Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Tetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Essential Tremor: A relatively common disorder characterized by a fairly specific pattern of tremors which are most prominent in the upper extremities and neck, inducing titubations of the head. The tremor is usually mild, but when severe may be disabling. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance may occur in some families (i.e., familial tremor). (Mov Disord 1988;13(1):5-10)Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Tripelennamine: A histamine H1 antagonist with low sedative action but frequent gastrointestinal irritation. It is used to treat ASTHMA; HAY FEVER; URTICARIA; and RHINITIS; and also in veterinary applications. Tripelennamine is administered by various routes, including topically.Valerian: A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (HELIOTROPIUM).SculptureMoraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).EuropeQuarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Bemegride: A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Nitrazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.SingaporeOrganosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Price ListsTablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Granuloma, Foreign-Body: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Isotretinoin: A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of ACNE VULGARIS and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Nobel PrizeAwards and PrizesRehmannia: A plant genus of the family Rehmanniaceae. Members contain catapol, rehmannin and ALKALOIDS.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)

A double-peak phenomenon in the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam after oral administration. (1/117)

The pharmacokinetics of alprazolam (ALP) after i.v. and p.o. administration in rats were characterized. ALP decayed biexponentially after the i.v. dose (1.25 mg/kg), but the concentration-time profiles after the p.o. doses (7 and 12.5 mg/kg) exhibited a double-peak phenomenon. The presence of two peaks was confirmed by statistical analysis of the serum concentration data of ALP, as well as by observed double peaks in the serum concentration-time profiles of the two active metabolites (alpha-hydroxyalprazolam and 4-hydroxyalprazolam). An absorption model incorporating a delay site is proposed to describe the data, and the absolute oral bioavailability is estimated to be about 30%. The two peaks were approximately 80 to 115 min apart, and there was a delay in the absorption of close to 80% of oral ALP, regardless of dose. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying the double-peak phenomenon is due to reduction in gastric motility caused by the muscle relaxant effect of ALP. This hypothesis is supported by the observed longer delay in the appearance of the second peak at the higher p.o. dose. Enterohepatic recycling is precluded from being the underlying mechanism, because of the presence of double peaks after the p.o. doses but not after the i.v. dose. This is the first reported case of double peaks for oral ALP, and this phenomenon has not been reported for other benzodiazepines. The double-peak phenomenon caused by the hypothesized mechanism may have important therapeutic and drug interaction implications, especially because benzodiazepines are commonly coadministered with other drugs.  (+info)

Quantitation of alprazolam and alpha-hydroxyalprazolam in human plasma using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS-MS. (2/117)

A sensitive and specific electrospray ionization high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of alprazolam (AL) and alpha-hydroxyalprazolam (OH-AL) in plasma. After the addition of deuterium labeled internal standards of AL and OH-AL, plasma samples were buffered to alkaline pH and extracted with toluene/methylene chloride (7:3). Dried extract residues were reconstituted in HPLC mobile phase and injected onto a reversed-phase C18 HPLC column. The analytes were eluted isocratically at a flow rate of 250 microL/min using a solvent composed of methanol and water (60:40) containing 0.1% formic acid. The analyses were performed using selected reaction monitoring. The assay was sensitive to 0.05 ng/mL for both the parent drug and metabolite and linear to 50 ng/mL. The intra-assay percent coefficients of variation (%CV) for AL at 2, 5, and 20 ng/mL were all < or = 5.6. At these concentrations, and all OH-AL intra-assay %CVs were < or = 8.4. The interassay variabilities for AL were 11.8%CV, 8.7%CV, and 8.7%CV at 2.0, 5.0, and 20.0 ng/mL, respectively. The OH-AL interassay variabilities were 9.6%CV, 9.2%CV, and 7.8%CV at the same concentrations, respectively. The assay accuracy was less than or equal to +/- 6.6% for both analytes at the three concentrations. The method was used to quantitate AL and OH-AL in plasma samples collected from 10 subjects who were administered a 1-mg oral dose of AL. The mean AL concentration peaked at 11.5 ng/mL 1 h after the dose and AL was detectable for 48 h. The mean OH-AL concentration peaked at 0.18 ng/mL 4 h after the dose and was undetectable by 36 h. Hydrolysis of the plasma samples had little effect on the detected AL concentrations but increased OH-AL concentrations substantially. Plasma/blood ratios for AL and OH-AL exceeded 1 in the study samples.  (+info)

Chronic administration of the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam produces opposite effects on corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin neuronal systems. (3/117)

In view of the substantial preclinical evidence that supports a seminal role of central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neuronal systems in the physiology and pathophysiology of stress and anxiety, it is reasonable to suggest that the anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepines are mediated, at least in part, via regulation of CRFergic function. To begin to test this complex hypothesis, we examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of the triazolobenzodiazepine agonist alprazolam on CRF peptide concentrations, receptor-binding density, and mRNA expression in the CNS. Additionally, we measured mRNA expression for urocortin, a recently discovered neuropeptide that is generally considered to be a second endogenous ligand for CRF receptors. Both acute and chronic alprazolam administration was found to decrease CRF concentrations within the locus coeruleus. Furthermore, chronic alprazolam decreased basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CRF mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala, and CRF(1) mRNA expression and receptor binding in the basolateral amygdala. In marked contrast, urocortin mRNA expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and CRF(2A) receptor binding in the lateral septum and ventromedial hypothalamus were increased. Similar findings of an inverse relationship between the CRF(1) and CRF(2A) receptor systems have been reported in an anxiety model based on adverse early-life experience, suggesting the intriguing possibility that CRF neuronal systems may be comprised of two separate, but interrelated, subdivisions that can be coordinately and inversely regulated by stress, anxiety, or anxiolytic drugs.  (+info)

Effects of age on in vitro midazolam biotransformation in male CD-1 mouse liver microsomes. (4/117)

To study age-related changes in drug metabolism, we examined the in vitro biotransformation of midazolam (MDZ), a human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A substrate, using liver microsomes from three age groups of male CD-1 mice ranging from 6 weeks to 2 years old. MDZ was metabolized to two major products, alpha-OH- and 4-OH-MDZ, which were quantified by HPLC. For both metabolites, V(max) values were reduced in old livers (P <.05), while K(m) values did not change with age. The net intrinsic clearance (the sum of V(max)/K(m) for both pathways) also was reduced in the old animals (P <.05). The capacity of ketoconazole, a CYP3A inhibitor in humans, to inhibit the biotransformation of MDZ and of alprazolam, another human CYP3A substrate, did not differ significantly with age. At 100 microM alprazolam, 0.5 microM ketoconazole inhibited metabolite formation by >80%. At 30 microM MDZ, 2.5 microM ketoconazole impaired 4-OH-MDZ formation by 88%, whereas it reduced alpha-OH-MDZ formation by only 46%. Immunoinhibition studies with polyclonal anti-rat CYP3A1/2 and CYP2C11 antibodies confirmed that 4-OH-MDZ formation was largely CYP3A-dependent, while alpha-OH-MDZ formation was mediated by CYP3A and -2C isoforms. Western blot analysis revealed decreased microsomal content of CYP3A in old livers. Net intrinsic clearance of MDZ was correlated with total CYP3A content (P <.001). These results demonstrate a reduction in MDZ biotransformation in old male mice, which may be attributable, in part, to decreased CYP3A content in old livers. Changes in expression and activity of CYP2C isoforms also may contribute to age-related changes in MDZ biotransformation, but this requires more investigation.  (+info)

Imidazenil prevention of alprazolam-induced acquisition deficit in patas monkeys is devoid of tolerance. (5/117)

The partial allosteric modulators (PAMs) of gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated Cl(-) current intensities at gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors have high affinity but low intrinsic efficacy on benzodiazepine recognition sites. Unlike the full allosteric modulators (FAM), like alprazolam, triazolam, and diazepam, PAMs are virtually devoid of unwanted side effects, including tolerance. Imidazenil (IMD) is a PAM that elicits potent anxiolytic and anticonvulsant actions in rodents and nonhuman primates and retains its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects, even in rodents that are tolerant to FAMs. IMD antagonizes the side effects of FAMs in rodents and nonhuman primates. Using patas monkeys and a multiple schedule with repeated acquisition and performance of chain responses, we report that IMD administration for 17 days antagonized without showing tolerance ALP-induced disruption of acquisition.  (+info)

A synthetic agonist at the orphanin FQ/nociceptin receptor ORL1: anxiolytic profile in the rat. (6/117)

The biochemical and behavioral effects of a nonpeptidic, selective, and brain-penetrant agonist at the ORL1 receptor are reported herein. This low molecular weight compound [(1S,3aS)-8- (2,3,3a,4,5, 6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triaza- spiro[4. 5]decan-4-one] has high affinity for recombinant human ORL1 receptors and has 100-fold selectivity for ORL1 over other members of the opioid receptor family. It is a full agonist at these receptors and elicits dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effects in a set of validated models of distinct types of anxiety states in the rat (i.e., elevated plus-maze, fear-potentiated startle, and operant conflict). When given systemically, the compound has an efficacy and potency comparable to those of a benzodiazepine anxiolytic such as alprazolam or diazepam. However, this compound is differentiated from a classical benzodiazepine anxiolytic by a lack of efficient anti-panic-like activity, absence of anticonvulsant properties, and lack of effects on motor performance and cognitive function at anxiolytic doses (0.3 to 3 mg/kg i.p.). No significant change in intracranial self-stimulation performance and pain reactivity was observed in this dose range. Higher doses of this compound (>/=10 mg/kg) induced disruption in rat behavior. These data confirm the notable anxiolytic-like effects observed at low doses with the orphanin FQ/nociceptin neuropeptide given locally into the brain and support a role for orphanin FQ/nociceptin in adaptive behavioral fear responses to stress.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 3A4 in vivo ketoconazole competitive inhibition: determination of Ki and dangers associated with high clearance drugs in general. (7/117)

Assuming complete hepatic substrate metabolism and system linearity, quantitative effects of in vivo competitive inhibition are investigated. Following oral administration of a substrate in the presence of a competitive inhibitor, determination of the inhibition constant (Ki) is possible when plasma concentration-time profiles of both substrate and inhibitor are available. When triazolam is the P450 3A4 substrate and ketoconazole the competitive inhibitor, Ki approximately 1.2 microg/mL in humans. The effects of competitive inhibition can be divided into two components: first-pass hepatic metabolism and systemic metabolism. For drugs with high hepatic extraction ratios, the impact of competitive inhibition on hepatic first-pass metabolism can be particularly dramatic. For example, human terfenadine hepatic extraction goes from 95% in the absence of a competitive inhibitor to 35% in the presence of one (ketoconazole, 200 mg po Q 12 h dosed to steady-state). First-pass extraction therefore goes from 5% in the absence of the inhibitor to 65% in its presence. The combined effect on first-pass and systemic metabolism produces an approximate 37 fold increase in terfenadine area under the plasma concentration-time curve. Assuming intact drug is active and/or toxic, development of metabolized drugs with extensive first-pass metabolism should be avoided if possible, since inhibition of metabolism may lead to profound increases in exposure.  (+info)

Characterization of the anxiolytic properties of a novel neuroactive steroid, Co 2-6749 (GMA-839; WAY-141839; 3alpha, 21-dihydroxy-3beta-trifluoromethyl-19-nor-5beta-pregnan-20-one), a selective modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors. (8/117)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel neuroactive steroid, Co 2-6749 (GMA-839; WAY-141839; 3alpha, 21-dihydroxy-3beta-trifluoromethyl-19-nor-5beta-pregnan-20-one), on gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors in vitro and to define its anxiolytic-like effects and side effect profile in vivo. Co 2-6749 fully inhibited [(35)S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in rat brain cortical membranes with an IC(50) value of 230 nM and in human gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor subunit combinations of alpha1beta2gamma2L, alpha2beta2gamma2L, alpha3beta2gamma2L, alpha4beta3gamma2L, alpha5beta2gamma2L, and alpha6beta3gamma2L receptors (IC(50) values of 200, 200, 96, 2300, 210, and 2000 nM). Rats were trained in a Geller-Seifter operant conflict paradigm. Co 2-6749 caused a dose-related increase in punished responding with a minimum effective dose of 1.6 mg/kg, p.o., a wide therapeutic index relative to a decrease in unpunished responding and relative to ataxia, and no tolerance. Additionally, ethanol caused less than a 2-fold shift to the left in the dose-response function of Co 2-6749 in the rotorod procedure in rats. In a pigeon conflict paradigm, punished responding was maximally increased to 784% of vehicle control by 30 mg/kg, p.o., with a 2-h duration and no effect on unpunished responding at this dose. Similarly, punished responding in squirrel monkeys was maximally increased to 1774% of control by 10 mg/kg, p.o., with no effect on unpunished responding at this dose. With robust anxiolytic-like activity across species, a large separation between anxiolytic-like effects and sedation/ataxia, a minimal interaction with ethanol, a lack of tolerance, and apparent oral bioavailability, Co 2-6749 makes an ideal candidate for development as a novel anxiolytic drug.  (+info)

  • Alprazolam is used to relieve symptoms of anxiety, including anxiety caused by depression. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Alprazolam is a psychoactive drug approved for the short-term treatment of anxiety and panic disorder in Australia. (healthcanal.com)
  • Despite being a second-line treatment for anxiety, alprazolam supply has risen dramatically, with a disproportionate increase in the highest - 2mg - dose formulation," Ms Rintoul said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Alprazolam / Xanax 2mg is a high potency version of this popular anxiety treatment medication. (alprazolamuk.com)
  • Alprazolam is the active ingredient the popular anti-anxiety medication Xanax. (alprazolamuk.com)
  • Alprazolam 2mg is a more potent version of this effective anxiety disorder treatment. (alprazolamuk.com)
  • Alprazolam is the most effective medication for the treatment of Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD). (alprazolamuk.com)
  • Alprazolam / Xanax can help people suffering from insomnia as a result of anxiety get to sleep at night. (alprazolamuk.com)
  • Clinical studies have shown that Alprazolam effectively treats anxiety disorders that are often the cause of depression. (alprazolamuk.com)
  • Alprazolam / Xanax is primarily used to manage cases of unnecessary or extreme anxiety and other conditions that may have been caused by or linked to severe anxiousness and stress. (alprazolamuk.com)
  • For more holistic mental health treatment however, alprazolam UK approved medication can be combined with therapy, positive lifestyle changes and other anxiety management techniques. (alprazolamuk.com)
  • In addition to its increased involvement in HRDs, alprazolam use by people who inject drugs is associated with amnesia, violent outbursts in otherwise non-violent people, and theft. (healthcanal.com)
  • Measures such as education of health professionals and people who inject drugs, more restrictive scheduling of alprazolam and better monitoring and surveillance should all be considered to improve alprazolam supply and mitigate the associated harm," Ms Rintoul said. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the manga and novel, she is a buy alprazolam 1.5mg mastercard girl with short, spiked hair who was part of Mitsuko's gang of bad girls, which got her involved with drugs, prostitution, and larceny. (consterior.com)
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  • The condition can be inherited, but it is also encountered after thyroid or parathyroid gland surgery, and it can be caused by immune system-related damage as well as a number cheapest generic alprazolam 1.5mg online legally from canada of rarer causes. (avclark.com)
  • Buy alprazolam 1.5mg mastercard It has a strong rhythmic character and forward momentum. (consterior.com)
  • There are two categories of antipsychotics: She ended up being one of the first inmates detained buy alprazolam 1.5mg mastercard and is left unsure of the whereabouts of her friends buy xanax online europe when the prison buses are arriving and they aren't among the rest of the inmates. (consterior.com)
  • MAOIs buy alprazolam 1.5mg mastercard act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, thus preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters and thereby increasing their availability. (consterior.com)
  • A mouse of one genetic line may be more or less tolerant of pain buy alprazolam 1.5mg mastercard than a mouse of another genetic line. (consterior.com)
  • buy alprazolam 1.5mg mastercard buy drug xanax 1mg florida In all these venues the xanax cheap prices emphasis is more on recreational purposes and socializing than on the spiritual or medicinal qualities of kava consumption. (consterior.com)
  • Chitwood, the chairman of the House buy alprazolam 2mg in houston Education Committee, who became the first Texas Tech business manager, spoke at cheapest generic xanax mastercard the event. (avclark.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of alprazolam in the pediatric population. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, severe drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, clumsiness, or unsteadiness are more likely to occur in the elderly, who are usually more sensitive than younger adults to the effects of alprazolam. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For this purpose we investigated the effects of alprazolam on the IL-1α-induced production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)) in a human glioblastoma cell line, T98G, and explored the signaling pathways involved. (elsevier.com)
  • more than 33,000 people died from overdoses in 2015, nearly equal to the number of deaths from car crashes, with deaths from heroin alone more than buy alprazolam 2mg in houston from gun homicides. (avclark.com)
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  • Alprazolam is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with a peak plasma concentration at 1 to 2 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Alprazolam is also available as an oral solution in strengths of 0.5 mg/5 mL and as 1 mg/10mL. (nih.gov)
  • Following oral administration, alprazolam is readily absorbed. (nih.gov)
  • Alprazolam oral liquid syrup can be prepared by a compounding pharmacy and is normally concentrated at 1 milligram per milliliter of liquid. (ems1.com)
  • However, one benefit of alprazolam is that it causes somewhat less drowsiness than many other benzodiazepine drugs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Drinking alcohol or using street drugs during your treatment with alprazolam also increases the risk that you will experience these serious, life-threatening side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alprazolam does have the potential for misuse, although some experts claim that the risk is low and similar to that of other benzodiazepine drugs. (goodtherapy.org)
  • In addition to its increased involvement in HRDs, alprazolam use by people who inject drugs is associated with amnesia, violent outbursts in otherwise non-violent people, and theft. (healthcanal.com)
  • Measures such as education of health professionals and people who inject drugs, more restrictive scheduling of alprazolam and better monitoring and surveillance should all be considered to improve alprazolam supply and mitigate the associated harm," Ms Rintoul said. (healthcanal.com)
  • First he switches people from short-acting drugs, like alprazolam, to longer-acting drugs, such as clonazepam. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • It was concluded that, while both drugs had similar effects on sleep, alprazolam showed significant effects on REM sleep parameters and might be evaluated for possible antidepressant effect. (springer.com)
  • Alprazolam is one of the most prescribed anxiety drugs on the market today. (calmclinic.com)
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  • Alprazolam Support Group - Drugs.com Join the ' Alprazolam ' group to help and get support from people like you. (maybenow.com)
  • Prescriptions for Schedule IV drugs may be refilled up to five times within buy cheap alprazolam in london a six-month period. (visual-acuity.com)
  • Ritonavir was a potent in vitro inhibitor of alprazolam hydroxylation. (nih.gov)
  • However, Alprazolam can be habit forming, and it is very potent. (ihealthdirectory.com)
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol and is more potent vasoconstrictor tone reduces can you give your dog alprazolam survival and neurotoxicity. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • However, severe drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, clumsiness, or unsteadiness are more likely to occur in the elderly, who are usually more sensitive than younger adults to the effects of alprazolam. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the usual patient, the most frequent side effects are likely to be an extension of the pharmacological activity of alprazolam , eg, drowsiness or lightheadedness . (rxlist.com)
  • The side effects which may appear during the use of Alprazolam are peculiar for all tranquilizers: lack of energy, weakness, drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, slow and reduced clarity of speech, and reduced concentration. (canadianpharmacy365.net)
  • 1. To aid in the prediction of drug interactions with alprazolam, the human CYP involved in the 1'- and 4-hydroxylation of alprazolam were characterized using human liver microsomes, expressed enzymes and selective chemical inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, clinically significant drug drug interactions between alprazolam and other CYP3A substrates are to be expected. (nih.gov)
  • Such low concentrations and the lesser potencies of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam suggest that they are unlikely to contribute much to the pharmacological effects of alprazolam. (nih.gov)
  • 2. The formation of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and 1'-hydroxyalprazolam at an alprazolam concentration of 62.5 microM were reduced by the prototypic CYP3A inhibitor, troleandomycin (50 microM), by 97 and 9900 respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Others state that there is a substantial risk of misuse and dependence in both patients and non-medical users and that the high affinity binding, high potency, short elimination half-life, and rapid onset of action may increase the misuse potential of alprazolam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alprazolam should not be used by patients who are pregnant, have narrow angle glaucoma, take ketoconazole or itraconazole, or those who are allergic to this or any other benzodiazepine drug. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alprazolam should be used under close physician supervision in patients with history of substance abuse. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In patients with alcoholic liver disease the half-life of alprazolam ranged between 5.8 and 65.3 hours (mean: 19.7 hours, n=17) as compared to between 6.3 and 26.9 hours (mean=11.4 hours, n=17) in healthy subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Further research is needed to confirm efficacy and to assess long-term safety of alprazolam for treatment of patients with ET. (cochrane.org)
  • Adult and pediatric patients must follow Alprazolam (Xanax) dosing guidelines. (ems1.com)
  • Interestingly, many drug references report clinically significant alterations in distribution and effects of alprazolam when taken with food or in patients who consume grapefruit juice. (ems1.com)
  • Absorption of extended release alprazolam is reduced by about one third in patients who eat immediately before taking a dose and increased by the same amount in patients who take an extended release dose on an empty stomach and then eat immediately after. (ems1.com)
  • There were 116 patients enrolled in the double-blind portion of the trial and randomized to one of two treatment arms (1mg of Staccato alprazolam, N=38 or 2mg N=38) or placebo (N=40). (globenewswire.com)
  • As we move the clinical development forward, we want to see Staccato alprazolam become a tool that patients with epilepsy can use to rapidly stop a seizure. (globenewswire.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifty-eight patients with poor glycemic control, 16 (27.6%) of whom had a symptomatic generalized anxiety disorder, were entered into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week trial using alprazolam (up to 2 mg/day) as the active agent. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS A statistically significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin level was observed in patients treated with alprazolam compared with those receiving placebo (−1.1 vs. −0.3%, P = 0.04). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS A short course of alprazolam improved glucose regulation in patients with a history of poor diabetes control. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Alprazolam treatment of anxious patients with poorly controlled diabetes may result in decreased anxiety and improved glucose regulation through independent mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • start transitioning patients currently on alprazolam on to alternative treatments. (pharmac.govt.nz)
  • 1 December 2016 - Alprazolam will not be funded for new patients. (pharmac.govt.nz)
  • However, in patients with suppressed immune systems, or if introduced directly into the spinal alprazolam prescription san diego column, the fungus can be deadly. (visual-acuity.com)
  • The inhibitory effect of ritonavir on the metabolism of alprazolam, a CYP3A-mediated reaction in humans, was tested in vitro using human liver microsomes. (nih.gov)
  • Alprazolam is not recommended as a firstline treatment for these conditions due to concern about dependence, the potential for its misuse and because non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as cognitive behavioural therapy, have been found to be more effective. (healthcanal.com)
  • Taking Alprazolam for anxiety can also cause both psychological and physical dependence. (calmclinic.com)
  • How can I get rid of Alprazolam + Propanolol dependence? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » How can I get rid of Alprazolam + Propanolol dependence? (ndtv.com)
  • Extended use of alprazolam causes dependence. (ndtv.com)
  • The mean plasma half-life of alprazolam is about 11.2 hours in healthy adults. (nih.gov)
  • Using a specific assay methodology, the mean plasma elimination half-life of alprazolam has been found to be about 11.2 hours (range: 6.3 to 26.9 hours) in healthy adults. (nih.gov)
  • The multi-center StATES Study ( St accato A lprazolam T erminates E pileptic S eizures - NCT03478982 ) was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and usability of Staccato alprazolam in adults living with focal or generalized epilepsy who have a predictable seizure pattern in an in-patient environment. (globenewswire.com)
  • Alprazolam and its metabolites are filtered out by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. (nih.gov)
  • Alprazolam is extensively metabolized in humans, primarily by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), to two major metabolites in the plasma: 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, and prazepam, alprazolam has a shorter half-life and metabolites with minimal activity. (drugbank.ca)
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  • Education where to purchase alprazolam 1.5mg in canada is an important factor in healthcare utilization, though it is closely intertwined with economic status. (functionrecords.com)
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  • Propiomazine does not appear to block dopamine within the tubero-infundibular tract, explaining the lower incidence of hyperprolactinemia than buy cheap alprazolam in london with typical antipsychotic agents purchase alprazolam 2mg in singapore or risperidone. (visual-acuity.com)
  • These are associated with alprazolam toxicity (excessive sedation, fatigue , slurred speech, slowed reactions and other types of psychomotor impairment). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alprazolam may increase the risk of serious or life-threatening breathing problems, sedation, or coma if used along with certain medications. (medlineplus.gov)