A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (1/294)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (2/294)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Salmon pancreas disease virus, an alphavirus infecting farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (3/294)

A 5.2-kb region at the 3' terminus of the salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) RNA genome has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences show that SPDV shares considerable organizational and sequence identity to members of the genus alphavirus within the family Togaviridae. The SPDV structural proteins encoded by the 5.2-kb region contain a number of unique features when compared to other sequenced alphaviruses. Based on cleavage site homologies, the predicted sizes of the SPDV envelope glycoproteins E2 (438 aa) and E1 (461 aa) are larger than those of other alphaviruses, while the predicted size of the alphavirus 6K protein is 3.2 K (32 aa) in SPDV. The E2 and E1 proteins each carry one putative N-linked glycosylation site, with the site in E1 being found at a unique position. From amino acid sequence comparisons of the SPDV structural region with sequenced alphaviruses overall homology is uniform, ranging from 32 to 33%. While nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S RNA junction region shows that SPDV is similar to other alphaviruses, analysis of the 3'-nontranslated region reveals that SPDV shows divergence in this region.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (4/294)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Epidemic O'Nyong-Nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic studies in Bbaale village, Rakai District. (5/294)

Entomologic studies were conducted between January 27 and February 2, 1997, in Bbaale village in southcentral Uganda during an o'nyong-nyong (ONN) virus epidemic, which began in mid 1996 and continued into 1997. The objectives were to confirm the role of anophelines in ONN virus transmission and to examine other mosquito species as epidemic vectors of ONN virus. Of 10,050 mosquitoes collected using light traps and pyrethrum knockdown sprays, Anopheles (Cellia) funestus Giles was presumed to be the principal vector because it was the most abundant mosquito species from which a strain of ONN virus was isolated. This virus was isolated for the first time from a culicine species, Mansonia (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald. Bwamba virus and Nyando virus were also isolated from An. funestus.  (+info)

Seroepizootiological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus in regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. (6/294)

A sero-epizootiological survey was conducted for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Getah virus (GeV) at 10 to 20 regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. It was observed that geometrical mean (GM) antibody titer to JEV and GeV was 10 to 50 times higher than others at several race courses (RCs) almost every year. Of them, several race horses showing high antibody titer, which were suggested to be infected with the virus, were also observed in this survey. These data suggested that the viruses have spread among race horses almost every year in Japan, although, fortunately, no horse showing clinical illness due to these viruses was observed. The calendar years and the names of the race courses in which the spread of JEV was suggested were Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Nakatsu RC in 1992, Arao RC in 1993, Nagoya RC in 1994, Kaminoyama, Urawa, Saga and Arao RCs in 1995 and Ooi and Saga RCs in 1997. Spread of JEV was not observed in 1996. The calendar year and name of the race courses at which the spread of GeV was suggested were at Ooi, Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Arao RC in 1992, Nakatsu RC in 1994 and 1995, Funabashi RC in 1996, Saga RC in 1997. It was suggested that surveillance of JEV and GeV should be continued in the future in at least the southern to middle parts of Japan. It has also been suggested that it is necessary to promote the wider use of vaccines to persons related to horse racing.  (+info)

O'nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996-1997: description of the epidemic and results of a household-based seroprevalence survey. (7/294)

O'nyong-nyong (ONN) fever, an acute, nonfatal illness characterized by polyarthralgia, is caused by infection with a mosquito-borne central African alphavirus. During 1996-1997, south-central Uganda experienced the second ONN fever epidemic ever recognized. During January and early February 1997, active case-finding and a household cluster serosurvey were conducted in two affected and two comparison areas. A confirmed case was defined as an acute febrile illness with polyarthralgia occurring within the previous 9 months plus serologic confirmation or isolation of ONN virus from blood. In affected (n=129) and comparison (n=115) areas, the estimated infection rates were 45% and 3%, respectively, and the estimated attack rates were 29% and 0%, respectively, for an apparent:inapparent infection ratio of nearly 2 in affected areas. In villages sampled near Lake Kijanebalola, Rakai District, the estimated infection and attack rates were 68% and 41%, respectively, and 55% of sampled households had >/=1 case of ONN fever. In conclusion, this epidemic was focused near lakes and swamps, where it was associated with high infection and attack rates.  (+info)

Rainbow trout sleeping disease virus is an atypical alphavirus. (8/294)

Sleeping disease (SD) is currently a matter of concern for salmonid fish farmers in most parts of the world. A viral etiology of SD has recently been suspected, since virus-like particles have been observed in infected rainbow trout cells. In salmonid-derived cell lines, the maximal rate of virus production was observed at 10 degrees C, while little virus was produced at 14 degrees C. Through biochemical, physicochemical, and morphological studies, SD virus (SDV) was shown to be an enveloped virus of roughly 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of 12 kb of RNA, with the appearance of a 26S subgenomic RNA during the time course of SDV replication. The screening of a random-primed cDNA library constructed from the genomic RNA of semipurified virions facilitated the identification of a specific SDV cDNA clone having an open reading frame related to the alphavirus E2 glycoproteins. To extend the comparison between SDV structural proteins and the alphavirus protein counterparts, the nucleotide sequence of the total 4.1-kb subgenomic RNA has been determined. The 26S RNA encodes a 1,324-amino-acid polyprotein exhibiting typical alphavirus structural protein organization. SDV structural proteins showed several remarkable features compared to other alphaviruses: (i) unusually large individual proteins, (ii) very low homology (ranging from 30 to 34%) (iii) an unglycosylated E3 protein, and (iv) and E1 fusion domain sharing mutations implicated in the pH threshold. Although phylogenetically related to the Semliki Forest virus group of alphaviruses, SDV should be considered an atypical member, able to naturally replicate in lower vertebrates.  (+info)

Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 32 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore ...
Mayaro virus disease is a mosquitoborne zoonotic pathogen endemic to certain humid forests of tropical South America. Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days duration. The causative virus, abbreviated MAYV, is in the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus. It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is only known to circulate in tropical South America. Mayaro Virus has a structure similar to other Alphavirus. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of 70 nm. The virus genome is composed of a linear, positive sense, single-stranded RNA with 11,429 nucleotides, excluding the 5 cap nucleotide and 3 poly(A) tail. The MAYV RNA genome contains the 5 untranslated region (UTR), 3 non-coding region (NCR) and two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5 proximal and 3 proximal ORFs are separated by a short non-coding sequence and represent ...
During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more ...
FIGUEIREDO, Luiz Tadeu Moraes et al. Estudo com dois diferentes ensaios imuno-enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus Mayaro. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1989, vol.84, n.3, pp.303-307. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761989000300003.. Apresentamos a avaliação de um teste imuno-enzimático no qual células infectadas com o vírus Mayaro são usadas como antígeno (EIA-ICC) e a de um teste de captura de IgM (MAC-ELISA), no diagnóstico sorológico de infecções por Mayaro. Soros humanos em número de 114, obtidos durante uma epidemia ocorrida em 1987 na Bolívia, foram utilizados neste estudo. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HAI). MAC-ELISA mostrou-se duas vezes mais sensível que EIA-ICC na detecção de anticorpos do tipo IgM para Mayaro. MAC-ELISA mostrou-se uma técnica válida e prática para o diagnóstico de infecções recentes por Mayaro. EIA-ICC para detecção de IgG ...
2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from experimental and field studies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. I. Clinical and virological findings. AU - Pinheiro, F. P.. AU - Freitas, R. B.. AU - Travassos Da Rosa, J. F.. AU - Gabbay, Y. B.. AU - Mello, W. A.. AU - LeDuc, James. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - An outbreak of human illness caused by Mayaro (MAY) virus occurred in Belterra, Para, Brazil in the first half of 1978. A total of 55 cases were confirmed, 43 by virus isolation and serology, and 12 by serology alone. The disease in Belterra presented as a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by fever, arthralgia and exanthema. No fatalities could be attributed to MAY virus infection. Arthralgia, accompanied by joint edema in 20% of cases, was a very prominent sign which caused temporary incapacity in many patients. Arthralgia was present in virtually all confirmed cases and persisted in some for at least 2 months, although with decreasing severity. Rash was present in two-thirds of the cases, and was either maculopapular or ...
Looking for pancreas disease? Find out information about pancreas disease. glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. long and 1.5 in. wide. Explanation of pancreas disease
Background Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data - particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT) and step-wise regression (SWR). Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI) with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects) in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
The primary focus of Dr. Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA viruses that are spread to humans and other vertebrates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. Therefore, these viruses have been researched extensively for use as recombinant vaccines.. The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus vectors, or alphavirus-expressed antigens to immunologically relevant cell types such as dendritic cells. An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine.. ...
The present invention relates to a genic expression adenoviral hybrid vector characterized in that it contains at least the following elements, oriented in the direction 5 to 3: i. a first chain of adenoviral origin comprising a first inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence and a signal sequence for packaging of the adenovirus; ii. a first non-encoding stuffer sequence; iii. a sequence corresponding to a tissue specific promoter; iv. a chain of cDNA derived from an alphavirus, the sequence of which is partly complementary to an alphaviral RNA sequence, comprising at least a sequence encoding for at least one exogenous gene of interest; v. a polyadenylation sequence; and vi. a second adenoviral inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence, it preferably relates to an adenoviral hybrid vector comprising as exogenous gene of interest the therapeutic gene of mammalian interleukin IL-12 and even more preferably human interleukin hIL-12; and to the use of the
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquitos subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral
The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. Mosquitoes or other hematophagous arthropods serve as vectors for these viruses. The complete sequences of the +/- 11.7-kb plus-strand RNA genomes of eight alphaviruses have been determined, and partial sequences are known for several others; this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. Full-length cDNA clones from which infectious RNA can be recovered have been constructed for four alphaviruses; these clones have facilitated many molecular genetic studies as well as the development of these viruses as expression vectors. From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. The interactions of the viruses with host cells and host organisms have been exclusively studied, and the molecular basis of ...
Wolcott, J A.; Wust, C J.; and Brown, A, Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4459 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-dependent protection against or exacerbation of disease by a polylactide glycolide microparticle-adsorbed, alphavirus-based measles virus DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques. AU - Pan, Chien Hsiung. AU - Nair, Nitya. AU - Adams, Robert J.. AU - Zink, M. Christine. AU - Lee, Eun Young. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Singh, Manmohan. AU - OHagan, Derek T.. AU - Griffin, Diane E.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Measles remains an important cause of vaccine-preventable child mortality. Development of a low-cost, heat-stable vaccine for infants under the age of 6 months could improve measles control by facilitating delivery at the time of other vaccines and by closing a window of susceptibility prior to immunization at 9 months of age. DNA vaccines hold promise for development, but achieving protective levels of antibody has been difficult and there is an incomplete understanding of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA ...
After defining the best conditions for cell culture harvesting using the highest virus titer, Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cells were infected with a Brazilian MAYV isolate at a MOI of 1 in order to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of MAYV-infected Aag-2 cells by using a label-free semi-quantitative bottom-up proteomic analysis. Time-course analyses were performed at 12 and 48 h post-infection (hpi). After spectrum alignment between the triplicates of each time point and changes of the relative abundance level calculation, the identified proteins were annotated and using Gene Ontology database and protein pathways were annotated using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.. ...
University of Florida researchers have identified a patient in Haiti with a serious mosquito-borne illness that has never before been reported in the Caribbean nation. Known as
Reverse genetics is a critical tool to decrypt the biological properties of arboviruses. However, whilst reverse genetics methods have been usually applied to vertebrate cells, their use in insect cells remains uncommon due to the conjunction of laborious molecular biology techniques and of specific difficulties surrounding the transfection of such cells. To leverage reverse genetics studies in both vertebrate and mosquito cells, we designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus ...
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. This ...
The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections.
Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals Slideshow...
Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases,
As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading.
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Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
In a landmark finding published in Science, Hyde et al. have demonstrated that a hairpin RNA structure adjacent to the 5 cap of alphavirus genomic RNA confers the ability of these viruses to evade restriction by the interferon-induced host protein IFIT1 ...
Interleukin, T Cells, Il-4, Regulation, Transcription Factor, Chemokines, Mouse, Calcium, Cell, Chemoattractants, Arthritides, Arthritis, Disease, Virus, and Alphavirus
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REFERENCES. Abad-Franch F, Grimmer GH, Paula VS, Figueiredo LTM, Braga WSM, Luz SLB 2012. Mayaro virus infection in Amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1846. [ Links ] Aitken TG, Downs WG, Anderson CG, Spence L, Casals J 1960. Mayaro virus isolated from a Trinidadian mosquito, Mansonia vene-zuelensis. Science 131: 986. [ Links ] Anderson CR, Downs WG, Wattley GH, Ahin NW, Reese EAA 1957. Mayaro virus: a new human disease agent. II. Isolation from blood of patients in Trinidad, B.W.I. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6: 1012-1016. [ Links ] Azevedo RSS, Silva EVP, Carvalho VL, Rodrigues SG, Nunes-Neto JP, Monteiro H, Peixoto VS, Chiang JO, Nunes MRT, Vasconcelos PFC 2009. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 1830-1832. [ Links ] Bronzoni RVM, Baleotti FG, Nogueira RMR, Nunes M, Figueiredo LTM 2005. Duplex reverse transcription-PCR followed by nested PCR assays for detection and identification of Brazilian alphaviruses and ...
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Semliki Forest Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one positive stranded RNA molecule. Genetic material is enveloped in an icosahedral nucleocapsid.. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When symptoms are present they are mild. During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). When present, symptoms include headache, fever, myalgia and athrolgia. Rare symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis have been reported. The acute phase lasts 2-4 days and is followed by a long period marked by weakness. In the only case reported to ...
Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. New studies define the receptor-binding protein of these viruses and its regulation of the membrane-fusion reaction. See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of infection with the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus in India and southeast Asia. The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that form spikes on the virus surface dissociate in the acidic conditions found in the internal vesicles of host cells, and E1 triggers infection by fusing with the endosomal membrane. Félix Rey and colleagues present the structure of Chikungunya virus envelope glycoprotein at neutral pH, and Michael Rossmann and colleagues reveal the structure of the envelope
gB, but not gD or gH/gL, binds to liposomes.Our laboratory previously showed that HSV virions bind to liposomes when incubated in the presence of a soluble form of the gD receptor, HVEM, at pH 5.0 (55). Second, gB730t, but not soluble forms of gD or gC, can bind to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts (10). Together, these data suggest that HSV may interact with lipids through gB. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the fusion loops of two class II fusion proteins from flavivirus (2) and Semliki Forest virus (35) impair the ability of these proteins to associate with liposomes. Therefore, we theorized that if gB inserts into target membranes via the putative fusion loops, gB730t should associate and float with liposomes, while the soluble forms of the fusion loop mutants should be impaired in this association.. To test this hypothesis, purified soluble gB, gD, and gH/gL were each incubated with two different compositions of liposomes, i.e., PC only or PC/C, at 37°C for 1 h. We then added KCl to ...
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent laboratory strain of the Alphavirus Sindbis kills most cultured cell lines not by lethal parasitism, but by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transfection of cultured cells with the human bcl-2 oncogene can block Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, resulting in a persistent viral infection resembling that observed in brains of immunodeficient mice. We investigated the possibility that neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus could overcome the protective effects of bcl-2--a potential mechanism to explain the ability of these strains to cause fatal disease. Strains of Sindbis virus that were lethal for 2- to 4-week-old mice induced ...
To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors expressing different levels of IL-12. SFV-IL-12 expresses both IL-12 subunits from a single subgenomic promoter, while in SFV-enhIL-12 each IL-12 subunit is expressed …
Understanding the dynamics of pathogen transfer in aquaculture systems is essential to manage and mitigate disease outbreaks. The goal of this study was to understand recent transmission dynamics of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) in Norway. SAV causes significant economic impacts on farmed salmonids in European aquaculture. SAV is classified into six subtypes, with Norway having ongoing …. Genome Sequencing of SAV3 Reveals Repeated Seeding Events of Viral Strains in Norwegian Aquaculture. Read More ». ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
Due to space, on-line registration is now closed however walk-ins are welcome.. Join the National Pancreas Foundation Louisiana Chapter on Sunday, June 9, 2019 at the historic Rockn Bowl for an afternoon of bowling and family fun! ...
Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. The non-structural proteins form the transcription/replication complex. The nsP1 protein is implicated in capping of viral RNAs. The nsP2 gene encodes a putative helicase and a protease , which presents a unique fold distantly related to that of known cysteine proteases. This protease domain is linked to the downstream domain of degenerated O-methyltransferase fold that may regulate transcription/replication through RNA binding. The nsP3 protein is required for RNA replication. Its N-terminal sequence reveals a macro domain, the crystal structures of which have recently been determined (Malet et al., 2009). The nsP4 protein carries the viral RNA dependant RNA Polymerase (RdRP), the key activity for the viral replication/transcription. Unlike the RdRP of ...
The Strep-tag® purification system is based on the highly selective binding of engineered streptavidin, called Strep-Tactin, to Strep-tag II fusion proteins. This technology allows one-step purification of almost any recombinant protein under physiological conditions, thus preserving its bioactivity.
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Drug Uses Lopid (also known as a fibrate medication) is used along with a proper diet to help lower fats (triglycerides) and cholesterol in the blood. This drug is usually prescribed after non-drug treatment options have not been fully successful at lowering cholesterol (e.g., diet change, increase in exercise, weight loss if overweight). This drug is thought to work by decreasing the amount of fat produced by the liver. Reducing cholesterol and triglycerides lowers the risk of heart disease and helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. This drug also helps to prevent pancreas disease (pancreatitis) in patients with very high blood levels of triglycerides. How to use Take this medication by mouth usually twice a day, 30 minutes before your morning and evening meals, or as directed by your doctor. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. It may take ...
Learn about some of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas diseases and disorders diagnosed and treated by the Pediatric Liver Center at Johns Hopkins
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and its Associated Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients, Juliyanti Fu, C Rinaldi A Lesmana, Imam Subekti, Irsa
No exactly related to surfaces, but in terms of killing viruses via heat, a study from a few years ago looked at the time required for inactivation of various Alphaviruses in blood serum samples at 56°C, finding that it could take anywhere from 20 min to 2 hrs [1]. If youre looking for ways that the average person can disinfect surfaces, some fairly common consumer disinfectants are actually already capable of killing certain types of viruses (e.g. Dettol claim that some of their products kill influenza, coronavirus, RSV, etc. [2]). [1] Park, S.L., Huang, Y.-J.S., Hsu, W.-W., Hettenbach, S.M., Higgs, S., and Vanlandingham, D.L. (2016). Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses. Journal of Virological Methods 234, 152-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.04.004. [2] https://www.dettol.com.ng/products-old/see-all-products/. ...
It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus ... Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Mancini, E. J.; Clarke, M.; Gowen, B. E.; Rutten, T.; Fuller, S. D. (2000). "Cryo-electron ... Quetglas, J. I.; Ruiz-Guillen, M.; Aranda, A.; Casales, E.; Bezunartea, J.; Smerdou, C. (2010). "Alphavirus vectors for cancer ...
Alphavirus Polyarthritis Syndrome has an incubation period of 3-21 days, depending on the specific virus, with either a gradual ... This condition is termed alphavirus polyarthritis syndrome. Sindbis virus, which is endemic in Northern Europe, Africa, the ... and lupus erythematosus but can also be caused by infection with an alphavirus such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus. ... Middle East, and Australia, is the most widely distributed of the alphaviruses causing polyarthritis, though infection is ...
Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). ISBN 978-0- ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. It is an Alphavirus isolated from nesting Cliff Swallows, House ... https://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/characterization-of-fort-morgan-virus-an-alphavirus-of-the-wester Wikilinks ... researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/characterization-of-fort-morgan-virus-an-alphavirus-of-the-wester https://wwwn.cdc.gov ...
... is a mosquito-borne arbovirus in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from the ... Zhai, You-gang (2008). "Complete sequence characterization of isolates of Getah virus (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) ...
... (BFV) is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. This disease was named after the Barmah Forest in the ...
The alphaviruses are a group of small enveloped single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses. RRV belongs to a subgroup of "Old ... Ross River virus (RRV) is a small encapsulated single-strand RNA Alphavirus endemic to Australia, Papua New Guinea and other ... In 1956, serological testing suggested an unknown new species of alphavirus (group A arbovirus) was the likely culprit. In July ... In 1959, a new alphavirus was identified in samples from a mosquito (Ochlerotatus vigilax) trapped near Ross River, near ...
... virus (CHIKV), is a member of the genus Alphavirus, and family Togaviridae. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... May 2010). "Persistent chronic inflammation and infection by Chikungunya arthritogenic alphavirus in spite of a robust host ... "Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses". Journal of Virology. 75 (21): 10118-31. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.21 ... "Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein induces rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic ...
The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... The methyltransferase domain shows sequence similarity to other alphavirus m7G methyltransferases and guanyltransferases, ... in the Alphavirus-like superfamily. BMV was first isolated in 1942 from bromegrass (Bromus inermis), had its genomic ... Many of the positive-strand RNA viruses that belong to the alphavirus family share a high degree of similarity in proteins ...
"Encephalitic alphaviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4): 281-6. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.08.023. PMC 2814892. PMID ...
He and his colleague Ilya Frolov are developing alphavirus replicon vectored RVF vaccines for use in livestock and ultimately ...
... is a member of the virus family Togaviridae of Class IV of the Baltimore classification system and the genus Alphavirus. It has ... It is closely related to another Alphavirus, Sindbis virus and causes similar symptoms in humans like fever, arthralgia or ...
alphaviruses. alphavirus. and. e. flaviviruses. flavivirus. can. poden. be. separarse. separated. en. into. dúas. two families ... alphaviruses. alphavirus. , furoviruses. furovirus. , hepatitis. virus. E. da. virus. hepatite E. , hordeiviruses. hordeivirus ... O grupo de tipo alfa ou Rubivirata, que inclúe a: alphavirus, carlavirus, furovirus, hordeivirus, potexvirus, rubivirus, ... Alphaviruses, carlaviruses, furoviruses, hordeiviruses, potexviruses, rubiviruses, tobraviruses, tricornaviruses, tymoviruses, ...
Alphaspiravirus Alphatectivirus Alphatorquevirus Alphatrevirus Alphatristromavirus Alphaturrivirus Alphavirus Amalgavirus ...
Hevey, M.; Negley, D.; Pushko, P.; Smith, J.; Schmaljohn, A. (Nov 1998). "Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus ...
The virus was first isolated from an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952.[26] Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus ...
... abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses". Antiviral Research. 126: 117-24. doi: ...
Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell and gD to stabilize it, if required. gB, gD, gH, ...
Alphavirus Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection (Taiwan acute respiratory agent or TWAR) ...
Alphavirus. *Alternative oxidase. *Amelogenin. *Amino acid permease. *Amino acid transporter. *Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, ...
The first clear reference to smallpox inoculation was made by the Chinese author Wan Quan (1499-1582) in his Douzhen xinfa (痘疹心法) published in 1549,[80] with earliest hints of the practice in China during the 10th century.[81] In China, powdered smallpox scabs were blown up the noses of the healthy. People would then develop a mild case of the disease and from then on were immune to it. The technique did have a 0.5-2.0% mortality rate, but that was considerably less than the 20-30% mortality rate of the disease itself. Two reports on the Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.[82] Voltaire (1742) reports that the Chinese had practiced smallpox inoculation "these hundred years".[52] Variolation had also been witnessed in Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who later introduced it in the UK.[83] An early ...
... (MC), sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin that results in small, raised, pink lesions with a dimple in the center.[1] They may occasionally be itchy or sore.[1] They may occur singularly or in groups.[1] Any area of the skin may be affected, with abdomen, legs, arms, neck, genital area, and face being most common.[1] Onset of the lesions is around 7 weeks after infection.[3] It usually goes away within a year without scarring.[1] MC is caused by a poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).[1] The virus is spread either by direct contact including sexual activity or via contaminated objects such as towels.[4] The condition can also be spread to other areas of the body by the person themselves.[4] Risk factors include a weak immune system, atopic dermatitis, and crowded living conditions.[2] Following one infection, it is possible to get reinfected.[9] Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance.[3] Prevention includes hand washing ...
... , also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).[3] The disease results in a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters, which eventually scab over.[1] It usually starts on the chest, back, and face then spreads to the rest of the body.[1] Other symptoms may include fever, tiredness, and headaches.[1] Symptoms usually last five to seven days.[1] Complications may occasionally include pneumonia, inflammation of the brain, and bacterial skin infections.[6] The disease is often more severe in adults than in children.[7] Symptoms begin 10 to 21 days after exposure to the virus.[2] Chickenpox is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person.[2] It may be spread from one to two days before the rash appears until all lesions have crusted over.[2] It may also spread through contact with the blisters.[2] Those with shingles may spread chickenpox to those who ...
KSHV is a herpesvirus, and is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a protein covering that packages its nucleic acids, called the capsid, which is then surrounded by an amorphous protein layer called the tegument, and finally enclosed in a lipid envelope derived in part from the cell membrane. KSHV has a genome which is approximately 165,000 nucleic acid bases in length. KSHV is a rhadinovirus, and is remarkable since it has stolen numerous genes from host cells including genes that encode for complement-binding protein, IL-6, BCL-2, cyclin-D, a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA synthesis proteins including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidine kinase, thymidylate synthetase, DNA polymerase and many others. While no other human tumor virus possesses these same genes, other tumor viruses target the same cellular pathways illustrating that at a basic level, all tumor viruses appear to attack the same cellular control ...
A plantar wart is a wart occurring on the bottom of the foot or toes.[4] Their color is typically similar to that of the skin.[2] Small black dots may occur on the surface.[4] One or more may occur in an area.[2] They may result in pain with pressure such that walking is difficult.[2] They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).[2] A break in the skin is required for infection to occur.[2] Risk factors include use of communal showers, having had prior warts, and poor immune function.[2][3] Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms.[3] Treatment is only needed if it is causing symptoms.[3] This may include salicylic acid, cryotherapy, or surgical removal.[2] The skin overtop the lesion should generally be removed before treatment.[2] In about a third to two thirds of cases they go away without specific treatment, however this may take a couple of years.[2] Plantar warts are common.[4] Children and young adults are most often affected.[3] ...
Following active infection, herpes viruses establish a latent infection in sensory and autonomic ganglia of the nervous system. The double-stranded DNA of the virus is incorporated into the cell physiology by infection of the nucleus of a nerve's cell body. HSV latency is static; no virus is produced; and is controlled by a number of viral genes, including latency-associated transcript.[70] Many HSV-infected people experience recurrence within the first year of infection.[14] Prodrome precedes development of lesions. Prodromal symptoms include tingling (paresthesia), itching, and pain where lumbosacral nerves innervate the skin. Prodrome may occur as long as several days or as short as a few hours before lesions develop. Beginning antiviral treatment when prodrome is experienced can reduce the appearance and duration of lesions in some individuals. During recurrence, fewer lesions are likely to develop and are less painful and heal faster (within 5-10 days without antiviral treatment) than those ...
... is transmitted by direct contact with skin lesions caused by a herpes simplex virus.[1] This is the main reason why the condition is often found in wrestlers. It is believed that the virus may be transmitted through infected wrestlers' mats, but this is still subject of research since the virus cannot live long enough outside the body in order to be able to cause an infection. Direct contact with an infected person or infected secretions is undoubtedly the main way in which this virus may be transmitted. It is also believed that wearing abrasive clothing may increase the chances to get infected with this type of virus. Shirts made of polyester and cotton may cause frictions that lead to small breaks in the skin which makes it easier to contract the infection. Studies in which athletes were wearing 100% cotton shirts showed a decrease in the number of herpes gladiatorum cases.[10] The spread is facilitated when a sore is present but it can happen in its absence as well. The ...
Alphavirus infection. *Alternariosis. *Amebiasis cutis. *Ant venom. *Aquarium granuloma. *Arcanobacterium haemolyticum ...
It is unclear when a description of this disease was first recorded.[41] Hippocrates, writing around 400 BC, described the condition of a patient with a sore throat and skin ulcers, but it is not entirely clear from his description whether the patient had scarlet fever. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the physicians Rhazes, Ali Abbas, and Avicenna described an illness which was measles-like, but with a more vivid colour and more dangerous. Again, it is not certain that these descriptions refer to scarlet fever.. The first description of the disease in the medical literature appeared in the 1553 book De Tumoribus praeter Naturam by the Sicilian anatomist and physician Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, where he referred to it as rossalia or rosania. It was redescribed by Johann Weyer during an epidemic in lower Germany between 1564 and 1565; he referred to it as scalatina anginosa. The first unequivocal description of scarlet fever appeared in a book by Joannes Coyttarus of Poitiers, De febre purpura ...
This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. ... Alphavirus other than Sindbis *Isolation of alphavirus from clinical material; OR *Detection of specific alphavirus by NAT; OR ... IgG seroconversion to specific alphavirus; OR *Significant increase in IgG level or titre to specific alphavirus.. Alphavirus ... Detection of IgM to specific alphavirus.. Sindbis *Isolation of SIN from clinical material; OR *Detection of SIN by NAT; OR * ...
This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. ... Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research) View Full-Text , Download PDF [1315 KB, uploaded 14 ... Mosquitoes as Suitable Vectors for Alphaviruses. Viruses. 2018; 10(2):84. Chicago/Turabian Style. Lim, Elisa X.Y.; Lee, Wai S ...
In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long ... In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long ... In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a ... In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a ...
Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased ...
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are ... ATSs are derived from cDNA clones of mosquito-borne RNA viruses (genus Alphavirus; family Togaviridae). The Alphavirus genus ... Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic ... Some alphaviruses require BSL3 containment. Figure 1: Overview of ATS virus production in BHK-21 cells using p5dsMRE/GFP SINV ...
The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution.. J H Strauss, E G Strauss ... The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. Mosquitoes or other ... The complete sequences of the +/- 11.7-kb plus-strand RNA genomes of eight alphaviruses have been determined, and partial ...
Many alphaviruses can cause disease in humans and animals, including Onyong nyong fever and Ross River fever. ... Clinical Sindbis Alphavirus Infection Is Associated With HLA-DRB1*01 Allele and Production of Autoantibodies ... Immunologic Interference from Sequential Administration of Live Attenuated Alphavirus Vaccines Evidence for Multiple Foci of ... Isolation of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) From Field-Collected Eggs of Oeciacus vicarius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) ...
a chain of cDNA derived from an alphavirus, the sequence of which is partly complementary to an alphaviral RNA sequence, ... Adenovirus/alphavirus hybrid vector for the effective administration and expression of therapeutic genes in tumour cells ... a chain of cDNA derived from an alphavirus, the sequence of which is partly complementary to an alphaviral RNA sequence, ...
Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause ... Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause ... Alphavirus myopathies and arthritis: modeling and understanding the mechanisms of disease development and persistence. ... Myositis and arthritis due to the alphaviruses CHIKV and RRV are also characterized by a significant percentage of lasting pain ...
In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed ... In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed ... In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed ... In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed ...
Alphaviruses are members of a group of small enveloped RNA viruses that includes important human pathogens such as Chikungunya ... Cleavage of the alphavirus precursor glycoprotein p62 into the E2 and E3 glycoproteins before assembly with the nucleocapsid is ... Salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) severely infects farmed salmonids and rainbow trout. Owing to the recent increase in fish import ... Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, ...
Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. ... "Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus." (1982). Subject ...
2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from ... 1 D A Graham, H R Rowley and P Frost (2013) Cross‐neutralization studies with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1-6 strains: results ... Salmon Pancreas Disease Virus (SPDV), also referred to as Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), causes pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic ... Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from experimental ...
Keywords : Mayaro; alphavirus; arbovirus; teste imuno-enzimático. · abstract in English · text in English · English ( pdf epdf ...
Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA ... The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus ... Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. ... An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine. ...
Alphavirus particles are roughly spherical, with three principal substructures-an outer glycoprotein shell, a lipid bilayer, ... Alphavirus particles are roughly spherical, with three principal substructures-an outer glycoprotein shell, a lipid bilayer, ... Wengler, G., Boege, U., Wengler, G., Bischoff, H., and Wahn, K., 1982, The core protein of the alphavirus Sindbis virus ... Harrison S.C. (1986) Alphavirus Structure. In: Schlesinger S., Schlesinger M.J. (eds) The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae. The ...
The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that ... Sindbis virus can cause fever in humans and is the most extensively studied alphavirus. Comparison of the two structures ... See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of ... Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. New studies define the receptor ...
Alphavirus and Rubivirus. Alphavirus consists of viruses transmitted by arthropods (exclusively mosquitoes); prototypes include ... Other articles where Alphavirus is discussed: virus: Annotated classification: There are 2 recognized genera: ... There are 2 recognized genera: Alphavirus and Rubivirus. Alphavirus consists of viruses transmitted by arthropods (exclusively ... Some Alphavirus species produce severe encephalitis in humans. Horses also may be severely or fatally infected, by equine ...
Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that use arthropods such as mosquitoes for transmission to their vertebrate hosts, and ... Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. ... include Semliki Forest and Sindbis viruses [PMID: 15378043]. Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core ...
... team of researchers have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded arthritogenic alphavirus ... New approach to tackle alphavirus infections. Griffith University. Journal. PLOS Pathogens. Keywords. *INFECTIOUS/EMERGING ... "Alphaviruses are transmitted to human after an infectious bite by the mosquitoes. These viruses infect the host cells and ... Alphaviruses include about 30 pathogens spread by mosquitoes, also including Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus that ...
Membrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle.. Kielian M1.. Author information. 1. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein ...
... Gregory J. Atkins Department of Microbiology, Moyne Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, ... Gregory J. Atkins, "The Pathogenesis of Alphaviruses," ISRN Virology, vol. 2013, Article ID 861912, 22 pages, 2013. doi:10.5402 ...
Alphavirus infection can trigger the host cell to activate its genetically programmed cell death pathway, leading to the ... Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured ... The more virulent strains of alphavirus induce apoptosis with increased efficiency both in animal models and in some cultured ... The more virulent strains of alphavirus have acquired the ability to induce apoptosis in mature neurons, while mature neurons ...
Alphavirus. A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other ...
Alphavirus explanation free. What is Alphavirus? Meaning of Alphavirus medical term. What does Alphavirus mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alphavirus in the Medical Dictionary? ... Alphavirus. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.. Related to Alphavirus: bunyavirus, flavivirus, Hepacivirus, ... Alphavirus , definition of Alphavirus by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alphavirus ...
Development of Alphavirus PCLs with Reduced Potential for RCV.. One possible method for large-scale production of alphavirus ... Two characteristics of alphavirus replication precluded the generation of alphavirus PCL analogous to retrovirus (27, 28) ... Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus- and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. John M. Polo, Barbara A. ... The role of alphavirus structural proteins in virus-induced cytopathology (20-22), coupled with down-regulation of RNA ...
This study shows that the NLRP3 inflammasome is crucial for alphavirus-induced inflammation and its inhibition is an effective ... Arthritogenic alphaviruses: new insights into arthritis and bone pathology. Trends Microbiol. 23, 35-43 (2015). ... Amelioration of alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis in a mouse model by treatment with bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte ... Suhrbier, A., Jaffar-Bandjee, M.-C. & Gasque, P. Arthritogenic alphaviruses-an overview. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 8, 420-429 (2012 ...
"Alphaviruses have been used before in designing treatments for infectious diseases, but we believe this is the first time one ... "The beauty of alphaviruses is that they are naturally attracted to dendritic cells, cells that stimulate the production of ... Based on earlier research, investigators at Duke believed that by using the alphavirus for Venezuelan equine encephalitis as a ... Scientists removed the genes that enable the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus - an alphavirus - to replicate itself, and ...
Development of Human-Murine Chimeric Immunoglobulin G for Use in the Serological Detection of Human Flavivirus and Alphavirus ...
... against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of ... Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress Cell. 2015 Nov 19;163(5):1095- ... and Onyongnyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins and viruses, and ... against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of ...
Alphavirus answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... "Alphavirus." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/742335/all/Alphavirus. Alphavirus. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; ... Alphavirus is a sample topic from the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view other topics, please sign in or purchase a ...
Neurovirulent strains of Alphavirus induce apoptosis in bcl-2-expressing cells: role of a single amino acid change in the E2 ... Neurovirulent strains of Alphavirus induce apoptosis in bcl-2-expressing cells: role of a single amino acid change in the E2 ... Neurovirulent strains of Alphavirus induce apoptosis in bcl-2-expressing cells: role of a single amino acid change in the E2 ... Neurovirulent strains of Alphavirus induce apoptosis in bcl-2-expressing cells: role of a single amino acid change in the E2 ...
alphavirus replication complex purification Semliki Forest virus affinity purification ultracentrifugation Oppiaine: ... Alphaviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that have been the cause of numerous epidemics in the past decades ...
Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Duration of Alphavirus Neutralizing Antibody in Naturally Infected Birds * Authors: Andrew J. Main, Kathleen S. Anderson, ...
Forsøksdyr: The susceptibility of sea trout juveniles to infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and piscine orthoreovirus ( ... The susceptibility of sea trout juveniles to infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) ...
Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.. C L Frazier, R E Shope ... Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Cell culture-derived antigens detected antibodies to alphaviruses in human sera with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...
This invention addresses how to rapidly prevent alphavirus-induced encephalitides before and after exposure to alphaviruses. ... This invention addresses how to rapidly prevent alphavirus-induced encephalitides before and after exposure to alphaviruses. ... This invention relates to rapid protection against alphavirus-induced encephalitides before or after exposure to alphaviruses. ... INOCULATION OF RECOMBINANT VIRAL VECTORS FOR RAPID PRE-EXPOSURE PREVENTION AND POST-EXPOSURE PROTECTION AGAINST ALPHA-VIRUS- ...
  • Wolbachia pipientis from Drosophila melanogaster (wMel) is an endosymbiotic bacterium that restricts transmission of human pathogenic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, when introduced into the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, is recurring in epidemic waves. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). (jove.com)
  • The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. (asm.org)
  • this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. (asm.org)
  • have demonstrated that a hairpin RNA structure adjacent to the 5' cap of alphavirus genomic RNA confers the ability of these viruses to evade restriction by the interferon-induced host protein IFIT1. (edu.au)
  • The Alphavirus genus contains about 30 different mosquito-borne virus species. (jove.com)
  • In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are important tools for expressing genes of interest (GOI) during infection. (jove.com)
  • Myositis and arthritis due to the alphaviruses CHIKV and RRV are also characterized by a significant percentage of lasting pain. (pasteur.fr)
  • Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. (jove.com)
  • Establishment and evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of Salmonid Alphavirus. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) severely infects farmed salmonids and rainbow trout. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic mRNA that encodes the structural proteins of the virus required for encapsidation of the genome and maturation of the virus. (jove.com)
  • The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. (asm.org)
  • From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. (asm.org)
  • In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases, with clinical signs varying from fever or rash to significant inflammatory pathologies including encephalitis (e.g. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cleavage of the alphavirus precursor glycoprotein p62 into the E2 and E3 glycoproteins before assembly with the nucleocapsid is the key to producing fusion-competent mature spikes on alphaviruses. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed onto polylactide glycolide (PLG) microparticles. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral imm" by J A. Wolcott, C J. Wust et al. (jax.org)
  • Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. (jax.org)
  • Alphaviruses are usually highly lytic in vertebrate cells, but persistently infect susceptible mosquito cells with minimal cytopathology. (jove.com)
  • Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. (pasteur.fr)
  • Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 ( IPR002548 ) that associate as a heterodimer. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic mRNA that encodes the structural proteins of the virus required for encapsidation of the genome and maturation of the virus. (jove.com)
  • The invention discloses a single dose administration of two types of recombinant viral vectors: one expressing interferon and another expressing the structural proteins of alphaviruses or a single dose administration of the recombinant viral vector co-expressing both interferon and the structural proteins of alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a vaccine comprising a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing the viral proteins of alphaviruses that stimulate an immune response in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Old World and New World alphaviruses use different virus-specific proteins for induction of the transcriptional shutoff. (histopathology-india.net)
  • Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The overall organization of WEEV is similar to those of other alphaviruses, consistent with the high sequence similarity among alphavirus structural proteins. (utmb.edu)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging alphavirus responsible for several outbreaks worldwide in the past decade, causes debilitating joint inflammation and severe pain. (nature.com)
  • We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • Alphaviruses, including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), produce a transient illness in humans, but severe forms leading to chronic incapacitating arthralgia/arthritis have been reported by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, is recurring in epidemic waves. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Polyarthritis is most often caused by an auto-immune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis, amyloidosis, psoriatic arthritis, and lupus erythematosus but can also be caused by infection with an alphavirus such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This project is aimed at developing novel antiviral strategies and drug leads, which are currently lacking for alphaviruses (Chikungunya virus) and nidoviruses (SARS- and other human coronaviruses). (cf.ac.uk)
  • Alphaviruses are attractive candidates for such applications because of their high levels of replication and gene expression, their ability to infect a variety of diverse cell types, and the ability to manipulate cDNA clones from which infectious viral RNA may be transcribed (for review, see refs. (pnas.org)
  • The general strategy for construction of alphavirus-based expression vectors has been to substitute the viral structural protein genes with a heterologous gene, maintaining transcriptional control via the highly active subgenomic RNA promoter ( 1 , 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. A method for the prevention of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal before said animal is exposed to said alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. (pnas.org)
  • These issues have begun to be addressed through the conversion of alphavirus vectors into functional plasmid DNA formats that directly transcribe RNA vector replicons in vivo ( 8 - 13 ) and the development of split structural protein gene packaging systems ( 2 , 7 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Incorporation of alphavirus replicons into plasmid DNA vectors to direct the amplification of RNA expressing the gene of interest has been an exciting approach toward improving DNA vaccination ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, alphavirus plasmid replicons may offer both quantitative and qualitative advantages compared with conventional plasmid vectors. (asm.org)
  • The beauty of alphaviruses is that they are naturally attracted to dendritic cells, cells that stimulate the production of large numbers of T cells and antibodies," says Morse. (healthcanal.com)
  • Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • Cell culture-derived antigens detected antibodies to alphaviruses in human sera with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. (asm.org)
  • The recently identified fish alphaviruses salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus appear to be variants or subtypes of a new alphavirus species. (caltech.edu)
  • Pancreas disease (PD) of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., which is caused by an alphavirus known as salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV), can have serious economic consequences. (edu.au)
  • The team has for the first time shown that the protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a crucial role in promoting alphavirus infection and disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • These drugs were also effective against Mayaro virus (MAYV), an under-studied arthritogenic Old world Alphavirus endemic in South American countries with potential risk of emergence, urbanization and dispersion to other regions. (medworm.com)
  • The objective of this study is to gain in efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma by combining in a single vector high infectivity using an adenovirus delivery system, high level of transgene expression and induction of apoptosis using an alphavirus vector ( 14 ), and tumor specificity by placing the alphavirus replicon under the transcriptional control of a tumor-specific promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study investigated the immunogenicity of alphavirus vaccine replicon particles (VRP) that encode PSMA (PSMA-VRP). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Development of an Alphavirus Replicon Classical Swine Fever Virus Vacc" by J. Dustin Loy, Mark Mogler et al. (iastate.edu)
  • E3 is a by-product of the cleavage of the E2 precursor protein p62 by the enzyme furin (not shown), and is released in some alphavirus species. (nature.com)
  • The virus then exits by budding from the cell surface, with some alphavirus species retaining E3 and others releasing it. (nature.com)
  • The Alphavirus genus contains about 30 different mosquito-borne virus species. (jove.com)
  • Trocara virus, isolated from mosquitoes in Brazil and Peru, also represents a new species and probably a new alphavirus complex. (caltech.edu)
  • Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Alphavirus infection can trigger the host cell to activate its genetically programmed cell death pathway, leading to the morphological features of apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern. (nih.gov)
  • In collaboration with Mapp Biopharmaceutical, IBT is developing monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics for alphaviruses. (integratedbiotherapeutics.com)
  • Alphaviruses have a single-stranded RNA genome. (tabers.com)
  • A general linear model was used to test for significant differences in replication between flaviviruses and alphaviruses. (springer.com)
  • 7. Levi LI, Vignuzzi M. Arthritogenic Alphaviruses: A Worldwide Emerging Threat? (prolekare.cz)
  • Interestingly, we demonstrated that this series exerts broad-spectrum anti-alphavirus activity against a range of arthritogenic alphaviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The togavirus genera are Alphavirus , which is carried by mosquitoes, and Rubivirus, which contains rubella, or German measles, virus. (britannica.com)
  • Old and New World alphaviruses cluster in separate phylogenetic groups ( 6 ), but limited information is available about pathogenesis and host range of alphaviruses from Africa and pathogenesis in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • To address this gap in knowledge, we infected lean, obese, and undernourished mice with arthritogenic arboviruses from the genus Alphavirus and assessed morbidity, virus replication, transmission, and evolution. (prolekare.cz)
  • Pathogenic alphaviruses of the Western hemisphere occur primarily in the summer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We show that pathogenic alphaviruses use secondary structural motifs within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of their RNA to alter Ifit1 binding and function. (sciencemag.org)
  • however, employment of a pan-alphavirus vaccine able to stimulate protective or even partially protective responses to multiple pathogenic alphaviruses is a much more appealing prospect. (asm.org)
  • The alphavirus genome resembles eukaryotic mRNA, which possesses a 5′ cap and 3′ poly (A) tail and codes for early non-structural and late structural phases during replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with this, the replication and virulence of IFIT1-sensitive alphaviruses was significantly increased in Isg20-/- compared to congenic wild-type mice. (pitt.edu)
  • Filling the current gaps in sequence data for geographic and temporal distributions of MAYV is needed to increase the phylogenetic resolution and aid our understanding of the evolution and spread of this emerging arthralgic alphavirus in the Americas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Old World alphaviruses are associated mainly quencing, and phylogenetic analysis of a 349-bp E1 gene with febrile disease and arthralgia, are often accompanied fragment (online Technical Appendix) was attempted (Fig- by a maculopapular rash, and are rarely fatal, although ure 1, panel B) to investigate recombination events. (cdc.gov)
  • Alphaviruses are a group of important human and animal pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are a group of important human and animal pathogens that are widely distributed all over the world ( 22 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Mosquito-transmitted alphaviruses are distributed globally and include human pathogens that can cause severe long-term arthritogenic or neurological complications. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Alphaviruses are transmitted to human after an infectious bite by the mosquitoes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. (jove.com)
  • The alphaviruses, Barmah Forest and Ross River, accounted for 6,574 (78%) of these notifications during 2008-09. (health.gov.au)
  • Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. (pasteur.fr)
  • There are very limited vaccines and treatment options available to those infected with alphaviruses, resulting in significant human and animal morbidity and mortality each year. (bsu.edu)
  • Membrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle. (nih.gov)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/742335/all/Alphavirus. (tabers.com)
  • Alphavirus vaccines have shown promise in eliciting immunity to tumor antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent preclinical studies have shown potent immunogenicity and antitumor effects for alphavirus vaccines encoding self-antigens ( 15 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 are conserved druggable cofactors of Old World Alphavirus genome replication. (medworm.com)
  • Altogether, our results identify FASN and SCD1 as conserved druggable cofactors of Alphavirus genome replication and support the broad-spectrum activity of drugs targeting the host fatty acids metabolism. (medworm.com)
  • Prediction of the RNA secondary structure suggested putative stem-loop structures in both the 5'- and 3'-ends, similar to those of alphaviruses from the terrestrial environment, indicating that the general genome replication initiation strategy for alphaviruses is also utilized by SAV. (uib.no)
  • Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • Tree topologies indicated that the mosquito-borne alphaviruses could have arisen in either the Old or the New World, with at least two transoceanic introductions to account for their current distribution. (caltech.edu)
  • The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. (asm.org)
  • What RNA element allows alphavirus RNA polymerase to gene. (protocol-online.org)
  • Nevertheless, most of the alphaviruses are known to induce a type I interferon (IFN) response in vivo . (asm.org)
  • Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured cells and perhaps in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Thiol agents and Bcl-2 identify an alphavirus-induced apoptotic pathway that requires activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B. (rupress.org)
  • Most alphaviruses package only the genomic RNA into virions, which are enveloped particles with icosahedral symmetry, having a triangulation number (T) = 4. (caltech.edu)
  • A number of alphaviruses are also known to induce translational shutoff in infected vertebrate cells ( 18 , 20 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. (asm.org)