Dictionaries, MedicalAlphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Togaviridae: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.Dictionaries, ChemicalFlavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (1/294)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (2/294)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Salmon pancreas disease virus, an alphavirus infecting farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (3/294)

A 5.2-kb region at the 3' terminus of the salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) RNA genome has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences show that SPDV shares considerable organizational and sequence identity to members of the genus alphavirus within the family Togaviridae. The SPDV structural proteins encoded by the 5.2-kb region contain a number of unique features when compared to other sequenced alphaviruses. Based on cleavage site homologies, the predicted sizes of the SPDV envelope glycoproteins E2 (438 aa) and E1 (461 aa) are larger than those of other alphaviruses, while the predicted size of the alphavirus 6K protein is 3.2 K (32 aa) in SPDV. The E2 and E1 proteins each carry one putative N-linked glycosylation site, with the site in E1 being found at a unique position. From amino acid sequence comparisons of the SPDV structural region with sequenced alphaviruses overall homology is uniform, ranging from 32 to 33%. While nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S RNA junction region shows that SPDV is similar to other alphaviruses, analysis of the 3'-nontranslated region reveals that SPDV shows divergence in this region.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (4/294)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Epidemic O'Nyong-Nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic studies in Bbaale village, Rakai District. (5/294)

Entomologic studies were conducted between January 27 and February 2, 1997, in Bbaale village in southcentral Uganda during an o'nyong-nyong (ONN) virus epidemic, which began in mid 1996 and continued into 1997. The objectives were to confirm the role of anophelines in ONN virus transmission and to examine other mosquito species as epidemic vectors of ONN virus. Of 10,050 mosquitoes collected using light traps and pyrethrum knockdown sprays, Anopheles (Cellia) funestus Giles was presumed to be the principal vector because it was the most abundant mosquito species from which a strain of ONN virus was isolated. This virus was isolated for the first time from a culicine species, Mansonia (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald. Bwamba virus and Nyando virus were also isolated from An. funestus.  (+info)

Seroepizootiological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus in regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. (6/294)

A sero-epizootiological survey was conducted for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Getah virus (GeV) at 10 to 20 regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. It was observed that geometrical mean (GM) antibody titer to JEV and GeV was 10 to 50 times higher than others at several race courses (RCs) almost every year. Of them, several race horses showing high antibody titer, which were suggested to be infected with the virus, were also observed in this survey. These data suggested that the viruses have spread among race horses almost every year in Japan, although, fortunately, no horse showing clinical illness due to these viruses was observed. The calendar years and the names of the race courses in which the spread of JEV was suggested were Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Nakatsu RC in 1992, Arao RC in 1993, Nagoya RC in 1994, Kaminoyama, Urawa, Saga and Arao RCs in 1995 and Ooi and Saga RCs in 1997. Spread of JEV was not observed in 1996. The calendar year and name of the race courses at which the spread of GeV was suggested were at Ooi, Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Arao RC in 1992, Nakatsu RC in 1994 and 1995, Funabashi RC in 1996, Saga RC in 1997. It was suggested that surveillance of JEV and GeV should be continued in the future in at least the southern to middle parts of Japan. It has also been suggested that it is necessary to promote the wider use of vaccines to persons related to horse racing.  (+info)

O'nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996-1997: description of the epidemic and results of a household-based seroprevalence survey. (7/294)

O'nyong-nyong (ONN) fever, an acute, nonfatal illness characterized by polyarthralgia, is caused by infection with a mosquito-borne central African alphavirus. During 1996-1997, south-central Uganda experienced the second ONN fever epidemic ever recognized. During January and early February 1997, active case-finding and a household cluster serosurvey were conducted in two affected and two comparison areas. A confirmed case was defined as an acute febrile illness with polyarthralgia occurring within the previous 9 months plus serologic confirmation or isolation of ONN virus from blood. In affected (n=129) and comparison (n=115) areas, the estimated infection rates were 45% and 3%, respectively, and the estimated attack rates were 29% and 0%, respectively, for an apparent:inapparent infection ratio of nearly 2 in affected areas. In villages sampled near Lake Kijanebalola, Rakai District, the estimated infection and attack rates were 68% and 41%, respectively, and 55% of sampled households had >/=1 case of ONN fever. In conclusion, this epidemic was focused near lakes and swamps, where it was associated with high infection and attack rates.  (+info)

Rainbow trout sleeping disease virus is an atypical alphavirus. (8/294)

Sleeping disease (SD) is currently a matter of concern for salmonid fish farmers in most parts of the world. A viral etiology of SD has recently been suspected, since virus-like particles have been observed in infected rainbow trout cells. In salmonid-derived cell lines, the maximal rate of virus production was observed at 10 degrees C, while little virus was produced at 14 degrees C. Through biochemical, physicochemical, and morphological studies, SD virus (SDV) was shown to be an enveloped virus of roughly 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of 12 kb of RNA, with the appearance of a 26S subgenomic RNA during the time course of SDV replication. The screening of a random-primed cDNA library constructed from the genomic RNA of semipurified virions facilitated the identification of a specific SDV cDNA clone having an open reading frame related to the alphavirus E2 glycoproteins. To extend the comparison between SDV structural proteins and the alphavirus protein counterparts, the nucleotide sequence of the total 4.1-kb subgenomic RNA has been determined. The 26S RNA encodes a 1,324-amino-acid polyprotein exhibiting typical alphavirus structural protein organization. SDV structural proteins showed several remarkable features compared to other alphaviruses: (i) unusually large individual proteins, (ii) very low homology (ranging from 30 to 34%) (iii) an unglycosylated E3 protein, and (iv) and E1 fusion domain sharing mutations implicated in the pH threshold. Although phylogenetically related to the Semliki Forest virus group of alphaviruses, SDV should be considered an atypical member, able to naturally replicate in lower vertebrates.  (+info)

*Togaviridae

The Flaviviruses were formed into their own family when sufficient differences with the Alphaviruses were noted thanks to the ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou ... Initially the Togavirus family included what are now called the Flaviviruses, within the Alphavirus genus. ... Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. ...

*Arbovirus

Group A denoted members of the genus Alphavirus, Group B were members of the genus Flavivirus, and Group C remains as the Group ... Family Togaviridae Genus Alphavirus Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) Ross River virus (RRV) Venezuelan equine ...

*Mayaro virus disease

Mayaro Virus has a structure similar to other Alphavirus. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a ... It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is ... Firth AE, Chung BY, Fleeton MN, Atkins JF (2008). "Discovery of frameshifting in Alphavirus 6K resolves a 20-year enigma". ... Snyder AJ, Mukhopadhyay S (2012). "The alphavirus E3 glycoprotein functions in a clade-specific manner". Journal of Virology. ...

*Alphavirus

Alphaviruses, like all other group IV viruses, have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses ... Another branch of research involving alphaviruses is in vaccination. Alphaviruses are apt to be engineered to create replicon ... The alphavirus can also get into the CNS where it is able to grow and multiply within the neurones. This can lead to ... The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single positive sense strand RNA. The total genome ...

*Semliki Forest virus

It is an Alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus ... Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Mancini, E. J.; Clarke, M.; Gowen, B. E.; Rutten, T.; Fuller, S. D. (2000). "Cryo-electron ... Quetglas, J. I.; Ruiz-Guillen, M.; Aranda, A.; Casales, E.; Bezunartea, J.; Smerdou, C. (2010). "Alphavirus vectors for cancer ...

*Alphavirus infection

... may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...

*Middelburg virus

Alphaviruses utilize the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Since presence of the Alphavirus does not have an effect on the ... There is a similar group of Alphavirus known as the New World Alphaviruses that also share much in common with MIDV. These ... Middelburg virus (MIDV) is an Alphavirus of the Old World Group that has likely endemic and zoonotic potential... It is of the ... Together E1 and E2 are the gylcoproteins that make up the Alphavirus envelope over the nucleocapsid. A final finding of this ...

*History of virology

Zacks MA, Paessler S (January 2010). "Encephalitic alphaviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4): 281-6. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Polyarthritis

Alphavirus Polyarthritis Syndrome has an incubation period of 3-21 days, depending on the specific virus, with either a gradual ... This condition is termed alphavirus polyarthritis syndrome. Sindbis virus, which is endemic in Northern Europe, Africa, the ... and lupus erythematosus but can also be caused by infection with an alphavirus such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus. ... Middle East, and Australia, is the most widely distributed of the alphaviruses causing polyarthritis, though infection is ...

*Tetraspanin 9

Stiles KM, Kielian M (2016). "Role of TSPAN9 in Alphavirus Entry and Early Endosomes". J. Virol. 90 (9): 4289-97. doi:10.1128/ ...

*Eilat virus

The Eilat virus is from the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Alphaviruses are miniature spherical shaped (around 70 nm in ... The Eilat virus shows an evolutionary change which may have occurred to alphaviruses. Normally, an alphavirus similar to that ... from this unique mosquito-borne alphavirus. Alphavirus Mosquito-borne Anopheles Chikungunya Sindbis virus Positive sense Nasar ... This would make the EILV be the second alphavirus which is able to employ a Anopheles species as a natural vector. This ...

*Major facilitator superfamily

Campbell CL, Lehmann CJ, Gill SS, Dunn WA, James AA, Foy BD (August 2011). "A role for endosomal proteins in alphavirus ...

*Chikungunya

... virus (CHIKV), is a member of the alphavirus genus, and Togaviridae family. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... Akhrymuk I, Kulemzin SV, Frolova EI (July 2012). "Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein ... "Persistent chronic inflammation and infection by Chikungunya arthritogenic alphavirus in spite of a robust host immune response ... "Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses". Journal of Virology. 75 (21): 10118-31. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.21. ...

*Dengue virus

54: Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S. Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University of ...

*DNA vaccination

Alphavirus replicase genes are expressed in addition to the vaccine insert. It is not clear how alphavirus replicons raise an ... Recombinant alphavirus-based vectors have been used to improve DNA vaccination efficiency. The gene encoding the antigen of ... The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... interest is inserted into the alphavirus replicon, replacing structural genes but leaving non-structural replicase genes intact ...

*Barmah Forest virus

... is an RNA virus in the Alphavirus genus. This disease was named after the location in Northern Victoria ...

*ZC3HAV1

2003). "Expression of the zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits alphavirus replication". J. Virol. 77 (21): 11555-62. doi: ... zinc finger antiviral protein acts synergistically with an interferon-induced factor for maximal activity against alphaviruses ...

*Getah virus

The Getah virus is a mosquito-borne arbovirus in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from ... Zhai, You-gang (2008). "Complete sequence characterization of isolates of Getah virus (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) ...

*Neglected tropical diseases

Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus and family Togaviridae. The word chikungunya is from the Makonde which ...

*Cis-regulatory element

Chung BY, Firth AE, Atkins JF (March 2010). "Frameshifting in alphaviruses: a diversity of 3' stimulatory structures". Journal ...

*Western equine encephalitis virus

WEE is a recombinant virus between two other alphaviruses, an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... An Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, the WEE virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) transmitted by mosquitoes of the ...

*Marburg virus disease

Hevey, M.; Negley, D.; Pushko, P.; Smith, J.; Schmaljohn, A. (Nov 1998). "Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus ...

*Everglades virus

... (EVEV) is an alphavirus included in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex. The virus circulates ...

*Global Vaccines

LoBue AD, Thompson JM, Lindesmith L, Johnston RE, Baric RS (2009). "Alphavirus-adjuvanted norovirus-like particle vaccines: ... "Alphavirus replicon-based adjuvants enhance the immunogenicity and effectiveness of Fluzone® in rhesus macaques". Vaccine. 29 ( ...

*Sindbis virus

... (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the alphavirus subfamily. The virus was first isolated in 1952 ... Alphavirus infection MicrobiologyBytes: Togaviruses CDC: Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal ...
Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 32 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore ...
Mayaro virus disease is a mosquitoborne zoonotic pathogen endemic to certain humid forests of tropical South America. Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days duration. The causative virus, abbreviated MAYV, is in the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus. It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is only known to circulate in tropical South America. Mayaro Virus has a structure similar to other Alphavirus. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of 70 nm. The virus genome is composed of a linear, positive sense, single-stranded RNA with 11,429 nucleotides, excluding the 5 cap nucleotide and 3 poly(A) tail. The MAYV RNA genome contains the 5 untranslated region (UTR), 3 non-coding region (NCR) and two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5 proximal and 3 proximal ORFs are separated by a short non-coding sequence and represent ...
387500898 - EP 0982405 A3 2000-04-12 - Recombinant alphavirus vectors - [origin: WO9507994A2] The present invention provides composition and methods for utilizing recombinant alphavirus vectors.[origin: WO9507994A2] The present invention provides composition and methods for utilizing recombinant alphavirus vectors.
During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more ...
FIGUEIREDO, Luiz Tadeu Moraes et al. Estudo com dois diferentes ensaios imuno-enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus Mayaro. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1989, vol.84, n.3, pp.303-307. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761989000300003.. Apresentamos a avaliação de um teste imuno-enzimático no qual células infectadas com o vírus Mayaro são usadas como antígeno (EIA-ICC) e a de um teste de captura de IgM (MAC-ELISA), no diagnóstico sorológico de infecções por Mayaro. Soros humanos em número de 114, obtidos durante uma epidemia ocorrida em 1987 na Bolívia, foram utilizados neste estudo. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HAI). MAC-ELISA mostrou-se duas vezes mais sensível que EIA-ICC na detecção de anticorpos do tipo IgM para Mayaro. MAC-ELISA mostrou-se uma técnica válida e prática para o diagnóstico de infecções recentes por Mayaro. EIA-ICC para detecção de IgG ...
2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from experimental and field studies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. I. Clinical and virological findings. AU - Pinheiro, F. P.. AU - Freitas, R. B.. AU - Travassos Da Rosa, J. F.. AU - Gabbay, Y. B.. AU - Mello, W. A.. AU - LeDuc, James. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - An outbreak of human illness caused by Mayaro (MAY) virus occurred in Belterra, Para, Brazil in the first half of 1978. A total of 55 cases were confirmed, 43 by virus isolation and serology, and 12 by serology alone. The disease in Belterra presented as a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by fever, arthralgia and exanthema. No fatalities could be attributed to MAY virus infection. Arthralgia, accompanied by joint edema in 20% of cases, was a very prominent sign which caused temporary incapacity in many patients. Arthralgia was present in virtually all confirmed cases and persisted in some for at least 2 months, although with decreasing severity. Rash was present in two-thirds of the cases, and was either maculopapular or ...
Looking for pancreas disease? Find out information about pancreas disease. glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. long and 1.5 in. wide. Explanation of pancreas disease
Background Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data - particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT) and step-wise regression (SWR). Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI) with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects) in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
The primary focus of Dr. Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA viruses that are spread to humans and other vertebrates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. Therefore, these viruses have been researched extensively for use as recombinant vaccines.. The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus vectors, or alphavirus-expressed antigens to immunologically relevant cell types such as dendritic cells. An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine.. ...
The present invention relates to a genic expression adenoviral hybrid vector characterized in that it contains at least the following elements, oriented in the direction 5 to 3: i. a first chain of adenoviral origin comprising a first inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence and a signal sequence for packaging of the adenovirus; ii. a first non-encoding stuffer sequence; iii. a sequence corresponding to a tissue specific promoter; iv. a chain of cDNA derived from an alphavirus, the sequence of which is partly complementary to an alphaviral RNA sequence, comprising at least a sequence encoding for at least one exogenous gene of interest; v. a polyadenylation sequence; and vi. a second adenoviral inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence, it preferably relates to an adenoviral hybrid vector comprising as exogenous gene of interest the therapeutic gene of mammalian interleukin IL-12 and even more preferably human interleukin hIL-12; and to the use of the
Home » Alphavirus. Alphavirus a genus of togaviridae, also known as group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the sindbis virus. ...
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquitos subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral
Wolcott, J A.; Wust, C J.; and Brown, A, "Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4459 ...
University of Florida researchers have identified a patient in Haiti with a serious mosquito-borne illness that has never before been reported in the Caribbean nation. Known as
Reverse genetics is a critical tool to decrypt the biological properties of arboviruses. However, whilst reverse genetics methods have been usually applied to vertebrate cells, their use in insect cells remains uncommon due to the conjunction of laborious molecular biology techniques and of specific difficulties surrounding the transfection of such cells. To leverage reverse genetics studies in both vertebrate and mosquito cells, we designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus ...
Ceci est une liste de virus biologiques et de types de virus. Veuillez ajouter ou modifier cette liste si nécessaire. Certains de ces termes peuvent être des synonymes pour le même virus ; sil existe déjà un article sur ce virus sous un autre nom, veuillez éventuellement créer un lien de redirection vers lautre nom. Il existe également un article sur la classification des virus. Cette section ou cet article est une traduction incomplète. (juillet 2017) Vous pouvez modifier la page pour effectuer la traduction. virus dAbelson - virus de la laryngotrachéobronchite aiguë - virus de la rivière Adelaide - virus adéno-associé (groupe) - Adenovirus - Virus de limmunodéficience humaine - alpharetrovirus - Alphavirus - arbovirus - arbovirus C - arbovirus groupe A - arbovirus groupe B - Arenavirus (groupe) - virus de la fièvre hémorragique dArgentine - Arterivirus - Astrovirus - Aura virus - virus de lérythroblastose aviaire - virus de la bronchite infectieuse aviaire - virus de la ...
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. This ...
To provide improved disease surveillance capability, INT will develop assays for rapid identification of vectors carrying alpha, flavi or bunya viruses in the field. INT has developed a novel electronic nucleic acid sensor system, a universal automated sample preparation approach and a manufacturable, low cost disposable fluidic cartridge. The system features a unique nucleic acid-based diagnostic approach, which provides the capability for running diagnostic tests in the field. Tests can be run in minutes at remote locations where certain diseases are endemic. Together, these performance characteristics provide immediate results for better-informed preparation, treatment and disease management. Utilizing a multiplex microchip, the diagnostic system will provide the army capabilities for the rapid and accurate identification of alphavirus, flavivirus, or bunyaviruses from samples of infected insects ...
The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections.
Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals Slideshow...
As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading.
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Many diseases that were once widespread are now controlled or have been eradicated through the use of vaccines. However, there is an increasing need for new adj...
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If the suspicion is confirmed and there is no suspicion of PD at sites in other parts of the area, the infected locality will be emptied as quickly as possible. This will also apply to neighboring locality 12633 Lyrneset located very close, operated together with Flotaren and which belong to the same owner.. This is in accordance with current strategy for PD control.. PD has previously been detected in Nord-Trøndelag, Nordland and Troms. ...
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
In a landmark finding published in Science, Hyde et al. have demonstrated that a hairpin RNA structure adjacent to the 5 cap of alphavirus genomic RNA confers the ability of these viruses to evade restriction by the interferon-induced host protein IFIT1 ...
Interleukin, T Cells, Il-4, Regulation, Transcription Factor, Chemokines, Mouse, Calcium, Cell, Chemoattractants, Arthritides, Arthritis, Disease, Virus, and Alphavirus
Setiap bilik dah siap bertikar getah. Dalam setiap bilik (bilik pertama & kedua) ada 3 plug - 2 plug di bawah & 1 plug atas. Yang atas tu sebab kami ingatkan nak letak aircond yang dah lama tinggal kat rumah arwah mak. Tapi belum sempat alihkan aircond, kami dah balik pindah Taman Medan. Kalau tak haritu, maulah agaknye dengan aircond pun kami bagi penyewa ni pakai. Tak kuasalah nak buka & pasang balik. Barang pun akan cepat rosak kalau buka, pasang, buka, pasang.... ...
Diunduh dari: KESUBURAN TANAH Kesuburan Tanah adalah kemampuan suatu tanah untuk menghasilkan produk tanaman yang diinginkan, pada lingkungan tempat tanah itu berada. Produk tanaman berupa: buah, biji, daun, bunga, umbi, getah, eksudat, akar, trubus, batang, biomassa, naungan, penampilan dsb. Tanah memiliki kesuburan yang berbeda-beda tergantung sejumlah faktor pembentuk tanah yang merajai di lokasi tersebut, yaitu: Bahan induk, Iklim, Relief, Organisme, atau Waktu. Tanah merupakan fokus utama dalam pembahasan ilmu kesuburan tanah, sedangkan kinerja tanaman merupakan indikator utama mutu kesuburan tanah. Diunduh dari:
Pernah lihat padi? Pernah kumpul biji getah? Atau pernah lihat kerbau berkubang di bendang? Hanya geleng dan perkataan tidak yang diterima apabila
REFERENCES. Abad-Franch F, Grimmer GH, Paula VS, Figueiredo LTM, Braga WSM, Luz SLB 2012. Mayaro virus infection in Amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1846. [ Links ] Aitken TG, Downs WG, Anderson CG, Spence L, Casals J 1960. Mayaro virus isolated from a Trinidadian mosquito, Mansonia vene-zuelensis. Science 131: 986. [ Links ] Anderson CR, Downs WG, Wattley GH, Ahin NW, Reese EAA 1957. Mayaro virus: a new human disease agent. II. Isolation from blood of patients in Trinidad, B.W.I. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6: 1012-1016. [ Links ] Azevedo RSS, Silva EVP, Carvalho VL, Rodrigues SG, Nunes-Neto JP, Monteiro H, Peixoto VS, Chiang JO, Nunes MRT, Vasconcelos PFC 2009. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 1830-1832. [ Links ] Bronzoni RVM, Baleotti FG, Nogueira RMR, Nunes M, Figueiredo LTM 2005. Duplex reverse transcription-PCR followed by nested PCR assays for detection and identification of Brazilian alphaviruses and ...
Atkins, G J.; Carter, J; and Sheahan, B J., "Effect of alphavirus infection on mouse embryos." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 866 ...
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Semliki Forest Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one positive stranded RNA molecule. Genetic material is enveloped in an icosahedral nucleocapsid.. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When symptoms are present they are mild. During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). When present, symptoms include headache, fever, myalgia and athrolgia. Rare symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis have been reported. The acute phase lasts 2-4 days and is followed by a long period marked by weakness. In the only case reported to ...
Sindbis computer virus (SINV) the prototype alphavirus contains a macro area in the highly conserved N-terminal area of nonstructural proteins 3 (nsP3). 10 happened during replication of dual mutant SINV in vitro and in Prkwnk1 vivo. The nsP3 macro area is very important to SINV age-dependent and replication susceptibility to encephalomyelitis. (Fig. 1A) predicted that asparagines at proteins 10 and 24 of nsP3 are in matching Granisetron Hydrochloride positions to both proteins in close connection with ADP-ribose in (Fig. 1B) (10). These asparagines had been transformed to alanines to create SINV using a dual mutation (SINV DM) or with one mutations at amino acidity 10 (SINV SM10) or 24 (SINV SM24) (Fig. 1C). To measure the aftereffect of these mutations on PAR binding his-tagged WT and mutant proteins had been tested for relationship with PAR at different concentrations (Fig. 1D). Simply no impact was had with the mutations in binding of PAR. Fig. 1 Mutation from the nsP3 macro area will not ...
gB, but not gD or gH/gL, binds to liposomes.Our laboratory previously showed that HSV virions bind to liposomes when incubated in the presence of a soluble form of the gD receptor, HVEM, at pH 5.0 (55). Second, gB730t, but not soluble forms of gD or gC, can bind to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts (10). Together, these data suggest that HSV may interact with lipids through gB. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the fusion loops of two class II fusion proteins from flavivirus (2) and Semliki Forest virus (35) impair the ability of these proteins to associate with liposomes. Therefore, we theorized that if gB inserts into target membranes via the putative fusion loops, gB730t should associate and float with liposomes, while the soluble forms of the fusion loop mutants should be impaired in this association.. To test this hypothesis, purified soluble gB, gD, and gH/gL were each incubated with two different compositions of liposomes, i.e., PC only or PC/C, at 37°C for 1 h. We then added KCl to ...
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent laboratory strain of the Alphavirus Sindbis kills most cultured cell lines not by lethal parasitism, but by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transfection of cultured cells with the human bcl-2 oncogene can block Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, resulting in a persistent viral infection resembling that observed in brains of immunodeficient mice. We investigated the possibility that neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus could overcome the protective effects of bcl-2--a potential mechanism to explain the ability of these strains to cause fatal disease. Strains of Sindbis virus that were lethal for 2- to 4-week-old mice induced ...
Researchers at AlphaVax, Inc., a privately held biotechnology company in Research Triangle Park, N.C., have deleted certain genes from the VEE virus, thereby making it impossible for the vector version of virus to reproduce itself, but still allowing the vector to express the target protein. For this study, the researchers inserted the gene for the HER2/neu protein in place of the deleted viral genes and then packaged the virus vector into virus-like replicon particles, referred to as "VRP-neu." When these non-propagating particles are injected into an animal, the vector directs the animals cells to make thousands of copies of the HER2/neu growth protein, says Lachman ...
The most commonly accepted mechanism of entry for alphaviruses is via endocytosis and the subsequent acidification of the vesicle leading to membrane fusion. This is similar to the mechanism accepted for influenza. The studies in support of this mechanism are extensive, and rely on the observations that alphaviruses have membrane fusion capabilities, and that inhibition of the acidification of endosomes inhibits the entry of the virus. The original fusion assays were done with cultured cells, and it was shown that treating cells with adsorbed virus to a brief low pH environment, resulted in cell-cell fusion (fusion from without) [62]. This suggested the acid environment of an endosome could provide the requirements for fusion and penetration. However in these studies the cells were always returned to neutral pH before fusion was seen and it was subsequently shown that this return to neutral pH was required to induce fusion of the virus and cell membranes[63]. The pH of the endosome does not ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
Due to space, on-line registration is now closed however walk-ins are welcome.. Join the National Pancreas Foundation Louisiana Chapter on Sunday, June 9, 2019 at the historic Rockn Bowl for an afternoon of bowling and family fun! ...
Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. The non-structural proteins form the transcription/replication complex. The nsP1 protein is implicated in capping of viral RNAs. The nsP2 gene encodes a putative helicase and a protease , which presents a unique fold distantly related to that of known cysteine proteases. This protease domain is linked to the downstream domain of degenerated O-methyltransferase fold that may regulate transcription/replication through RNA binding. The nsP3 protein is required for RNA replication. Its N-terminal sequence reveals a macro domain, the crystal structures of which have recently been determined (Malet et al., 2009). The nsP4 protein carries the viral RNA dependant RNA Polymerase (RdRP), the key activity for the viral replication/transcription. Unlike the RdRP of ...
The Strep-tag® purification system is based on the highly selective binding of engineered streptavidin, called Strep-Tactin, to Strep-tag II fusion proteins. This technology allows one-step purification of almost any recombinant protein under physiological conditions, thus preserving its bioactivity.
Bank BCA KCU Tasikmalaya. No. Rekening : 054.063.9132. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. =======================================. Bank Mandiri KCP Tasikmalaya Mustofa. No. Rekening : 131-00-1034177-6. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. =======================================. Bank BRI 4371 Unit Singaparna Timur. No.Rekening : 4371-01-000197-50-9. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. ======================================= ...
Drug Uses Lopid (also known as a fibrate medication) is used along with a proper diet to help lower fats (triglycerides) and cholesterol in the blood. This drug is usually prescribed after non-drug treatment options have not been fully successful at lowering cholesterol (e.g., diet change, increase in exercise, weight loss if overweight). This drug is thought to work by decreasing the amount of fat produced by the liver. Reducing cholesterol and triglycerides lowers the risk of heart disease and helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. This drug also helps to prevent pancreas disease (pancreatitis) in patients with very high blood levels of triglycerides. How to use Take this medication by mouth usually twice a day, 30 minutes before your morning and evening meals, or as directed by your doctor. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. It may take ...
Learn about some of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas diseases and disorders diagnosed and treated by the Pediatric Liver Center at Johns Hopkins
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and its Associated Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients, Juliyanti Fu, C Rinaldi A Lesmana, Imam Subekti, Irsa
Klinis : Gejala yang terlihat antara lain adalah pembesaran kelenjar getah bening atau gang-guan gastrointestinal. Pada awal infeksi akan terbentuk lesi-lesi pada paru-paru, kemudian penyebarannya terjadi menuju limpa, hati, selaput mukosa dan kulit ...
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Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean?
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/32J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/32J virus expressing B2 (TE/32J/B2) compared to TE/32J and TE/32J virus expressing GFP. TE/32J/B2 exhibited increased
Animal models, which mimic human disease, are invaluable tools for understanding the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and development of treatment strategies. In particular, animal models play important roles in the area of infectious arthritis. Alphaviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV), onyong-nyong virus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), mayaro virus, Semliki Forest virus and sindbis virus, are globally distributed and cause transient illness characterized by fever, rash, myalgia, arthralgia and arthritis in humans. Severe forms of the disease result in chronic incapacitating arthralgia and arthritis. The mechanisms of how these viruses cause musculoskeletal disease are ill defined. In recent years, the use of a mouse model for RRV-induced disease has assisted in unraveling the pathobiology of infection and in discovering novel drugs to ameliorate disease. RRV as an infection model has the potential to provide key insights into such disease processes, particularly as many viruses, other than ...
Abstract An alphavirus isolated from nestling Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and from cimicid bugs (Oeciacus vicarius) in eastern Colorado, for which we propose the name Fort Morgan (FM) virus, is sensitive to the action of sodium deoxycholate, unstable at pH 2.0-4.0, and demonstrates no characteristics of temperature-sensitive mutants. Unpassaged field strains are nonpathogenic, or of low pathogenicity, for suckling mice; however, plaque-purified FM virus is pathogenic for a variety of laboratory hosts. By hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), complement-fixation, and neutralization tests, cross-reactions were observed between FM virus and members of the western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus antigenic complex. Short-incubation HI tests indicated that the new isolate shared closer antigenic relationships with WEE complex virus strains from the eastern United States (Highlands J virus) than with other WEE complex viruses. On the basis of these serological
Wolbachia pipientis are bacterial endosymbionts of arthropods currently being implemented as biocontrol agents to reduce the global burden of arboviral diseases. Some strains of Wolbachia, when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, reduce or block the replication of RNA viruses pathogenic to humans. The wAlbB strain of Wolbachia was originally isolated from Aedes albopictus, and when transinfected into Ae. aegypti, persists in mosquitoes under high temperature conditions longer than other strains. The utility of wAlbB to block a broad spectrum of RNA viruses has received limited attention. Here we test the ability of wAlbB to reduce or block the replication of a range of Flavivirus and Alphavirus species in cell culture. The C6/36 mosquito cell line was stably infected with the wAlbB strain using the shell-vial technique. The replication of dengue, West Nile and three strains of Zika (genus Flavivirus), and Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis (genus Alphavirus) viruses was compared in wAlbB
NSW Health is warning parents and school communities about a range of health risks associated with mosquito bites.. There has been a significant increase in the numbers of mosquitoes in some parts of NSW following recent heavy rainfall and flooding.. Mosquitoes can transmit a number of viral infections, including Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, and a large number of these infections have been reported in 2011.. A rarer but more serious mosquito-borne infection called Murray Valley encephalitis has also been detected in western NSW.. School students who live in western NSW, or who plan to travel west of the Great Dividing Range on school camps or excursions, should take particular care to prevent mosquito bites.. Mosquitoes are most active around dusk, in the first few hours of the evening and again at dawn.. Rivers, creeks, wetlands and recently-flooded land allows mosquitoes to breed. People living near or visiting these areas need to be especially careful.. Prevent mosquito ...
The genus Alphavirus is one of two within the family Togaviridae and comprises approximately 30 species, including several pathogens of humans and other animals that are of medical, veterinary and economic importance. Most alphaviruses are maintained in nature by a biological transmission cycle between susceptible vertebrate hosts and blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes. In common with many Old World alphavirus pathogens Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the aetiological agent of a syndrome characterized by fever, skin rash and acute or chronic poly-arthralgia or arthritis. Whereas previously CHIKV outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting, in 2004 it re-emerged in coastal Kenya and there followed a series of outbreaks that have continued until the present day, resulting in many millions of cases. Inroads into understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV disease were until recently hampered through the lack of a convenient small animal model capable of exhibiting symptoms similar to those observed ...
The saltwater mosquito, Aedes vigilax, is prolific in coastal wetlands including mangroves and saltmarshes. Ae. vigilax is a vector for arboviruses such as Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses, with significant consequences for human health and economic productivity. In Australia the dominant form of mosquito control is chemicals. For mangroves, this is because there is a critical lack of knowledge supporting alternative approaches, such as environmental modification or biological control using larvivorous fish. This review examines the potential of fish as biological agents for the control of mosquito larvae in mangroves. We consider two key aspects: how larvivorous fish use mangroves; and can larvivorous fish reduce larval mosquito populations sufficiently to provide effective mosquito control? The link between fish and mangroves is reasonably well established, where mangroves act as refuge habitat for small and juvenile fish. Also, research has established that fish can be significant ...
Ross River Virus has been in the news lately because of recent outbreaks in Australia where it is endemic. Travelers to Australia, Papua New Guinea, and multiple other Pacific islands may be at risk but most clinicians in the US have never seen a case and dont know much about Ross River Virus Disease. So…
HIV-1 subtype C is the prevailing subtype of HIV found in sub-Saharan Africa and is primarily responsible for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. Thus, development of a preventive subtype C vaccine is critically important in controlling the spread of HIV in this part of the world. This study will determine the safety and immunogenicity of an alphavirus replicon HIV-1 subtype C gag vaccine, AVX101, in HIV uninfected adults. This vaccine utilizes a propagation-defective replicon vector system derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus. The vaccine replicon expresses the gag gene from a South African subtype C isolate of HIV-1. Participants will be recruited in the United States, South Africa, and Botswana.. The study will last for 1 year. Participants will be enrolled sequentially, from lowest to highest dose of vaccine, into one of four groups. Groups will begin enrollment only following safety review of the previous group. Participants will be randomly ...
Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) is defined as excessive lipid accumulation in the pancreas, which occurs in obese patients. Similarly to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it can progress towards more advanced stage - nonalcoholic steatopancreatitis (NASP). However, the...
Autochthonous Chikungunya Fever in Traveler Returning to Japan from Cuba To the Editor: Chikungunya fever is a febrile illness caused by mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus CHIKV: (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae). Clinical signs and symptoms typically begin with high-grade fever after an incubation period of 2-4 days (1). Other common symptoms include polyarthralgia, which is usually symmetric […] Continue reading → ...
I have had ross river virus for 14 months. The symptoms vary but are very debilitating. When i first got it i had a rash on my body, very painful eyes, headaches and i slept for hours. The pain in my joints and back was horrific especially in one elbow. I am slowly getting better but still have symtoms such as feelings of cut glass in my toes, pins and needles in my fingers and the aching joints and tiredness . I also sometimes suffer from depression which is understandable considering I had to quit my job! All the information on the illness im afraid paints a better picture than what i have actually gone through. These unseen illnesses are a pain - literally. Staying positive helps.:) Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
Definition of Onyong-nyong fever. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that induces membrane invaginations (spherules) in host cells. These harbor the viral replication complexes (RC) that synthesize viral RNA. Alphaviruses have four replicase or nonstructural proteins (nsPs), nsP1-4, expressed as polyprotein P1234. An early RC, which synthesizes minus-strand RNA, is formed by the polyprotein P123 and the polymerase nsP4. Further proteolytic cleavage results in a late RC consisting of nsP1-4 and synthesizing plus strands. Here, we show that only the late RCs are highly active in RNA synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that active RCs can be isolated from both virus-infected cells and cells transfected with the wild-type replicase in combination with a plasmid expressing a template RNA. When an uncleavable polyprotein P123 and polymerase nsP4 were expressed together with a template, high levels of minus-strand RNA were produced in cells, but RCs isolated from these cells were hardly active in vitro.
In summary, our data indicate that SFV fusion and exit are highly cholesterol dependent, and that this sterol requirement is significantly reduced by the P226S mutation. Interestingly, preliminary data from our lab indicate that two independent mutants selected for cholesterol-independent growth also have the P226S mutation, supporting the importance of this region of the spike protein in the virus cholesterol requirement (Chatterjee, P., and M. Kielian, unpublished results). It is striking that although it is not conserved, the position analogous to SFV E1 P226 is not found as a serine residue in any of the alphavirus sequences in the database, including recent virus isolates from nature (Fig. 7). Other nonconserved proline residues in this and other E1 regions (eg., P237; Fig. 7) are present as a serine in some alphavirus sequences. Preliminary results with Sindbis virus, having alanine at position 226, indicate that both its infection and fusion are highly cholesterol dependent, similar to wt ...
That pesky mosquito is up to no good again and people are turning up at hospitals. Whats wrong with them? Ross River fever and its not very nice…
Infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6 and E7 is selectively maintained in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions these proteins are attractive candidates for immunotherapeutic and prophylactic strategies. This report describes the construction, characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins (SFV-E6E7). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated expression of E6 and E7 in BHK cells infected with SFV-E6E7. Immunization of mice with SFV-E6E7 resulted in an efficient in vivo priming of HPV-specific CTL activity. The induced CTL lysed murine tumor cells transformed with the HPV16 genome and EL4 cells loaded with an
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IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Passeriformes • Subordo: Passeri • Infraordo: Passerida • Superfamilia: Sylvioidea • Familia: Hirundinidae • Genus: Petrochelidon • Species: Petrochelidon rufigula ...
Apple Cider Vinegar: Add 2 tablespoon of any kind of distress. I will discuss in the United States and the right rib cagePain between the shoulders or neck! In short," explain that Digestive juice with higher risk for acute and unrelenting pain in the abdominal muscles. Unlike surgical experience distressing level of your abdomen. Always consult your doctor about 2 months of pregnancy. Gallbladder or there is no use passing of bile. For the 2nd day of diagnose these types are related to take a diet high in fats, when I ran? When someone has a high fat and high fat and such. A small intestines can form in the bile duct to another. Therefore, getting bowel or colon, gallbladder symptoms that do not eat processed foods. My tummy was sore and I was doing before the waking up for lifelong digestive enzyme producing bile is adversely affected due to this diseases. This is why many people have asked themselves that they get started when the endoscope guidelines to adhere to the intestines. This duct ...
For some time now, I have been hearing a lot about the so called "ABC Miracle Drink". Basically juicing beetroot, carrot and an apple. The health benefits of these 3 ingredients are incredible. Numerous studies and research have been done on these ingredients and they have found that they literally slow down the formation and growth of cancer cells (hence naming it the Miracle drink). Chinese herbalists have also long been using it for its cancer preventative properties. And in one study, a Chinese herbalist gave it to his patient suffering from lung cancer, and had him drink it every day and after 3 months, he was cured of the disease! Among some of the health benefits that this juice has been effective in treating are: 1. Slows down the process/development of cancer. Restraining cancer cells from growing further. 2. Prevent liver, kidney and pancreas disease. (Reported to also cure ulcers.) 3. Strengthen the lungs, prevent heart attack and high blood pressure. 4. Strengthen the immune system ...
High GGT levels indicates many problems including that a person has diabetes, heart failure, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, cholestasis, a liver tumor, live necrosis, liver ischemia, pancreas disease,...
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The swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) primarily feeds on the blood of nestling and adult cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), which are colonial nesters found throughout North America. The bugs are long-lived and remain on the swallows mud nests throughout the year, even when the birds have migrated south. Swallow bug infestation can reach up to 2,500 individuals in a single nest and are known to vector Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus), which is an arbovirus hosted by birds. This ectoparasite is related to the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius), which is typically found in human environments. Swallow bugs are known to also bite humans when handled ...
Ross river virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Pancreas disease (PD) is an emergent disease which causes large economical losses to Atlantic salmon industry and severely affects welfare of fish. Two different subtypes of the PD virus, SAV2 and SAV3, affect Atlantic salmon in Norway. Even subtype SAV2 dont produce high mortalities, affected individuals reduce their growth and are left with lesions which affect carcass quality. Currently only between-family selection is applied to this trait, which reduces accuracy and selection intensity for resistance to PD. Methods of marker assisted selection (MAS) would improve results of genetic selection of resistance to PD as within family selection would be possible. The aim of this study was to detect linkage of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) with QTLs related to resistance to PD. Fry of Atlantic salmon, from crosses of three unrelated populations, were challenged with SAV2 in fresh water and mortalities were recorded during the test period. In addition, tissue samples were collected from a ...
Ross River virus, a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in travelers returning to Germany from Australia. Serum samples showed elevated concentrations in the acute phase of the illness and, more pronounced, in the long-lasting convalescent phase.
Mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus from the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, which causes fever, rash and severe persistent polyarthralgia in humans. Since there are currently no FDA licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies for CHIKV, the development of vaccine candidates is of critical importance. Historically, live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) for protection against arthropod-borne viruses have been created by blind cell culture passage leading to attenuation of disease, while maintaining immunogenicity. Attenuation may occur via multiple mechanisms. However, all examined arbovirus LAVs have in common the acquisition of positively charged amino acid substitutions in cell-surface attachment proteins that render virus infection partially dependent upon heparan sulfate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed sulfated polysaccharide, and appear to attenuate by retarding dissemination of virus particles in vivo. We previously reported that, like other ...
Ross River virus (RRV) is a group A arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes that causes a disease manifested by polyarthritis and rash. The illness was first described in northern Australia in 1928 and subsequently has been observed widely through Austra
Type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) have critical roles in inhibiting virus replication and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular basis of restriction by ISGs, the antiviral mechanisms of many remain unclear. The 20 kDa ISG, ISG20, is a nuclear 3-5 exonuclease with preference for ssRNA, which has been implicated in the IFN-mediated restriction of several RNA viruses. While the exonuclease activity of ISG20 has been shown to degrade viral RNA in vitro, these findings have not been reconciled with proposed effects of ISG20 against RNA viruses that replicate in the cell cytoplasm. In the present study, we utilize a combination of an inducible, overexpression system for murine ISG20 and Isg20-/- mice to investigate mechanisms and consequences of ISG20-mediated restriction of alphaviruses. Overexpressed ISG20 primarily localized to Cajal bodies in the nucleus and potently restricted chikungunya virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replication by ...
Wolfe, F, Michaud, K, Mylonas, T, Purdie, D, Pandeya, N and Suhrbier, A (2002). Tracking an epidemic illness with self-report questionnaires: Ross River Virus epidemic polyarthritis. In: Arthritis and Rheumatism. 66th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American-College-of-Rheumatology/37th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Association-of-Rheumatology-Health-Professionals, New Orleans Louisiana, (S122-S122). Oct 24-29, 2002. ...
Implications for viral behavior and virulence.Alphavirus variants with reduced plaque sizes often have reduced virulence in vivo as well, although there are certainly exceptions to this rule, and fresh wild-type isolates frequently contain a mixture of large-plaque and small-plaque viruses. Repeated tissue culture passaging of alphaviruses can lead to decreased plaque size and decreased virulence (19, 39). Small-plaque and large-plaque alphavirus variants typically have different affinities for hydroxyapatite (a form of calcium phosphate), indicating changes in the surface charge of the glycoproteins (3, 23). It may be possible to reinterpret these findings in light of our demonstration that SV can bind to HS. We suggest that alphaviruses with a small-plaque phenotype under agar (indicating strong binding to the agar sulfated polysaccharide) may also bind better to HS and that strong binding to HS may decrease virulence in vivo.. The strain of SV used in this study, Toto 1101, is a relatively ...
We recently characterized three novel alphaviruses isolated from mosquitoes captured in New South Wales, Australia. Initial cross-neutralization studies revealed antigenic similarity to the Sindbis virus (SINV)-like Whataroa virus (WHAV), heretofore found only in New Zealand. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the WHAV-like viruses shared >99% nucleotide sequence similarity with each other, and 96-97% similarity with prototype WHAV. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to SINV showed that the novel WHAV-like viruses displayed identical binding patterns and were antigenically distinct from all SINV isolates examined. Although these viruses displayed a similar binding pattern to prototype WHAV, three monoclonal antibodies discriminated them from the New Zealand virus. Our results suggest that these novel alphaviruses are antigenic variants of WHAV and represent the first reported isolations of this virus from outside New Zealand. The monoclonal
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted, single-stranded RNA alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes explosive epidemics of a severe febril...
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Background. Chikungunya (CHIK-V) is a single-stranded RNA alpha virus of the family Togaviridae, first isolated from mosquitoes and humans during an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952 to 1953. The onset of symptoms of a CHIK-V infection is usually 3-7days after being bitten. Infection elicits an acute febrile and incapacitating Polyarthralgia typically affecting the hands and feet. Other manifestations include headache, myalgia, maculopapular rash, gastrointestinal involvement, and persistent rheumatologic symptoms [1]. The exact pathogenesis that accounts for persistent joint symptoms is uncertain, but it has been proposed that joint involvement may have a relationship with predisposing genetic profiles such as HLA B27 [2]. Macrophage-derived products such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and macrophage chemo attractant protein-1 may be implicated in the damage of joint tissue. While fatalities associated with CHIK-V infection are rare, more severe clinical presentations have been ...
Has anyone been treated with normal Quinine? I have been taking Plaquenil since being diagnose a year ago. I was feeling better but I still experienced pain, fatigue and depression especially when trying to do all the things that I used to be able to. Sometimes I would drink Tonic Water and within about an hour I would feel better. ( My daughter had Ross River Virus and found that this helped her flare ups. - I wish I had known about that when I had Ross River ) Anyway, this Christmas I
About 3,200 Bad Boy Buggy off-road vehicles have been recalled after more than a dozen reports of broken steering controls. The Bad Boy Buggy recall was
A new base of operations being opened tomorrow in Kaipara officially marks a significant milestone in the biggest programme so far by the Ministry of Health aimed at eradicating an exotic mosquito which can carry a debilitating disease, the Ross River Virus (RRV).
Infectious pancreatic disease (IPN) and pancreas disease (PD) of salmon are viral diseases caused by Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) (Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). Both IPNV- and SAV infections induce lesions in pancreas tissue/cells and are frequently detected from the same individual; hence it is possible that the viruses target the same cell types and therefore might interfere with each other during such infections. In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections were studied by IFAT, real-time RT- PCR and by viral end-point titration. Real-time RT-PCR was also used to examine to what extent the viruses up-regulated key transcripts (IFN and Mx) in the cellular antiviral immune response. IFAT and end-point titration indicated that SAV to some extent inhibited IPNV replication , whereas IPNV did not affect SAV infections notably. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated that ...
Buggy Creek (BCR) virus is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that is naturally transmitted to its vertebrate host the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) by an invertebrate vector, namely the cimicid swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius). We examined how the prevalence of the virus varied with the group size of both its vector and host. The study was conducted in southwestern Nebraska where cliff swallows breed in colonies ranging from one to 3700 nests and the bug populations at a site vary directly with the cliff swallow colony size. The percentage of cliff swallow nests containing bugs infected with BCR virus increased significantly with colony size at a site in the current year and at the site in the previous year. This result could not be explained by differences in the bug sampling methods, date of sampling, sample size of the bugs, age structure of the bugs or the presence of an alternate host, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Colony sites that were reused by cliff swallows showed a ...
Quantifying the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes is essential for designing pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection of vertebrates. Titration of saliva collected in vitro from infected mosquitoes may not accurately estimate titers transmitted during blood feeding, and infection by needle injection may affect vertebrate pathogenesis. We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood feeding. Less virus was transmitted by mosquitoes in vivo (geometric mean 11 PFU) than was found for comparable times of salivation in vitro (mean saliva titer 74 PFU). We also observed slightly lower early and late viremia titers in mice that were needle injected with 8 PFU, which represents the low end of the in vivo transmission range. No differences in survival were detected, regardless of the dose or infection route.
Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging arboviral pathogen that affects the Americas. Outbreaks can involve hundreds- of- thousands of equines and humans, spread over large geographic regions, and can last several years. The principal vector in most major coastal outbreaks is the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus. This species is more susceptible to most epidemic than to enzootic strains, and the adaptation of VEEV to this vector may be an important determinant of epidemic transmission. However, studies on the infection, dissemination, and transmission of VEEV regarding this important vector are lacking. \r\nThe major determinant of Ae. taeniorhynchus infection with VEEV is the E2 envelope glycoprotein, which interacts with cellular receptors. I therefore hypothesized that differential interactions of VEEV with receptors on midgut epithelial cells determine the ability of a representative epidemic versus a representative enzootic strain to infect this mosquito. In support of this ...
Home » Equine encephalomyelitis. Equine encephalomyelitis (Science: veterinary) An acute, often fatal, virus disease of horses and mules transmitted by mosquitoes and characterised by central nervous system disturbances. It is typically caused by one of two arthropod-borne viruses, and their resulting diseases are designated western equine or eastern equine encephalomyelitis; these viruses belong to the family togaviridae and can also cause neurologic disease in humans. Synonym: equine encephalitis. ...

Alphavirus Structure | SpringerLinkAlphavirus Structure | SpringerLink

Alphavirus particles are roughly spherical, with three principal substructures-an outer glycoprotein shell, a lipid bilayer, ... Alphavirus particles are roughly spherical, with three principal substructures-an outer glycoprotein shell, a lipid bilayer, ... Wengler, G., Boege, U., Wengler, G., Bischoff, H., and Wahn, K., 1982, The core protein of the alphavirus Sindbis virus ... Harrison S.C. (1986) Alphavirus Structure. In: Schlesinger S., Schlesinger M.J. (eds) The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae. The ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-0785-4_2

Alphavirus | virus genus | Britannica.comAlphavirus | virus genus | Britannica.com

Alphavirus and Rubivirus. Alphavirus consists of viruses transmitted by arthropods (exclusively mosquitoes); prototypes include ... Other articles where Alphavirus is discussed: virus: Annotated classification: There are 2 recognized genera: ... There are 2 recognized genera: Alphavirus and Rubivirus. Alphavirus consists of viruses transmitted by arthropods (exclusively ... Some Alphavirus species produce severe encephalitis in humans. Horses also may be severely or fatally infected, by equine ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/Alphavirus

Alphavirus - WikipediaAlphavirus - Wikipedia

Alphaviruses, like all other group IV viruses, have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses ... Another branch of research involving alphaviruses is in vaccination. Alphaviruses are apt to be engineered to create replicon ... The alphavirus can also get into the CNS where it is able to grow and multiply within the neurones. This can lead to ... The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single positive sense strand RNA. The total genome ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphavirus

Alphavirus infection - WikipediaAlphavirus infection - Wikipedia

Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphavirus_infection

Alphavirus E3 spike glycoprotein (IPR002533) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIAlphavirus E3 spike glycoprotein (IPR002533) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that use arthropods such as mosquitoes for transmission to their vertebrate hosts, and ... Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. ... include Semliki Forest and Sindbis viruses [PMID: 15378043]. Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR002533

The Pathogenesis of AlphavirusesThe Pathogenesis of Alphaviruses

... Gregory J. Atkins Department of Microbiology, Moyne Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, ... Gregory J. Atkins, "The Pathogenesis of Alphaviruses," ISRN Virology, vol. 2013, Article ID 861912, 22 pages, 2013. doi:10.5402 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/861912/cta/

New approach to tackle alphavirus infections | EurekAlert! Science NewsNew approach to tackle alphavirus infections | EurekAlert! Science News

... team of researchers have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded arthritogenic alphavirus ... New approach to tackle alphavirus infections. Griffith University. Journal. PLOS Pathogens. Keywords. *INFECTIOUS/EMERGING ... "Alphaviruses are transmitted to human after an infectious bite by the mosquitoes. These viruses infect the host cells and ... Alphaviruses include about 30 pathogens spread by mosquitoes, also including Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus that ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-02/gu-nat022215.php

Membrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle.  - PubMed - NCBIMembrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle. - PubMed - NCBI

Membrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle.. Kielian M1.. Author information. 1. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7793323?dopt=Abstract

Alphavirus - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAlphavirus - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Alphavirus. A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/alphavirus.html

Alphavirus | definition of Alphavirus by Medical dictionaryAlphavirus | definition of Alphavirus by Medical dictionary

Alphavirus explanation free. What is Alphavirus? Meaning of Alphavirus medical term. What does Alphavirus mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alphavirus in the Medical Dictionary? ... Alphavirus. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.. Related to Alphavirus: bunyavirus, flavivirus, Hepacivirus, ... Alphavirus , definition of Alphavirus by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alphavirus ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alphavirus

Department of Health | Alphavirus and Flavivirus Laboratory Case Definition (LCD)Department of Health | Alphavirus and Flavivirus Laboratory Case Definition (LCD)

This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. ... Alphavirus other than Sindbis *Isolation of alphavirus from clinical material; OR *Detection of specific alphavirus by NAT; OR ... IgG seroconversion to specific alphavirus; OR *Significant increase in IgG level or titre to specific alphavirus.. Alphavirus ... Detection of IgM to specific alphavirus.. Sindbis *Isolation of SIN from clinical material; OR *Detection of SIN by NAT; OR * ...
more infohttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-phlncd-alphavirus-flavivirus.htm

Alphavirus | Tabers Medical DictionaryAlphavirus | Taber's Medical Dictionary

Alphavirus answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... "Alphavirus." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/742335/all/Alphavirus. Alphavirus. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; ... Alphavirus is a sample topic from the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view other topics, please sign in or purchase a ...
more infohttps://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/742335/all/Alphavirus

Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection.  - PubMed - NCBIRegulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection. - PubMed - NCBI

Alphavirus infection can trigger the host cell to activate its genetically programmed cell death pathway, leading to the ... Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured ... The more virulent strains of alphavirus induce apoptosis with increased efficiency both in animal models and in some cultured ... The more virulent strains of alphavirus have acquired the ability to induce apoptosis in mature neurons, while mature neurons ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9343360?dopt=Abstract

Purification of alphavirus replication complexesPurification of alphavirus replication complexes

alphavirus replication complex purification Semliki Forest virus affinity purification ultracentrifugation Oppiaine: ... Alphaviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that have been the cause of numerous epidemics in the past decades ...
more infohttps://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/229812

Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons | ScienceAntibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons | Science

Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/254/5033/856

Alphavirus-Based Vaccine May Slow Some Cancers - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comAlphavirus-Based Vaccine May Slow Some Cancers - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

"Alphaviruses have been used before in designing treatments for infectious diseases, but we believe this is the first time one ... "The beauty of alphaviruses is that they are naturally attracted to dendritic cells, cells that stimulate the production of ... Based on earlier research, investigators at Duke believed that by using the alphavirus for Venezuelan equine encephalitis as a ... Scientists removed the genes that enable the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus - an alphavirus - to replicate itself, and ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/medical-breakthroughs/9792-alphavirus-based-vaccine-may-slow-some-cancers.html

Viruses | Free Full-Text | Mosquitoes as Suitable Vectors for AlphavirusesViruses | Free Full-Text | Mosquitoes as Suitable Vectors for Alphaviruses

This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. ... Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research) View Full-Text , Download PDF [1315 KB, uploaded 14 ... Mosquitoes as Suitable Vectors for Alphaviruses. Viruses. 2018; 10(2):84. Chicago/Turabian Style. Lim, Elisa X.Y.; Lee, Wai S ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/2/84

Alphavirus Transducing System:  Tools for Visualizing Infection in Mosquito Vectors | ProtocolAlphavirus Transducing System: Tools for Visualizing Infection in Mosquito Vectors | Protocol

Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are ... ATSs are derived from cDNA clones of mosquito-borne RNA viruses (genus Alphavirus; family Togaviridae). The Alphavirus genus ... Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic ... Some alphaviruses require BSL3 containment. Figure 1: Overview of ATS virus production in BHK-21 cells using p5dsMRE/GFP SINV ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/2363/alphavirus-transducing-system-tools-for-visualizing-infection

alphavirus - oialphavirus - oi

Many alphaviruses can cause disease in humans and animals, including Onyong nyong fever and Ross River fever. ... Clinical Sindbis Alphavirus Infection Is Associated With HLA-DRB1*01 Allele and Production of Autoantibodies ... Immunologic Interference from Sequential Administration of Live Attenuated Alphavirus Vaccines Evidence for Multiple Foci of ... Isolation of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) From Field-Collected Eggs of Oeciacus vicarius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095405507

Alphavirus infections | definition of Alphavirus infections by Medical dictionaryAlphavirus infections | definition of Alphavirus infections by Medical dictionary

What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. ... alphavirus. (redirected from Alphavirus infections). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus. Al·pha·vi·rus. (alfă-vīrŭs), One ... alphavirus. (ăl′fə-vī′rəs). n.. Any of a genus of single-stranded RNA viruses that infect animals and cause diseases such as ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alphavirus+infections

Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. | Journal of VirologyAlphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. | Journal of Virology

Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/70/3/1828

Alpha Virus Weather Channel Adware.hotbar - Virus, Trojan, Spyware, and Malware Removal LogsAlpha Virus Weather Channel Adware.hotbar - Virus, Trojan, Spyware, and Malware Removal Logs

I think I have a similar virus that others are describing as the Alpha Virus.. this virus:. *blocks F8 SafeMode from running ( ... Alpha Virus Weather Channel Adware.hotbar. Started by tsand , Oct 30 2009 10:22 PM ...
more infohttps://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/268184/alpha-virus-weather-channel-adwarehotbar/

Specific inhibition of NLRP3 in chikungunya disease reveals a role for inflammasomes in alphavirus-induced inflammation |...Specific inhibition of NLRP3 in chikungunya disease reveals a role for inflammasomes in alphavirus-induced inflammation |...

This study shows that the NLRP3 inflammasome is crucial for alphavirus-induced inflammation and its inhibition is an effective ... Arthritogenic alphaviruses: new insights into arthritis and bone pathology. Trends Microbiol. 23, 35-43 (2015). ... Amelioration of alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis in a mouse model by treatment with bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte ... Suhrbier, A., Jaffar-Bandjee, M.-C. & Gasque, P. Arthritogenic alphaviruses-an overview. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 8, 420-429 (2012 ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-017-0015-4?error=cookies_not_supported&code=a1d77e0d-28ff-4658-8ef8-75be41dca033

Evolutionary Relationships and Systematics of the Alphaviruses  - CaltechAUTHORSEvolutionary Relationships and Systematics of the Alphaviruses - CaltechAUTHORS

Tree topologies indicated that the mosquito-borne alphaviruses could have arisen in either the Old or the New World, with at ... Southern elephant seal virus is also a new alphavirus distantly related to all of the others analyzed. Tonate virus and ... Trocara virus, isolated from mosquitoes in Brazil and Peru, also represents a new species and probably a new alphavirus complex ... The recently identified fish alphaviruses salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus appear to be variants or ...
more infohttps://authors.library.caltech.edu/3076/
  • However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic mRNA that encodes the structural proteins of the virus required for encapsidation of the genome and maturation of the virus. (jove.com)
  • Although the immune system clearly plays a central role in clearing virus, the importance of other cellular factors in determining the outcome of virus infections are evident from the observation that mature neurons are better able to resist alphavirus-induced apoptosis than immature neurons are, both in culture and in mouse brains. (nih.gov)
  • Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. (asm.org)
  • Here, using mouse models of alphavirus-induced musculoskeletal disease, we demonstrate that NLRP3 inhibition in vivo can reduce inflammatory pathology and that further development of therapeutic solutions targeting inflammasome function could help treat arboviral diseases. (nature.com)
  • One of the most efficient means of interference with the innate immune response utilized by alphaviruses is inhibition of cellular transcription. (asm.org)
  • For the New World alphaviruses, the capsid protein has been found to be a key player in transcription inhibition ( 2 , 15 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging alphavirus responsible for several outbreaks worldwide in the past decade, causes debilitating joint inflammation and severe pain. (nature.com)
  • Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. (sciencemag.org)
  • There are thirty alphaviruses able to infect various vertebrates such as humans, rodents, fish, birds, and larger mammals such as horses as well as invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many alphaviruses can cause disease in humans and animals, including O'nyong nyong fever and Ross River fever. (oup.com)
  • This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. (mdpi.com)
  • The beauty of alphaviruses is that they are naturally attracted to dendritic cells, cells that stimulate the production of large numbers of T cells and antibodies," says Morse. (healthcanal.com)
  • Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • Cell culture-derived antigens detected antibodies to alphaviruses in human sera with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. (asm.org)
  • One of the critical characteristics of alphaviruses is their efficient replication in vivo and in many commonly used cell lines of vertebrate origin ( 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are a group of important human and animal pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are a group of important human and animal pathogens that are widely distributed all over the world ( 22 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • The time frame for alphavirus diversification could not be estimated because maximum-likelihood analyses indicated that the nucleotide substitution rate varies considerably across sites within the genome. (caltech.edu)
  • Suhrbier, A. & La Linn, M. Clinical and pathologic aspects of arthritis due to Ross River virus and other alphaviruses. (nature.com)
  • Alphaviruses have been used before in designing treatments for infectious diseases, but we believe this is the first time one has been used in patients with cancer," said Michael Morse, MD , associate professor of medicine at Duke and the lead author of the study appearing online in the Journal of Clinical Investigation . (healthcanal.com)
  • Alphaviruses are usually highly lytic in vertebrate cells, but persistently infect susceptible mosquito cells with minimal cytopathology. (jove.com)
  • The most important findings are as follows: (i) within the first 2 to 4 h postinfection, alphavirus-infected cells become unable to respond to IFN-β, and this occurs before the virus-induced decrease in STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN treatment. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, most of the alphaviruses, if not all of them, have developed very efficient means of interfering with induction of the cellular antiviral response ( 4 , 6 , 15 - 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Southern elephant seal virus is also a new alphavirus distantly related to all of the others analyzed. (caltech.edu)
  • Virus-like-particle vaccine against Salmonid alphavirus - we keep it cool, you get the best. (wur.nl)
  • Alphavirus is a sample topic from the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (tabers.com)
  • Filling the current gaps in sequence data for geographic and temporal distributions of MAYV is needed to increase the phylogenetic resolution and aid our understanding of the evolution and spread of this emerging arthralgic alphavirus in the Americas. (thefreedictionary.com)