Alternaria triticina and foliar fly ash deposition on growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments, protein and lysine contents of three cultivars of wheat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We will use both proteomics and functional genomics approaches to identify the Alternaria- derived immunostimulatory enzymes that are involved in the Th2-driving effects of Alternaria (Aim 3). (elsevier.com)
  • Shepherd HS (1988) Viruslike particles in tentoxin-producing strains of Alternaria alternata . (springer.com)
  • isolated from infections, some Alternaria strains reported as causative agents remain unspecified. (drfungus.org)
  • While caspofungin was shown to be active in vitro against Alternaria [ 558 ], voriconazole also appeared promising and generated lower MICs than itraconazole for Alternaria strains [ 1864 , 2432 ]. (drfungus.org)
  • The presence of Alternaria together with other molds such as Ulocladium spp, Stachybotrys spp, Fusarium spp and Phoma spp, in indoor environment is indicative of humid conditions. (moldbacteria.com)
  • A closely related mold, Ulocladium chartarum , which is very common in indoor environments is frequently misidentified as Alternaria alternata . (moldbacteria.com)
  • A-21- alternaria alternata, aspergillus niger var. (nih.gov)
  • Alternaria, present in the drip pan of an air conditioner unit, was reported to result in allergic rhinitis and asthma in a sensitised individual (10). (phadia.com)
  • The occurrence of Alternaria secondary metabolites in foodstuffs such as grains, peanuts, tomato products, apple sauce, olive oil, and fresh fruits and vegetables is becoming an increasing environmental concern. (doe.gov)
  • A recent study found that at ground-level (50 cm) Alternaria spore concentrations are significantly higher in the presence of vegetation, suggesting that the individual's exposure to Alternaria, especially in the case of children, is underestimated by samples taken at roof-top level by a fixed volumetric collector (9). (phadia.com)
  • The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between meteorologicalconditions and Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in the air of Zagreb in August 2002 andAugust 2003. (aaem.pl)
  • Based on these questions we have tested dissolving Alternaria alternata in different concentrations. (citeqbiologics.com)
  • The solubility of Alternaria alternata medium extract of batch 10M11 differed with the used concentrations. (citeqbiologics.com)
  • Subsequently, the antifungal activity as well as the mode of action against Alternaria alternata was tested in vitro. (scirp.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we will determine the role(s) of PARs in the activation and the immunoregulatory functions of DCs and the role(s) of PARs in the recognition of Alternaria products by DCs in vitro (Aim 1). (elsevier.com)
  • However, both the rate of occurrence and severity of Alternaria leaf blotch vary between apple cultivars. (frontiersin.org)
  • A minimum of 6 bands of precipitation were detected in Alternaria extracts by the gel diffusion method. (elsevier.com)
  • Tannic acid hemagglutination and simple indirect hemagglutination tests were successful only after heating the Alternaria extracts. (elsevier.com)
  • Alternaria extract, when administered to mice intranasally with ovalbumin (OVA) protein, induces a rapid (1-48 h) innate response while also priming an OVA-specific Th2 response that can be evoked 14 days later by intranasal administration of OVA alone. (nih.gov)
  • In this model, HES coadministration with Alternaria/OVA suppressed early IL-33 release, innate lymphoid cell (ILC) production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and localized eosinophilia. (nih.gov)
  • Bioactive enzymes from Alternaria and a novel category of innate immune receptor, protease-activated receptors (PARs), on DCs are likely responsible for these immunological effects. (elsevier.com)
  • We therefore tracked the immune response over the first 48 h following in vivo exposure to Alternaria and HES. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to the fungus, Alternaria, is implicated in the development and exacerbation of human asthma. (elsevier.com)
  • After intranasal exposure to Alternaria, naive mice showed eosinophilic airway inflammation, enhanced Th2 sensitization to innocuous antigens, and airway hyperreactivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Ormdl3 knockout mice were found to be protected from developing allergic airways disease and showed a marked decrease in pathophysiology, including lung function and airway eosinophilia induced by Alternaria. (ovid.com)
  • Alternaria Induces STAT6-Dependent Acute Airway Eosinophilia and Epithelial FIZZ1 Expression That Promotes Airway Fibrosis and Epithelial Thickness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice were sensitized by intranasal administration of OVA protein with extract of the fungal organism Alternaria alternata, and the OVA-specific response was measured following intranasal delivery of OVA protein alone 14 days later (Fig. 1A). (nih.gov)
  • Isolation and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Solid Culture of the Fungus, Alternaria sonchi. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alternaria spore concentration, as well as pollen, is usually detected by a fixed device on the roof of a building at a height of 10-20 m. (phadia.com)
  • [7] Alternaria citri is more likely to be found in hot, semi-arid areas compared to humid areas. (wikipedia.org)