Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
A quantitative form of intradermal testing for the relative allergenicity of a substance. It is used to determine the amount of an allergen that will be tolerated in ALLERGEN IMMUNOTHERAPY.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (1/604)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (2/604)

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (3/604)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Salmon pancreas disease virus, an alphavirus infecting farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (4/604)

A 5.2-kb region at the 3' terminus of the salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) RNA genome has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences show that SPDV shares considerable organizational and sequence identity to members of the genus alphavirus within the family Togaviridae. The SPDV structural proteins encoded by the 5.2-kb region contain a number of unique features when compared to other sequenced alphaviruses. Based on cleavage site homologies, the predicted sizes of the SPDV envelope glycoproteins E2 (438 aa) and E1 (461 aa) are larger than those of other alphaviruses, while the predicted size of the alphavirus 6K protein is 3.2 K (32 aa) in SPDV. The E2 and E1 proteins each carry one putative N-linked glycosylation site, with the site in E1 being found at a unique position. From amino acid sequence comparisons of the SPDV structural region with sequenced alphaviruses overall homology is uniform, ranging from 32 to 33%. While nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S RNA junction region shows that SPDV is similar to other alphaviruses, analysis of the 3'-nontranslated region reveals that SPDV shows divergence in this region.  (+info)

Virus infection induces neuronal apoptosis: A comparison with trophic factor withdrawal. (5/604)

Multicellular organisms can employ a number of defences to combat viral replication, the most dramatic being implementation of a cell autonomous apoptotic process. The overall cost to the viability of an organism of losing infected cells by apoptosis may be small if the dying cells can be substituted. In contrast, suicide of irreplaceable cells such as highly specialised neurons may have a more dramatic, even fatal consequence. Previous in vitro approaches to understanding whether neurotropic viruses cause neurons to apoptose have utilised transformed cell lines. These are not in the appropriate state of differentiation to provide an accurate indication of events in vivo. We have chosen to characterise the ability of a model CNS disease-causing virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), to infect and trigger apoptosis in primary cultures of nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent sensory neurons. These cells are known to die when deprived of NGF and constitute a useful indicator of apoptosis. We observe that infection causes cell death which bears the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, this occurs even in the present of survival promoting NGF and is concomitant with new virus production. Using the TUNEL (transferase dUTP nick end labelling) technique we show that SFV-induced apoptosis involves DNA fragmentation and requires caspase (CED-3/ICE cysteine protease) activation, as does apoptosis induced by NGF-deprivation. Extensive areas of apoptosis, as defined using a combination of ultrastructural analysis and TUNEL occur in infected neonatal mouse brains. The novel evidence that infection of primary neurons with SFV induces apoptosis with activation of one or more caspases defines a system for the further anlaysis of apoptosis regulation in physiologically relevant neurons.  (+info)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus efficiently infect neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. (6/604)

Gene transfer into nervous tissue is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. By using a rat hippocampal slice culture preparation, we show here that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) vectors are useful for the effective infection of neurons. The stratum pyramidale and/or the granular cell layer were injected with recombinant virus encoding beta-galactosidase (LacZ) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). By using low concentrations of injected SFV-LacZ or SIN-LacZ, we detected LacZ staining of pyramidal cells, interneurons, and granule cells. About 60% of the infected cells showed clear neuronal morphology; thus, relatively few glial cells expressed the transgene. Expression of GFP from SFV and SIN vectors gave similar results, with an even higher percentage (>90%) of the GFP-positive cells identified as neurons. Infected pyramidal cells were readily recognized in living slices, displaying GFP fluorescence in dendrites of up to fourth order and in dendritic spines. They appeared morphologically normal and viable at 1-5 days postinfection. We conclude that both SFV and SIN vectors efficiently transfer genes into neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. In combination with the GFP reporter, SFV and SIN vectors will allow the physiological examination of identified neurons that have been modified by overexpression or suppression of a specific gene product.  (+info)

Enzyme distributions in subcellular fractions of BHK cells infected with Semliki forest virus: evidence for a major fraction of sphingomyelin synthase in the trans-golgi network. (7/604)

BHK cells either untreated or infected with Semliki Forest virus have been fractionated on sucrose density gradients. Virus infection caused an increase in density of a membrane fraction enriched in sphingomyelin (SM), cholesterol, SM synthase and sialyltransferase activity. This increase in density was related to incorporation of viral proteins into this fraction, which is likely to contain trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes. In contrast, glucosylceramide synthase and galactosyltransferase activities (markers for cis/medial and trans-Golgi respectively) underwent no density shift and alkaline phosphodiesterase, a plasma membrane marker, was only slightly density-shifted in infected cells. When cells were incubated with NBD-ceramide to enable them to synthesise NBD-SM and then washed with albumin to remove surface label, fluorescence in untreated cells was concentrated in a single juxtanuclear spot but in infected cells this region of bright fluorescence was larger and extended around the nucleus. After fractionation of these cells, NBD-SM (but only a small proportion of the NBD-ceramide) was found to be shifted into the higher density fraction in infected cells. This work provides further evidence that SM synthase is not mainly localised in the early Golgi cisternae as previously thought, but is associated more with a cholesterol-rich compartment which could be the TGN.  (+info)

Human MxA protein protects mice lacking a functional alpha/beta interferon system against La crosse virus and other lethal viral infections. (8/604)

The human MxA protein is part of the antiviral state induced by alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). MxA inhibits the multiplication of several RNA viruses in cell culture. However, its antiviral potential in vivo has not yet been fully explored. We have generated MxA-transgenic mice that lack a functional IFN system by crossing MxA-transgenic mice constitutively expressing MxA with genetically targeted (knockout) mice lacking the beta subunit of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR-1(-/-) mice). These mice are an ideal animal model to investigate the unique antiviral activity of human MxA in vivo, because they are unable to express other IFN-induced proteins. Here, we show that MxA confers resistance to Thogoto virus, La Crosse virus, and Semliki Forest virus. No Thogoto virus progeny was detectable in MxA-transgenic mice, indicating an efficient block of virus replication at the primary site of infection. In the case of La Crosse virus, MxA restricted invasion of the central nervous system. In contrast, Semliki Forest virus multiplication in the brain was detectable in both MxA-expressing and nonexpressing IFNAR-1(-/-) mice. However, viral titers were clearly reduced in MxA-transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate that MxA does not need the help of other IFN-induced proteins for activity but is a powerful antiviral agent on its own. Moreover, the results suggest that MxA may protect humans from potential fatal infections by La Crosse virus and other viral pathogens.  (+info)

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Kaj se zgodi pri darovanju krvne plazme? Pri darovanju krvne plazme, potuje kri preko igle v sterilnem, zaprtem, enocevnem sistemu na aparat za odvzem krvne plazme, kjer se kri filtrira in centrifugira, s tem procesom dosežemo, da se glavni sestavni deli krvi ločijo od plazme. Plazma teče v vrečo za plazmo, nakar se izmenično kri vrne nazaj po sistemu preko igle v žilo. Darovana količina plazme je odvisna od teže darovalca. Darovanje traja približno 45 minut. Kdo vse lahko daruje krvno plazmo?. Vsak človek, ki je dopolnil 18 let in ni starejši od 60 let ter ima vsaj 50kg in ne več kot 150kg ter je telesno in psihično sposoben za darovanje. O sposobnosti za darovanje presodi zdravnik. Kako pogosto se lahko daruje krvna plazma?. Darovanje krvne plazme bistveno ne vpliva na telo, zato lahko v enem letu darujemo 50 krat. Vendar je potrebno upoštevati predpise o darovanju. Med dvemi darovanji mora preteči 72ur, v enem tednu lahko darujete do 2 krat, v dveh tednih 3 krat in v enem ...
Z navedenimi odločbami je Banka Slovenije namreč odločila, da vse naštete delnice in podrejene obveznice prenehajo.. Izbris naštetih delnic in podrejenih obveznic iz centralnega registra nematerializiranih vrednostnih papirjev zato pomeni zgolj prenehanje evidentiranja pravic, ki pa so prenehale že pred samim izbrisom iz centralnega registra in neodvisno od njega.. Vse nove delnice Nove Ljubljanske banke d.d. z oznako NLBS, Nove Kreditne banke Maribor d.d. z oznako KBMS, Abanke d.d. z oznako ABKS, Factor banke d.d. z oznako FBNS in Probanke d.d. z oznako PRBS pa je KDD v skladu z nalogom za izdajo vpisala na račun Republike Slovenije.. ...
Kisik in žveplo sta nekovini, selen, telur in polonij pa so polprevodne polkovine. To pomeni, da so njihove električne lastnosti nekje med lastnostmi kovin in izolatorjev. Telur, pa tudi selen, se kljub temu pogosto razvrščata med kovine. Kovinski halkogenidi se v naravi pojavljajo kot minerali. Nekateri so zelo pogosti, na primer pirit (FeS), ki je železova ruda, nekateri pa so zelo redki, na primer zlatov ditelurid kalaverit (AuTe2). Najboolj pogosto formalno oksidacijsko stanje halkogenih spojin je 2-. Pogosta so tudi druga oksidacijska stanja, na primer 1- v piritu. Najvišje formalno oksidacijsko stanje je 6+ v sulfatih (žveplova kislina H2SO4), selenatih (natrijev selenat Na2SeO4) in teluratih. ...
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Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean?
Chikungunya fever is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Only a few studies have reported on the host factors required for intracellular CHIKV trafficking. Here, we conducted an imaging-based siRNA screen to identify human host factors for intracellular trafficking that are involved in CHIKV infection, examined their interactions with CHIKV proteins, and investigated the contributions of these proteins to CHIKV infection. The results of the siRNA screen revealed that host endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins are recruited during CHIKV infection. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that both structural and nonstructural CHIKV proteins interact with hepatocyte growth factor?regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HGS), a component of the ESCRT-0 complex. We also observed that HGS co-localizes with the E2 protein of CHIKV and with dsRNA, a marker of the replicated CHIKV ...
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control issued a risk assessment on the ongoing outbreak of chikungunya virus infection in Italy. Two r...
Ross River Virus has been in the news lately because of recent outbreaks in Australia where it is endemic. Travelers to Australia, Papua New Guinea, and multiple other Pacific islands may be at risk but most clinicians in the US have never seen a case and dont know much about Ross River Virus Disease. So…
Chikungunya, an alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Currently no specific treatment is available for chikungunya virus infection, which can cause fever and debilitating joint pain and arthritis. Small, sporadic outbreaks of chikungunya occurred in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans after the virus was identified in the 1950s. In 2013, the virus spread to the Americas and has since caused a widespread and ongoing epidemic.. In this study, scientists aimed to better understand which traits make humans susceptible to chikungunya virus infection. Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9, they performed a genome-wide screen that identified the molecule Mxra8 as a key to the entry of chikungunya virus and related viruses into host cells. In the laboratory, scientists were able to reduce the ability of chikungunya virus to infect cells by editing the human and mouse genes that encode Mxra8. The researchers also administered anti-Mxra8 antibodies ...
2015 provisional data for the United States •In 2015, chikungunya virus disease became a nationally notifiable condition. Cases are reported to CDC by state and local health departments using standard case definitions. •As of July 14, 2015, a total of 224 chikungunya virus disease cases have been reported to ArboNET from 34 U.S. states for 2015 (Table 1 & Map). All reported cases occurred in travelers returning from affected areas. No locally-transmitted cases have been reported from U.S. states. •A total of 94 chikungunya virus disease cases have been reported to ArboNET from U.S. territories (Table 2). All reported cases were locally-transmitted cases reported from Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. •Table 1. Laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by state- United States, 2015 (as of July 14, 2015) •Table 2. Laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by territory - United States, 2015 (as of July 14, 2015 ...
Chikungunya virus infection in neonates is relatively rare and can lead to death. We report the occurrence of the first death of a mother and child after probable vertical transmission of chikungunya virus in Brazil. A 28-year-old pregnant woman with hypertension presented with symptoms compatible with an arboviral disease at 34 weeks gestation. She developed preeclampsia with severe respiratory failure which resulted in the emergency cesarean section, and the patient died 12 days after the onset of symptoms. The pre-term newborn weighed 2535 g, with an Apgar score of 4/8. He was referred to the neonatal ICU with neutrophilia and thrombocytopenia, several seizure episodes, and hemorrhagic disorders, which resulted in death. Chikungunya IgM antibody was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. We present the first documented maternal and neonatal death in Brazil after probable chikungunya infection during pregnancy.
In 2005-6, more than 1.5 million people in the Indian Ocean area were infected with Chikungunya fever. In Reunion Island, 38.3% of the population, approximately 300 000 people, were infected.1 Only 6% of the cases were asymptomatic. Chikungunya fever is a viral infection transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes.2,3 Chikungunya infection usually causes a syndrome characterised by fever, headaches, chills, conjunctivitis, rash, myalgia and severe joint pain with or without swelling. Joint symptoms vary from polyarthralgia to symmetrical polyarthritis. The outcome is usually benign, but persistent joint pain and stiffness may occur.3,4,5,6,7,8. We report 21 cases … ...
Chikungunya infection has recently re-emerged as an important arthropod-borne disease in Thailand. Recently, Southern Thailand was identified as a potentially endemic area for the chikungunya virus. Here, we report a case of severe musculoskeletal complication, presenting with muscle weakness and swelling of the limbs. During the investigation to exclude autoimmune muscular inflammation, high titers of antinuclear antibody were detected. This is the report of autoimmunity detection associated with an arbovirus infection. The symptoms can mimic autoimmune polymyositis disease, and the condition requires close monitoring before deciding to embark upon prolonged specific treatment with immunomodulators.
Infection with Chikungunya alphavirus (CHIKV) can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans with persistence of the virus in perivascular macrophages of the synovial membrane by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. We herein analysed the innate immune response (cytokine and programmed cell death) of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages following CHIKV infection. We found that the infection was restrained to a small percentage of cells and was not associated with a robust type I IFN innate immune response (IFN-α4 and ISG56). TNF-α, IL-6 and GM-CSF expression were upregulated while IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 or IL-17 expression could not be evidenced prior to and after CHIKV exposure. Although CHIKV is known to drive apoptosis in many cell types, we found no canonical signs of programmed cell death (cleaved caspase-3, -9) in infected RAW264.7 cells. These data argue for the capacity of CHIKV to infect and drive a specific innate immune response in RAW264.7 macrophage cell which seems
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of chikungunya virus induced host response in a mouse model of viral myositis. AU - Dhanwani, Rekha. AU - Khan, Mohsin. AU - Lomash, Vinay. AU - Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana. AU - Ly, Hinh. AU - Parida, Manmohan. PY - 2014/3/25. Y1 - 2014/3/25. N2 - While a number of studies have documented the persistent presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in muscle tissue with primary fibroblast as the preferable cell target, little is known regarding the alterations that take place in muscle tissue in response to CHIKV infection. Hence, in the present study a permissive mouse model of CHIKV infection was established and characterized in order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. The two dimensional electrophoresis of muscle proteome performed for differential analysis indicated a drastic reprogramming of the proteins from various classes like stress, inflammation, cytoskeletal, energy and lipid metabolism. The roles of the affected proteins were explained in ...
Another name for Chikungunya Disease is Chikungunya Disease. What is Chikungunya disease? A person with Chikungunya disease has an infection caused by ...
Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. Serologically, it is most closely related to onyong-nyong (ONN) virus and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex. CHIK virus is believed to be enzootic throughout much of Africa and historical evidence indicates that it spread to other parts of the world from this origin. Strains from Africa and Asia are reported to differ biologically, indicating that distinct lineages may exist. To examine the relatedness of CHIK and ONN viruses using genetic data, we conducted phylogenetic studies on isolates obtained throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. Analyses revealed that ONN virus is indeed distinct from CHIK viruses, and these viruses probably diverged thousands of years ago. Two distinct CHIK virus lineages were delineated, one containing all isolates from western Africa and the second comprising all southern and East African strains, as well as isolates from Asia. Phylogenetic trees corroborated historical
Abstract Five species of mosquito were studied to compare their susceptibility to infection, ability to sustain infection, and vector efficiency over a 4- to 5-week period after being infected with an African strain of chikungunya virus. Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus were readily infected with the virus and maintained the highest infection and transmission rates of the mosquitoes tested during the test period. Aedes togoi also maintained a very high infection rate, but was a poor transmitter. Eretmapodites chrysogaster exhibited fairly high infection rates throughout the test and relatively high transmission rates in the latter half of the 35-day test period. Surprisingly low infection and transmission rates were found for Aedes aegypti.
Author Summary Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by mosquito bites and causes a febrile disease that is often characterized by persistent joint pain. Until recently, CHIKV outbreaks were limited to tropical areas of Africa and Asia. However, since 2007, following a large CHIKV epidemic in the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia, CHIKV has also been reported in temperate European regions. As mosquito habitats expand, virus dissemination may become more prevalent, but there are currently no vaccines or CHIKV-specific treatments available. We previously described two human antibodies that potently block cellular CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape neutralization to identify sub-domains of the virus envelope which are involved in CHIKV interaction with these antibodies, thereby opening the door for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. For the first time, we have also demonstrated that CHIKV can be directly transmitted
Ross River Virus Infection is a disease characterized by joint inflammation and pain, muscle aches and fatigue, and the person infected can also develop a rash, making it necessary to always wear loose-fitting, long clothes and use effective insect repellents in areas prone to mosquitos in order to reduce the chance of being bitten by mosquitoes. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Ross River Virus Infection is a disease characterized by joint inflammation and pain, muscle aches and fatigue, and the person infected can also develop a rash, making it necessary to always wear loose-fitting, long clothes and use effective insect repellents in areas prone to mosquitos in order to reduce the chance of being bitten by mosquitoes. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
2015 provisional data for the United States • In 2015, chikungunya virus disease became a nationally notifiable condition. Cases are reported to CDC by state and local health departments using standard case definitions. • As of April 21, 2015, a total of 93 chikungunya virus disease cases have been reported to ArboNET from 21 U.S. states for 2015 (Table 1 & Map). All reported cases occurred in travelers returning from affected areas. No locally-transmitted cases have been reported from U.S. states. • A total of 56 chikungunya virus disease cases have been reported to ArboNET from U.S. territories (Table 2). All reported cases were locally-transmitted cases reported from Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands ...
We previously proposed a compartmental model to explain the outbreak of Chikungunya disease in Réunion Island, a French territory in Indian Ocean, and other countries in 2005 and possible links with the explosive epidemic of 2006. In the present paper, we asked whether it would have been possible to contain or stop the epidemic of 2006 through appropriate mosquito control tools. Based on new results on the Chikungunya virus, its impact on mosquito life-span, and several experiments done by health authorities, we studied several types of control tools used in 2006 to contain the epidemic. We present an analysis of the model, and we develop a new nonstandard finite difference scheme to provide several simulations with and without mosquito control. Our preliminary study shows that an early use of a combination of massive spraying and mechanical control (like the destruction of breeding sites) can be efficient, to stop or contain the propagation of Chikungunya infection, with a low impact on
Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored. A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230) in membrane fusion activity. Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by
Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored. A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230) in membrane fusion activity. Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by
Honduras was a false alarm, so these seem to be the first confirmed chikungunya cases in Central America. Via Prensa Latina: Panamá detecta dos casos de chikungunya y declara alerta preventiva.[Panama detects two chikungunya cases and declares a preventive alert]...
Evotec SE (Frankfurt Stock Exchange: EVT, MDAX/TecDAX, ISIN: DE0005664809) today announced that EVT894, a monoclonal antibody to treat and potentially prevent chikungunya virus infections, has entered clinical development. The Phase I, randomised, double-blind, single centre, single dose escalation study to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of EVT894 vs placebo in healthy volunteers (five dose-cohorts of 8 subjects) is sponsored and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health with funds from a Phase I Clinical Trial Units for Therapeutics programme award (Contract No. HHSN272201500006I) and is being conducted at Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI), at Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, North Carolina, USA.. Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that poses a significant threat to public health in tropical and subtropical regions. Chikungunya disease is characterised by ...
...Recent breakthroughs in Chikungunya research spearheaded by scientists...Chikungunya fever caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosq...CHIKV infection is characterised by an abrupt onset of fever frequentl...To devise strategies to stop CHIKV transmission Dr Ngs team collabor...,Breakthroughs,in,Chikungunya,research,from,A*STAR,spell,new,hope,for,better,treatment,and,protection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Ross River virus (RRV) is Australias most important arbovirus given its annual burden of disease and the relatively large number of Australians at risk for infection. This mosquito-borne arbovirus is also a zoonosis, making its epidemiology and infection ecology complex and cryptic. Our grasp of enzootic, epizootic, and zoonotic RRV transmission dynamics is imprecise largely due to a poor understanding of the role of wild mammalian hosts in the RRV system. The current study applied a piecewise structural equation model (PSEM) toward an interspecific comparison of sylvatic Australian mammals to characterize the ecological and life history profile of species with a history of RRV infection relative to those species with no such history among all wild mammalian species surveyed for RRV infection. The effects of species traits were assessed through multiple causal pathways within the PSEM framework. Sylvatic mammalian species with a history of RRV infection tended to express dietary specialization and
On September 14, 2015, Pathogens and Global Health journal published online, in an open-access article, details of the first-draft genome sequence of Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the tiger mosquito and responsible for transmitting several deadly diseases to humans, such as dengue fever and chikungunya fever, both carried by viruses, potentially offering hope to millions around the world. This sequencing…offers great hope to our understanding of the mosquito and our ability to control it, potentially saving millions of lives in many areas of the world, said Professor Andrea Crisanti, Editor-in-Chief of Pathogens and Global Health. The Pathogens and Global Health article provides a first look into the genetics of a most dangerous and invasive insect and the possibility of developing ways to prevent the spread of the dengue and chikungunya fevers that infect millions of people annually. The advance is all the more urgent now, given increasingly high levels of mosquito migration and the ...
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Ross River virus, a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in travelers returning to Germany from Australia. Serum samples showed elevated concentrations in the acute phase of the illness and, more pronounced, in the long-lasting convalescent phase.
Ross River virus (RRV) is a group A arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes that causes a disease manifested by polyarthritis and rash. The illness was first described in northern Australia in 1928 and subsequently has been observed widely through Austra
Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that share the same |i|Aedes|/i| mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important for surveillance, outbreak control, and research related to vaccine and drug development. Available diagnostic tests are aimed at detection of the virus, its antigenic components, or the host immune antibody response. In this review, we describe the recent progress and continued challenges related to the diagnosis of DENV and CHIKV infections.
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
Réunion Island (Indian Ocean) has been suffering from its first known Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic since February 2005. To achieve a better understanding of the disease, a questionnaire was drawn up for hospital staff members and their household. CHIKV infected about one-third of the studied population, the proportion increasing with age and being higher in women. Presence of a garden was associated with CHIKV infection. The geographical distribution of cases was concordant with insect vector Aedes albopictus distribution. The main clinical signs were arthralgia and fever. The disease evolved towards full recovery in 34·4% of cases, a relapse in 55·6%, or a chronic form in 10%. Paracetamol was used as a painkiller in 95% of cases, sometimes associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticoids, or traditional herbal medicine. The survey provided valuable information on the factors that favour transmission, the clinical signs, the importance of relapses and the therapies used.
Their newest investigation analyzed recent events in chikungunya virus evolution that will aid in predicting future trends in transmission and circulation that determine epidemic potential. Weaver and his team found that the initial adaption provided the framework for a second wave of adaptations that can enable rapid diversification of viral strains and even more efficient transmission to people. In addition, analysis of the chikungunya virus strain expressing a combination of the second-wave adaptive mutations revealed a similar pattern of changes and heightened adaptive qualities suggesting the future emergence of even higher transmission efficiency. ...
BioCollections Worldwide said today that it is now offering a laboratory-developed test for the detection of Chikungunya virus. The assay follows the US Centers for Disease Control and Preventions real-time RT-PCR protocol for detection of Chikungunya virus, and detects cases in the acute stage of infection in about five hours, BCW said. The Miami-based company is providing the test through its CLIA-certified testing laboratory.
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
The genus Alphavirus is one of two within the family Togaviridae and comprises approximately 30 species, including several pathogens of humans and other animals that are of medical, veterinary and economic importance. Most alphaviruses are maintained in nature by a biological transmission cycle between susceptible vertebrate hosts and blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes. In common with many Old World alphavirus pathogens Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the aetiological agent of a syndrome characterized by fever, skin rash and acute or chronic poly-arthralgia or arthritis. Whereas previously CHIKV outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting, in 2004 it re-emerged in coastal Kenya and there followed a series of outbreaks that have continued until the present day, resulting in many millions of cases. Inroads into understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV disease were until recently hampered through the lack of a convenient small animal model capable of exhibiting symptoms similar to those observed ...
A promising prophylactic vaccine candidate against chikungunya fever will be tested from August on in a phase II clinical study in Puerto Rico, a chikungunya fever endemic area. Developed by the Austrian biotech company Themis Bioscience GmbH the live attenuated vaccine is considered as one of the most advanced candidates globally. It is based on a standard measles vaccination vector that offers an excellent immunogenicity and safety profile. The vaccine candidate already showed high seroconversion rates in the preceding phase I clinical trial: Up to 100 percent of all vaccinated subjects produced neutralizing antibodies against the chikungunya virus. Currently the vaccine candidate is tested in two parallel phase II studies in both, the USA and Austria/Germany. The additional trial in Puerto Rico is intended to evaluate the influence of previous chikungunya infections on the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate ...
Read more about Sixty chikungunya cases in Delhi on Business Standard. At least 60 cases of chikungunya have been reported in the national capital this year with nearly half of them registered this month, even as the season of the vector-borne diseases ended in December. 16 cases of dengue have also been reported in
The history of Chikungunya outbreak in India dates back to 1824 whereas the virus was first isolated in 1963 from Kolkata. 4 The viral activity in humans have been observed till 1971......The present outbreak in India started during December 2005 where the country has so far experienced more than 11,00,000 (11 lakh) of Chikungunya infected cases which still continues. 6 The cases were first reported from Andhra Pradesh, one of the worst affected states. Subsequently reports were poured in from several districts of Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra , Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Even Andaman experienced the first Chikungunya epidemic during June 2006. Presently the outbreak is underway in western parts of India specially Gujarat and Rajasthan ...
The reemergence of Chikungunya virus exemplifies the need to develop new vaccines to target other emerging viral pathogens. Chikungunya is estimated to be responsible for several million human infections in the last decade. In addition, one of its vectors, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is moving into new regions, meaning the infection rate is expected to…
chikungunya fever: Viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes that is characterized by fever, headache, rash, and severe joint and muscle pain. The name chikungunya, which means
Doctors help you with trusted information about Fever in Chikungunya: Dr. Isaacs on how to cure chikungunya fever: Fever is usually a symptom of infection. If you think you just have a mild illness like the common cold or a simple viral cough then it is probably safe treat the symptoms and see how you go. Medicines like paracetamol and ibuprofen can be effective at lowering your temperature which may make you feel better but wont make you get better faster. Remember to drink plenty of water and rest!
The Institute of Life Sciences (ILS), which functions under the Department of Biotechnology, has entered into a non-exclusive license for product commercialisation after having successfully developed antibodies against the Chikungunya viral (CHIKV).
Florida case is unusual. Hirschwerk said he and his colleagues diagnosed chikungunya fever virus within the past six weeks. The Long Island patients were unrelated, he said.. One of those cases has been confirmed by the CDC, Hirschwerk said, and testing is still pending on the others.. The likelihood of having more cases in individuals who have not traveled is very low, Hirschwerk said. The Florida case is unusual and I dont expect to see high numbers [of infections] but we have to keep an eye on the situation.. For some experts, the emergence of chikungunya in Florida sounds an alarm because the virus is carried by mosquito species -- Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti-- that are well established in this country.. The two species of Aedes mosquitoes that spread chikungunya are found in the southern and eastern United States, said Dr. Erin Staples, a medical epidemiologist at the CDC.. It is difficult to predict how the disease will spread in the mainland U.S., Staples said, but we ...
Autochthonous Chikungunya Fever in Traveler Returning to Japan from Cuba To the Editor: Chikungunya fever is a febrile illness caused by mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus CHIKV: (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae). Clinical signs and symptoms typically begin with high-grade fever after an incubation period of 2-4 days (1). Other common symptoms include polyarthralgia, which is usually symmetric […] Continue reading → ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of alphavirus infection in cell culture and in mice with antisense morpholino oligomers. AU - Paessler, Slobodan. AU - Rijnbrand, Rene. AU - Stein, David A.. AU - Ni, Haolin. AU - Yun, Nadezhda E.. AU - Dziuba, Natallia. AU - Borisevich, Viktoriya. AU - Seregin, Alexey. AU - Ma, Yinghong. AU - Blouch, Robert. AU - Iversen, Patrick L.. AU - Zacks, Michele A.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors wish to thank The Chemistry Group at AVI BioPharma for the expert production of all PPMO compounds used in this study. This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases through the Western Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (U54 AI057156) and through the Galveston National Laboratory Operations, Advanced Veterinary Services Core (UC7 AI070083). S. Paessler was supported by a National Institutes of Health K08 Award (A1059491) and faculty support provided by the Institute for Human ...
Serious international concern continues to exist around the Zika epidemic. The concern has arisen from two possible complications of Zika infection. Permanent fetal brain injury which results in severe microcephaly in some babies and a number of adults developing the neurological disease - Guillain-Barre syndrome, which causes paralysis. There is increasing evidence to indicate that Zika virus can be passed on by transfusion. Blood Services internationally have therefore taken steps to prevent this occurring.. Zika virus is spread by mosquitoes that have acquired the virus from another person who is infected with the virus. Zika virus is spreading in countries where dengue, chikungunya and other mosquito-borne infections are known to occur. Zika infection has many features similar to dengue and chikungunya infections. New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) introduced measures in November 2014 to protect the blood supply from the risk of transmission of dengue and chikungunya infections. The measures ...
Q: I heard there was a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language, named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain animals) that
"Reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection and differentiation of alphavirus infections". ... "Imported Mayaro virus infection in the Netherlands". The Journal of Infection. 61 (4): 343-5. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2010.06.009. ... The MAYV infection can be confirmed by laboratory testing such as virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. The virus isolation in ... Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days' duration. The causative virus, ...
Virus entry and replication in the brain precedes blood-brain barrier disruption during intranasal alphavirus infection. Cain ... Klein also found that these microglia remain active long after infection clears leading to post-infection inflammation and ... accumulate around neurons at the site of infection and complement protein is also highly expressed at the site of infection. ... Another goal of the Klein lab is to understand how glial cells regulate T cell activity in viral infections and autoimmune ...
IFITM proteins did not affect alphaviruses, arenaviruses and murine leukaemia virus infection. Potential mechanisms. IFITM ... IFITM proteins also are able to inhibit several other enveloped viruses infection that belong to different virus families. ... "IFITM3 inhibits influenza A virus infection by preventing cytosolic entry". PLOS Pathog. 7 (10): e1002337. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
v t e Alphavirus infection MicrobiologyBytes: Togaviruses CDC: Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The ... Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in 1952 in ...
... hemagglutinin expressed by an alphavirus replicon system protects chickens against lethal infection with Hong Kong-origin H5N1 ... Typical RNA viruses used as vectors include retroviruses, lentiviruses, alphaviruses and rhabdoviruses, each of which can ... and by imitating a regular infection. There are still obstacles for these methods to overcome for RNA vaccination to be a ... "Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus infections". The Journal of Infectious ...
... and alphavirus infections (e.g., chikungunya, Mayaro, Ross River, Barmah Forest, O'nyong'nyong, and Sindbis viruses)." In small ... cytomegalovirus infection, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, and herpes simplex virus. Some tests should be ... Infections in pregnant women can spread to the baby. Diagnosis is by testing the blood, urine, or saliva for the presence of ... It may involve infection of the primary neural stem cells of the fetal brain, known as neural progenitor cells. The main roles ...
... and lupus erythematosus but can also be caused by infection with an alphavirus such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus. ... is the most widely distributed of the alphaviruses causing polyarthritis, though infection is usually mild or asymptomatic. It ... Alphavirus Polyarthritis Syndrome has an incubation period of 3-21 days, depending on the specific virus, with either a gradual ... This condition is termed alphavirus polyarthritis syndrome. Sindbis virus, which is endemic in Northern Europe, Africa, the ...
May 2010). "Persistent chronic inflammation and infection by Chikungunya arthritogenic alphavirus in spite of a robust host ... The type-1 interferon response seems to play an important role in the host's response to chikungunya infection. Upon infection ... "Infection of myofibers contributes to increased pathogenicity during infection with an epidemic strain of chikungunya virus". ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is a member of the genus Alphavirus, and family Togaviridae. It was first isolated in 1953 in ...
Terrestrial alphavirus infections are spread by insect vectors such as mosquitoes. Once a human is bitten by the infected ... Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the ... Alphaviruses that could infect both vertebrates and arthropods are referred dual-host alphaviruses, while insect-specific ... Another branch of research involving alphaviruses is in vaccination. Alphaviruses are apt to be engineered to create replicon ...
... may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
... tropical disease caused by infection by the Ross River virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus. In 1959, an Aedes vigilax mosquito ... There have been major outbreaks of the disease in all Australian states through mosquito-borne infection with Ross River virus ...
Infection with v. minor induces immunity against the more deadly variola major form. Thus, as v. minor spread all over the US, ... "Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 10 (1): 50-59. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2009.10.001. PMC 2818276. PMID 19833230.. ... "Epidemiology & Infection. 67 (4): 619-629. doi:10.1017/S0022172400042078. ISSN 1469-4409. PMC 2130761. PMID 4311573.. ... Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family Poxviridae and ...
The viral infection is limited to a localized area on the topmost layer of the superficial layer of the skin.[16] Once the ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC), sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin that results in small, raised, pink ... For mild cases, over-the-counter wart medicines, such as salicylic acid may[21] shorten infection duration. Daily topical ... Likness, LP (June 2011). "Common dermatologic infections in athletes and return-to-play guidelines". The Journal of the ...
Varicella infection in pregnant women could lead to spread via the placenta and infection of the fetus. If infection occurs ... Infection late in gestation or immediately following birth is referred to as "neonatal varicella".[25] Maternal infection is ... Blood tests can be used to identify a response to acute infection (IgM) or previous infection and subsequent immunity (IgG).[34 ... "Epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection, Epidemiology of VZV Infection, Epidemiology of Chicken Pox, Epidemiology of ...
The virus is now known to be a widespread infection of people living in sub-Saharan Africa; intermediate levels of infection ... due to the immune system's ability to keep the infection in check. Infection is of particular concern to the immunocompromised ... Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ... After infection, the virus enters into lymphocytes via macropinosomes where it remains in a latent ("quiet") state expressing ...
They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).[2] A break in the skin is required for infection to occur.[2] Risk factors ... Infection is less common among adults than children.[11] As all warts are contagious, precautions should be taken to avoid ... Plantar warts are benign epithelial tumors generally caused by infection by human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 60, or 63,[5] ... After infection, warts may not become visible for several weeks or months. Because of pressure on the sole of the foot or ...
Autoinoculation (self-infection) can occur through self-contact, leading to infection at multiple sites on the body.[5] ... Bacterial infections must be treated with antibiotics and fungal infections with anti-fungal medication.[2] ... Primary infections usually heal completely without leaving scars but the virus that caused the infection in the first place ... Once the condition has recurred, it is normally a mild infection. The infection may be triggered by several external factors ...
Template:Cutaneous-infection-stub. A. *Acanthamoeba infection. *Aeromonas infection. *African histoplasmosis. *Alphavirus ... Pages in category "Infection-related cutaneous condition stubs". The following 123 pages are in this category, out of 123 total ... This category is for stub articles relating to Infection-related cutaneous condition. You can help by expanding them. To add an ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Infection-related_cutaneous_condition_stubs&oldid=312794374 ...
Although streptococcal infections can happen at any time of year, infection rates peak in the winter and spring months, ... Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A Streptococcus (group A strep) infection.[1] The signs and ... It can also develop after an episode of Impetigo or any Group A streptococcal infection in the skin.[13] It is the result of ... "Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. January 19, 2016. Archived from ...
... , also called mouth blisters, is a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. Usually, herpangina is ... Alphavirus infection. *Chikungunya fever. Picornaviridae. *CAV *Hand, foot and mouth disease. *Herpangina ...
... s are caused by infection with a type of human papillomavirus (HPV).[1] Factors that increase the risk include use of ... Gardasil is designed to prevent infection with HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11. HPV types 16 and 18 currently cause about 70% of ... Alphavirus infection. *Chikungunya fever. Picornaviridae. *CAV *Hand, foot and mouth disease. *Herpangina ...
Infection by the type 1 strain of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is most common; however, cases of oral infection by the type 2 ... Recurrent oral infection is more common with HSV-1 infections than with HSV-2. Symptoms typically progress in a series of eight ... Finger infection (herpetic whitlow) can occur when a child with cold sores or primary HSV-1 infection sucks his fingers. ... a blood test alone does not reveal the site of infection. Genital herpes infections occurred with almost equal frequency as ...
It is advisable for those handling infected animals to wear disposable gloves to prevent cross-infection and self-infection. A ... In some environments infection is injected by scratches from thistles[1] of both growing and felled plants. Symptoms include ... "Orf Virus (Sore Mouth Infection)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 15 June 2017.. ... Infected locations can include the finger, hand, arm, face and even the penis (caused by infection either from the hand during ...
Most cases of HHV-6 infection get better on their own.[6] If encephalitis occurs ganciclovir or foscarnet may be useful.[7] ... Roseola is an infectious disease caused by certain types of virus.[2] Most infections occur before the age of three.[1] ... Stoeckle MY (2000). "The spectrum of human herpesvirus 6 infection: from roseola infantum to adult disease". Annu. Rev. Med. 51 ... Exanthema subitum occurs in approximately 30% of children during primary HHV-6 infection.[4] Others may show symptoms ...
Alphavirus infection Asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood (unilateral laterothoracic exanthem) B virus infection ... Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection Cutaneous Pasteurella hemolytica infection Cutaneous Streptococcus iniae infection ... Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection Mycobacterium haemophilum infection Mycobacterium kansasii infection ... Acanthamoeba infection Amebiasis cutis Ant sting Arachnidism Baker's itch Balamuthia infection Bedbug infestation (bedbug bite ...
... is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).[4] Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and ... HPV infection of the skin in the genital area is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide.[11] Such infections ... Skin infection ("cutaneous" infection) with HPV is very widespread.[19] Skin infections with HPV can cause noncancerous skin ... Genital infections[edit]. Since cervical and female genital infection by specific HPV types is highly associated with cervical ...
... active infection, has not been proven to occur in VZV infections.[34][35] Although VZV has been detected in autopsies of ... may lead to infection of the fetus and complications in the newborn, but chronic infection or reactivation in shingles are not ... Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Plenum Press. pp. 865-92. ISBN 978-0-306-44855-3.. ... Paryani SG, Arvin AM (1986). "Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella". N. Engl. J. Med. ...
皮膚感染性疾病(英语:Skin infection):受病毒感染的皮膚及其出現的症狀,包含病毒性皮疹(英语:Exanthem) (B00-B09, 050-059(英语:List of ICD-9 codes 001-139: infectious ... 人型支原体感染(英语:Mycoplasma hominis infection)(人型支原体(英语:Mycoplasma hominis)) ... 解脲
... alphavirus infections MeSH C02.782.930.100.370 - encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C02.782.930.100.370.162 - encephalomyelitis, ... cardiovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.207 - common cold MeSH C02.782.687.359 - enterovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.359. ... deltaretrovirus infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.260 - enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 - htlv-i infections ... avulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080.600 - newcastle disease MeSH C02.782.580.600.400 - henipavirus infections MeSH ...
Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Prior to this outbreak, Zika was considered a mild infection, ... Symptoms are similar to other flaviviruses such as dengue fever or the alphavirus that causes chikungunya, but are milder in ... "As first imported case of Zika virus infection identified in Taiwan, Taiwan CDC to list Zika virus infection as Category II ... On February 5, after the laboratory confirmation of a Zika virus infection in the U.S. in a non-traveler, which was linked to ...
The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... The dicistronic RNA3 (2.1 kb) encodes for two proteins, the 3a protein (involved in cell-to-cell migration during infection) ... The methyltransferase domain shows sequence similarity to other alphavirus m7G methyltransferases and guanyltransferases, ... in the alphavirus-like superfamily. BMV commonly infects Bromus inermis (see Bromus) and other grasses, can be found almost ...
Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell and gD to stabilize it, if required. gB, gD, gH, ... The means of infection influences which tissues will be affected first and the incubation time before symptoms show. Typically ... If host organisms survive primary infection, they enter a latent stage lasting up to 4 years. Latent stage leads to vertical ... Entrance to host cells begins infection, and is largely controled by the US 2 viral protein. Envelope fusion with the plasma ...
... is as effective as albendazole or alternative antinematode drugs for treatment of pinworm infection (enterobiasis).[ ... abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses". Antiviral Research. 126: 117-24. doi: ... to assess whether moxidectin is safe and effective for treatment of nematode infection in children and women of childbearing ... from areas where threadworm is common to be given a single-dose of ivermectin on arrival so as to cure presumptive infection ...
Alphaviruses. Many. Can cause many forms of viral encephalitis; very low dose needed. for infection. Easily spread by aerosol.[ ... "MRSA Infection". Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. September 9, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2016 ...
... is a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus.[1] Infections are categorized based on the part of the ... Following a primary infection, the virus enters the nerves at the site of primary infection, migrates to the cell body of the ... HSV infection causes several distinct medical disorders. Common infection of the skin or mucosa may affect the face and mouth ( ... In many infections, the first symptom people will have of their own infections is the horizontal transmission to a sexual ...
Alphavirus Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection (Taiwan acute respiratory agent or TWAR) ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Infections associated with diseases. References[edit]. *^ Walsh TJ, Dixon DM (1996). Baron S, et al., eds. Spectrum of Mycoses ... Acinetobacter infections Acinetobacter baumannii Actinomycosis Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and ...
Severe progressions of infection have been linked to the development of microcephaly in the unborn child, while mild infections ... Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). ISBN 978-0- ... Infection during pregnancy causes microcephaly and other brain malformations in some babies.[7][8] Infection in adults has been ... The infection, known as Zika fever or Zika virus disease, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of ...
"Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Infections" (PDF).. *^ a b Siegert, R.; Shu, H. L.; Slenczka, W.; Peters, D.; Müller, G. (2009). " ... Hevey, M.; Negley, D.; Pushko, P.; Smith, J.; Schmaljohn, A. (Nov 1998). "Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus ... He also survived the infection.[20][84]. 2008 cases[edit]. On July 10, 2008, the Netherlands National Institute for Public ... Centers for Disease Control, Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers In the African Health Care Setting. ...
Alphavirus infection. *Chikungunya fever. Picornaviridae. *CAV *Hand, foot and mouth disease. *Herpangina ...
Helminth infections, as the most common infection of humans, are often found to be in multi-infection systems. For example, in ... The virus was first isolated from an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952.[26] Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus ... There are 50-100 million dengue virus infections annually.[25] Dengue fever is usually not fatal, but infection with one of ... Cysticercosis is a tapeworm larvae infection, while taeniasis is infection with adult tapeworms .[56] Both are found in Asia, ...
It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus ... "An outbreak of human Semliki Forest virus infections in Central African Republic". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine ... Quetglas, J. I.; Ruiz-Guillen, M.; Aranda, A.; Casales, E.; Bezunartea, J.; Smerdou, C. (2010). "Alphavirus vectors for cancer ... Only one lethal human infection has been reported. In this one case, the patient was speculated to be immunodeficient and ...
But, unlike other viral infections, the incidence of polio - the rarer severe form of the infection - increased in the 20th ... "Encephalitic alphaviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4): 281-6. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.08.023. PMC 2814892. PMID ... Many bacteriologists soon discovered the cause of numerous infections. However, some infections remained, many of them ... Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[3] ...
Infection. 43 (2): 229-230. doi:10.1007/s15010-014-0695-0. PMID 25380568. "Ross River virus infection - Symptoms, Treatment and ... The alphaviruses are a group of small enveloped single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses. RRV belongs to a subgroup of "Old ... The RRV infection is characterised by inflammation and pain to multiple joints. Hydration by sufficient fluid intake is ... Ross River fever is also known as Ross River virus infection or Ross River virus disease. Ross River virus is named after the ...
Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
... have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded arthritogenic alphavirus infections. ... New approach to tackle alphavirus infections. Griffith University. Journal. PLOS Pathogens. Keywords. *INFECTIOUS/EMERGING ... "The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections and the lack of treatments highlight the potential threat of a ... plays a crucial role in promoting alphavirus infection and disease. These findings were quite unexpected because, until now, ...
Alphavirus infection can trigger the host cell to activate its genetically programmed cell death pathway, leading to the ... Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured ... Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection.. Griffin DE1, Hardwick JM. ... the outcome of virus infections are evident from the observation that mature neurons are better able to resist alphavirus- ...
In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long ... In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long ... Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock- ... Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock- ...
Development of Human-Murine Chimeric Immunoglobulin G for Use in the Serological Detection of Human Flavivirus and Alphavirus ...
Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are ... Alphavirus Transducing System: Tools for Visualizing Infection in Mosquito Vectors. Aaron Phillips1, Eric Mossel1, Irma Sanchez ... Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are important tools for expressing genes of interest (GOI) during infection. ATSs are ... Figure 3 is an overview of alphavirus and ATS virus infection in the mosquito when the virus is delivered through an infective ...
Forsøksdyr: The susceptibility of sea trout juveniles to infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and piscine orthoreovirus ( ... to infection with SAV and PRV. Atlantic salmon is susceptible to infection with both viruses. Salmon fry are susceptible and ... The susceptibility of sea trout juveniles to infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) ... It is not known if sea trout will experience similar, less or worse infections and disease with neither SAV nor PRV. The study ...
P.P. Ip: A candidate therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis C virus infection. Use of a recombinant alphavirus vector. ... Patients with a chronic HCV infection often present a poor and narrow-spectrum cellular immune response against HCV, while in ... The majority of HCV-infected patients (, 70%) does not clear the infection naturally and develops chronic hepatitis, which is ... patients who recovered from acute infection the immune responses are broader. Thus, boosting the hosts immune response could ...
Cellular Response to Infection. Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection. Ilya Frolov, Maryna ... Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection. Ilya Frolov, Maryna Akhrymuk, Ivan Akhrymuk, ... Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection. Ilya Frolov, Maryna Akhrymuk, Ivan Akhrymuk, ... Early Events in Alphavirus Replication Determine the Outcome of Infection Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. ... alphavirus. (redirected from Alphavirus infections). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus. Al·pha·vi·rus. (alfă-vīrŭs), One ... Alphavirus infections , definition of Alphavirus infections by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
Alphavirus infections, including CHIKV, rapidly induce IFN-α/β production (31, 32). Remarkably, we found high mRNA levels of ... The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus. Ann. N. Y. ... Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response ... Persistent Chronic Inflammation and Infection by Chikungunya Arthritogenic Alphavirus in Spite of a Robust Host Immune Response ...
... neurologic signs or unexplained deaths were tested for alphaviruses. We identified 32 (5.5%) of 608 alphavirus infections (9 ... Zoonotic Alphaviruses in Fatal and Neurologic Infections in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa On This Page ... Zoonotic Alphaviruses in Fatal and Neurologic Infections in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa. Emerging ... Zoonotic Alphaviruses in Fatal and Neurologic Infections in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa. Volume 26, ...
... neurologic signs or unexplained deaths were tested for alphaviruses. We identified 32 (5.5%) of 608 alphavirus infections (9 ... We investigated the contribution of alphaviruses to neurologic infections and death in wildlife and domestic animals in this ... Alphaviruses from Africa, such as Middelburg virus (MIDV), and Sindbis virus (SINV), were detected in horses with neurologic ... Zoonotic Alphaviruses in Fatal and Neurologic Infections in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa Jumari Steyn ...
Impact of Salmonid alphavirus infection in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry. ,i,PLoS ONE,/i,, 12 (9), ... Impact of Salmonid alphavirus infection in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry. ... Impact of Salmonid alphavirus infection in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry. PLoS ONE, 12 (9), Art. No ... This study showed that both diploid and triploid fry are susceptible to experimental SAV1 infection. The lower virus load seen ...
Infection of other alphaviruses is enhanced in cells lacking Ifitm3 expression. WT, Ifitm3−/−, and Ifitm-del MEFs were ... The Interferon-Stimulated Gene IFITM3 Restricts Infection and Pathogenesis of Arthritogenic and Encephalitic Alphaviruses. ... The Interferon-Stimulated Gene IFITM3 Restricts Infection and Pathogenesis of Arthritogenic and Encephalitic Alphaviruses ... The Interferon-Stimulated Gene IFITM3 Restricts Infection and Pathogenesis of Arthritogenic and Encephalitic Alphaviruses ...
Infection of human dendritic cells by a Sindbis virus replicon vector is determined by a single amino acid substitution in the ... Vectors encoding the alphavirus-derived RNA replicase have been shown to be immunogenic in murine models at doses up to 1,000- ... Four weeks after infection, five mice from each group were sacrificed, and lungs were removed for viable bacterial counts. Data ... Infection and Immunity Jan 2003, 71 (1) 575-579; DOI: 10.1128/IAI.71.1.575-579.2003 ...
Co-infection with Norwegian Salmonid Alphavirus (NSAV) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in Chinook Salmon Embryo ... and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). Both IPNV- and SAV infections induce lesions in pancreas tissue/cells and are ... In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections ... in the cellular antiviral immune system were affected by the infections. Interestingly, transcription of these mRNAs were up- ...
McLoughlin MF, Graham DA (2007) Alphavirus infections in salmonids-a review. J Fish Dis 30:511-531View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight. *Tharangani K. Herath1Email ... alphaviruses are categorised as encephalitic or arthritogenic alphaviruses [30]. The encephalitic alphaviruses that cause ... Rodger HD, Mitchell SO (2011) Cardiac abnormalities and salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection in farmed Atlantic salmon. Fish Vet ...
... post infection (6, 12, 18, and 24 hours post infection), different levels of infection (multiplicities of infection= 0.1, 1, ... Imatinib Mesylate as an Effective Anti-viral Treatment for Alphavirus Infections. Costlow, Jessica L.; Krow, Erika S.; Steel, J ... Viruses are parasites of host cell metabolism and alphaviruses have been shown to increase glycolytic flux during infection to ... Imatinib Mesylate as an Effective Anti-viral Treatment for Alphavirus Infections. Login ...
... determinents of virulence of alphaviruses and virus persistence. He also provided an update on ongoing work to create ... Arbovirus Encephalitis: Insights on virus persistence and the role of heparin in encephalitic infections with Alphaviruses. ... Arbovirus Encephalitis: Insights on virus persistence and the role of heparin in encephalitic infections with Alphaviruses ... The impact of insecticide resistance and exposure on Plasmodium infection level and prevalence in the malaria vector Anopheles ...
... limit apoptosis upon infection with alphavirus vectors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Alphavirus Infections ... Part I. Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) limit apoptosis upon infection with alphavirus vectors. / Mastrangelo, Alison J.; Hardwick, J. Marie ... Part I. Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) limit apoptosis upon infection with alphavirus vectors. Biotechnology and bioengineering. 2000 Mar 5 ... title = "Part I. Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) limit apoptosis upon infection with alphavirus vectors", ...
... reports for the first time that numerous defective viruses containing genome deletions are generated during natural infection ... also referred to as salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is a virus causing pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and ... McLoughlin M. F., Graham D. A. 2007; Alphavirus infections in salmonids-a review. J Fish Dis 30:511-531 [CrossRef][PubMed] ... Natural infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with salmonid alphavirus 3 generates numerous viral deletion mutants * ...
This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. ... Alphavirus other than Sindbis *Isolation of alphavirus from clinical material; OR *Detection of specific alphavirus by NAT; OR ... IgG seroconversion to specific alphavirus; OR *Significant increase in IgG level or titre to specific alphavirus.. Alphavirus ... A PDF version of this alphavirus and flavivirus infections case definitions (PDF file 28Kb) is available. Authorisation: PHLN. ...
... and E1 triggers infection by fusing with the endosomal membrane. Félix Rey and colleagues present the structure of Chikungunya ... The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that ... Sindbis virus can cause fever in humans and is the most extensively studied alphavirus. Comparison of the two structures ... See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of ...
Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and Onyongnyong alphav ... against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. ... Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress Cell. 2015 Nov 19;163(5):1095- ... Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and Onyongnyong ...
In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection ... Characterization of a Novel Human-Specific STING Agonist that Elicits Antiviral Activity Against Emerging Alphaviruses PLoS ... This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including ... that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. ...
... of infections result in a mild, self-limited illness with fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. There is strong ... Other alphavirus infections. SIGNS / SYMPTOMS. INVESTIGATIONS. SIGNS / SYMPTOMS. Includes Mayaro virus disease, Ross River ... Zika virus infection. View PDFexternal link opens in a new window ... Infection in pregnant women may result in fetal anaemia, ... WHO has produced a tool to help physicians differentiate between Zika, dengue, and chikungunya virus infection.[146]World ...
... serological and histopathological evaluation of fish strain susceptibility to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus ... serological and histopathological evaluation of fish strain susceptibility to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus. ... Pancreas disease (PD) of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., which is caused by an alphavirus known as salmon pancreas ... Highly significant differences in the severity of lesions in the pancreas at Day 21 post-infection (pi) were detected (p , 0.01 ...
Chikungunya virus infection. A retrospective study of 107 cases. S Afr Med J. 1983 Feb 26;63(9):313-5. ... Suspected chikungunya infection (fever and sudden onset of joint pain affecting the wrists, hands, ankles or knees) ... Recruitment will be done among the patients from the Fort-de-France hospital and came for a suspected infection by the ... Time Frame: 1 month, 3 month, 6 month and 12 month after the first symptoms of infection by chikungunya virus ]. ...
  • Alphaviruses, including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), produce a transient illness in humans, but severe forms leading to chronic incapacitating arthralgia/arthritis have been reported by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. (jimmunol.org)
  • This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. (nih.gov)
  • Alphaviruses (family Togaviridae ) have been recognized as major emerging viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Infectious pancreatic disease (IPN) and pancreas disease (PD) of salmon are viral diseases caused by Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) (Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). (uib.no)
  • Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chikungunya is a viral infection caused by the CHIK virus belonging to the Togaviridae family. (iamat.org)
  • Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. (wiley.com)
  • Alphaviruses (family Togaviridae ) produce disease in a variety of animals and replicate in invertebrates, birds and mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The members of genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae are a group of geographically diverse single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses ( Strauss and Strauss, 1994 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, 4- to 4-mm papules. (wikipedia.org)
  • ii) Most importantly, very low, subprotective doses of IFN-β, which do not induce the antiviral response in uninfected cells, have a very strong stimulatory effect on the cells' ability to express type I IFN and activate interferon-stimulated genes during subsequent infection with Sindbis virus (SINV). (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses from Africa, such as Middelburg virus (MIDV), and Sindbis virus (SINV), were detected in horses with neurologic disease in South Africa, but their host ranges remain unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Old World alphaviruses, such as o'nyong nyong virus, chikungunya virus, and Sindbis virus (SINV), are associated mostly with arthralgia, although rare infections with neurologic disease have been reported in humans and equids ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Sindbis virus (SINV) has low pathogenicity in humans and is regularly utilized as a model alphavirus. (utmb.edu)
  • Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors. (pnas.org)
  • Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus are among the alphaviruses being exploited by using such approaches ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Laine M , Luukkainen R , Toivanen A . Sindbis viruses and other alphaviruses as cause of human arthritic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Sindbis and Middelburg old world alphaviruses associated with neurologic disease in horses, South Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • We demonstrate that Sindbis virus uses U-rich 3' UTR sequences in its RNAs to recruit the cellular HuR protein during infections of both human and mosquito cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, Sindbis virus induces the selective movement of HuR protein out of the nucleus of mammalian cells during infection thereby increasing the cytoplasmic pool of the protein available to the virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Collectively these data indicate that Sindbis virus, and likely other alphaviruses, usurp the HuR protein to avoid the cellular mRNA decay machinery and maintain a highly productive infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • abstract = "The genus Alphavirus contains members that threaten human health, both as natural pathogens and as potential biological weapons. (utmb.edu)
  • Griffith University and an international team of researchers have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded arthritogenic alphavirus infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections and the lack of treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a model arthritogenic alphavirus, we determined that both obese and undernourished mice transmit virus less efficiently to mosquitoes than control (lean) mice. (prolekare.cz)
  • Interestingly, MCC950 treatment abrogated disease signs in mice infected with a related arthritogenic alphavirus, Ross River virus, but not in mice infected with West Nile virus-a flavivirus. (nature.com)
  • Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). (jove.com)
  • The alphavirus genome is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of approximately 11.7 kb and is encapsidated within an icosahedral capsid protein shell (for review, see ref. 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses ("arboviruses") responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. (usgs.gov)
  • Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses, with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alphaviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses with a genome of approximately 11.5 kb with a 5′ cap and a 3′ poly(A) tail. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. (frontiersin.org)
  • This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins to delineate potential explanations for the development of such sequelae post infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • New World alphaviruses, such as Western equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, are traditionally associated with severe disease, such as encephalitis and a high mortality rate in humans and horses in the Americas and Australia ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Three of the five isolates were identified as strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, but the others, collected at Me Tri village, Hanoi, were shown to represent an alphavirus, for which we propose the name Me Tri virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • These findings indicate that TC83 gains CNS access via anterograde axonal migration without directly altering BBB function and that mononuclear and endothelial cell interactions may underlie BBB disruption during alphavirus encephalitis. (wustl.edu)
  • Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped geographically as New World viruses capable of causing disease in both equids and humans, exhibiting overt encephalitic features in a significant number of cases. (mdpi.com)
  • Scientists removed the genes that enable the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus - an alphavirus - to replicate itself, and replaced them with genes that make the biomarker CEA, present in many malignant colon, breast, and lung cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Based on earlier research, investigators at Duke believed that by using the alphavirus for Venezuelan equine encephalitis as a carrier they might be able to thwart that response. (healthcanal.com)
  • Many alphaviruses multiply in the cytoplasm of cells of arthropods and are transmitted to humans from mosquitoes, such as those causing equine encephalitis and Semiliki Forest virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alphaviruses, infection with which may cause encephalitis and death, are recognized as potential biological warfare agents. (sbir.gov)
  • In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Localized eastern equine encephalitis in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina, without human infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases, with clinical signs varying from fever or rash to significant inflammatory pathologies including encephalitis (e.g. (pasteur.fr)
  • In humans, alphaviruses produce encephalitis or arthralgia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It includes those diseases caused by alphaviruses (Barmah Forest and Ross River), flaviviruses (dengue, Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and malaria. (health.gov.au)
  • This action preceded 4 notifications of Murray Valley encephalitis infections, 2 (fatal) cases acquired in the Northern Territory and two in Western Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • This invention can be used to prevent humans from alphavirus-induced encephalitides in the event of a bioterrorism attack or biowarfare in which alphaviruses such as Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV) and western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses are deliberately released to humans, a natural outbreak of alphaviruses, and an accidental exposure to alphaviruses in laboratory. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Alphaviruses include about 30 pathogens spread by mosquitoes, also including Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus that cause persistent arthritis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Alphaviruses are transmitted to human after an infectious bite by the mosquitoes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. (jove.com)
  • Middelburg virus (MIDV) was discovered in the late 1950s in Aedes species mosquitoes ( 13 ), although it was only linked to disease in 1990 ( 14 ) after MIDV was isolated from a horse with signs of infection with African horse sickness virus in Zimbabwe ( 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Alphaviruses are plus-strand RNA viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. (bsu.edu)
  • Current research projects include the role of RNAi in controlling arbovirus infections in mosquitoes and ticks, development of improved vaccines against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and the role of lipid metabolism in arbovirus replication in mammalian and arthropod cells. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes, making the alphaviruses a member of the collection of arboviruses - or arthropod-borne viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subgenomic Reporter RNA System for Detection of Alphavirus Infection in Mosquitoes. (genscript.com)
  • Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (nih.gov)
  • A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. (harvard.edu)
  • Infection status with EEEV in mosquitoes was determined using cell culture and RT-PCR assays, and all viral isolates were sequenced and compared to other EEEV strains by phylogenetic analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • View DIVA Project profile » By using my experience in network visualization and analysis, I collaborate with researchers at the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity and the Galveston National Laboratory to analyze complex data related to infectious diseases, in addition to developing new methods that accelerate the translation of discoveries into effective treatments. (utmb.edu)
  • The Alphavirus genus contains about 30 different mosquito-borne virus species. (jove.com)
  • C hikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus infection first described in Tanzania in 1952. (mja.com.au)
  • The Ross River Virus (RRV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) are mosquito-borne alphavirus infections. (medindia.net)
  • CHIKV infection is enhanced in cells lacking Ifitm3 expression. (asm.org)
  • Myositis and arthritis due to the alphaviruses CHIKV and RRV are also characterized by a significant percentage of lasting pain. (pasteur.fr)
  • Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging alphavirus responsible for several outbreaks worldwide in the past decade, causes debilitating joint inflammation and severe pain. (nature.com)
  • Here, we show that CHIKV infection activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in humans and mice. (nature.com)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from CHIKV-infected patients showed elevated NLRP3, caspase-1 and interleukin-18 messenger RNA expression and, using a mouse model of CHIKV infection, we found that high NLRP3 expression was associated with peak inflammatory symptoms. (nature.com)
  • However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, the balance between type I IFN induction and the ability of the virus to develop further rounds of infection is determined in the first few hours of virus replication, when only low numbers of cells and infectious virus are involved. (asm.org)
  • One of the critical characteristics of alphaviruses is their efficient replication in vivo and in many commonly used cell lines of vertebrate origin ( 37 ). (asm.org)
  • IFAT and end-point titration indicated that SAV to some extent inhibited IPNV replication , whereas IPNV did not affect SAV infections notably. (uib.no)
  • The replication cycle of alphavirus takes place in the cytoplasm of the host cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alphavirus genome resembles eukaryotic mRNA, which possesses a 5′ cap and 3′ poly (A) tail and codes for early non-structural and late structural phases during replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses are parasites of host cell metabolism and alphaviruses have been shown to increase glycolytic flux during infection to aid viral replication. (bsu.edu)
  • The efficacy of Imatinib treatment at inhibiting alphavirus replication was confirmed at different times post infection (6, 12, 18, and 24 hours post infection), different levels of infection (multiplicities of infection= 0.1, 1, and 10), and within different cell lines (BHK, Huh7 and HEK). (bsu.edu)
  • Further analysis in mouse or other animal models is needed to confirm the utility of Imatinib as a therapeutic option for treating alphavirus infection, but the data are promising and shows a significant reduction in viral replication and may represent a novel treatment option for alphavirus infections. (bsu.edu)
  • Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, yet the impact of virus replication and immune cell recruitment on BBB integrity are incompletely understood. (wustl.edu)
  • Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. (pnas.org)
  • Alphaviruses are attractive candidates for such applications because of their high levels of replication and gene expression, their ability to infect a variety of diverse cell types, and the ability to manipulate cDNA clones from which infectious viral RNA may be transcribed (for review, see refs. (pnas.org)
  • A structural and functional perspective of alphavirus replication and assembly. (medscape.com)
  • To address this gap in knowledge, we infected lean, obese, and undernourished mice with arthritogenic arboviruses from the genus Alphavirus and assessed morbidity, virus replication, transmission, and evolution. (prolekare.cz)
  • Obesity and undernourishment did not consistently influence virus replication in the blood of infected animals except for reductions in virus in obese mice late in infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • 2018) Immunology and stress responses during dual infection with salmonid alphavirus and Paramoeba perurans in farmed Atlantic salmon. (ntnu.edu)
  • Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition to her original findings about Beclin-1's importance in tumor suppression and innate immunity against viral infections, Beth and her lab described many other contexts in which autophagy supports tissue function and homeostasis. (jci.org)
  • Humoral immunity is an essential component of the immune response to WNV and other flaviviruses because neutralizing antibodies limit dissemination of infection. (rupress.org)
  • Chikungunya virus infection is believed to confer lifelong immunity. (mja.com.au)
  • However, studies of some of these pathogens have provided evidence that antibodies can provide immunity if present during the initiation of infection. (asm.org)
  • Here, we examined immunity against infection by Ehrlichia chaffeensis , an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. (asm.org)
  • Although cellular immunity is required for complete bacterial clearance, the data show that antibodies can play a significant role in the elimination of this obligate intracellular bacterium during active infection and thus challenge the paradigm that humoral responses are unimportant for immunity to such organisms. (asm.org)
  • Indeed, it has often been difficult to demonstrate a significant role for humoral immunity during intracellular bacterial infection, although exceptions exist ( 12 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • To further address the role of cellular and humoral immunity during intracellular bacterial infection, we have examined the immunological basis of resistance and susceptibility to infection by Ehrlichia chaffeensis , an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (asm.org)
  • Members of the Institute for Human Infections & Immunity are University of Texas Medical Branch faculty actively engaged in the study of infectious diseases and immunity. (utmb.edu)
  • Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • A case of Mayaro virus infection imported from French Guiana. (nih.gov)
  • Considering there are no recent data demonstrating MAYV circulation in MT and given that alphavirus infections - including Mayaro fever - are often confused with dengue fever, the main objective of the present study was to conduct a molecular investigation for alphaviruses in patients during a large dengue fever outbreak. (scielo.br)
  • Pathogenic alphaviruses of the Western hemisphere occur primarily in the summer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Herein, we present a global portrait of some of the most prevalent or emerging human respiratory viruses that have been associated with possible pathogenic processes in CNS infection, with a special emphasis on human coronaviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Incorporation of alphavirus replicons into plasmid DNA vectors to direct the amplification of RNA expressing the gene of interest has been an exciting approach toward improving DNA vaccination ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Vectors encoding the alphavirus-derived RNA replicase have been shown to be immunogenic in murine models at doses up to 1,000-fold lower than those used for conventional plasmid vectors ( 11 , 16 ) and are effective when used as vaccines against cancer ( 7 , 12 , 15 , 16 ) or viral infections ( 3 , 5 , 11 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, alphavirus plasmid replicons may offer both quantitative and qualitative advantages compared with conventional plasmid vectors. (asm.org)
  • Sinde infection with these vectors induced apoptosis in both cell lines, it was determined that the anti-apoptosis genes limit the cell death associated with these virus constructs. (elsevier.com)
  • Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. (pnas.org)
  • The general strategy for construction of alphavirus-based expression vectors has been to substitute the viral structural protein genes with a heterologous gene, maintaining transcriptional control via the highly active subgenomic RNA promoter ( 1 , 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • As such, these vector replicons are suicide vectors, incapable of packaging progeny vector particles and causing productive infection. (pnas.org)
  • These issues have begun to be addressed through the conversion of alphavirus vectors into functional plasmid DNA formats that directly transcribe RNA vector replicons in vivo ( 8 - 13 ) and the development of split structural protein gene packaging systems ( 2 , 7 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The invention discloses a single dose administration of two types of recombinant viral vectors: one expressing interferon and another expressing the structural proteins of alphaviruses or a single dose administration of the recombinant viral vector co-expressing both interferon and the structural proteins of alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic mRNA that encodes the structural proteins of the virus required for encapsidation of the genome and maturation of the virus. (jove.com)
  • This study reports for the first time that numerous defective viruses containing genome deletions are generated during natural infection with SAV. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genome-scale phylogeny of the alphavirus genus suggests a marine origin. (cdc.gov)
  • The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single strand of positive-sense RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in two Canadian psychiatric hospitals observed that 32 patients had antibodies against WEEV or a related encephalitic virus ( Fulton and Burton, 1953 ), leading the authors to suggest that viral infection may have contributed to the patients neurological disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. (sciencemag.org)
  • We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • The beauty of alphaviruses is that they are naturally attracted to dendritic cells, cells that stimulate the production of large numbers of T cells and antibodies," says Morse. (healthcanal.com)
  • Thesis: "Detection of antibodies against alphaviruses in sera of human and animal origin using recombinant antigens and virus-specific monoclonal antibodies. (utmb.edu)
  • The importance of antibodies in the protection against WNV infection has been highlighted by recent studies in antibody-deficient mice ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Transfer of immune serum or antibodies obtained from immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice to C57BL/6 scid mice provided significant although transient protection from infection. (asm.org)
  • The failure in many studies to observe a role for antibodies has led to general acceptance of the tenet that antibodies play little or no role in host defense during intracellular bacterial infection, although antibodies are well known to exert neutralizing effects during virus infections. (asm.org)
  • Rennos Fragkoudis is a virologist whose main research interest is the pathogenesis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and in particular of alphaviruses and bunyaviruses. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • A major obstacle an arbovirus has to overcome during its infection cycle inside the mosquito is the midgut escape barrier, representing the exit mechanism arboviruses utilize when disseminating from the midgut. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the increasing rates of malnutrition and spread of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), there is an urgent need to understand the role of host nutrition on the infection, virulence, and transmission of these viruses. (prolekare.cz)
  • Laboratory diagnosis has been directed toward infection with this flavivirus, which could prevent the identification of other important arboviruses eventually circulating in the population, including those never before reported in Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Zacks MA , Paessler S . Encephalitic alphaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Old and New World alphaviruses cluster in separate phylogenetic groups ( 6 ), but limited information is available about pathogenesis and host range of alphaviruses from Africa and pathogenesis in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of our study was to investigate the host range and association of alphaviruses from Africa with neurologic disease and death, as well as to increase knowledge on pathogenesis and the zoonotic potential of these 2 viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the most advanced and mature research programs at the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute is the AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine program to focus on the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches that provide for viral control (and perhaps even virus elimination) and/or immune restoration, in untreated infections or full normalization of immune function with optimally suppressive anti-retroviral therapy. (ohsu.edu)
  • Understanding the pathogenesis of infection is required to develop and assess medical countermeasures. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of the current study is to compare the susceptibility of sea trout and salmon smolt juveniles (fry and parr) to infection with SAV and PRV. (mattilsynet.no)
  • Atlantic salmon is susceptible to infection with both viruses. (mattilsynet.no)
  • To compare the susceptibility of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to viral pathogens, fry were experimentally infected with Salmonid alphavirus sub-type 1 (SAV1), the aetiological agent of pancreas disease (PD) affecting Atlantic salmon aquaculture in Europe. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Bergen Open Research Archive: Co-infection with Norwegian Salmonid Alphavirus (NSAV) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214). (uib.no)
  • In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections were studied by IFAT, real-time RT- PCR and by viral end-point titration. (uib.no)
  • Pancreas disease (PD) of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., which is caused by an alphavirus known as salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV), can have serious economic consequences. (edu.au)
  • An epidemiological survey carried out in Ireland in 2003 indicated that within individual farms there were significant differences in the susceptibility of different strains of farmed Atlantic salmon to infection with SPDV, as measured by levels of clinical disease and mortality. (edu.au)
  • These results, obtained using a challenge model, confirm that there are strain differences in the susceptibility to experimental SPDV infection in commercial farmed Atlantic salmon. (edu.au)
  • 2018. Atlantic salmon post-smolts adapted for a longer time to seawater develop an effective humoral and cellular immune response against Salmonid alphavirus. (uib.no)
  • 2018. Atlantic salmon adapted to seawater for 9 weeks develop a robust immune response to salmonid alphavirus upon bath challenge. (uib.no)
  • 2017. Triploid atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) postsmolts accumulate prevalence more slowly than diploid salmon following bath challenge with salmonid alphavirus subtype 3. (uib.no)
  • 2016. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts challenged two or nine weeks after seawater-transfer show differences in their susceptibility to salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3). (uib.no)
  • 2017) Natural Infection Induced Immune Response against Salmonid Alphavirus in Farmed Salmon. (ntnu.edu)
  • Sub-clinical infection of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with salmonid alphavirus- a prospective longitudinal study. (afbini.gov.uk)
  • Scientists say their research into Pancreas Disease, caused by a salmonid alphavirus, will help salmon breeders to select fish with greater resilience to this infection. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Scientists led by the University of Edinburgh's Roslin Institute looked at commercial Atlantic salmon stocks that had survived an infection of salmonid alphavirus. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Based on these results, it is possible to take a small sample of fin tissue from a salmon, study its DNA and make accurate predictions on whether it is likely to produce offspring that have high resistance to salmonid alphavirus. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Neuronal cell death in alphavirus encephalomyelitis. (nih.gov)
  • By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. (dovepress.com)
  • Experimental infection of pre-smolts by i.p.. injection with new Irish and Norwegian pancreas disease virus (PDV) isolates- a comparative study. (afbini.gov.uk)
  • Phd ceremony Ms. P.P. Ip: A candidate therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis C virus infection. (rug.nl)
  • Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern. (nih.gov)
  • Knowing more about how often people are exposed to CMV in the community will help us prepare for future vaccine studies in which CMV is used as part of a vaccine to prevent infections such as HIV and tuberculosis. (ohsu.edu)
  • Mixed models comparing influence of infection on antibody concentration revealed no effect of prenatal infection status for most vaccine outcomes. (stanford.edu)
  • The results suggest that the treatment of maternal infections in pregnancy may be able to moderate the previously observed effect of antenatal maternal infections on infant vaccine responses. (stanford.edu)
  • This book addresses various aspects of such emergences, such as pathogenetic mechanisms of viruses, diagnosis of viral infections, viral host-management strategies, viral genetics, vaccine development and application. (buecher.de)
  • 2. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a vaccine comprising a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing the viral proteins of alphaviruses that stimulate an immune response in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • There is no vaccine or drug to prevent the parasitic infection, which is transmitted through sandfly bites. (phys.org)
  • View Sealy Center for Molecular Medicine profile » Dr. Bao's research focuses on host-virus interaction, particularly in the infection of RSF and hMPV, with the goal of generating suitable vaccine candidates to prevent paramyxovirus infection. (utmb.edu)
  • Chikungunya virus was responsible for millions of human infections in new territories, and although the case-fatality rate was low, outbreaks resulted in major illness and long-term sequelae in affected persons ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During 2010-2018, a total of 608 clinical samples from wildlife and nonequine domestic animals that had febrile, neurologic signs or unexplained deaths were tested for alphaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • A TaqMan-based quantitative PCR was used to assess SAV load in the heart, a main target organ of the virus, and also liver, which does not normally display any pathological changes during clinical infections, but exhibited severe degenerative lesions in the present study. (stir.ac.uk)
  • This study describes the clinical and pathological findings of mice infected with WEEV by the aerosol route, and use as a model for WEEV infection in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Alphaviruses have been used before in designing treatments for infectious diseases, but we believe this is the first time one has been used in patients with cancer," said Michael Morse, MD , associate professor of medicine at Duke and the lead author of the study appearing online in the Journal of Clinical Investigation . (healthcanal.com)
  • Whether infection occurs in fish, reptiles, or amphibians, clinical disease is typically acute and can affect a high proportion of the population. (springer.com)
  • These eight patients illustrate the typical clinical presentation of Chikungunya virus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • The viraemic phase of alphaviruses is 2-8 days, so the success of RT-PCR to detect the virus depends on early presentation and the clinical suspicion of a possible alphavirus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • Pre-clinical experiments conducted by researchers at Griffith University's Institute for Glycomics on the Gold Coast have demonstrated world-first results showing that the historic drug, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), can successfully treat both the acute and chronic disease manifestations symptoms of alphavirus infections in the animal model. (medindia.net)
  • It is important to rule out dengue virus infection because proper clinical management of dengue can improve outcome. (cdc.gov)
  • Suhrbier, A. & La Linn, M. Clinical and pathologic aspects of arthritis due to Ross River virus and other alphaviruses. (nature.com)
  • The threat of a global alphavirus pandemic remains high, in particular from highly aggressive strains such as Chikungunya virus, and has emphasised the continued need for therapeutic strategies to combat these deadly viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • The more virulent strains of alphavirus induce apoptosis with increased efficiency both in animal models and in some cultured cells. (nih.gov)
  • The more virulent strains of alphavirus have acquired the ability to induce apoptosis in mature neurons, while mature neurons are resistant to cell death upon infection with less virulent strains. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and KNWR strains than in the HVP and COAV strains. (dovepress.com)
  • Once the virus disseminated from the midgut, all strains were able to develop salivary gland infections. (dovepress.com)
  • He won't stop making vaccines against single strains of alphavirus while waiting for this to happen, he adds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies with mice have demonstrated that immunocompetent strains are resistant to persistent infection but that SCID mice become persistently and fatally infected. (asm.org)
  • Although the immune system clearly plays a central role in clearing virus, the importance of other cellular factors in determining the outcome of virus infections are evident from the observation that mature neurons are better able to resist alphavirus-induced apoptosis than immature neurons are, both in culture and in mouse brains. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured cells and perhaps in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the balance of cellular factors that regulate cell death may be critical in virus infections. (nih.gov)
  • Here we discuss a variety of cellular and viral factors that modulate the outcome of virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with a chronic HCV infection often present a poor and narrow-spectrum cellular immune response against HCV, while in patients who recovered from acute infection the immune responses are broader. (rug.nl)
  • Moreover, most of the alphaviruses, if not all of them, have developed very efficient means of interfering with induction of the cellular antiviral response ( 4 , 6 , 15 - 17 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the most efficient means of interference with the innate immune response utilized by alphaviruses is inhibition of cellular transcription. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated that key transcripts (IFN and Mx) in the cellular antiviral immune system were affected by the infections. (uib.no)
  • Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. (nature.com)
  • The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, when interpreted as part of the Th1/Th2 paradigm, humoral immune responses have often been considered to be antagonistic to protective cellular responses during intracellular bacterial infections ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus- derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. (wiley.com)
  • I'm particularly interested in understanding cellular processes that are involved in regulating the outcome of viral infections. (genomeweb.com)
  • View Department of Pathology profile » My main research interest is to better understand the mechanisms that enable emerging viruses to evade host immune responses and cause disease, and to identify cellular factors that contribute to viral infection. (utmb.edu)
  • The genomic and subgenomic RNAs of the alphaviruses closely resemble the cellular mRNAs produced by RNA polymerase II, as they are 7me GpppG capped at their 5' end and 3' polyadenylated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore these viral mRNAs likely have the capacity to interface with cellular RNA decay factors during infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. (health.gov.au)
  • Readers should be aware that cross-reacting IgM can occur, particularly with flavivirus infections. (health.gov.au)
  • The role of immune IgG in protection has been studied extensively in mouse models of flavivirus infection, including WNV. (rupress.org)
  • Passive transfer of polyclonal or monoclonal IgG before infection protects mice against lethal flavivirus challenge ( 11 , 13 - 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • Predicting human West Nile virus infections with mosquito surveillance data. (medscape.com)
  • The accumulation of knowledge in the subsequent two to three decades from studies of cancer, virus infections, and, most notably, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans finally produced unequivocal evidence of an evolutionarily conserved, genetically encoded program of self-elimination ( 19 - 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Lupfer C, Stein DA, Mourich DV, Tepper SE, Iversen PL, Pastey M. Inhibition of influenza A H3N8 virus infections in mice by morpholino oligomers. (biology-online.org)
  • Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections With Morpholino Oligomers in Cell Cultures and in Mice. (biology-online.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses and molecular epidemiology of European salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) based on partial E2 and nsP3 gene nucleotide sequences. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Biophysical properties of salmonid alphaviruses (SAV)- influence of temperature and pH on virus survival. (afbini.gov.uk)
  • Cultural characteristics of salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) - influence of cell line and temperature. (afbini.gov.uk)
  • Infection by salmonid alphaviruses (sleeping diseases). (afbini.gov.uk)
  • Development and evaluation of a one step real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of salmonid alphaviruses in serum and tissues. (afbini.gov.uk)
  • 2 provide structural insights into the regulation of the membrane-fusion proteins of enveloped alphaviruses during the viruses' entry into and exit from the host cell. (nature.com)
  • One example is the early stage of an infection, which can sometimes be problematic to study due to the low expression levels of viral proteins. (genomeweb.com)
  • Little is known of the host factors that influence susceptibility and resistance to HME, although some studies have suggested that humoral immune responses might play an important role during infections by related ehrlichiae ( 18 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Susceptibility of salmonid alphavirus to a range of chemical disinfectants. (afbini.gov.uk)
  • Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. (frontiersin.org)
  • This virus-specific inhibition of the antiviral and innate responses makes an additional contribution to rapid spread of alphavirus infections. (asm.org)
  • For the New World alphaviruses, the capsid protein has been found to be a key player in transcription inhibition ( 2 , 15 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • In cells permissive to viral infection, this leads to robust transcription inhibition within 4 to 6 h postinfection and, thus, prevents activation of antiviral genes. (asm.org)
  • Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses. (nih.gov)
  • Here, using mouse models of alphavirus-induced musculoskeletal disease, we demonstrate that NLRP3 inhibition in vivo can reduce inflammatory pathology and that further development of therapeutic solutions targeting inflammasome function could help treat arboviral diseases. (nature.com)
  • Johnson, K. E., Chikoti, L. & Chandran, B. Herpes simplex virus 1 infection induces activation and subsequent inhibition of the IFI16 and NLRP3 inflammasomes. (nature.com)
  • The broad species tropism of SINV allows for infection of insect, avian, and mammalian cells8. (jove.com)
  • E3 is a by-product of the cleavage of the E2 precursor protein p62 by the enzyme furin (not shown), and is released in some alphavirus species. (nature.com)
  • The virus then exits by budding from the cell surface, with some alphavirus species retaining E3 and others releasing it. (nature.com)
  • Use of appropriate diagnostic techniques is key to identifying ranavirus infections and determining the effects of infection on host species. (springer.com)
  • Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a tool to help physicians differentiate between Zika, dengue, and chikungunya virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Dr. Vu is a pediatric infectious diseases specialist who is researching human responses to dengue virus and malaria infections. (stanford.edu)
  • His present studies on pediatric dengue and malaria co-infection are supported by an NIAID Career Development Award (K23 AI127909) and a Instructor K Award Support Program Award from the Maternal & Child Health Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics. (stanford.edu)
  • Since the early 2000s, I have devoted my efforts to better understanding the risk factors and long-term health consequences of arboviral infections, including Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, and dengue viruses. (stanford.edu)
  • There were 1,009 notifications of dengue virus infection locally-acquired in North Queensland and 484 notified cases resulted from overseas travel. (health.gov.au)
  • Notification rates of dengue virus infection for 2008-09, regardless of where infection was acquired, exceeded the five-year mean rate and may be attributed to increased disease activity in the Asia-Pacific region. (health.gov.au)
  • North Queensland was the site of several outbreaks of locally-acquired dengue virus infection involving all 4 serotypes. (health.gov.au)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. (scielo.br)
  • 1. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. A method for the prevention of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal before said animal is exposed to said alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Large outbreaks of infection have been recorded in humans in South Africa since 1974 ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Global emergence of Alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • In humans, the elderly and immunocompromised are at greatest risk for disseminated West Nile virus (WNV) infection, yet the immunologic basis for this remains unclear. (rupress.org)
  • There are noapproved medical countermeasures against Alphaviruses. (sbir.gov)
  • Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, inhibitors of apoptotic cell death such as bcl-2 suppress virus-induced apoptosis, which can facilitate a persistent virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Persistent infection and suppression of host response by alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • However, to establish a systemic and persistent infection, an arbovirus needs to overcome at least four tissue barriers in the mosquito. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alphaviruses are usually highly lytic in vertebrate cells, but persistently infect susceptible mosquito cells with minimal cytopathology. (jove.com)
  • The most important findings are as follows: (i) within the first 2 to 4 h postinfection, alphavirus-infected cells become unable to respond to IFN-β, and this occurs before the virus-induced decrease in STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN treatment. (asm.org)
  • Within 6 h, infected cells begin virus release, and within 12 to 16 h postinfection they can produce 10 3 to 10 4 infectious virions per cell and they induce a next round of infection. (asm.org)
  • A number of alphaviruses are also known to induce translational shutoff in infected vertebrate cells ( 18 , 20 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Global dissemination of virus in the CNS by 2 days post-infection (dpi) was associated with increased BBB permeability in the olfactory bulb, but not in the cortex or hindbrain, where permeability only increased after the recruitment of CX3CR1 + and CCR2 + mononuclear cells on 6 dpi, which corresponded with tight junction loss and claudin 5 redistribution. (wustl.edu)
  • Beth's landmark work in autophagy arose from an exploration into the mechanisms by which cells respond to viral infection, starting with her work in Marie Hardwick's lab at Johns Hopkins. (jci.org)
  • We demonstrated previously that B cells and IgG contributed to the defense against disseminated WNV infection (Diamond, M.S., B. Shrestha, A. Marri, D. Mahan, and M. Engle. (rupress.org)
  • Immune IgG are speculated to protect against WNV infection by direct neutralization of receptor binding, through Fc-receptor-dependent viral clearance, by complement-mediated lysis of virus or infected cells, and by antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. (rupress.org)
  • However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. (wiley.com)
  • Upon infection of vertebrate cells in continuous culture, the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) initiates apoptosis and IFN synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One focus of these studies is to determine the role of chromatin remodeling complexes during viral infection and we study these complexes in both uninfected and infected cells. (genomeweb.com)
  • 1991 ) Prevention of apoptosis by a baculovirus gene during infection of insect cells. (biologists.org)
  • In this study we determined the mechanism by which SinV represses the degradation of its transcripts during infection of human and mosquito cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. (pasteur.fr)
  • Persons with chronic health conditions, a weakened immune system, infants, and older persons are at risk of developing complications with this infection. (iamat.org)
  • If you have had Chikungunya in the past, you are immune to subsequent infections. (iamat.org)
  • Similarly, in animals, the maturation and integrity of the immune system correlates with resistance to WNV infection ( 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our own studies with B cell-deficient mice demonstrated a ∼500-fold increase in viremia 4 d after infection, a time when only immune IgM was detected in the serum from wild-type mice ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Because passive transfer of immune IgM against WNV, derived from wild-type mice 4 d after infection, prolonged survival of B cell-deficient mice and completely protected wild-type mice, natural or induced IgM could limit WNV infection by controlling viremia and/or by triggering an adaptive B or T cell response ( 23 , 24 ). (rupress.org)
  • [3] After a single infection it is believed most people become immune . (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. (mja.com.au)
  • We report eight cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia between February 2006 and September 2007. (mja.com.au)
  • The eight cases of Chikungunya virus infection were identified after reviewing the database of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory between February 2006 and September 2007. (mja.com.au)
  • The review was undertaken to raise awareness among medical practitioners of Chikungunya virus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • The first patient diagnosed with Chikungunya virus infection was a 59-year-old Mauritian man who presented to hospital 5 days after travelling from Mauritius for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. (mja.com.au)
  • Studies have not found chikungunya virus in breast milk and there have been no reports to date of infants acquiring chikungunya virus infection through breastfeeding. (cdc.gov)
  • Because the benefits of breastfeeding likely outweigh the risk of chikungunya virus infection in breastfeeding infants, mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed even if they are infected with chikungunya virus or live in an area with ongoing virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya virus infection should be considered in patients with acute onset of fever and polyarthralgia, especially travelers who recently returned from areas with known virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • The differential diagnosis of chikungunya virus infection varies based on place of residence, travel history, and exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no specific antiviral therapy for chikungunya virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • However following some infections - such as those due to the alphaviruses and flaviviruses - IgM persists for months to years, and may only be used as presumptive evidence of recent infection. (health.gov.au)
  • The extracted RNA was subjected to a duplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for an NS5 gene region of flaviviruses and an NSP1 gene region of alphaviruses. (scielo.br)
  • Diseases or pathological conditions can include, for example, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and viral infections. (google.com)
  • Human cases of arbovirus infection and malaria are monitored using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). (health.gov.au)
  • Using an unconventional approach that they designed, University of Pittsburgh drug discoverers and their collaborators at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research have identified compounds that hold promise for treating leishmaniasis, a parasitic infection that many consider one of the world's most overlooked diseases. (phys.org)
  • The results of this study demonstrate that the first hours postinfection play a critical role in infection spread and development of the antiviral response. (asm.org)
  • There are currently no treatments for alphavirus infections, and detailed information on the structure and life cycle of these viruses is crucial for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines. (nature.com)
  • Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. (wiley.com)
  • High-content analysis enables, for example, intracellular tracking of viral particles to profile the antiviral mechanisms of each compound and sensitive measurements of bacterial infection rates. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The alphaviruses, Barmah Forest and Ross River, accounted for 6,574 (78%) of these notifications during 2008-09. (health.gov.au)
  • There are very limited vaccines and treatment options available to those infected with alphaviruses, resulting in significant human and animal morbidity and mortality each year. (bsu.edu)
  • Mortalities commenced in the co-hab challenged diploid and triploid fish from 11 days post infection (dpi), and the experiment was terminated at 17 dpi. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Mice treated with PPMO before and after VEEV infection were completely protected from lethal outcome while mice receiving only post-infection PPMO treatment were partially protected. (utmb.edu)
  • Alphavirus infection results in shutoff of host-cell protein synthesis, which is usually apparent 2-4 h post-infection ( Frolov & Schlesinger, 1994a ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • This may be used for confirming recent infection using tests that do not quantify the antibody levels. (health.gov.au)
  • Escherichia coli surface display of single-chain antibody VRC01 against HIV-1 infection. (genscript.com)
  • Following intranasal infection of both wild-type and IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (IFIT1)-deficient mice, which fail to block TC83-specific RNA translation, virus spreads to the olfactory bulb and cortex via migration along axonal tracts of neurons originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium. (wustl.edu)
  • C57BL/6J mice (sIgM −/− ) that were deficient in the production of secreted IgM but capable of expressing surface IgM and secreting other immunoglobulin isotypes were vulnerable to lethal infection, even after inoculation with low doses of WNV. (rupress.org)
  • references 10 , 11 ) and B cell-deficient mice uniformly succumb to WNV infection ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Inbred mice have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by E. chaffeensis ( 35 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • To determine the effect of PKR on SFV infection, we studied the course of infection in wild-type (wt) mice, mice with a genetic deletion of PKR (PKR −/− ) and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from these mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Following infection of wt and PKR −/− mice, SFV4 and SFV A7(74) were avirulent. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We investigated the contribution of alphaviruses to neurologic infections and death in wildlife and domestic animals in this country. (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogram of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (348-bp fragment) of alphaviruses rooted at the midpoint and created by using maximum-likelihood analysis (67 taxa, generalized time-reversible model with gamma distribution of rates across sites). (cdc.gov)
  • Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. (wiley.com)
  • Taken together, nutrition appears to alter the course of alphavirus infection and should be considered as a critical environmental factor during outbreaks. (prolekare.cz)
  • 5 , 6 This review is based on a literature review and the authors' ongoing research and introduces the zoonotic infections and associated neuroimaging appearances in past outbreaks that have affected the CNS, to improve our understanding of the current pandemic and future zoonotic disease outbreaks. (ajnr.org)
  • Chikungunya virus was diagnosed by performing a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum. (mja.com.au)
  • When evaluating extreme outcomes, one unfortunate patient was misdiagnosed and treated for schizophrenia after recovering from an undetected WEEV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. (dovepress.com)
  • Thus, PPMO appear promising as candidates for therapeutic development against alphaviruses. (utmb.edu)
  • However, alphavirus infections not endemic to Australia are unlikely to be diagnosed serologically because specific assays are generally available only for those viruses known to circulate in Australia. (thefreedictionary.com)