Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Alternariosis: Opportunistic fungal infection by a member of ALTERNARIA genus.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Tenuazonic Acid: 3-Acetyl-5-sec-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one. A metabolite found in a strain of the fungus Alternaria tenuis Auct. which functions as an antibiotic with antiviral and antineoplastic properties, and may also act as a mycotoxin.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Libya: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.zeta Carotene: A carotenoid produced in most carotenogenic organisms. It is one of several sequentially synthesized molecules that are precursors to BETA CAROTENE.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.CyclobutanesTrichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.SesquiterpenesZeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.MichiganMethacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.AcrylatesResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.

Sensitivity distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi to antibiotics. (1/261)

The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of various antibiotics and fungicides for Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas coronafaciens var. atropurpurea, P. lachrymans, Alternaria mali, A. kikuchiana, Pyricularia oryzae, Botrytis sp. and Sclerotinia sp. isolated from diseased plants in various localities of Japan were examined to enable the isolates to be gruoped into sensitive and resistant strains. To minimize the effects of various variable conditions, MIC of isolates were pooled for either 2 or 3 years and were plotted in a single figure. The grouping values were determined on the basis of MIC values of the antibiotics and agricultural chemicals on phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi under investigations. The relationships between grouping values for isolates of bacteria and fungi and the control of disease on the plants correlated to each other were studied.  (+info)

Multiple epoxide hydrolases in Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and their relationship to medium composition and host-specific toxin production. (2/261)

The production of Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici host-specific toxins (AAL toxins) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity were studied during the growth of this plant-pathogenic fungus in stationary liquid cultures. Media containing pectin as the primary carbon source displayed peaks of EH activity at day 4 and at day 12. When pectin was replaced by glucose, there was a single peak of EH activity at day 6. Partial characterization of the EH activities suggests the presence of three biochemically distinguishable EH activities. Two of them have a molecular mass of 25 kDa and a pI of 4.9, while the other has a molecular mass of 20 kDa and a pI of 4.7. Each of the EH activities can be distinguished by substrate preference and sensitivity to inhibitors. The EH activities present at day 6 (glucose) or day 12 (pectin) are concomitant with AAL toxin production.  (+info)

Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. (3/261)

The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone of the wild-type strain was isolated. Structural and functional analyses of an 8.0-kb region corresponding to the tagged site indicated the presence of two genes. One, designated AKT1, encodes a member of the class of carboxyl-activating enzymes. The other, AKT2, encodes a protein of unknown function. The essential roles of these two genes in both AK-toxin production and pathogenicity were confirmed by transformation-mediated gene disruption experiments. DNA gel blot analysis detected AKT1 and AKT2 homologues not only in the Japanese pear pathotype strains but also in strains from the tangerine and strawberry pathotypes. The host-specific toxins of these two pathotypes are similar in structure to AK-toxin. Homologues were not detected in other pathotypes or in non-pathogenic strains of A. alternata, suggesting acquisition of AKT1 and AKT2 by horizontal transfer.  (+info)

Requirement of functional ethylene-insensitive 2 gene for efficient resistance of Arabidopsis to infection by Botrytis cinerea. (4/261)

Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola results in systemic induction of genes encoding a plant defensin (PDF1.2), a basic chitinase (PR-3), and an acidic hevein-like protein (PR-4). Pathogen-induced induction of these three genes is almost completely abolished in the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1. This indicates that a functional ethylene signal transduction component (EIN2) is required in this response. The ein2-1 mutants were found to be markedly more susceptible than wild-type plants to infection by two different strains of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, no increased fungal colonization of ein2-1 mutants was observed after challenge with avirulent strains of either Peronospora parasitica or A. brassicicola. Our data support the conclusion that ethylene-controlled responses play a role in resistance of Arabidopsis to some but not all types of pathogens.  (+info)

A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1. (5/261)

The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which cause inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in vitro and are toxic for some plant species and mammalian cell lines. Sphingolipids can be determinants in the proliferation or death of cells. We investigated the tomato Alternaria stem canker (Asc) locus, which mediates resistance to SAM-induced apoptosis. Until now, mycotoxin resistance of plants has been associated with detoxification and altered affinity or absence of the toxin targets. Here we show that SAM resistance of tomato is determined by Asc-1, a gene homologous to the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1 and that susceptibility is associated with a mutant Asc-1. Because both sphingolipid synthesis and LAG1 facilitate endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast, we propose a role for Asc-1 in a salvage mechanism of sphingolipid-depleted plant cells.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cyclic peptide synthetase gene from Alternaria alternata apple pathotype whose product is involved in AM-toxin synthesis and pathogenicity. (6/261)

Afternaria afternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), with primers designed to conserved domains of peptide synthetase genes, amplified several products from A. alternata apple pathotype that showed high similarity to other fungal peptide synthetases and were specific to the apple pathotype. Screening of a Lambda Zap genomic library with these PCR-generated probes identified overlapping clones containing a complete cyclic peptide synthetase gene of 13.1 kb in length with no introns. Disruption of this gene, designated AM-toxin synthetase (AMT), by transformation of wild-type A. afternata apple pathotype with disruption vectors resulted in toxin-minus mutants, which were also unable to cause disease symptoms on susceptible apple cultivars. AM-toxin synthetase is therefore a primary determinant of virulence and specificity in the A. alternata apple pathotype/apple interaction.  (+info)

Report of successful prolonged antifungal therapy for refractory allergic fungal sinusitis. (7/261)

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is an increasingly recognized cause of refractory chronic sinusitis in the young immunocompetent host, analogous to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a related process in the lower respiratory tract. Most patients experience remittent disease despite corticosteroid therapy and aggressive sinus surgery. Because controlled trials have shown adjunctive antifungal therapy to be of benefit in treating ABPA, long-term oral itraconazole was used in a young man with remittent AFS, which was able to break the cycle of relapsing disease.  (+info)

Structural and functional complexity of the genomic region controlling AK-toxin biosynthesis and pathogenicity in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. (8/261)

The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-specific AK-toxin and causes black spot of Japanese pear. Previously, a cosmid clone, pcAKT-1, was isolated that contains two genes, AKT1 and AKT2, within a 5.0-kb region required for AK-toxin biosynthesis. The wild-type strain has multiple, nonfunctional copies of these genes. In the present study, two additional genes, AKTR-1 and AKT3-1, downstream of AKT2 were identified. Transformation of the wild type with AKTR-1- and AKT3-1-targeting vectors produced toxin-deficient (Tox-), nonpathogenic mutants. DNA gel blot analysis, however, demonstrated that the fragments targeted in Tox- mutants were different from those containing AKTR-1 and AKT3-1 on the transforming vectors. A cosmid clone, pcAKT-2, containing the targeted DNA was isolated and shown to carry two genes, AKTR-2 and AKT3-2, with high similarity to AKTR-1 and AKT3-1, respectively. Transcripts from not only AKTR-2 and AKT3-2 but also AKTR-1 and AKT3-1 were found in the wild type. DNA gel blot analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AKTR and their homologues are on a single chromosome. These results indicate the structural and functional complexity of the genomic region controlling AK-toxin biosynthesis.  (+info)

The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state of Paraíba, Brazil, its occurrence on
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. AU - Tanaka, Aiko. AU - Shiotani, Hiroshi. AU - Yamamoto, Mikihiro. AU - Tsuge, Takashi. PY - 1999/8. Y1 - 1999/8. N2 - The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone of the wild-type strain was isolated. Structural and functional ...
FANTA, NORA; ORTEGA, XIMENA and PEREZ, LUZ M. The development of Alternaria alternata is prevented by chitinases and ß-1,3- glucanases from Citrus limon seedlings. Biol. Res. [online]. 2003, vol.36, n.3-4, pp.411-420. ISSN 0716-9760. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602003000300012.. In addition to phytoalexin synthesis, the defense response of intact Citrus limon seedlings against Alternaria alternata involves both constitutive and induced enzyme activities such as chitinases (Ch) and ß-1,3-glucanases (Glu). A. alternata conidial germination was prevented by protein extracts from inoculated lemon seedlings, but also by extracts from mock-inoculated specimens. On the other hand, degradation of mycelia was accomplished only by protein extracts from inoculated seedlings. The presence of six Ch isoenzymes and of four Glu isoenzymes was detected in protein extracts from mock-inoculated seedlings. As a result of fungal inoculation, the isoenzyme pattern of Ch and Glu changed, making possible the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel chitinase isozyme in tobacco BY-2 cells induced by the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium. AU - Saito, Mikako. AU - Shinya, Tomonori. AU - Hanai, Kazunari. AU - Katagi, Tetsuya. AU - Matsuoka, Hideaki. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - BY-2 cells form a linear linkage of several cells. Such a unique configuration is thought to be suitable for the cell-to-cell communication analysis in vivo that is the basis of the elucidation of the systemic acquired resistance in plants. Since chitinase is one of the typical stress response proteins in plants, BY-2 cells were treated with various biotic and abiotic stresses to investigate if chitinase could be induced in BY-2 cells. Among 33 stresses, the autoclaved Alternaria alternata culture medium could induce at least three chitinase isozymes. The amount of each isozyme was very small but the most abundant one, TBC-1, could be successfully isolated at the yield of 2μg from 2.4kg wet matter of BY-2 cells. The N-terminal ...
The production of mycotoxins by Alternaria alternata in cellulosic ceiling tiles was examined with thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography procedures. Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were found in ceiling tile extracts, whereas extracts of control rice cultures of all three isolates produced these...
Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse
The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola reveals that ascorbate reduces disease severity. AU - Botanga, Christopher J.. AU - Bethke, Gerit. AU - Chen, Zhong. AU - Gallie, Daniel R.. AU - Fiehn, Oliver. AU - Glazebrook, Jane. PY - 2012/12. Y1 - 2012/12. N2 - The interaction between the pathogenic ascomycete Alternaria brassicicola and Arabidopsis was investigated by metabolite profiling. The effect of A. brassicicola challenge on metabolite levels was substantial, with nearly 50% of detected compounds undergoing significant changes. Mutations blocking ethylene, jasmonic acid, or ethylene signaling had little effect on metabolite levels. The effects of altering levels of some metabolites were tested by exogenous application during A. brassicicola inoculation. Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) or xylitol promoted, while trehalose and ascorbate inhibited, disease severity. GABA promoted, and ascorbate strongly inhibited, fungal growth in culture. ...
Bethke G., Grundman R.E., Sreekanta S., Truman W., Katagiri F., Glazebrook J.. Pectins, major components of dicot cell walls, are synthesized in a heavily methylesterified form in the Golgi and are partially deesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) upon export to the cell wall. PME activity is important for the virulence of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Here, the roles of Arabidopsis PMEs in pattern-triggered immunity and immune responses to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterial hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) were studied. Plant PME activity increased during pattern-triggered immunity and after inoculation with either pathogen. The increase of PME activity in response to pathogen treatment was concomitant with a decrease in pectin methylesterification. The pathogen-induced PME activity did not require salicylic acid or ethylene signaling, but was dependent on jasmonic acid signaling. In the case of ...
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and
Optimization of polysaccharide production by Alternaria alternata By A.R.El-shamy and Nehad, E.A* From Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, National Research Center,
strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5 μL of an A. alternata conidial suspension (105 conidia/mL). Tomatoeswere treatedwith 0.6 μL/L of 1-MCP for 24 h. Spiked but untreated tomatoes were considered controls. Then, fruit were stored 6 days at 10 °C and one more week at 20 °C to simulate shelf-life. Fungal growth development and mycotoxin production (alternariol, AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether, AME) were assessed both on the first and on the second week. After the first 6 days at 10 °C, in just one variety the black mold disease was higher in the 1-MCP treated samples. However, after two weeks of storage, in all cases, tomatoes treated with 1-MCP showed more significant fungal growth disease. Regarding mycotoxin production, no large differences were observed among different ...
Fungal allergens have been found to be one of the most prevalent aeroallergens in India. Knowledge of shared/unique components among different fungi is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment of patients allergic to fungi. In the present study, crude extracts (CE) of 11 common fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Asp. fumigatus, Asp. niger, Asp. tamarii, Asp. versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia lunata, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium citrinum, and Fusarium solani) were characterized by isoelectric focusing (IEF), SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot. On IEF (pI 3-9), the number of protein bands was found to be greatest (46) in M. hiemalis extract. SDS-PAGE exhibited a varied number of bands, generally 18-40, with mol. mass ranging from 14 to 100 kDa. IgG-specific immunoprint using rabbit anti-F. solani CF antibodies demonstrated a mol. mass distribution of shared antigenic proteins of 14-100 kDa in most of the fungi. Shared allergenicity was observed in a number of allergenic proteins ...
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a common postharvest contaminant of food and feed, and some strains are plant pathogens. Many processes in A. alternata are triggered by light. Interestingly, blue light inhibits sporulation, and red light reverses the effect, suggesting interactions between light-sensing systems. The genome encodes a phytochrome (FphA), a white collar 1 (WC-1) orthologue (LreA), an opsin (NopA), and a cryptochrome (CryA) as putative photoreceptors. Here, we investigated the role of FphA and LreA and the interplay with the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. We created loss-of function mutations for fphA, lreA, and hogA using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Sporulation was reduced in all three mutant strains already in the dark, suggesting functions of the photoreceptors FphA and LreA independent of light perception. Germination of conidia was delayed in red, blue, green, and far-red light. We found that light induction of ccgA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alternaria inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced cytokine production through toll-like receptor 3. AU - Wada, Kota. AU - Kobayashi, Takao. AU - Matsuwaki, Yoshinori. AU - Moriyama, Hiroshi. AU - Kita, Hirohito. PY - 2013/4/12. Y1 - 2013/4/12. N2 - Background: Fungi may be involved in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CRS patients produce interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the presence of Alternaria. In addition, Alternaria produces potent Th2-like adjuvant effects in the airway. Therefore, we hypothesized that Alternaria may inhibit Th1-type defense mechanisms against virus infection. Methods: Dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow. The functional responses were assessed by expression of cell surface molecules by FACS (MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L). Production of IL-6, chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Bacillus velezensis is an endospore-forming, free-living soil bacterium with potential as a biopesticide against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens of plants. Its potential for commercial development is enhanced by rapid replication and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, typical of Bacillus species. However, the use of beneficial microbes against phytopathogens has not gained dominance due to limitations that may be overcome with new biopesticidal strains and/or new biological knowledge. Here, we isolated B. velezensis strain 9D-6 and showed that it inhibits the in vitro growth of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, including the bacteria , Clavibacter michiganensis, Pantoea agglomerans, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria; and the fungi Alternaria solani, Cochliobolus carbonum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Gibberella pulicaris,
A severe leaf spot and stem blight disease was observed on several sweetpotato genotypes at an experimental field and in commercial plantings of the cultivar Brazlandia Roxa in the Brasilia-DF area. An Alternaria sp. was consistently isolated from the lesions. Pathogenicity tests were done under greenhouse conditions (air temperature, 18-40 C) using a spore suspension adjusted to 5 104 conidia per milliliter. The same Alternaria sp. was reisolated from leaf and petiole lesions. Even though identified as A. bataticola, the Brazilian isolates completely lacked the forked beaks in the conidia that are characteristic of this species. This is apparently the first report of A. bataticola in South America, extending the geographic range of this pathogen to the New World. ...
The A. brassicicola-DiG pathosystem has the features of a compatible interaction, producing expanding necrotic lesions. This suggests that there may be a fundamental difference between this interaction and an incompatible one, rather than merely a graded increase in sensitivity relative to Col-0. If this is so, the defense responses of the plant should differ between the compatible and incompatible interactions. As extensive transcriptional profiling has already been reported for incompatible A. brassicicola-Arabidopsis interaction (incompatible), an initial study of the A. brassicicola-DiG pathosystem was performed. The set of transcripts detected overlaps partially with those induced in resistant (Col-0) or relatively sensitive (pad3 in Col-0 background) interactions, but most of the SSH clones represent transcripts that had not been identified before as defense-related. Of a test set of 9 genes from the SSH library tested by RT-PCR, three were differentially expressed at 72 hai in the DiG-A. ...
uuid": "92760a94-6b7c-4874-b96f-b8f7f4c2989e", "type": "records", "etag": "75305ecf4940f8ca4a79006c992225ec8d448ab5", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "238", "dwc:specificEpithet": "solani", "dwc:kingdom": "Fungi", "dwc:recordedBy": "Spiegelberg", "dwc:order": "Pleosporales", "dcterms:references": "http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=1350946", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "(Ellis & G. Martin) L.R. Jones & Grout", "dwc:occurrenceID": "1350946", "dwc:stateProvince": "Washington", "dwc:eventDate": "1924-08-25", "dwc:country": "USA", "idigbio:recordId": "urn:uuid:be5c98a8-fd6b-4ef6-94c3-bf0c559340e4", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Alternaria", "dwc:family": "Pleosporaceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": "Spiegelberg", "symbiota:verbatimScientificName": "Alternaria solani", "dwc:rights": "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/", "dwc:phylum": "Ascomycota", "dwc:locality": "Seaview", "dwc:institutionCode": "BPI", "dwc:class": ...
Brown spot fungal disease (Alternaria alternata) seems to appear from nowhere, revealing itself with full-blown symptoms. Once the fungal pathogens jump into action, you cant eradicate the disease, but you can fight to keep the fungus in check. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment work to stop brown spot fungus ...
Alternaria induces a rapid innate eosinophilia and ILC2 response which is suppressed by HESAlternaria, without OVA, was administered intransally to BALB/c mice
The Alternaria japonica Yoshii (1941) is Permitted - s11 for the whole of state and is not assigned to any control category for a local government area at this time ...
An interaction between the soil and a different fungus was found to a possible cause; the Glomus Mosseae, which attaches itself to the plants root hair, forming a symbiotic relationship with the plant. In other words, this warns the plant, through the roots, to create defenses against Alternaria solani. Researchers are certain that, based on this discovery, "the mycorrhizal network can extend from one set of plant roots to another, its possible that the network of fungal mycelia acts like telephone wires, allowing the plants to communicate underground" (Coombs, 2013). However, this is currently just a hypothesis; not much is known to researchers about the specific details of this mechanism, so how this relationship works is not completely understood yet. If this hypothetical communication were understood and proven to be correct, then scientists would use this as a way to prevent disease in plants by cultivating a mix of good microbes into the soil to accomplish this goal. The benefit from ...
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uuid": "a594619d-1195-40e5-8296-caf83a1fc816", "type": "records", "etag": "9633b029771f37823275667f71a98815eeeea046", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "288", "dwc:specificEpithet": "brassicae", "dwc:kingdom": "Fungi", "dwc:recordedBy": "Sanchez A.; Ocampo E.; Zenteno M.", "dwc:order": "Pleosporales", "dcterms:references": "http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=1350313", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "(Berk.) Sacc.", "dwc:occurrenceID": "1350313", "dwc:eventDate": "1950-10-15", "dwc:country": "Mexico", "idigbio:recordId": "urn:uuid:a1170e27-3679-414b-9b00-d6bfb861360a", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Alternaria", "dwc:family": "Pleosporaceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": "Zenteno M.", "symbiota:verbatimScientificName": "Alternaria brassicae", "dwc:rights": "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/", "dwc:phylum": "Ascomycota", "dwc:locality": "Chapingo", "dwc:institutionCode": "BPI", "dwc:class": "Dothideomycetes", "dwc:catalogNumber": "BPI ...
Crude aqueous extracts from Arabidopsis leaves were subjected to chromatographic separations, after which the different fractions were monitored for antimicrobial activity using the fungus |i|Neurospora crassa|/i| as a test organism. Two major fractions were obtained that appeared to have the same abundance in leaves from untreated plants versus leaves from plants challenge inoculated with the fungus |i|Alternaria brassicicola|/i|. One of both major antimicrobial fractions was purified to homogeneity and identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography/electron impact mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry as 4-methylsulphinylbutyl isothiocyanate (ITC). This compound has previously been described as a product of myrosinase-mediated breakdown of glucoraphanin, the predominant glucosinolate in Arabidopsis leaves. 4-Methylsulphinylbutyl ITC was found to be inhibitory to a wide range of fungi and bacteria, producing 50% growth inhibition in vitro at
Background & Aims: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways which is associated with the triad of cough, wheezing and dyspnea. Allergic asthma is often associated with a personal or family history of allergic diseases and mostly begins at early childhood. Mold is one of the most common irritants of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the last 20 years there has been 30% increase in the prevalence of moldsrelated asthma. Methods: In this study the prevalence of mold allergy in asthmatic patients of less than 18 years old who refrred to Semnan allergy clinic during 2007-2008 was determined. Skin prick test with standard mold allergens was performed and sensitivity to the most prevalent molds like Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, cladosporium and mucor was evaluated. Results: From 220 studied subjects, 35% (95% Confidence Interval: 28.7-41.3%) were shown to be sensitive to at least one mold. The prevalence rates of sensitivity to molds were as follow: Alternaria14.5%, Aspergillus 12.7%,
The Microbe collection is a diverse group of mAbs that recognize primarily surface components of prokaryotes including bacteria and viruses
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احمدی­ زاده اصفهانی آ، صدروی م و کاظمی ش (1398) تاثیر نانوکیتوزان بر بیماری سوختگی زودهنگام گوجه‌فرنگی. دانش بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی 8(2):109-102. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.8.2.102 مقدمه: سوختگی زودهنگام ناشی از گونه­ های Alternaria یکی از بیماری‌های مهم­ گوجه­ فرنگی در جهان است. این بیماری از بیشتر مناطق ایران با آلودگی تا 90 درصد گزارش شده ...
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It is very common for houseplants to develop diseases when they are growing poorly or not given proper care. The black spots on houseplants are a common fungal disease.
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Alt a 1 is recognised by approximately 80% to 100% of all Alternaria-allergic patients (29,55). rAlt a 1 has been shown to be similar to natural Alt a 1. In a study of A. alternata-sensitised individuals, 85.7% to ,90% were shown to be sensitised to to rAlt a 1 (25,29). Similarly, in a study of patients with A. alternata allergy, sensitisation could be detected by means of skin test. No false-positive results were obtained with control patients, even at the highest concentration (14). Evaluation of recombinant Alt a 1 using skin test was positive in 6 of 7 individuals allergic to Alternaria. In contrast, in a study using commercially available A. alternata extracts, researchers failed to correctly diagnose Alternaria-allergic patients in 2/10 cases (25 ...
The mechanism for vesicle formation is largely unknown, but it is found in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of bacteria, and used for several different purposes. In pathogenic bacteria the vesicles often contain virulence factors, which can destroy or damage host cells. in the wild, they may also bind to or destroy other bacteria. In less-virulent strains they have been shown to act as a method of removing misformed or unwanted proteins from the periplasmic space (the space between the two membranes). They can also play a part in antibiotic resistance, its not yet certain how but my guess is that they pump the antibiotic into the periplasmic space then vesicle it off to stop it just diffusing back in again ...
Complete information for ACTRT1 gene (Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein T1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Sorry, I could only read the abstracts I am aware of high radiation-tolerant microbes commonly growing in buildings. The common Hyphomycete genus Alternaria is a good example. Its RH growth requirement: over 80%. I also known that thermophiles grow in animal sheds, mainly in compost piles. That they can be found in school dust, at much lower levels though, only illustrates that school surfaces are sinks for these microbes, not sources. A lot of microbes showing up in buildings as spores, though viable, cannot grow in the building environment, unless it can be documented.. ...
The lining of your respiratory system, extending from your nose through the airways of your lungs, is coated with mucus. This clear, sticky substance helps...
Many people have brown spots or age spots on their face and skin, and even though they are not very scary, people who have them do not feel self-confident. They
Online shopping for natural and organic age and brown spot support creams from a wide selection of natural skin care items at everyday low prices. Fast reliable shipping to Canada.
Hello, I am 34 weeks pregnant. This is my first baby, so I am completely new to this. A few days ago after urinating I noticed a couple of brown spots with
It has been proved across the time that more and more people tend to give an increased importance to the way one individual looks. Nowadays the image is crucial, it is the image that sells, the image that promotes the individual. It is the image who can give that plus required to get a better job or that something which can attract possible partners. With such an increased attention on image, it is no wonder that people with skin imperfections feel marginalized, are afraid of making their way out in the world, are afraid of trying and unconfident in their success, in themselves and their potential.. One of the most banal skin conditions which can seriously shake ones confidence in themselves is the spotted skin or brown spots as they are known by population. These brown spots have more causes of appearance, starting with excessive exposure to sun, rashes, wounds or damages and ending with hormonal imbalances or other internal problems. Because their highly anesthetic aspect most people try to ...
Read 13 responses to: I am 33 years old and have pretty nice skin. No... Find the best answer on Mamapedia - mom trusted since 2006.
Please specify your age. It can be due to some vitamin deficiency. May be your are living in a cold place, where there is less sun light.
The number of cases of both acetonaemia and displaced abomasums both increased significantly in January, however in neither case did the increase result in the number of cases being above average.
The sterol biosynthesis inhibitors bromuconazole and difenoconazole and tank mixes of each fungicide with captan were applied to apples and evaluated as controls for moldy-core and fruit decay caused by Alternaria alternata. Effectiveness of a mixture of bromuconazole and captan in controlling colonization by the fungus was also evaluated. Decay formation by A. alternata on mature detached fruits was partially inhibited by bromuconazole at 0.5 μg ml−1 and was completely inhibited at 50 μg ml−1; it was significantly affected by either bromoconazole at 5 μg ml−1 or captan at 1,250 μg ml−1, and was completely inhibited by their mixture. In general, three foliar applications of bromuconazole or difenoconazole in the field, during the bloom period, reduced the numbers of infected fruits by 40-60% compared with untreated control trees. However, tank mixes of either fungicide with captan improved control of moldy-core in fruits at harvest. Tank mixtures of bromuconazole and captan also
Alternaria". Trans Kansas Acad 62: 252-256. 1960. ---, ---, ---. "Kansas aeromycology V: Penicillium and Aspergillus". ...
Alternaria spp. Curvularia Acremonium Yeasts Candida Fusarium spp. is most common then Aspergillus spp. and thirdly Dematitious ...
This is due to the production and detection of Alt a 1, the major allergen produced by Alternaria alternata, in U.botrytis. In ... After much study, it was found that Alternaria maritima was in fact Ulocladium botrytis. Although Ulocladium is now a genus of ... De Hoog, G. S.; Horré, R. (October 2002). "Molecular taxonomy of the alternaria and Ulocladium species from humans and their ... During the late 1900s, a mycologist named Curran described Alternaria maritima as a species new to Ireland. However, Curran's ...
and Alternaria sp., and some filter papers made of cellulose-rich wood fibres. They fed preferentially on the algae and also ... consumed the Alternaria but rejected the Stachybotrys and the filter papers. After about ten days they started to secrete ...
... was isolated from an Alternaria sp. in 1992. It has since been isolated from fungi species such as Hypoxium ... Gu, Wen (May 23, 2009). "Bioactive metabolites from Alternaria brassicicola ML-PO8, an endophytic funus residing in Malus ... trancatum, Ascomycota sp., and Alternaria brassicicola. Researchers have come to the conclusion that Altechromone A is a common ...
and Alternaria spp. spores in Zagreb (Croatia) and effects of some meteorological factors. Ann Agric Environ Med., 2004, 11, ... II Cladosporium und Alternaria Sporen. Acta Allergol 1977, 32, (English Abstract).. ...
However, Ulocladium, unlike Alternaria, do not produce alternariols, tenuazonic acid, altersolanols, or macrosporin. The ... 2013). "Alternaria redefined". Studies in Mycology. 75 (1): 171-212. doi:10.3114/sim0015. PMID 24014900. Ulocladium species ... Species of Ulocladium resemble those of genus Alternaria with which they were once included. Several DNA-based phylogenetic ... 2013). "Alternaria redefined". Studies in Mycology. 75 (1): 171-212. doi:10.3114/sim0015. PMID 24014900. ...
It has since been reported in a number of other endophytic fungi, including Nodulisporium sylviforme, Alternaria taxi, ... Alternaria alternata var. monosporus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Nigrospora sp., Pestalotiopsis versicolor, and Taxomyces ...
and Alternaria spp. spores in Zagreb (Croatia) and effects of some meteorological factors". Ann Agric Environ Med. 11: 303-7. ... Rodríguez-Rajo FJ, Iglesias I, Jato V. "Variation assessment of airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium spores at different ...
Examples are Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Trichoderma etc. Although Fungi imperfecti/Deuteromycota is no longer formally ...
Li FQ, Toyazaki N, Yoshizawa T (2001). "Production of alternaria mycotoxins by Alternaria alternata isolated from weather- ... Webley DJ, Jackson KL, Mullins JD, Hocking AD, Pitt JI (1997). "Alternaria toxins in weather-damaged wheat and sorghum in the ... Li F, Yoshizawa T (2000). "Alternaria mycotoxins in weathered wheat from China". J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (7): 2920-4. doi: ... originated from Alternaria spp. Some of the toxins can be present in sorghum, ragi, wheat and tomatoes. Some research has shown ...
Gupta, D.P. (1972). "Host relation in Alternaria early blight of potato;Role of sugars". Journal of Ranchi University. VIII: ... Gupta, D.P. (1972). "Host relation in Alternaria early blight of potato;Germination of spore". Journal of Bihar Botanical ... Gupta, D.P. (1970). "Secretion of Pectic enzymes by Alternaria Solani". The Botanical Magazine, Tokyo. The Botanical Society of ... Gupta, D.P. (1978). "Secretion of pectic enzymes by Alternaria triticina". Annales de Phytopathologie. Institut national de la ...
Citrus scab and alternaria fungus disease attack Murcotts. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ch078 Velasco, Riccardo; Licciardello, ...
It can be associated an array of darkly-pigmented hyphomycetes including Alternaria species, Exophiala jeanselmei, and ... December 2009). "Phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria species in transplant recipients". Transpl Infect Dis. 12 (3): 242-250. ...
... is a toxic metabolite of Alternaria fungi. It is an important contaminant in cereals and fruits. Alternariol ...
Alternaria Cochliobolus Drechsler Crivellia Shoemaker & Inderbitzin Decorospora (Pat.) Inderbitzin, Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm ...
... caused by Alternaria alternata; Bitter rot caused by Glomerella cingulata; Cladosporium rot or Soft rot caused by Cladosporium ...
... from Alternaria tenuis: its isolation and characterization. Proceedings of the Mycotoxin Research Seminar, Washington ... Tentoxin was first isolated from Alternaria alternata (syn. tenuis) and characterized by George Templeton et al. in 1967. ... Tentoxin is a natural cyclic tetrapeptide produced by phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata. It selectively induces ...
Alternaria blight Alternaria alternata. Alternaria sp. Anthracnose Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Colletotrichum truncatum ...
Alternaria rot Alternaria alternata Angular leaf scorch Pseudopezicula tetraspora Phialophora-type (anamorph) ...
The fungi were Penicillium decumbens, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Alternaria sp. and Tilletiopsis albescens. Out of the 12 ...
It has been isolated from the fungus Alternaria tenuis. Mizushina, Y; Maeda, N; Kuriyama, I; Yoshida, H (2011). " ...
Alternaria Diseases of Crucifers: Biology, Ecology and Disease Management. Springer. ISBN 981-10-0021-2. al.], editors in chief ...
"Alternaria Brown Spot of Dancy Tangerine and its Control." Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 92:34-37. Description of tangelo Baboons ...
... is a mycotoxin produced by Alternaria species. It is a powerful eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. In 1991 ...
... causes leaf blight on carrot Alternaria carthami Alternaria celosiae Alternaria cinerariae Alternaria citri Alternaria ... infests cole crops Alternaria gaisen - causes ringspot disease of pear Alternaria helianthi Alternaria helianthicola Alternaria ... causes ginseng blight Alternaria perpunctulata Alternaria petroselini - causes parsley leaf blight Alternaria porri Alternaria ... grows on various cucurbits Alternaria dauci - grows on carrot Alternaria dianthi Alternaria dianthicola Alternaria eichhorniae ...
Alternaria japonica is a fungal plant pathogen. It is a cause of black spot disease in cruciferous plants. It is not a major ... This fungus is not thought to be a cause of disease in humans, unlike other members of Alternaria. Occurrences of black spot ... Bassimba, D. D. M.; Mira, J. L.; Vicent, A. (2013-05-22). "First Report of Alternaria japonica Causing Black Spot of Turnip in ... Ren, X. X.; Zhang, G. Z.; Dai, W. A. (2012-06-26). "First Report of Damping-off Caused by Alternaria japonica on Chinese ...
... Laura Escrivá,1 Souheib Oueslati,2,3 Guillermina Font,1 and Lara Manyes1 ... M. E. H. Müller and U. Korn, "Alternaria mycotoxins in wheat - A 10 years survey in the Northeast ofGermany," Food Control, vol ... P. López, D. Venema, T. de Rijk et al., "Occurrence of Alternaria toxins in food products in The Netherlands," Food Control, ... Q. He, J. Li, X. Kong, A. Yue, and S. Wu, "Simultaneous determination of four Alternaria toxins in apple juice concentrate by ...
... and Alternaria state of Pleospora infectoria (on Avena sativa)-were reported as plant pathogenic and new to Libyan mycobiota. ... This study was carried out to identify unknown Alternaria species or less known as plant pathogenic anamorphic fungi from ... Rude, S.V., Duczek, L.J. and Seidle, E. (1999) The Effect of Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria raphani and Alternaria alternata ... Alternaria Species, A. brassicae, A. longipes, A. tenuissima, A. triticicola and Alternaria State of Pleospora infectoria, in ...
Alternaria tenuissima. Alternaria arborescens. Alternaria sp. FH-2014. Alternaria mali. Alternaria sp. Acitri-1. Alternaria ... Alternaria tenuissima. Alternaria arborescens. Alternaria sp. FH-2014. Alternaria mali. Alternaria sp. Acitri-1. Alternaria ... Alternaria citriarbusti. Alternaria sp. EAP2. Alternaria sp. EAY1. And more. 379. UniRef100_A0A177DXD0. Cluster: ... Alternaria citriarbusti. Alternaria sp. EAP2. Alternaria sp. EAY1. And more. 379. UniRef90_Q9C4A0. Cluster: ...
Alternaria leaf spot lesions can be quite large in size and take on a target-like appearance. ...
Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone: AM-BAC-14 Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, ... Alternaria alternata DNA, AMT genes region, strain: NBRC 8984, clone: AM-BAC-14. GenBank: AB525198.1 ...
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At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen- ... This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their ... Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi ... Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic ...
The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state ... Alternaria diseases of citrus caused by Alternaria spp. (mainly Alternaria alternata) are important diseases with worldwide ... Alternaria brown spot, caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissler is the principal fungal disease of ... The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is the aetiological agent of Alternaria brown spot on tangerines. In the state ...
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A case of cutaneous alternariosis due to Alternaria alternata in a 47-year-old man who had the CREST (calcinosis, Raynauds ... Cutaneous Alternaria alternata infection successfully treated with itraconazole Clin Exp Dermatol. 1996 May;21(3):241-3. doi: ... A case of cutaneous alternariosis due to Alternaria alternata in a 47-year-old man who had the CREST (calcinosis, Raynauds ...
Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated ... Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, ...
An allergic reaction to an indoor/outdoor fungus such as Alternaria tenuis can occur at any time of year. Like exposure to ... Like exposure to other molds, inhaling the spores of Alternaria tenuis, also known as Alternaria alternata, causes hay fever- ... National Institutes of Health: Exposure to Alternaria Alternata in US Homes * American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ... Allergy Medications for an Allergy to Alternaria Tenuis Fungus by NANCY CLARKE Aug. 14, 2017. ...
A leaf and stem spot disease of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus) caused by Alternaria helianthi was found in Ohio for the ... Alternaria helianthi on Sunflower in Ohio. L. J. Herr, Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio Agricultural Research and ...
TRIACA, Tatiane et al. Detection of antifungal activity of plant extracts on Alternaria citrus. Summa phytopathol. [online]. ... citri, which causes Alternaria brown spot (ABS). The disease control is still performed with the massive use of agrochemicals, ... has suffered considerable losses in productivity and fruit quality as a result of the attack by the phytopathogen Alternaria ...
A strong camalexin response was elicited in wild-type plants inoculated with either Alternaria brassicicola or Botrytis cinerea ... The induction of salicylate-dependent and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent defense genes was not reduced in Alternaria-challenged ... Deficiency in phytoalexin production causes enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana to the fungus Alternaria ... this mutant is markedly more susceptible than its wild-type parental line to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria ...
ORNAMENTALS. Heritage Fungicide is recommended for control of certain pathogens causing foliar, aerial, and root diseases, including leaf, tip, and flower blights, leaf spots, downy mildew, powdery mildew, anthracnose, and rusts of ornamental plants. Heritage Fungicide may be used to control certain diseases of container, bench, flat, plug, bed or field-grown ornamentals in greenhouses, shade-houses, outdoor nurseries, retail nurseries, and other landscape areas.. Integrated Pest (Disease) Management: Heritage Fungicide should be integrated into an overall disease management strategy that includes selection of varieties with disease tolerance, optimum plant populations, proper fertilization, winter and/or spring pruning, plant residue management and proper timing and placement of irrigation. Immunoassay detection kits and diagnostic services can assist in the early and accurate identification of causal organisms and corresponding selection of the proper fungicide when required.. Resistance ...
... within the genera Nimbya and Embellisia reside within a large monophyletic clade that also includes the genera Alternaria, ... Simmons EG (1992) Alternaria taxonomy: current status, viewpoint, challenge. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A (eds) Alternaria ... and molecular characterization of Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology 92: ... Simmons EG (1967) Typification of Alternaria, Stemphylium, and Ulocladium. Mycologia 59:67-92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Therefore, a naturally occurring mixture of Alternaria toxins was generated as an extract from Alternaria alternata strain DSM ... Generation and characterization of Alternaria extracts. A complete extract (CE) of rice infected with the Alternaria alternata ... Estrogenic impact of Alternaria extracts, a alone or b on the activity of E2, as measured by the AlP assay. All values are ... Chemical structures of selected Alternaria toxins, grouped as a tenuazonic acid, b dibenzo-α-pyrones, c perylene quinones and d ...
Alternaria alternata). Alternaria is a dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungus commonly isolated from plants, soil, food, and indoor ... Alternaria alternata also causes leaf spots, rots and blights in plants. Magnification: x400 when shortest axis printed at 25 ... Caption: Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Filamentous allergenic fungus (Alternaria alternata). Alternaria is a ... Keywords: 23269b, allergen, allergenic, allergic, allergies, allergy, alternaria, alternata, and, ascomycota, asthma, black, ...
M1 also bound to naturally occurring melanin isolated from mycelia of Alternaria alternata, suggesting that epitopes remain ...
... of the fungus Alternaria alternata, a causative agent of respiratory allergies. Here, fungal threads of the vegetative mycelium ... Alternaria alternata is a cause of both allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in which inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose ... Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fungus Alternaria alternata, a causative agent of respiratory allergies. Here, fungal ...
We found the presence of plasmid DNA in strain T88-56 of the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata, which causes ... Circular DNA Plasmid in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata: Its Temperature-Dependent Curing and Association with ... Circular DNA Plasmid in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata: Its Temperature-Dependent Curing and Association with ... Circular DNA Plasmid in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata: Its Temperature-Dependent Curing and Association with ...
The pathogenicity of Alternaria spp. isolated from wheat leaves collected in regions where alternaria leaf blight has been ... Alternaria triticina isolates were distinguished from other Alternaria species by Simmons and Roberts sporulation pattern 6 ... triticina from other nonpathogenic Alternaria species. Alternaria triticina isolates yielded longer ITS sequences than A. ... Alternaria leaf blight symptoms were produced by the A. triticina isolates only on durum wheat cv. Bansi, while A. alternata, A ...
  • Alternaria solan i is the causal agent of early blight disease in tomatoes ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and every year is responsible for significant economic losses suffered worldwide by the producers of this crop. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of RdRp indicated that the virus we identified in A. arborescens is a distinct member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae, designated as "Alternaria arborescens mitovirus 1" (AaMV1). (deepdyve.com)
  • An Alternaria poonensis in nahilalakip ha genus nga Alternaria , ngan familia nga Pleosporaceae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hong SG, Cramer RA, Lawrence CB, Pryor BM (2005) Alt a1 allergen homologs from Alternaria and related taxa: analysis of phylogenetic content and secondary structure. (springer.com)
  • Significant concentrations of Alternaria allergens, between 3.0 and 1000 U/g of dust, have been found in house dust of allergic children, supporting the hypothesis that fungal allergen exposure is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma (6-7). (phadia.com)
  • But Alternaria is predominantly an outdoor allergen favouring damp spots, and most indoor concentrations may derive from outdoor primary sources. (phadia.com)
  • Since Alternaria mold is a common allergen, you need to remove it as soon as the first signs of infestation appear. (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • This medium extract contains the highest amount of Alt a 1, the major allergen of Alternaria alternata. (citeqbiologics.com)
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of Alternaria toxins in feed and food," EFSA J , pp. 2407-2504, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • P. M. Scott, W. Zhao, S. Feng, and B. P.-Y. Lau, "Alternaria toxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in grain foods in Canada. (hindawi.com)
  • Impact of Alternaria toxins on CYP1A1 expression in different human tumor cells and relevance for genotoxicity," Toxicology Letters , vol. 240, no. 1, pp. 93-104, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods to Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , vol. 64, no. 24, pp. 5101-5109, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well. (mdpi.com)
  • The infestation of crops designated for human consumption may result in the occurrence of a variety of toxic metabolites-the so-called Alternaria toxins-in food products. (springer.com)
  • Together with other compounds including altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (iso-ALT) or altenuisol (ATL), they form the dibenzo-α-pyrone group of Alternaria toxins (Fig. 1 b). (springer.com)
  • A mechanism for this unexpected result might be the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by Alternaria metabolites, as indicated by the induction of CYP1A1 transcription. (springer.com)
  • Alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) represent the so far most-studied Alternaria metabolites. (springer.com)
  • It was discovered to produce two aromatic metabolites (48 and 53), four well-known Alternaria mycotoxins including altenuene (49), isoaltenuene (50), alternariol (51) and altertoxin I (52), as well as a dicarboxylic acid (54). (tu-dortmund.de)
  • The occurrence of Alternaria secondary metabolites in foodstuffs such as grains, peanuts, tomato products, apple sauce, olive oil, and fresh fruits and vegetables is becoming an increasing environmental concern. (doe.gov)
  • It is vitally important to commence the programme in a preventative manner, so if at all possible a grower/advisor should not need to 'react' to seeing Alternaria symptoms. (syngenta.co.uk)
  • Anthracnose and Alternaria produce distinct circular spots on infected leaves, and in most cases, symptoms begin on the older leaves. (rutgers.edu)
  • While Alternaria mold is not a pathogen, there may be rare cases where opportunistic pathogens attack people with compromised immune system, such as those with HIV or in chemotherapy. (cleanwaterpartners.org)
  • As plant pathogens, thousands of Alternaria /host associations are recorded in the USDA Fungal Host Index. (doe.gov)
  • Duan CF, Long YQ, Chen H, Yang GH, Gui M, Liu GH (2015) First report of Alternaria dianthicola causing flower blight on carnation in China. (springer.com)
  • Maiti CK, Sen S, Paul AK, Acharya K (2007) First Report of Alternaria dianthicola Causing Leaf Blight on Withania somnifera from India. (springer.com)
  • The fungal pathogen Alternaria radicina causes pre- and post-emergence damping off, leaf and umbel blight and black rot of carrot. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • AMPHORE PLUS has the added benefit of providing a full 150 gm of mandipropamid when applied at 0.6 l/ha, so in the earlier part of the season you are in no way compromising late blight prevention whilst also focusing on keeping Alternaria out. (syngenta.co.uk)
  • In this series of academies, there are modules on alternaria, potato blight and aphids - all require vigilant agronomic management and treatment timings. (fwi.co.uk)
  • 1992. Alternaria -blight of cotton: Epidemiology and transmission. (areo.ir)
  • For more information on the control of anthracnose and Alternaria leaf blight in cucurbit crops please see the 2015 Commercial Vegetable Production Guide. (rutgers.edu)
  • The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between meteorologicalconditions and Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in the air of Zagreb in August 2002 andAugust 2003. (aaem.pl)
  • Effects of Alternaria triticina and foliar fly ash deposition on growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments, protein and lysine contents of three cultivars of wheat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alternaria, present in the drip pan of an air conditioner unit, was reported to result in allergic rhinitis and asthma in a sensitised individual (10). (phadia.com)
  • isolated from infections, some Alternaria strains reported as causative agents remain unspecified. (drfungus.org)
  • Ormdl3 knockout mice were found to be protected from developing allergic airways disease and showed a marked decrease in pathophysiology, including lung function and airway eosinophilia induced by Alternaria. (ovid.com)
  • Alternaria Induces STAT6-Dependent Acute Airway Eosinophilia and Epithelial FIZZ1 Expression That Promotes Airway Fibrosis and Epithelial Thickness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In summary, few fungal taxa can match the global impact of Alternaria on humans and human activities. (doe.gov)
  • In this model, HES coadministration with Alternaria/OVA suppressed early IL-33 release, innate lymphoid cell (ILC) production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and localized eosinophilia. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the RdRp, AdRV1 is phylogenetically related to some unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses, including Alternaria longipes dsRNA virus 1, and shows a distant relationship to members of the family Partitiviridae . (springer.com)
  • Lin Y, Zhang H, Zhao C, Liu S, Guo L (2015) The complete genome sequence of a novel mycovirus from Alternaria longipes strain HN28. (springer.com)
  • Detailed analysis of next-generation sequencing data obtained using dsRNA purified from Alternaria arborescens, from which we had previously found Alternaria arborescens victorivirus 1, revealed the presence of another mycoviral-like dsRNA of approximately 2.5 kbp in length. (deepdyve.com)
  • Potato growers and agronomists are being warned to be on the lookout for signs of Alternaria on heat and drought stressed crops, particularly if any localised thunderstorms bubble up in the heat. (syngenta.co.uk)
  • With AMISTAR now having a foliar label approval for Alternaria control, it is worth considering where this fits into the programme best, writes Syngenta Potato Technical Manager, Douglas Dyas. (syngenta.co.uk)