Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (1/604)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (2/604)

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (3/604)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Salmon pancreas disease virus, an alphavirus infecting farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (4/604)

A 5.2-kb region at the 3' terminus of the salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) RNA genome has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences show that SPDV shares considerable organizational and sequence identity to members of the genus alphavirus within the family Togaviridae. The SPDV structural proteins encoded by the 5.2-kb region contain a number of unique features when compared to other sequenced alphaviruses. Based on cleavage site homologies, the predicted sizes of the SPDV envelope glycoproteins E2 (438 aa) and E1 (461 aa) are larger than those of other alphaviruses, while the predicted size of the alphavirus 6K protein is 3.2 K (32 aa) in SPDV. The E2 and E1 proteins each carry one putative N-linked glycosylation site, with the site in E1 being found at a unique position. From amino acid sequence comparisons of the SPDV structural region with sequenced alphaviruses overall homology is uniform, ranging from 32 to 33%. While nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S RNA junction region shows that SPDV is similar to other alphaviruses, analysis of the 3'-nontranslated region reveals that SPDV shows divergence in this region.  (+info)

Virus infection induces neuronal apoptosis: A comparison with trophic factor withdrawal. (5/604)

Multicellular organisms can employ a number of defences to combat viral replication, the most dramatic being implementation of a cell autonomous apoptotic process. The overall cost to the viability of an organism of losing infected cells by apoptosis may be small if the dying cells can be substituted. In contrast, suicide of irreplaceable cells such as highly specialised neurons may have a more dramatic, even fatal consequence. Previous in vitro approaches to understanding whether neurotropic viruses cause neurons to apoptose have utilised transformed cell lines. These are not in the appropriate state of differentiation to provide an accurate indication of events in vivo. We have chosen to characterise the ability of a model CNS disease-causing virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), to infect and trigger apoptosis in primary cultures of nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent sensory neurons. These cells are known to die when deprived of NGF and constitute a useful indicator of apoptosis. We observe that infection causes cell death which bears the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, this occurs even in the present of survival promoting NGF and is concomitant with new virus production. Using the TUNEL (transferase dUTP nick end labelling) technique we show that SFV-induced apoptosis involves DNA fragmentation and requires caspase (CED-3/ICE cysteine protease) activation, as does apoptosis induced by NGF-deprivation. Extensive areas of apoptosis, as defined using a combination of ultrastructural analysis and TUNEL occur in infected neonatal mouse brains. The novel evidence that infection of primary neurons with SFV induces apoptosis with activation of one or more caspases defines a system for the further anlaysis of apoptosis regulation in physiologically relevant neurons.  (+info)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus efficiently infect neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. (6/604)

Gene transfer into nervous tissue is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. By using a rat hippocampal slice culture preparation, we show here that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) vectors are useful for the effective infection of neurons. The stratum pyramidale and/or the granular cell layer were injected with recombinant virus encoding beta-galactosidase (LacZ) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). By using low concentrations of injected SFV-LacZ or SIN-LacZ, we detected LacZ staining of pyramidal cells, interneurons, and granule cells. About 60% of the infected cells showed clear neuronal morphology; thus, relatively few glial cells expressed the transgene. Expression of GFP from SFV and SIN vectors gave similar results, with an even higher percentage (>90%) of the GFP-positive cells identified as neurons. Infected pyramidal cells were readily recognized in living slices, displaying GFP fluorescence in dendrites of up to fourth order and in dendritic spines. They appeared morphologically normal and viable at 1-5 days postinfection. We conclude that both SFV and SIN vectors efficiently transfer genes into neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. In combination with the GFP reporter, SFV and SIN vectors will allow the physiological examination of identified neurons that have been modified by overexpression or suppression of a specific gene product.  (+info)

Enzyme distributions in subcellular fractions of BHK cells infected with Semliki forest virus: evidence for a major fraction of sphingomyelin synthase in the trans-golgi network. (7/604)

BHK cells either untreated or infected with Semliki Forest virus have been fractionated on sucrose density gradients. Virus infection caused an increase in density of a membrane fraction enriched in sphingomyelin (SM), cholesterol, SM synthase and sialyltransferase activity. This increase in density was related to incorporation of viral proteins into this fraction, which is likely to contain trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes. In contrast, glucosylceramide synthase and galactosyltransferase activities (markers for cis/medial and trans-Golgi respectively) underwent no density shift and alkaline phosphodiesterase, a plasma membrane marker, was only slightly density-shifted in infected cells. When cells were incubated with NBD-ceramide to enable them to synthesise NBD-SM and then washed with albumin to remove surface label, fluorescence in untreated cells was concentrated in a single juxtanuclear spot but in infected cells this region of bright fluorescence was larger and extended around the nucleus. After fractionation of these cells, NBD-SM (but only a small proportion of the NBD-ceramide) was found to be shifted into the higher density fraction in infected cells. This work provides further evidence that SM synthase is not mainly localised in the early Golgi cisternae as previously thought, but is associated more with a cholesterol-rich compartment which could be the TGN.  (+info)

Human MxA protein protects mice lacking a functional alpha/beta interferon system against La crosse virus and other lethal viral infections. (8/604)

The human MxA protein is part of the antiviral state induced by alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). MxA inhibits the multiplication of several RNA viruses in cell culture. However, its antiviral potential in vivo has not yet been fully explored. We have generated MxA-transgenic mice that lack a functional IFN system by crossing MxA-transgenic mice constitutively expressing MxA with genetically targeted (knockout) mice lacking the beta subunit of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR-1(-/-) mice). These mice are an ideal animal model to investigate the unique antiviral activity of human MxA in vivo, because they are unable to express other IFN-induced proteins. Here, we show that MxA confers resistance to Thogoto virus, La Crosse virus, and Semliki Forest virus. No Thogoto virus progeny was detectable in MxA-transgenic mice, indicating an efficient block of virus replication at the primary site of infection. In the case of La Crosse virus, MxA restricted invasion of the central nervous system. In contrast, Semliki Forest virus multiplication in the brain was detectable in both MxA-expressing and nonexpressing IFNAR-1(-/-) mice. However, viral titers were clearly reduced in MxA-transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate that MxA does not need the help of other IFN-induced proteins for activity but is a powerful antiviral agent on its own. Moreover, the results suggest that MxA may protect humans from potential fatal infections by La Crosse virus and other viral pathogens.  (+info)

*Mayaro virus disease

"Reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection and differentiation of alphavirus infections". ... "Imported Mayaro virus infection in the Netherlands". The Journal of Infection. 61 (4): 343-5. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2010.06.009. ... The MAYV infection can be confirmed by laboratory testing such us virus isolation, RT-PCR and serology. The virus isolation in ... Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days' duration. The causative virus, ...

*Alphavirus

... infections are spread by insect vectors such as mosquitoes. Once a human is bitten by the infected mosquito, the ... Alphaviruses, like all other group IV viruses, have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses ... Another branch of research involving alphaviruses is in vaccination. Alphaviruses are apt to be engineered to create replicon ... The alphavirus can also get into the CNS where it is able to grow and multiply within the neurones. This can lead to ...

*Semliki Forest virus

It is an Alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus ... Atkins, G. J.; Sheahan, B. J.; Dimmock, N. J. (1985). "Semliki Forest virus infection of mice: A model for genetic and ... Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Mancini, E. J.; Clarke, M.; Gowen, B. E.; Rutten, T.; Fuller, S. D. (2000). "Cryo-electron ... Only one lethal human infection has been reported. In this one case, the patient was speculated to be immunodeficient and ...

*Alphavirus infection

... may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...

*Sindbis virus

Alphavirus infection MicrobiologyBytes: Togaviruses CDC: Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal ... Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the alphavirus subfamily. The virus was first isolated in 1952 ...

*DMOZ - Health: Animal: Fish: Conditions and Diseases

Alphavirus Infections in Salmonids: A Review Salmonid alphaviruses (SAVs) are serious pathogens of farmed Atlantic salmon and ... Kidney Diseases: Mycobacterial Infection and Nocardiosis Provides images of stained sections of diseased tissue showing the ... Streptococcosis results from infection by gram-positive cocci, such as the bacterium Lactococcus garvieae. This article ... Provides information on this bacterial infection of warm-water fish, its transmission, signs and prevention. ...

*Zika fever

... and alphavirus infections (e.g., chikungunya, Mayaro, Ross River, Barmah Forest, O'nyong'nyong, and Sindbis viruses)." In small ... cytomegalovirus infection, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, and herpes simplex virus. Some tests should be ... Infections in pregnant women can spread to the baby. Diagnosis is by testing the blood, urine, or saliva for the presence of ... It may involve infection of the primary neural stem cells of the fetal brain, known as neural progenitor cells. The main roles ...

*List of cutaneous conditions

Alphavirus infection Asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood (unilateral laterothoracic exanthem) B virus infection ... Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection Cutaneous Pasteurella hemolytica infection Cutaneous Streptococcus iniae infection ... Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection Mycobacterium haemophilum infection Mycobacterium kansasii infection ... Acanthamoeba infection Amebiasis cutis Ant sting Arachnidism Baker's itch Balamuthia infection Bedbug infestation (bedbug bite ...

*List of MeSH codes (C02)

... alphavirus infections MeSH C02.782.930.100.370 --- encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C02.782.930.100.370.162 --- encephalomyelitis ... deltaretrovirus infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.260 --- enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 --- htlv-i infections ... rubulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.680.500 --- mumps MeSH C02.782.580.830 --- rhabdoviridae infections MeSH C02.782. ... cardiovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.207 --- common cold MeSH C02.782.687.359 --- enterovirus infections MeSH C02.782. ...

*IFITM1

IFITM proteins did not affect alphaviruses, arenaviruses and murine leukaemia virus infection. Potential mechanisms.IFITM ... IFITM proteins also are able to inhibit several other enveloped viruses infection that belong to different virus families. ... "IFITM3 inhibits influenza A virus infection by preventing cytosolic entry". PLoS Pathog. 7 (10): e1002337. doi:10.1371/journal. ...

*Chikungunya

"Persistent chronic inflammation and infection by Chikungunya arthritogenic alphavirus in spite of a robust host immune response ... The type-1 interferon response seems to play an important role in the host's response to chikungunya infection. Upon infection ... The differential diagnosis may include infection with other mosquito-borne viruses, such as dengue or malaria, and infection ... "Infection of myofibers contributes to the increased pathogenicity during infection with an epidemic strain of Chikungunya Virus ...

*Polyarthritis

... and lupus erythematosus but can also be caused by infection with an alphavirus such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus. ... is the most widely distributed of the alphaviruses causing polyarthritis, though infection is usually mild or asymptomatic. It ... Alphavirus Polyarthritis Syndrome has an incubation period of 3-21 days, depending on the specific virus, with either a gradual ... This condition is termed alphavirus polyarthritis syndrome. Sindbis virus, which is endemic in Northern Europe, Africa, the ...

*Ross River (Queensland)

... tropical disease caused by infection by the Ross River Virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus. In 1959, a Aedes vigilax mosquito ... There have been major outbreaks of the disease in all Australian states through mosquito-borne infection with Ross River Virus ...

*2015-16 Zika virus epidemic

Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Prior to this outbreak, Zika was considered a mild infection, ... Symptoms are similar to other flaviviruses such as dengue fever or the alphavirus that causes chikungunya, but are milder in ... "As first imported case of Zika virus infection identified in Taiwan, Taiwan CDC to list Zika virus infection as Category II ... Zika virus infection at the Pan American Health Organization Zika Virus at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

*C. J. Peters

He and his colleague Ilya Frolov are developing alphavirus replicon vectored RVF vaccines for use in livestock and ultimately ... His arenavirus research concentrates on the effects of infection on cellular function, particularly those molecular ...

*Getah virus

The Getah virus is a mosquito-borne arbovirus in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from ... Nemoto M, Bannai H, Tsujimura K, Kobayashi M, Kikuchi T, Yamanaka T, Kondo T (2015). "Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, ... In pigs, the virus causes miscarriage; symptoms occurred 1-3 days after experimental infection. Though the virus does not ... Zhai, You-gang (2008). "Complete sequence characterization of isolates of Getah virus (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) ...

*Duck plague

Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell and gD to stabilize it, if required. gB, gD, gH, ... The means of infection influences which tissues will be affected first and the incubation time before symptoms show. Typically ... If host organisms survive primary infection, they enter a latent stage lasting up to 4 years. Latent stage leads to vertical ... Entrance to host cells begins infection, and is largely controled by the US 2 viral protein. Envelope fusion with the plasma ...

*Dengue virus

54: Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S. Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University of ... Despite the prior assumptions, D7 can modulate the host cell and act against the virus to prevent virus infection. ... The activation of autophagy and ER stress during infection enhances virus reproduction. RASIGA The DENV genome is about 11000 ... April 2003). "DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells". J. Exp. Med. 197 (7): 823-9. doi: ...

*Arbovirus

Tambyah, P. A.; Koay, E. S. C.; Poon, M. L. M.; Lin, R. V. T. P.; Ong, B. K. C.; Transfusion-Transmitted Dengue Infection Study ... Group A denoted members of the genus Alphavirus, Group B were members of the genus Flavivirus, and Group C remains as the Group ... The majority of infections, however, are asymptomatic. Among cases in which symptoms do appear, symptoms tend to be non- ... In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3-15 days after exposure to the virus and last 3 or 4 days. The most ...

*Everglades virus

Most clinical cases of infection occur in and around the city of Miami. Symptoms of infection include: Enlarged, tender lymph ... Everglades virus (EVEV) is an alphavirus included in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex. The virus circulates ... "Everglades virus infection in man, 1975". Southern Medical Journal. 73 (11): 1548. doi:10.1097/00007611-198011000-00044. PMID ... "Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (12): 2182-2188. ...

*Barmah Forest virus

... is an RNA virus in the Alphavirus genus. This disease was named after the location in Northern Victoria ... Although there is no specific treatment for infection with the Barmah Forest virus, the disease is non-fatal and most infected ... Direct contact with an infected person or animal does not cause infection. The virus is hosted mainly by marsupials, especially ... Hueston, L.; Toi, C. S.; Jeoffreys, N.; Sorrell, T.; & Gilbert, G. (2013). "Diagnosis of Barmah Forest virus infection by a ...

*Neglected tropical diseases

Helminth infections, as the most common infection of humans, are often found to be in multi-infection systems. For example, in ... Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus and family Togaviridae. The word chikungunya is from the Makonde which ... There are 50-100 million dengue virus infections annually. Dengue fever is usually not fatal, but infection with one of four ... Cysticercosis is a tapeworm larvae infection, while taeniasis is infection with adult tapeworms . Both are found in Asia, ...

*Brome mosaic virus

The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... The dicistronic RNA3 (2.1 kb) encodes for two proteins, the 3a protein (involved in cell-to-cell migration during infection) ... The methyltransferase domain shows sequence similarity to other alphavirus m7G methyltransferases and guanyltransferases, ... in the alphavirus-like superfamily. BMV commonly infects Bromus inermis (see Bromus) and other grasses, can be found almost ...

*Middelburg virus

Alphaviruses utilize the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Since presence of the Alphavirus does not have an effect on the ... There have also been rare cases in horses where MIDV infection has led to jaundice, laminitic stance, and aborted pregnancy. ... There is a similar group of Alphavirus known as the New World Alphaviruses that also share much in common with MIDV. These ... Middelburg virus (MIDV) is an Alphavirus of the Old World Group that has likely endemic and zoonotic potential... It is of the ...

*Russell J. Howard

This discovery led to a rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic test for malaria infection that the NIH licensed ... antigen library immunisation using polynucleotides encoding flavivirus and alphavirus; multivalent antigenic polypeptides; and ... Marsh, K., and Howard, R.J.: Antigens induced on erythrocytes by natural Plasmodium falciparum infections: Expression of ...

*Ross River virus

Infection. 43 (2): 229-230. doi:10.1007/s15010-014-0695-0. "Ross River virus infection - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention". ... The alphaviruses are a group of small enveloped single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses. RRV belongs to a subgroup of "Old ... The RRV infection is characterised by very high fever, pain in the joints, loss of appetite and weakness. Hydration by ... Ross River fever is also known as Ross River virus infection or Ross River virus disease. The Ross River virus is named after ...
Atkins, G J.; Carter, J; and Sheahan, B J., "Effect of alphavirus infection on mouse embryos." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 866 ...
Chikungunya cases have been detected in Lazio region, Italy - notably in the cities of Anzio and Rome. Local transmission is not unexpected due to the presence of the mosquito vector, Aedes Albopictus.. Read the full risk assessment ...
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Kaj se zgodi pri darovanju krvne plazme? Pri darovanju krvne plazme, potuje kri preko igle v sterilnem, zaprtem, enocevnem sistemu na aparat za odvzem krvne plazme, kjer se kri filtrira in centrifugira, s tem procesom dosežemo, da se glavni sestavni deli krvi ločijo od plazme. Plazma teče v vrečo za plazmo, nakar se izmenično kri vrne nazaj po sistemu preko igle v žilo. Darovana količina plazme je odvisna od teže darovalca. Darovanje traja približno 45 minut. Kdo vse lahko daruje krvno plazmo?. Vsak človek, ki je dopolnil 18 let in ni starejši od 60 let ter ima vsaj 50kg in ne več kot 150kg ter je telesno in psihično sposoben za darovanje. O sposobnosti za darovanje presodi zdravnik. Kako pogosto se lahko daruje krvna plazma?. Darovanje krvne plazme bistveno ne vpliva na telo, zato lahko v enem letu darujemo 50 krat. Vendar je potrebno upoštevati predpise o darovanju. Med dvemi darovanji mora preteči 72ur, v enem tednu lahko darujete do 2 krat, v dveh tednih 3 krat in v enem ...
Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean?
Author Summary Chikungunya, a re-emerging disease caused by a mosquito-transmitted virus, is an important public health problem. We developed a zebrafish model for chikungunya virus infection. For the first time, rise and death of virus-infected cells could be live imaged in the entire body of a vertebrate. We observed a widespread wave of apparition of newly infected cells during the first day after inoculation of the virus. We then found that infected cells died at a strongly organ-dependent rate, accounting for the progressive shift of virus localization. Notably, the virus persisted in the brain despite apparent recovery of infected zebrafish. We found this recovery to be critically dependent on the host type I interferon response. Surprisingly, we identified neutrophils as a major cell population expressing interferon and controlling chikungunya virus.
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control issued a risk assessment on the ongoing outbreak of chikungunya virus infection in Italy. Two r...
Ross River Virus has been in the news lately because of recent outbreaks in Australia where it is endemic. Travelers to Australia, Papua New Guinea, and multiple other Pacific islands may be at risk but most clinicians in the US have never seen a case and dont know much about Ross River Virus Disease. So…
In 2005-6, more than 1.5 million people in the Indian Ocean area were infected with Chikungunya fever. In Reunion Island, 38.3% of the population, approximately 300 000 people, were infected.1 Only 6% of the cases were asymptomatic. Chikungunya fever is a viral infection transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes.2,3 Chikungunya infection usually causes a syndrome characterised by fever, headaches, chills, conjunctivitis, rash, myalgia and severe joint pain with or without swelling. Joint symptoms vary from polyarthralgia to symmetrical polyarthritis. The outcome is usually benign, but persistent joint pain and stiffness may occur.3,4,5,6,7,8. We report 21 cases … ...
Infection with Chikungunya alphavirus (CHIKV) can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans with persistence of the virus in perivascular macrophages of the synovial membrane by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. We herein analysed the innate immune response (cytokine and programmed cell death) of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages following CHIKV infection. We found that the infection was restrained to a small percentage of cells and was not associated with a robust type I IFN innate immune response (IFN-α4 and ISG56). TNF-α, IL-6 and GM-CSF expression were upregulated while IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 or IL-17 expression could not be evidenced prior to and after CHIKV exposure. Although CHIKV is known to drive apoptosis in many cell types, we found no canonical signs of programmed cell death (cleaved caspase-3, -9) in infected RAW264.7 cells. These data argue for the capacity of CHIKV to infect and drive a specific innate immune response in RAW264.7 macrophage cell which seems
Another name for Chikungunya Disease is Chikungunya Disease. What is Chikungunya disease? A person with Chikungunya disease has an infection caused by ...
Abstract Five species of mosquito were studied to compare their susceptibility to infection, ability to sustain infection, and vector efficiency over a 4- to 5-week period after being infected with an African strain of chikungunya virus. Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus were readily infected with the virus and maintained the highest infection and transmission rates of the mosquitoes tested during the test period. Aedes togoi also maintained a very high infection rate, but was a poor transmitter. Eretmapodites chrysogaster exhibited fairly high infection rates throughout the test and relatively high transmission rates in the latter half of the 35-day test period. Surprisingly low infection and transmission rates were found for Aedes aegypti.
Author Summary Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by mosquito bites and causes a febrile disease that is often characterized by persistent joint pain. Until recently, CHIKV outbreaks were limited to tropical areas of Africa and Asia. However, since 2007, following a large CHIKV epidemic in the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia, CHIKV has also been reported in temperate European regions. As mosquito habitats expand, virus dissemination may become more prevalent, but there are currently no vaccines or CHIKV-specific treatments available. We previously described two human antibodies that potently block cellular CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape neutralization to identify sub-domains of the virus envelope which are involved in CHIKV interaction with these antibodies, thereby opening the door for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. For the first time, we have also demonstrated that CHIKV can be directly transmitted
... is a disease characterized by joint inflammation and pain, muscle aches and fatigue, and the person infected can also develop a rash, making it necessary to always wear loose-fitting, long clothes and use effective insect repellents in areas prone to mosquitos in order to reduce the chance of being bitten by mosquitoes. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
... is a disease characterized by joint inflammation and pain, muscle aches and fatigue, and the person infected can also develop a rash, making it necessary to always wear loose-fitting, long clothes and use effective insect repellents in areas prone to mosquitos in order to reduce the chance of being bitten by mosquitoes. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Illustration of Chikungunya virus particles infecting cells. This virus is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that can cause widespread outbreaks of a debilitating arthritis-like human disease. CHIKV invasion of susceptible cells is mediated by two viral glycoproteins. The E1 glycoprotein (red-orange) participates in cell fusion, whereas the E2 glycoprotein (yellow) binds to cellular receptors. - Stock Image C026/7910
Honduras was a false alarm, so these seem to be the first confirmed chikungunya cases in Central America. Via Prensa Latina: Panamá detecta dos casos de chikungunya y declara alerta preventiva.[Panama detects two chikungunya cases and declares a preventive alert]...
...Recent breakthroughs in Chikungunya research spearheaded by scientists...Chikungunya fever caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosq...CHIKV infection is characterised by an abrupt onset of fever frequentl...To devise strategies to stop CHIKV transmission Dr Ngs team collabor...,Breakthroughs,in,Chikungunya,research,from,A*STAR,spell,new,hope,for,better,treatment,and,protection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
KARACHI: Around 45 more patients suspected of mosquito-disease Chikungunya have been admitted at Government Hospital Saudabad in Malir district of Karachi, ARY News reported on Friday.. The hospital staff have collected blood samples of the yet un-diagnosed patients and being sent to laboratories for confirmation of the infection.. National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad had confirmed presence of Chikungunya virus in Karachi on Thursday as three patients were diagnosed with the virus. NIH had initially taken samples of five patients out of which three were diagnosed with Chikungunya. A one-year-old boy, Umer, a nine-year-old Zohaib and 45-year-old Ikhlaque were confirmed as the first victims of the virus.. Director Health Services, Karachi, Dr Abdul Wahid Panhwar, confirmed that three patients were diagnosed with Chikungunya virus. He informed that the blood samples of five patients, including Muhammad Yasir, Umar, Ikhlaque, Muhammad Arsalan and Zohaib, had been sent to NIH Islamabad for ...
Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne febrile illness caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted by primarily Aedes aegytpi and Aedes albopictus mosquitos [1]. Once of little importance in the Am ...
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes (1). CHIKV causes fever and usually is not fatal, but can cause debilitating joint pains or, in rare instances, severe illness. The East/Central/South African strain of chikungunya has been emerging in Asia since 2006, first in the Indian subcontinent, then Thailand. This report describes the characteristics of a local outbreak linked with chikungunya reemergence in a rural Asian setting. Sporadic cases of chikungunya were identified in Cambodia in 2011 (2). Antibodies to CHIKV have been detected in serum collected in Cambodia in 2007, but the strain could not be identified for those cases (U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit 2, unpublished data, 2012). On March 7, 2012, several cases of rash with fever were reported among village residents of Trapeang Roka in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia. Subsequent field investigation revealed that four of six blood samples from affected persons were ...
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand ...
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is rapidly spreading across the globe, and millions are infected. Morbidity due to this virus is a serious threat to public health, but at present, there is no vaccine against this debilitating disease. We have recently developed a number of vaccine candidates, and here we have evaluated 3 of them in a nonhuman primate model. A single immunization with an attenuated strain of CHIKV (Δ5nsP3), a homologous prime-boost immunization with a DNA-launched RNA replicon encoding CHIKV envelope proteins (DREP-E), and a DREP-E prime followed by a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara encoding CHIKV capsid and envelope (MVA-CE) boost all induced protection against WT CHIKV infection. The attenuated Δ5nsP3 virus proved to be safe and did not show any clinical signs typically associated with WT CHIKV infections such as fever, skin rash, lymphopenia, or joint swelling. These vaccines are based on an East/Central/South African strain of Indian Ocean lineage, but they also ...
Ross River virus, a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in travelers returning to Germany from Australia. Serum samples showed elevated concentrations in the acute phase of the illness and, more pronounced, in the long-lasting convalescent phase.
Ross River virus (RRV) is a group A arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes that causes a disease manifested by polyarthritis and rash. The illness was first described in northern Australia in 1928 and subsequently has been observed widely through Austra
Ross river virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Réunion Island (Indian Ocean) has been suffering from its first known Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic since February 2005. To achieve a better understanding of the disease, a questionnaire was drawn up for hospital staff members and their household. CHIKV infected about one-third of the studied population, the proportion increasing with age and being higher in women. Presence of a garden was associated with CHIKV infection. The geographical distribution of cases was concordant with insect vector Aedes albopictus distribution. The main clinical signs were arthralgia and fever. The disease evolved towards full recovery in 34·4% of cases, a relapse in 55·6%, or a chronic form in 10%. Paracetamol was used as a painkiller in 95% of cases, sometimes associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticoids, or traditional herbal medicine. The survey provided valuable information on the factors that favour transmission, the clinical signs, the importance of relapses and the therapies used.
Their newest investigation analyzed recent events in chikungunya virus evolution that will aid in predicting future trends in transmission and circulation that determine epidemic potential. Weaver and his team found that the initial adaption provided the framework for a second wave of adaptations that can enable rapid diversification of viral strains and even more efficient transmission to people. In addition, analysis of the chikungunya virus strain expressing a combination of the second-wave adaptive mutations revealed a similar pattern of changes and heightened adaptive qualities suggesting the future emergence of even higher transmission efficiency. ...
BioCollections Worldwide said today that it is now offering a laboratory-developed test for the detection of Chikungunya virus. The assay follows the US Centers for Disease Control and Preventions real-time RT-PCR protocol for detection of Chikungunya virus, and detects cases in the acute stage of infection in about five hours, BCW said. The Miami-based company is providing the test through its CLIA-certified testing laboratory.
Chikungunya virus, 0.1 mg. Chikungunya virus was first isolated from the blood of a febrile patient in Tanzania in 1953, and has since been cited as the cause of numerous human ep idemics in many areas of Africa and Asia and most recently in limited
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
The Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are aggressive daytime biters with peak activity at dusk and dawn. "Once we are aware of a human case, we will ramp up source reduction and public awareness in that area," Thompson said.. DCHHS Medical Director/Health Authority Dr. Christopher Perkins said residents should understand the severity of CHIKV and do what they can to avoid it. "In some cases, Chikungunya virus can be debilitating," Dr. Perkins said.. "This disease can affect a persons long term health and livelihood." Chikungunya is a Makonde term, which means to "that which bends." People with CHIKV have been known to curl up or bend in their joint areas due to severe swelling and pain. The virus can also cause high fever, headache, muscle pain, back pain, and rash. CHIKV does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be disabling. There is no specific medication available to treat CHIKV and there is not a vaccine. Avoiding mosquito bites is the best way to avoid CHIKV.. Unlike West Nile ...
The genus Alphavirus is one of two within the family Togaviridae and comprises approximately 30 species, including several pathogens of humans and other animals that are of medical, veterinary and economic importance. Most alphaviruses are maintained in nature by a biological transmission cycle between susceptible vertebrate hosts and blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes. In common with many Old World alphavirus pathogens Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the aetiological agent of a syndrome characterized by fever, skin rash and acute or chronic poly-arthralgia or arthritis. Whereas previously CHIKV outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting, in 2004 it re-emerged in coastal Kenya and there followed a series of outbreaks that have continued until the present day, resulting in many millions of cases. Inroads into understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV disease were until recently hampered through the lack of a convenient small animal model capable of exhibiting symptoms similar to those observed ...
A promising prophylactic vaccine candidate against chikungunya fever will be tested from August on in a phase II clinical study in Puerto Rico, a chikungunya fever endemic area. Developed by the Austrian biotech company Themis Bioscience GmbH the live attenuated vaccine is considered as one of the most advanced candidates globally. It is based on a standard measles vaccination vector that offers an excellent immunogenicity and safety profile. The vaccine candidate already showed high seroconversion rates in the preceding phase I clinical trial: Up to 100 percent of all vaccinated subjects produced neutralizing antibodies against the chikungunya virus. Currently the vaccine candidate is tested in two parallel phase II studies in both, the USA and Austria/Germany. The additional trial in Puerto Rico is intended to evaluate the influence of previous chikungunya infections on the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate ...
Read more about Sixty chikungunya cases in Delhi on Business Standard. At least 60 cases of chikungunya have been reported in the national capital this year with nearly half of them registered this month, even as the season of the vector-borne diseases ended in December. 16 cases of dengue have also been reported in
The history of Chikungunya outbreak in India dates back to 1824 whereas the virus was first isolated in 1963 from Kolkata. 4 The viral activity in humans have been observed till 1971......The present outbreak in India started during December 2005 where the country has so far experienced more than 11,00,000 (11 lakh) of Chikungunya infected cases which still continues. 6 The cases were first reported from Andhra Pradesh, one of the worst affected states. Subsequently reports were poured in from several districts of Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra , Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Even Andaman experienced the first Chikungunya epidemic during June 2006. Presently the outbreak is underway in western parts of India specially Gujarat and Rajasthan ...
The reemergence of Chikungunya virus exemplifies the need to develop new vaccines to target other emerging viral pathogens. Chikungunya is estimated to be responsible for several million human infections in the last decade. In addition, one of its vectors, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is moving into new regions, meaning the infection rate is expected to…
chikungunya fever: Viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes that is characterized by fever, headache, rash, and severe joint and muscle pain. The name chikungunya, which means
Doctors help you with trusted information about Fever in Chikungunya: Dr. Isaacs on how to cure chikungunya fever: Fever is usually a symptom of infection. If you think you just have a mild illness like the common cold or a simple viral cough then it is probably safe treat the symptoms and see how you go. Medicines like paracetamol and ibuprofen can be effective at lowering your temperature which may make you feel better but wont make you get better faster. Remember to drink plenty of water and rest!
Florida case is unusual. Hirschwerk said he and his colleagues diagnosed chikungunya fever virus within the past six weeks. The Long Island patients were unrelated, he said.. "One of those cases has been confirmed by the CDC," Hirschwerk said, "and testing is still pending on the others.. "The likelihood of having more cases in individuals who have not traveled is very low," Hirschwerk said. "The Florida case is unusual and I dont expect to see high numbers [of infections] but we have to keep an eye on the situation.". For some experts, the emergence of chikungunya in Florida sounds an alarm because the virus is carried by mosquito species -- Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti-- that are well established in this country.. "The two species of Aedes mosquitoes that spread chikungunya are found in the southern and eastern United States," said Dr. Erin Staples, a medical epidemiologist at the CDC.. "It is difficult to predict how the disease will spread in the mainland U.S.," Staples said, "but we ...
Autochthonous Chikungunya Fever in Traveler Returning to Japan from Cuba To the Editor: Chikungunya fever is a febrile illness caused by mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus CHIKV: (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae). Clinical signs and symptoms typically begin with high-grade fever after an incubation period of 2-4 days (1). Other common symptoms include polyarthralgia, which is usually symmetric […] Continue reading → ...
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue and chikungunya are arboviruses that have caused major outbreaks and infected travelers, and both can be associated with fever and rash. We revie..
A study published online on February 1 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine (www.jem.org) shows that antiviral proteins called type I interferons (IFNs) are needed to fend off infection with an exotic mosquito-borne virus called Chikungunya virus. This pathogen, which causes high fevers and severe joint pain, triggered a recent epidemic in Southeast Asia, infecting more than 30% of the population in some areas.. A team led by Marc Lecuit and Matthew Albert at the Pasteur Institute in Paris found that individuals infected with Chikungunya virus had increased levels of type I IFNs in their blood. But the source of the virus-fighting IFN proteins came as a surprise. Viruses related to Chikungunya trigger type I IFN production mostly from immune cells. But during Chikungunya infection, immune cells neither produced nor responded to type I IFNs. Rather non-immune cells called fibroblasts""the main target of virus infection""provided the essential type I IFN.. This unique feature should be taken ...
Serious international concern continues to exist around the Zika epidemic. The concern has arisen from two possible complications of Zika infection. Permanent fetal brain injury which results in severe microcephaly in some babies and a number of adults developing the neurological disease - Guillain-Barre syndrome, which causes paralysis. There is increasing evidence to indicate that Zika virus can be passed on by transfusion. Blood Services internationally have therefore taken steps to prevent this occurring.. Zika virus is spread by mosquitoes that have acquired the virus from another person who is infected with the virus. Zika virus is spreading in countries where dengue, chikungunya and other mosquito-borne infections are known to occur. Zika infection has many features similar to dengue and chikungunya infections. New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) introduced measures in November 2014 to protect the blood supply from the risk of transmission of dengue and chikungunya infections. The measures ...
Q: I heard there was a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language, named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain animals) that
Q: I heard there is a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language; named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent-over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain
Q: I heard there is a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language; named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent-over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain
Q: I heard there is a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language; named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent-over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain
Q: I heard there is a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language; named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent-over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain
Winter break travelers to the Caribbean and other tropical countries should protect themselves from mosquito bites, New York doctors say - the pests may be carrying the chikungunya virus. The disease has nothing to do with chickens but does cause fever, a rash and severe joint pain that can linger for months and even years.. "Its to be suspected in cases of people who have returned from the Caribbean now," said Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency physician at Lenox Hill Hospital. "Often what they are coming in with is terrible joint pain involving fingers, the knees, the ankles, the wrists," he said. More than 2,300 U.S. travellers - nearly 30% of them, or 688, from New York state - caught chikungunya in 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. The disease, which is not deadly, has infected a million people in the Caribbean and parts of Latin America since it spread from Asia and Africa two years ago. Local cases have been reported in 27 Caribbean countries, from ...
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 and 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a
Q: I heard there is a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted, single-stranded RNA alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes explosive epidemics of a severe febril...
Compared with concentrations in samples from healthy controls, concentrations in samples from patients in the acute phase of RRV infection showed noticeably elevated concentrations of serum interleukin (IL) 4 and 7; granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES); interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10); and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We also saw a notable decrease in eotaxin levels in acute-phase samples. In samples from patients in the arthralgic convalescent phase, we noted increases in IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, GM-CSF, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), RANTES, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α), and VEGF in comparison to healthy controls. Substantial elevations in the convalescent phase when compared with the acute phase were recorded for levels of bFGF and MIP1α, and a marked decrease was seen in IP-10 ...
Main Article. The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.. ...
The nsP2 protease of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the essential components of viral replication and it plays a crucial role in the cleavage of polyprotein precursors for the viral replication process. Therefore, it is gaining attention as a potential drug design target against CHIKV. Based on the recently determined crystal structure of the nsP2 protease of CHIKV, this study identified potential inhibitors of the virus using structure-based approaches with a combination of molecular docking, virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The top hit compounds from database searching, using the NCI Diversity Set II, with targeting at five potential binding sites of the nsP2 protease, were identified by blind dockings and focused dockings. These complexes were then subjected to MD simulations to investigate the stability and flexibility of the complexes and to gain a more detailed insight into the interactions between the compounds and the enzyme. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic
This is a Phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to examine the safety, tolerability, and immune response to a Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) vaccine in healthy adults ages 18 to 50 years old. The plan is for 25 subjects to receive 3 intramuscular vaccine injections at weeks 0, 4, and 20. The three groups will be enrolled sequentially starting with the lowest dose of 10 micrograms per injection in Group 1.. The hypothesis is that the vaccine is safe and induces immune responses to CHIKV. The primary objective is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the investigational vaccine, VRC-CHKVLP059-00-VP, at three dosages, 10 micrograms (mcg), 20 mcg, and 40 mcg, in healthy adults. The secondary objective is to evaluate the antibody response against CHIKV VLPs four weeks after the third vaccine injection. The exploratory objectives relate to antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses throughout the study. ...
Wolfe, F, Michaud, K, Mylonas, T, Purdie, D, Pandeya, N and Suhrbier, A (2002). Tracking an epidemic illness with self-report questionnaires: Ross River Virus epidemic polyarthritis. In: Arthritis and Rheumatism. 66th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American-College-of-Rheumatology/37th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Association-of-Rheumatology-Health-Professionals, New Orleans Louisiana, (S122-S122). Oct 24-29, 2002. ...
Public health officials in Florida on Thursday confirmed that two people in the state contracted the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus locally, rather than overseas.
I have had ross river virus for 14 months. The symptoms vary but are very debilitating. When i first got it i had a rash on my body, very painful eyes, headaches and i slept for hours. The pain in my joints and back was horrific especially in one elbow. I am slowly getting better but still have symtoms such as feelings of cut glass in my toes, pins and needles in my fingers and the aching joints and tiredness . I also sometimes suffer from depression which is understandable considering I had to quit my job! All the information on the illness im afraid paints a better picture than what i have actually gone through. These unseen illnesses are a pain - literally. Staying positive helps.:) Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
Health officials are reporting a rise in U.S. cases of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, though they were quick to note that all of these infections have so far originated outside the United States.
Dr Richard Gair, the Director of Tropical Public Health Services in Queensland, joined the program to explain. via Chikungunya virus - ABC Queensland - Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).
The sign symptoms of Chikungunya disease are almost the same as Dengues thats why misdiagnosis of this disease frequently happens.
U.S. researchers have developed a new candidate vaccine to counter the chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne pathogen that produces an intensely painful and often chronic arthritic disease that has stricken millions of people in India, Southeast Asia and Africa.
Researchers have developed a new candidate vaccine to protect against chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne pathogen that produces an intensely painful and often chronic arthritic disease that has stricken millions of people in India, Southeast Asia and Africa.
NEW YORK (CBSNewYork) First there was West Nile virus. Now health experts are warning about another virus carried by mosquitoes. The chikungunya virus or chik-v has sickened tens of thousands of people throughout the Caribbean with high fever and severe pain. Now Americans are coming down with it, too, and there s fear that it will spread, CBS 2′s Kristine Johnson reported. This is not a fatal infection; it s just a miserable infection, said Dr. William Schaffner,
Cáceres yamileth [email protected] Wednesday, July 9, 2014 In the most recent week, the Ministry of Health (Health Ministry) recorded 96 patients with symptoms of chikungunya virus. With the new data, the cumulative cases in the country amounted to 1,608. Julio Robles Ticas, Deputy Minister of Health Services, said the attention has been given in La…
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Via HaitiLibre.com, a May 24 report: 5,155 confirmed cases of chikungunya in Haiti. The Ministry of Health said it identified 5,155 confirmed cases of Chikungunya from the confirmation of the presence of the disease in Haiti, the Department of the...
The basic cause of Chikungunya nausea in people is due to the bite of tainted and spiteful flying creepy crawlers. Chikungunya nausea is a disease that generally remains for a couple or months or it might be cured in weeks. There is not at all any particular vaccine or any antiviral remedy discovered for this malicious disease right now.
Signs of Chikungunya including medical signs and symptoms of Chikungunya, symptoms, misdiagnosis, tests, common medical issues, duration, and the correct diagnosis for Chikungunya signs or Chikungunya symptoms.
Chikungunya (CHIK-un-goon-ya) virus (also known as CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that has spread around the world and is currently infecting people in about 60 countries globally. CHIKV is rarely fatal, but causes severe joint pain for months to years that can debilitate affected patients for long periods of time. There are currently no known drugs to treat CHIKV infection, primarily due to a lack of understanding of the structure of CHIKV proteins involved in viral genome replication. The Geiss lab has worked on developing drug targeting the membrane bound CHIKV nsP1 protein, which is the anchor for the viral genome replication complex on cellular membranes and a multifunctional enzyme that forms a 5 RNA cap structure on the end of the CHIKV RNA genome. Solving the structure of the CHIKV nsP1 protein would provide critical information for designing drugs that inhibit nsP1 function and abort viral genome replication ...
What is Chikungunya Disease? Chikungunya disease is a viral disease transmitted to human by Aedes aegypti and albopictus mosquitoes, containing Chikungunya virus. Right diagnosis is important for the treatment of chikungunya affected patient. There is no cure for the disease and treatment is purely focused on relieving the symptoms. Most of the signs and symptoms are self-limiting. Diagnosis […]. ...
In May 2008, a 32 year old Indian male patient presented with chief complaints of a high fever with erythema on ear, severe polyarthritic joint pains & swelling, non pitting pedal oedema, facial puffiness and itching for four days in a Chikungunya viral epidemic outbreak declared region of South Canara district, Karnataka, India. He had no significant past medical and drug history. He had no history of smoking. The patients BMI was 21.6 kg/m2, Blood Pressure was 110/70 mmHg, Pulse rate was 98/min and Respiratory rate was 16/min with no signs of dehydration. The clinical examination of the Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal and Neurological systems was unremarkable. A provisional clinical diagnosis of Chikungunya was made.. IgM antibody specific to Chikungunya virus was detected using MAC-ELISA. Blood counts revealed leucopenia (2000 cells/micro litre) along with lymphopenia (500cells/Micro litres). The peripheral smear also revealed lymphocytopenia, with the differential lymphocyte ...
After the bite of an infected mosquito, onset of illness occurs usually between 4 and 8 days, but can range from 2 to 12 days. Chikungunya is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever frequently accompanied by joint pain. Other common signs and symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The joint pain is often very debilitating, but usually lasts for a few days or may be prolonged to weeks. Hence the virus can cause acute, subacute, or chronic disease. Most patients recover fully, but in some cases joint pain may persist for several months, or even years. Occasional cases of eye, neurological, and heart complications have been reported, as well as gastrointestinal complaints. Serious complications are not common, but in older people, the disease can contribute to the cause of death. Often symptoms in infected individuals are mild and the infection may go unrecognized, or be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue occurs. Co-infections of dengue and chikungunya can occur ...
Health officials in Brevard County in Florida have identified a new case of the mosquito-borne chikungunya disease, raising the number of known cases the state has seen this year to 19.
This issue reviews diagnosis and management of patients with suspected Middle East respiratory syndrome, chikungunya virus infection, and Zika virus infection.
This is the first monoclonal antibody encoded by mRNA to be dosed in a human and the first development candidate from the Companys systemic therapeutics modalities to start clinical testing.. We believe this trial will give us important information about how mRNA may be used to make systemically-available complex therapeutic proteins in a consistent, dose-dependent fashion," said Tal Zaks, M.D., Ph.D., chief medical officer at Moderna. "Dosing the first monoclonal antibody encoded by mRNA in humans is a significant milestone for our team and mRNA platform. We look forward to learning about the functionality of our mRNA-encoded antibody in neutralizing the Chikungunya virus.". mRNA-1944 encodes a fully human IgG antibody originally isolated from B cells of a patient with a prior history of potent immunity against Chikungunya infection. It is composed of two mRNAs that encode the heavy and light chains of this anti-Chikungunya antibody within Modernas proprietary lipid nanoparticle (LNP) ...
The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently announced that an earlier case of chikungunya that was reported in August has been found to be a false positive.
Chikungunya is a viral disease that is rarely fatal and is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Symptoms of chikungunya include high fever and headache, with significant pains in the joints (ankles, wrists), which can persist for several weeks.. The symptoms appear between 4 and 7 days after the patient has been bitten by an infected mosquito. The name, chikungunya derives from a word in Makonde language roughly meaning "that which bends up", reflecting the physique of a person suffering from the disease. ...
Some effective home remedies for chikungunya pain and other symptoms can be very useful for the patients. Since no preventive vaccine or anti-viral drug has been developed for curing this condition hence chikungunya home remedies helps in curing fast
Marylanders are urged to be wary of mosquito-borne diseases like West Nile Virus, and now, chikungunya after that virus was reported in a Florida man, according to the CDC.
John Bacon USA TODAY July 30, 2014 Chikungunya, a mosquito-borne virus that has swept through the Caribbean in recent months, is making gains in the ...
Mexico has detected its first domestic case of the painful mosquito-borne viral disease chikungunya in the southwest of the country, the state government of Chiapas said on Saturday.
Kaur, N., Jain, J., Kumar, A., Narang, M., Zakaria, M.K., Marcello, A., Kumar, D., Gaind, R., Sunil, S. 2017. Chikungunya outbreak in Delhi, India, 2016: A Report on the co-infection status and co-morbid conditions in patients.. New Microbes New Inf. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2017.07.007. Jain, J., Nayak, K., Tanwar, N., Gaind, R., Gupta, B., Shastri, J.S., Bhatnagar, R.K., Murali Krishna Kaja, M.K., Chandele, A., Sunil, S.2017. Clinical, Serological and Virological analysis of 572 chikungunya patients during the years 2010-2013 from India. Clin Infect Dis. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix283. Jain, J., Dubey, S.K., Jatin Shrinet, J., Sunil, S. 2017. Dengue Chikungunya co-infection: A live-in relationship?? Biochem Biophy Res Comm doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.02.008. Shrinet, J., Srivastava,, P., Sunil, S. 2017. Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti in response to mono-infections and co-infections of Dengue virus-2 and Chikungunya virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. doi: ...
Kaur, N., Jain, J., Kumar, A., Narang, M., Zakaria, M.K., Marcello, A., Kumar, D., Gaind, R., Sunil, S. 2017. Chikungunya outbreak in Delhi, India, 2016: A Report on the co-infection status and co-morbid conditions in patients.. New Microbes New Inf. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2017.07.007. Jain, J., Nayak, K., Tanwar, N., Gaind, R., Gupta, B., Shastri, J.S., Bhatnagar, R.K., Murali Krishna Kaja, M.K., Chandele, A., Sunil, S.2017. Clinical, Serological and Virological analysis of 572 chikungunya patients during the years 2010-2013 from India. Clin Infect Dis. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix283. Jain, J., Dubey, S.K., Jatin Shrinet, J., Sunil, S. 2017. Dengue Chikungunya co-infection: A live-in relationship?? Biochem Biophy Res Comm doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.02.008. Shrinet, J., Srivastava,, P., Sunil, S. 2017. Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti in response to mono-infections and co-infections of Dengue virus-2 and Chikungunya virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. doi: ...
To characterize the immunity developed by patients infected by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), we studied the intensity and specificity of CHIKV-specific T cells mediated responses in chronic and recovered patients at 12 to 24 months post-infection. T cells were challenged in vitro against CHIKV synthetic peptides covering the length of three viral proteins, capsid, E2 and nsP1 proteins as well as all inactivated virus particles. Cytokine production was assessed by ELISPOT and intracellular labeling. T cells producing IFN-γ were detected against CHIKV in 85% patients cells either by direct ELISPOT assay (69% of patients) or after expansion of memory T cells allowing the detection of both CD4 and CD8 specific-T cells in 16% additional cases. The IFN-γ response was mainly engaged in response to nsP1 or E2 (52% and 46% cases, respectively) but in only 27% cases against the capsid. The anti-E2 response represented half the magnitude of the total CHIKV IFN-γ production and was mainly directed against the C
That pesky mosquito is up to no good again and people are turning up at hospitals. Whats wrong with them? Ross River fever and its not very nice…
WEST PALM BEACH - Health officials say that for the first time, an American has been infected with chikungunya by a mosquito here in the United States.
A French island in the Caribbean has reported locally acquired cases of chikungunya, raising the prospect of the virus spreading across the Americas
2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from experimental and field studies.
Cytosolic DNA sensing by cGAS plays an important role in type I interferon mediated antiviral immunity against DNA viruses or retroviruses. Second messenger cGAMP is produced from activated cGAS which binds to STING and leads to subsequent activation of type I interferon production cascade and antiviral response. Currently, only B form and Y form dsDNA as well as DNA:RNA hybrid have been considered as cGAS ligand. The role of cGAS in RNA virus sensing remains unclear. Here we explore the possible mode of cGAS activation by positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, Sindbis virus. cGAS transcript was induced upon Sindbis virus infection and this induction was type I interferon signaling independent. Reconstitution of cGAS and STING in cGAS- and STING-null cells effectively suppresses Sindbis virus replication. On the other hand, loss of either cGAS or STING augmented Sindbis virus replication and prevented viral induction of type I interferon mediated antiviral immunity, suggesting a possible role ...
CHIKV : Aiding in the diagnosis of recent infection with Chikungunya virus in patients with recent travel to endemic areas and a compatible clinical syndrome
Dr. David Sanders, an expert on mosquito-borne diseases, explains the chikungunya virus and his recommendations to prevent infection while still enjoy
Background: Beyond the acute illness phase, chikungunya constitutes a public health problem given its chronic disease phase, which may include long-term arthralgia, arthritis, fatigue, and depression. Currently, there is no consensus on how to define chikungunya chronicity. Methods: A comprehensive cross-sectional survey was performed in Curaçao in June and July 2015 to evaluate 304 adult laboratory-confirmed chikungunya patients 3-16 months after diagnosis. We developed a novel tool, the Curaçao Long-Term Chikungunya Sequelae (CLTCS) score, to classify chronic chikungunya disease and estimate its burden regarding disease duration, clinical presentation, and impact on quality of life ...
Invasion of the CNS is a key event during many viral infections and often a matter of life or death for the host. It is, however, difficult to follow this phenomenon in mammals, hindering the design of preventive strategies.. In the present work, we used zebrafish to characterize the infection course of SINV, a well-established model for the study of viral encephalitis. We focused on its neuroinvasion and compared it with that of CHIKV. This was studied following IV injections, which mimic the natural entry route of these mosquito-transmitted viruses, even though it results in more inter-individual variability than direct IC inoculation. We found that, upon IV inoculation of SINV, infected cells appeared in the periphery as early as 8 hpi, always before infected neurons of the CNS. Infection spontaneously declined in the periphery, probably as a result of the host response. Indeed, qRT-PCR analysis of whole larvae revealed strong induction of type I interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes of ...
1952: Sindbis isolated 1962: Rubella Epidemic resulted in 30,000 still births and 20,000 deformities due to CRS. 1963: RRV isolated 1969: Rubella vaccine is licensed 1972: MMR vaccine is licensed 1984: Togaviridae family was split into three: Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Pestiviridae 1998: New Zealand squashes Ross River Virus outbreaks by leading the eradication of the insect vector. 2008: Chikungunya cases in Singapore following a series of outbreaks across the world (India, Australia, and Italy also witnessed cases ...
An outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness associated with high fever combined with prolonged and severe arthralgias occurred on Grande Comore Island from January through May 2005; 5,202 cases were reported. A seroprevalence study was conducted to define the extent of transmission on the island. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 481 households were sampled. In each household, one resident was selected randomly for interview and blood collection. We administered questionnaires and tested 331 sera for CHIKV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infection with CHIKV infection (seropositivity) was defined as presence of IgG and/or IgM antibodies to CHIKV. A total of 331 (69%) of 481 survey participants consented to blood collection. Antibodies to CHIKV were detected in 63% of sera; IgM antibodies were found in 60% of specimens and IgG antibodies were detected in 27% of specimens. Extrapolation of the findings
The Mississippi State Department of Health has confirmed a number of cases of chikungunya virus infection in Mississippi residents recently returned from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Other possible cases are under investigation. Mississippians who travel to the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico or other Caribbean countries are at risk of chikungunya virus. Chikungunya can spread from person to person through the bite of a mosquito once travelers return home. See protective measures for travelers ». ...
View the BEST selection of LIVE streaming Reunion Island webcams and fast refreshing web cams on the Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean on our Top Rated Reunion Islands LIVE webcams Channel
Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 32 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore ...
PITON DE LA FOURNAISE, Reunion - Journalists arriving this week to the Indian Ocean island Reunion to report about the discovery of a jet wing fragment were met with another spectacular sight: the eruption of one of the Earths most active volcanoes.. As the volcano spewed red-hot lava high up in the air in Reunions southeastern corner, some excitable reporters thought a large-scale emergency evacuation would take place and that the search for airplane wreckage believed to come from the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 would be called off.. That didnt happen. Instead awe-struck tourists and fascinated scientists climbed the mountain to enjoy the display, which is a common occurrence at the tropical island east of Madagascar.. "It is a spectacular sight. The molten lava shoots up into the air like a fountain," said Yannick Parrel, 30, a helicopter pilot who flies tourists over Reunions captivating landscape culminating in a circle around the volcanos caldera.. The Piton de la Fournaise ...
Learn how to call Reunion Island from American Samoa. Out complete resource guide gives you the Reunion Island country code & American Samoan dialing code to make your international calls.
Houston and Harris County for instance, are home to two major mosquito species - Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus - that can transmit several arboviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya virus. Research led by Dr. Kristy O. Murray provided strong evidence that dengue emerged in Houston between 2003 and 2005. Our region is also home to the Culex mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus infection. These arbovirus infections have important health and economic consequences for the region. Houston and Harris County for instance, are home to two major mosquito species - Aedes aegypti andAedes albopictus - that can transmit several arboviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya virus. Research led by Dr. Kristy O. Murray provided strong evidence that dengue emerged in Houston between 2003 and 2005. Our region is also home to the Culex mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus infection. These arbovirus infections have important health and economic consequences for the ...
Email: [email protected] Research. My research focuses on characterizing the interactions between mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors and the influence of viral genetics on the virulence, transmission efficiency, and attenuation of different arthropod-borne viruses. The long-term objective of my research is to determine mechanisms that are responsible for the emergence of mosquito-borne viruses in nature. By studying the related mechanisms, it can not only provide the knowledge for the formulation of control strategies for emerging arboviral diseases but also assist the development of safer and immunogenic vaccine candidates. Through collaborative research, I have conducted research on emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue viruses (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Service. I am currently the director of the Molecular Virology and Immunology Core Laboratories at the Biosecurity Research ...

Breakthrough Discovery in the Treatment of Ross River Virus and Chikungunya VirusBreakthrough Discovery in the Treatment of Ross River Virus and Chikungunya Virus

The Ross River Virus (RRV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) are mosquito-borne alphavirus infections. Alphavirus infection is ... has been observed to successfully treat both the acute and chronic disease manifestations symptoms of alphavirus infections in ... can successfully treat both the acute and chronic disease manifestations symptoms of alphavirus infections in the animal model ... Lara Herrero, became interested in alphaviruses after becoming infected with Ross River virus in Western Australia in 2004. Dr ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/breakthrough-discovery-in-the-treatment-of-ross-river-virus-and-chikungunya-virus-163339-1.htm

Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection - Volume 23, Number 4-April...Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection - Volume 23, Number 4-April...

... a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, ... In conclusion, cytokine level testing in alphavirus infections with prolonged arthralgia may aid monitoring patient symptoms. ... Chow A, Her Z, Ong EK, Chen JM, Dimatatac F, Kwek DJ, et al. Persistent arthralgia induced by chikungunya virus infection is ... Chen W, Foo SS, Rulli NE, Taylor A, Sheng KC, Herrero LJ, et al. Arthritogenic alphaviral infection perturbs osteoblast ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/16-0466_article

Insights into the recent emergence and expansion of eastern equine encephalitis virus in a new focus in the Northern New...Insights into the recent emergence and expansion of eastern equine encephalitis virus in a new focus in the Northern New...

Antibody response of wild birds to natural infection with alphaviruses. J Med Entomol. 2004;41:1090-103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... In a serological study of wild birds for infection with Alphaviruses in upstate New York, Common Yellowthroat was antibody ... Experimental infection of wading birds with eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Wildl Dis. 1995;31:502-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Infection status with EEEV in mosquitoes was determined using cell culture and RT-PCR assays, and all viral isolates were ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13071-015-1145-2

CIENCIASMEDICASNEWS: Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection - Volume...CIENCIASMEDICASNEWS: Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection - Volume...

In conclusion, cytokine level testing in alphavirus infections with prolonged arthralgia may aid monitoring patient symptoms. ... Chow A, Her Z, Ong EK, Chen JM, Dimatatac F, Kwek DJ, et al. Persistent arthralgia induced by chikungunya virus infection is ... Chen W, Foo SS, Rulli NE, Taylor A, Sheng KC, Herrero LJ, et al. Arthritogenic alphaviral infection perturbs osteoblast ... Ross River virus infection in a traveller returning from northern Australia. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl). 2009;198:271-3. DOI ...
more infohttps://elbiruniblogspotcom.blogspot.com.ar/2017/03/increased-proinflammatory-cytokine.html

Ross River virus infectionRoss River virus infection

Ross River virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) infection (epidemic polyarthritis) in American Samoa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1981 ... Ross River virus infection. Author. Michael J Richards, MD, FRACP. Michael J Richards, MD, FRACP ... Ross River virus infection surveillance in the Greater Perth Metropolitan area--has there been an increase in cases in the ... Ross River virus infection on the North Coast of New South Wales. Aust N Z J Public Health 1996; 20:87. ...
more infohttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ross-river-virus-infection

Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enemaInfection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of ... Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema. K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This ... Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema. Nuckols, John T.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang ... This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of ...
more infohttp://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/15427

Bavarian Nordic Advances Development of Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine | P&T CommunityBavarian Nordic Advances Development of Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine | P&T Community

While the viruses vary in infection rates and severity of disease, all three pathogens are associated with risks of flu-like ... Eastern, Venezuelan and Western equine encephalitis virus belong to the family alphavirus, and are transmitted through ...
more infohttps://www.ptcommunity.com/wire/bavarian-nordic-advances-development-equine-encephalitis-virus-vaccine

Semliki Forest virus | MSDSonlineSemliki Forest virus | MSDSonline

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: One reported case as of 2001, resulting in the death of a 26 year old laboratory worker (5, 9, ... CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one ... PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When ... DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Infection is rare and no specific treatment exists (5). Treatment for symptoms may be indicated (1). ...
more infohttps://www.msdsonline.com/resources/msds-resources/free-safety-data-sheet-index/semliki-forest-virus/

Identification of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins That Confer Protection after DNA Vaccination | Clinical...Identification of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins That Confer Protection after DNA Vaccination | Clinical...

Alphaviruses, p. 1023-1067. In D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields virology, vol. 1, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & ... 1) and tested for their efficacies by intranasal challenge of mice in a lethal model of WEEV infection. We demonstrated that ... Studies of other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), ... Western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus (WEEV) is an alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The virus is a single- ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/17/1/176

Blog #24 Ross River Virus Disease - ATHNABlog #24 Ross River Virus Disease - ATHNA

Ross River Virus is a mosquito-borne alpha virus of the Togaviridae family. It was first isolated in 1963 near the Ross River ... Theres no vaccine to prevent infections so round-the-clock insect precautions are warranted. Its usually present in the ... Interestingly the mechanisms of joint pathology appear to differ among arthritogenic alphaviruses. Methotrexate, useful in ...
more infohttps://athnablog.wordpress.com/2018/01/15/blog-24-ross-river-virus-disease/

Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Ross river virus - Canada.caPathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Ross river virus - Canada.ca

CHARACTERISTICS: Of the genus Alphavirus (group A arboviruses), a member of the Togaviridae family, and part of the Semliki ... Jacups, S. P., Whelan, P. I., & Currie, B. J. (2008). Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus infections: A review of history ... Laboratory-acquired Infections: History, incidence, causes and prevention (Fourth ed., pp. 160-186, 170-176). Oxford, UK: ... The detection of IgM in an acute-phase serum specimen through ELISA provides a presumptive diagnosis of recent infection. ...
more infohttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/ross-river-virus-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.html

Alphavirus infection - WikipediaAlphavirus infection - Wikipedia

Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphavirus_infection

New approach to tackle alphavirus infections | EurekAlert! Science NewsNew approach to tackle alphavirus infections | EurekAlert! Science News

... have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded arthritogenic alphavirus infections. ... New approach to tackle alphavirus infections. Griffith University. Journal. PLOS Pathogens. Keywords. *INFECTIOUS/EMERGING ... "The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections and the lack of treatments highlight the potential threat of a ... plays a crucial role in promoting alphavirus infection and disease. These findings were quite unexpected because, until now, ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-02/gu-nat022215.php

Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection.  - PubMed - NCBIRegulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection. - PubMed - NCBI

Alphavirus infection can trigger the host cell to activate its genetically programmed cell death pathway, leading to the ... Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured ... Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection.. Griffin DE1, Hardwick JM. ... the outcome of virus infections are evident from the observation that mature neurons are better able to resist alphavirus- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9343360?dopt=Abstract

Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons | ScienceAntibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons | Science

Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/254/5033/856

Alphavirus infections | definition of Alphavirus infections by Medical dictionaryAlphavirus infections | definition of Alphavirus infections by Medical dictionary

What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. ... alphavirus. (redirected from Alphavirus infections). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus. Al·pha·vi·rus. (alfă-vīrŭs), One ... Alphavirus infections , definition of Alphavirus infections by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alphavirus+infections

Imatinib Mesylate as an Effective Anti-viral Treatment for Alphavirus InfectionsImatinib Mesylate as an Effective Anti-viral Treatment for Alphavirus Infections

... post infection (6, 12, 18, and 24 hours post infection), different levels of infection (multiplicities of infection= 0.1, 1, ... Imatinib Mesylate as an Effective Anti-viral Treatment for Alphavirus Infections. Costlow, Jessica L.; Krow, Erika S.; Steel, J ... Viruses are parasites of host cell metabolism and alphaviruses have been shown to increase glycolytic flux during infection to ... Imatinib Mesylate as an Effective Anti-viral Treatment for Alphavirus Infections. Login ...
more infohttp://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/handle/123456789/201384

Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight | Veterinary Research | Full TextPathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight | Veterinary Research | Full Text

McLoughlin MF, Graham DA (2007) Alphavirus infections in salmonids-a review. J Fish Dis 30:511-531View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight. *Tharangani K. Herath1Email ... alphaviruses are categorised as encephalitic or arthritogenic alphaviruses [30]. The encephalitic alphaviruses that cause ... Rodger HD, Mitchell SO (2011) Cardiac abnormalities and salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection in farmed Atlantic salmon. Fish Vet ...
more infohttps://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13567-015-0300-2

Alphavirus Transducing System:  Tools for Visualizing Infection in Mosquito Vectors | ProtocolAlphavirus Transducing System: Tools for Visualizing Infection in Mosquito Vectors | Protocol

Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are ... Alphavirus Transducing System: Tools for Visualizing Infection in Mosquito Vectors. Aaron Phillips1, Eric Mossel1, Irma Sanchez ... Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are important tools for expressing genes of interest (GOI) during infection. ATSs are ... Figure 3 is an overview of alphavirus and ATS virus infection in the mosquito when the virus is delivered through an infective ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/2363/alphavirus-transducing-system-tools-for-visualizing-infection

Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response...Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response...

Alphavirus infections, including CHIKV, rapidly induce IFN-α/β production (31, 32). Remarkably, we found high mRNA levels of ... The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus. Ann. N. Y. ... Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response ... Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/184/10/5914

Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response...Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response...

Alphavirus infections, including CHIKV, rapidly induce IFN-α/β production (31, 32). Remarkably, we found high mRNA levels of ... The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus. Ann. N. Y. ... Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response ... Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/184/10/5914?ijkey=33a277b80b705194f991aba2e6a01fbf5da76cdf&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection | Journal of VirologyEarly Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection | Journal of Virology

Cellular Response to Infection. Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection. Ilya Frolov, Maryna ... Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection. Ilya Frolov, Maryna Akhrymuk, Ivan Akhrymuk, ... Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection. Ilya Frolov, Maryna Akhrymuk, Ivan Akhrymuk, ... Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/86/9/5055

Arbovirus Encephalitis: Insights on virus persistence and the role of heparin in encephalitic infections with Alphaviruses |...Arbovirus Encephalitis: Insights on virus persistence and the role of heparin in encephalitic infections with Alphaviruses |...

... determinents of virulence of alphaviruses and virus persistence. He also provided an update on ongoing work to create ... Arbovirus Encephalitis: Insights on virus persistence and the role of heparin in encephalitic infections with Alphaviruses. ... Arbovirus Encephalitis: Insights on virus persistence and the role of heparin in encephalitic infections with Alphaviruses ... The impact of insecticide resistance and exposure on Plasmodium infection level and prevalence in the malaria vector Anopheles ...
more infohttps://www.lstmed.ac.uk/news-events/seminars-and-lectures/arbovirus-encephalitis-insights-on-virus-persistence-and-the-role

Enhanced Immunogenicity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Vaccination with an Alphavirus Plasmid Replicon Expressing Antigen 85A...Enhanced Immunogenicity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Vaccination with an Alphavirus Plasmid Replicon Expressing Antigen 85A...

Infection of human dendritic cells by a Sindbis virus replicon vector is determined by a single amino acid substitution in the ... Vectors encoding the alphavirus-derived RNA replicase have been shown to be immunogenic in murine models at doses up to 1,000- ... Four weeks after infection, five mice from each group were sacrificed, and lungs were removed for viable bacterial counts. Data ... Infection and Immunity Jan 2003, 71 (1) 575-579; DOI: 10.1128/IAI.71.1.575-579.2003 ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/71/1/575?ijkey=51990fbb0135ce4819a422219ede7d47597ee053&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate CHIKV Vaccine (CHIK001) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govSafety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate CHIKV Vaccine (CHIK001) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Alphavirus Infections. Togaviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Vaccines. Immunologic Factors. ... Any confirmed or suspected immunosuppressive or immunodeficient state, including HIV infection; asplenia; recurrent, severe ... infections and chronic (more than 14 days) immunosuppressant medication within the past 6 months (inhaled and topical steroids ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03590392
  • Studies of other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), revealed that the structural proteins consist of a capsid protein, E3 (a signal peptide), E2 (an envelope glycoprotein responsible for receptor binding), 6K (a signal peptide and a possible viroporin), and E1 (an envelope glycoprotein responsible for the fusion of the viruses with cell membrane) ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • While the viruses vary in infection rates and severity of disease, all three pathogens are associated with risks of flu-like symptoms, potential central nervous disorders, and death. (ptcommunity.com)
  • RRV infection occurs most frequently in tropical coastal regions with salt marsh habitats suitable for the principal mosquito vector species [ 19 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). (msdsonline.com)
  • It is believed that the structural proteins of WEEV possess functions similar to those of other alphaviruses ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Currently, no commercial vaccine and no antiviral drug are available for the prevention and treatment of WEEV infection. (asm.org)
  • Three DNA vaccines encoding different portions of the 71V-1658 structural proteins were constructed (Fig. 1 ) and tested for their efficacies by intranasal challenge of mice in a lethal model of WEEV infection. (asm.org)
  • Eastern, Venezuelan and Western equine encephalitis virus belong to the family alphavirus, and are transmitted through mosquitos, as well as birds and some mammals. (ptcommunity.com)
  • LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: One reported case as of 2001, resulting in the death of a 26 year old laboratory worker (5, 9, 14). (msdsonline.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated travelers returning to Germany from Australia with epidemic polyarthritis resulting from RRV infection. (cdc.gov)
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