The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine
Ross River virus
Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine
Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Viral Envelope Proteins
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (1/294)This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically. (+info)
Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (2/294)The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus. (+info)
Salmon pancreas disease virus, an alphavirus infecting farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (3/294)A 5.2-kb region at the 3' terminus of the salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) RNA genome has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences show that SPDV shares considerable organizational and sequence identity to members of the genus alphavirus within the family Togaviridae. The SPDV structural proteins encoded by the 5.2-kb region contain a number of unique features when compared to other sequenced alphaviruses. Based on cleavage site homologies, the predicted sizes of the SPDV envelope glycoproteins E2 (438 aa) and E1 (461 aa) are larger than those of other alphaviruses, while the predicted size of the alphavirus 6K protein is 3.2 K (32 aa) in SPDV. The E2 and E1 proteins each carry one putative N-linked glycosylation site, with the site in E1 being found at a unique position. From amino acid sequence comparisons of the SPDV structural region with sequenced alphaviruses overall homology is uniform, ranging from 32 to 33%. While nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S RNA junction region shows that SPDV is similar to other alphaviruses, analysis of the 3'-nontranslated region reveals that SPDV shows divergence in this region. (+info)
Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (4/294)Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors. (+info)
Epidemic O'Nyong-Nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic studies in Bbaale village, Rakai District. (5/294)Entomologic studies were conducted between January 27 and February 2, 1997, in Bbaale village in southcentral Uganda during an o'nyong-nyong (ONN) virus epidemic, which began in mid 1996 and continued into 1997. The objectives were to confirm the role of anophelines in ONN virus transmission and to examine other mosquito species as epidemic vectors of ONN virus. Of 10,050 mosquitoes collected using light traps and pyrethrum knockdown sprays, Anopheles (Cellia) funestus Giles was presumed to be the principal vector because it was the most abundant mosquito species from which a strain of ONN virus was isolated. This virus was isolated for the first time from a culicine species, Mansonia (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald. Bwamba virus and Nyando virus were also isolated from An. funestus. (+info)
Seroepizootiological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus in regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. (6/294)A sero-epizootiological survey was conducted for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Getah virus (GeV) at 10 to 20 regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. It was observed that geometrical mean (GM) antibody titer to JEV and GeV was 10 to 50 times higher than others at several race courses (RCs) almost every year. Of them, several race horses showing high antibody titer, which were suggested to be infected with the virus, were also observed in this survey. These data suggested that the viruses have spread among race horses almost every year in Japan, although, fortunately, no horse showing clinical illness due to these viruses was observed. The calendar years and the names of the race courses in which the spread of JEV was suggested were Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Nakatsu RC in 1992, Arao RC in 1993, Nagoya RC in 1994, Kaminoyama, Urawa, Saga and Arao RCs in 1995 and Ooi and Saga RCs in 1997. Spread of JEV was not observed in 1996. The calendar year and name of the race courses at which the spread of GeV was suggested were at Ooi, Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Arao RC in 1992, Nakatsu RC in 1994 and 1995, Funabashi RC in 1996, Saga RC in 1997. It was suggested that surveillance of JEV and GeV should be continued in the future in at least the southern to middle parts of Japan. It has also been suggested that it is necessary to promote the wider use of vaccines to persons related to horse racing. (+info)
O'nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996-1997: description of the epidemic and results of a household-based seroprevalence survey. (7/294)O'nyong-nyong (ONN) fever, an acute, nonfatal illness characterized by polyarthralgia, is caused by infection with a mosquito-borne central African alphavirus. During 1996-1997, south-central Uganda experienced the second ONN fever epidemic ever recognized. During January and early February 1997, active case-finding and a household cluster serosurvey were conducted in two affected and two comparison areas. A confirmed case was defined as an acute febrile illness with polyarthralgia occurring within the previous 9 months plus serologic confirmation or isolation of ONN virus from blood. In affected (n=129) and comparison (n=115) areas, the estimated infection rates were 45% and 3%, respectively, and the estimated attack rates were 29% and 0%, respectively, for an apparent:inapparent infection ratio of nearly 2 in affected areas. In villages sampled near Lake Kijanebalola, Rakai District, the estimated infection and attack rates were 68% and 41%, respectively, and 55% of sampled households had >/=1 case of ONN fever. In conclusion, this epidemic was focused near lakes and swamps, where it was associated with high infection and attack rates. (+info)
Rainbow trout sleeping disease virus is an atypical alphavirus. (8/294)Sleeping disease (SD) is currently a matter of concern for salmonid fish farmers in most parts of the world. A viral etiology of SD has recently been suspected, since virus-like particles have been observed in infected rainbow trout cells. In salmonid-derived cell lines, the maximal rate of virus production was observed at 10 degrees C, while little virus was produced at 14 degrees C. Through biochemical, physicochemical, and morphological studies, SD virus (SDV) was shown to be an enveloped virus of roughly 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of 12 kb of RNA, with the appearance of a 26S subgenomic RNA during the time course of SDV replication. The screening of a random-primed cDNA library constructed from the genomic RNA of semipurified virions facilitated the identification of a specific SDV cDNA clone having an open reading frame related to the alphavirus E2 glycoproteins. To extend the comparison between SDV structural proteins and the alphavirus protein counterparts, the nucleotide sequence of the total 4.1-kb subgenomic RNA has been determined. The 26S RNA encodes a 1,324-amino-acid polyprotein exhibiting typical alphavirus structural protein organization. SDV structural proteins showed several remarkable features compared to other alphaviruses: (i) unusually large individual proteins, (ii) very low homology (ranging from 30 to 34%) (iii) an unglycosylated E3 protein, and (iv) and E1 fusion domain sharing mutations implicated in the pH threshold. Although phylogenetically related to the Semliki Forest virus group of alphaviruses, SDV should be considered an atypical member, able to naturally replicate in lower vertebrates. (+info)
Togaviridae - Wikipedia
Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 32 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore ...
Mayaro virus disease - Wikipedia
Mayaro virus disease is a mosquitoborne zoonotic pathogen endemic to certain humid forests of tropical South America. Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days duration. The causative virus, abbreviated MAYV, is in the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus. It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is only known to circulate in tropical South America. Mayaro Virus has a structure similar to other Alphavirus. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of 70 nm. The virus genome is composed of a linear, positive sense, single-stranded RNA with 11,429 nucleotides, excluding the 5 cap nucleotide and 3 poly(A) tail. The MAYV RNA genome contains the 5 untranslated region (UTR), 3 non-coding region (NCR) and two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5 proximal and 3 proximal ORFs are separated by a short non-coding sequence and represent ...
Alphavirus replicon particles containing the gene for HER2/ neu inhibit breast cancer growth and tumorigenesis | Breast Cancer...
Overexpression of the HER2/neu gene in breast cancer is associated with an increased incidence of metastatic disease and with a poor prognosis. Although passive immunotherapy with the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) has shown some effect, a vaccine capable of inducing T-cell and humoral immunity could be more effective. Virus-like replicon particles (VRP) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus containing the gene for HER2/neu (VRP-neu) were tested by an active immunotherapeutic approach in tumor prevention models and in a metastasis prevention model. VRP-neu prevented or significantly inhibited the growth of HER2/neu-expressing murine breast cancer cells injected either into mammary tissue or intravenously. Vaccination with VRP-neu completely prevented tumor formation in and death of MMTV-c-neu transgenic mice, and resulted in high levels of neu-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and serum IgG. On the basis of these findings, clinical testing of this vaccine in patients with HER2/neu +
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During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more ...
Study of two different enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Mayaro virus antibodies
FIGUEIREDO, Luiz Tadeu Moraes et al. Estudo com dois diferentes ensaios imuno-enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus Mayaro. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1989, vol.84, n.3, pp.303-307. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761989000300003.. Apresentamos a avaliação de um teste imuno-enzimático no qual células infectadas com o vírus Mayaro são usadas como antígeno (EIA-ICC) e a de um teste de captura de IgM (MAC-ELISA), no diagnóstico sorológico de infecções por Mayaro. Soros humanos em número de 114, obtidos durante uma epidemia ocorrida em 1987 na Bolívia, foram utilizados neste estudo. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HAI). MAC-ELISA mostrou-se duas vezes mais sensível que EIA-ICC na detecção de anticorpos do tipo IgM para Mayaro. MAC-ELISA mostrou-se uma técnica válida e prática para o diagnóstico de infecções recentes por Mayaro. EIA-ICC para detecção de IgG ...
News - 2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results...
2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from experimental and field studies.
An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. I. Clinical and virological findings<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. I. Clinical and virological findings. AU - Pinheiro, F. P.. AU - Freitas, R. B.. AU - Travassos Da Rosa, J. F.. AU - Gabbay, Y. B.. AU - Mello, W. A.. AU - LeDuc, James. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - An outbreak of human illness caused by Mayaro (MAY) virus occurred in Belterra, Para, Brazil in the first half of 1978. A total of 55 cases were confirmed, 43 by virus isolation and serology, and 12 by serology alone. The disease in Belterra presented as a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by fever, arthralgia and exanthema. No fatalities could be attributed to MAY virus infection. Arthralgia, accompanied by joint edema in 20% of cases, was a very prominent sign which caused temporary incapacity in many patients. Arthralgia was present in virtually all confirmed cases and persisted in some for at least 2 months, although with decreasing severity. Rash was present in two-thirds of the cases, and was either maculopapular or ...
Pancreas disease | Article about pancreas disease by The Free Dictionary
Looking for pancreas disease? Find out information about pancreas disease. glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. long and 1.5 in. wide. Explanation of pancreas disease
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: Mayaro Virus Infection in Amazonia: A Multimodel Inference Approach to Risk Factor Assessment
Background Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data - particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT) and step-wise regression (SWR). Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI) with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects) in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The
Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons | Science
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
Frontiers | Mouse Model of Neurological Complications Resulting from Encephalitic Alphavirus Infection | Microbiology
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
Faculty | UTSA Department of Biology
The primary focus of Dr. Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA viruses that are spread to humans and other vertebrates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. Therefore, these viruses have been researched extensively for use as recombinant vaccines.. The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus vectors, or alphavirus-expressed antigens to immunologically relevant cell types such as dendritic cells. An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine.. ...
Adenovirus/alphavirus hybrid vector for the effective administration and expression of therapeutic genes in tumour cells -...
The present invention relates to a genic expression adenoviral hybrid vector characterized in that it contains at least the following elements, oriented in the direction 5 to 3: i. a first chain of adenoviral origin comprising a first inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence and a signal sequence for packaging of the adenovirus; ii. a first non-encoding stuffer sequence; iii. a sequence corresponding to a tissue specific promoter; iv. a chain of cDNA derived from an alphavirus, the sequence of which is partly complementary to an alphaviral RNA sequence, comprising at least a sequence encoding for at least one exogenous gene of interest; v. a polyadenylation sequence; and vi. a second adenoviral inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence, it preferably relates to an adenoviral hybrid vector comprising as exogenous gene of interest the therapeutic gene of mammalian interleukin IL-12 and even more preferably human interleukin hIL-12; and to the use of the
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Mosquitoes as Suitable Vectors for Alphaviruses
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquitos subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral
The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. | Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. Mosquitoes or other hematophagous arthropods serve as vectors for these viruses. The complete sequences of the +/- 11.7-kb plus-strand RNA genomes of eight alphaviruses have been determined, and partial sequences are known for several others; this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. Full-length cDNA clones from which infectious RNA can be recovered have been constructed for four alphaviruses; these clones have facilitated many molecular genetic studies as well as the development of these viruses as expression vectors. From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. The interactions of the viruses with host cells and host organisms have been exclusively studied, and the molecular basis of ...
Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral imm by J A. Wolcott, C J. Wust et al.
Wolcott, J A.; Wust, C J.; and Brown, A, Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4459 ...
A silent public health threat: emergence of Mayaro virus and co-infection with Dengue in Peru | BMC Research Notes | Full Text
To describe frequency and clinical characteristics of MAYV infection in Piura, as well as the association of this pathogen with DENV. A total of 86/496 (17.3%) cases of MAYV were detected, of which 54 were MAYV mono-infection and 32 were co-infection with DENV, accounting for 10.9% and 6.4%, respectively. When evaluating monoinfection by MAYV the main groups were 18-39 and 40-59 years old, with 25.9% and 20.4% respectively. Co-infections were more common in the age group 18-39 and those | 60 years old, with 34.4% and 21.9%, respectively. The most frequent clinical presentation were headaches (94.4%, 51/54) followed by arthralgias (77.8%, 42/54). During the 8-month study period the most cases were identified in the months of May (29.1%) and June (50.0%).
Dose-dependent protection against or exacerbation of disease by a polylactide glycolide microparticle-adsorbed, alphavirus...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-dependent protection against or exacerbation of disease by a polylactide glycolide microparticle-adsorbed, alphavirus-based measles virus DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques. AU - Pan, Chien Hsiung. AU - Nair, Nitya. AU - Adams, Robert J.. AU - Zink, M. Christine. AU - Lee, Eun Young. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Singh, Manmohan. AU - OHagan, Derek T.. AU - Griffin, Diane E.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Measles remains an important cause of vaccine-preventable child mortality. Development of a low-cost, heat-stable vaccine for infants under the age of 6 months could improve measles control by facilitating delivery at the time of other vaccines and by closing a window of susceptibility prior to immunization at 9 months of age. DNA vaccines hold promise for development, but achieving protective levels of antibody has been difficult and there is an incomplete understanding of protective immunity. In the ...
Dynamic proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti Aag-2 cells infected with Mayaro virus | Bioinformatics Solutions Inc.
After defining the best conditions for cell culture harvesting using the highest virus titer, Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cells were infected with a Brazilian MAYV isolate at a MOI of 1 in order to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of MAYV-infected Aag-2 cells by using a label-free semi-quantitative bottom-up proteomic analysis. Time-course analyses were performed at 12 and 48 h post-infection (hpi). After spectrum alignment between the triplicates of each time point and changes of the relative abundance level calculation, the identified proteins were annotated and using Gene Ontology database and protein pathways were annotated using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.. ...
New Mosquito-Borne Disease Detected (Mayaro Virus) | BOWEN UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL MEDICAL LIBRARY, OGBOMOSO
University of Florida researchers have identified a patient in Haiti with a serious mosquito-borne illness that has never before been reported in the Caribbean nation. Known as
Most recent papers with the keyword alphavirus | Read by QxMD
Reverse genetics is a critical tool to decrypt the biological properties of arboviruses. However, whilst reverse genetics methods have been usually applied to vertebrate cells, their use in insect cells remains uncommon due to the conjunction of laborious molecular biology techniques and of specific difficulties surrounding the transfection of such cells. To leverage reverse genetics studies in both vertebrate and mosquito cells, we designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus ...
Alphavirus Transducing System: Tools for Visualizing Infection in Mosquito Vectors | Protocol
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. This ...
Department of Health | Alphavirus and Flavivirus Laboratory Case Definition (LCD)
The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections.
PPT - Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders PowerPoint Presentation - ID:5750813
Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals Slideshow...
Permalien vers Alphavirus myopathies and arthritis: modeling and understanding the mechanisms of disease development and...
Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases,
As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading.
Structure and Assembly of an Alphavirus - Dennis Brown
Arthropod vectored viruses are a major cause of human disease. The alphaviruses are a group of arthropod vectored agents which are responsible for a variety of...
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An RNA trapping mechanism in Alphavirus mRNA promotes ribosome stalling and translation initiation. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
alphavirus - oi
Browsing Biology by Author Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
Browsing by Author Hill, R. Blake
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
Loop de loop: viral RNA evades IFIT1 targeting - UQ eSpace
In a landmark finding published in Science, Hyde et al. have demonstrated that a hairpin RNA structure adjacent to the 5 cap of alphavirus genomic RNA confers the ability of these viruses to evade restriction by the interferon-induced host protein IFIT1 ...
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WAY-100635 - Discovery of novel inhibitors for the treatment of Cancer
Alphaviruses represent a highly important group of human and animal pathogens, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors between vertebrate hosts. the spectrum of WAY-100635 WAY-100635 genes activated... Read More ...
Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil
REFERENCES. Abad-Franch F, Grimmer GH, Paula VS, Figueiredo LTM, Braga WSM, Luz SLB 2012. Mayaro virus infection in Amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1846. [ Links ] Aitken TG, Downs WG, Anderson CG, Spence L, Casals J 1960. Mayaro virus isolated from a Trinidadian mosquito, Mansonia vene-zuelensis. Science 131: 986. [ Links ] Anderson CR, Downs WG, Wattley GH, Ahin NW, Reese EAA 1957. Mayaro virus: a new human disease agent. II. Isolation from blood of patients in Trinidad, B.W.I. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6: 1012-1016. [ Links ] Azevedo RSS, Silva EVP, Carvalho VL, Rodrigues SG, Nunes-Neto JP, Monteiro H, Peixoto VS, Chiang JO, Nunes MRT, Vasconcelos PFC 2009. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 1830-1832. [ Links ] Bronzoni RVM, Baleotti FG, Nogueira RMR, Nunes M, Figueiredo LTM 2005. Duplex reverse transcription-PCR followed by nested PCR assays for detection and identification of Brazilian alphaviruses and ...
Bergen Open Research Archive: Co-infection with Norwegian Salmonid Alphavirus (NSAV) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus ...
Infectious pancreatic disease (IPN) and pancreas disease (PD) of salmon are viral diseases caused by Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) (Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). Both IPNV- and SAV infections induce lesions in pancreas tissue/cells and are frequently detected from the same individual; hence it is possible that the viruses target the same cell types and therefore might interfere with each other during such infections. In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections were studied by IFAT, real-time RT- PCR and by viral end-point titration. Real-time RT-PCR was also used to examine to what extent the viruses up-regulated key transcripts (IFN and Mx) in the cellular antiviral immune response. IFAT and end-point titration indicated that SAV to some extent inhibited IPNV replication , whereas IPNV did not affect SAV infections notably. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated that ...
Semliki Forest virus | MSDSonline
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Semliki Forest Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one positive stranded RNA molecule. Genetic material is enveloped in an icosahedral nucleocapsid.. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When symptoms are present they are mild. During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). When present, symptoms include headache, fever, myalgia and athrolgia. Rare symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis have been reported. The acute phase lasts 2-4 days and is followed by a long period marked by weakness. In the only case reported to ...
An alphavirus puzzle solved | Nature
Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. New studies define the receptor-binding protein of these viruses and its regulation of the membrane-fusion reaction. See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of infection with the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus in India and southeast Asia. The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that form spikes on the virus surface dissociate in the acidic conditions found in the internal vesicles of host cells, and E1 triggers infection by fusing with the endosomal membrane. Félix Rey and colleagues present the structure of Chikungunya virus envelope glycoprotein at neutral pH, and Michael Rossmann and colleagues reveal the structure of the envelope
Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B Associates with Target Membranes via Its Fusion Loops | Journal of Virology
gB, but not gD or gH/gL, binds to liposomes.Our laboratory previously showed that HSV virions bind to liposomes when incubated in the presence of a soluble form of the gD receptor, HVEM, at pH 5.0 (55). Second, gB730t, but not soluble forms of gD or gC, can bind to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts (10). Together, these data suggest that HSV may interact with lipids through gB. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the fusion loops of two class II fusion proteins from flavivirus (2) and Semliki Forest virus (35) impair the ability of these proteins to associate with liposomes. Therefore, we theorized that if gB inserts into target membranes via the putative fusion loops, gB730t should associate and float with liposomes, while the soluble forms of the fusion loop mutants should be impaired in this association.. To test this hypothesis, purified soluble gB, gD, and gH/gL were each incubated with two different compositions of liposomes, i.e., PC only or PC/C, at 37°C for 1 h. We then added KCl to ...
Semliki Forest virus strongly reduces mosquito host defence signaling - Fragkoudis - 2008 - Insect Molecular Biology - Wiley...
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
Neurovirulent strains of Alphavirus induce apoptosis in bcl-2-expressing cells: role of a single amino acid change in the E2...
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent laboratory strain of the Alphavirus Sindbis kills most cultured cell lines not by lethal parasitism, but by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transfection of cultured cells with the human bcl-2 oncogene can block Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, resulting in a persistent viral infection resembling that observed in brains of immunodeficient mice. We investigated the possibility that neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus could overcome the protective effects of bcl-2--a potential mechanism to explain the ability of these strains to cause fatal disease. Strains of Sindbis virus that were lethal for 2- to 4-week-old mice induced ...
Semliki forest virus vectors engineered to express higher IL-12 levels induce efficient elimination of murine colon...
To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors expressing different levels of IL-12. SFV-IL-12 expresses both IL-12 subunits from a single subgenomic promoter, while in SFV-enhIL-12 each IL-12 subunit is expressed …
Genome Sequencing of SAV3 Reveals Repeated Seeding Events of Viral Strains in Norwegian Aquaculture. - Collaborative project in...
Understanding the dynamics of pathogen transfer in aquaculture systems is essential to manage and mitigate disease outbreaks. The goal of this study was to understand recent transmission dynamics of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) in Norway. SAV causes significant economic impacts on farmed salmonids in European aquaculture. SAV is classified into six subtypes, with Norway having ongoing …. Genome Sequencing of SAV3 Reveals Repeated Seeding Events of Viral Strains in Norwegian Aquaculture. Read More ». ...
Alphavirus - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
Strike-Out Pancreas Disease - Louisiana
Due to space, on-line registration is now closed however walk-ins are welcome.. Join the National Pancreas Foundation Louisiana Chapter on Sunday, June 9, 2019 at the historic Rockn Bowl for an afternoon of bowling and family fun! ...
Structure and function of replicative proteins from alphaviruses | EUVIRNA
Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. The non-structural proteins form the transcription/replication complex. The nsP1 protein is implicated in capping of viral RNAs. The nsP2 gene encodes a putative helicase and a protease , which presents a unique fold distantly related to that of known cysteine proteases. This protease domain is linked to the downstream domain of degenerated O-methyltransferase fold that may regulate transcription/replication through RNA binding. The nsP3 protein is required for RNA replication. Its N-terminal sequence reveals a macro domain, the crystal structures of which have recently been determined (Malet et al., 2009). The nsP4 protein carries the viral RNA dependant RNA Polymerase (RdRP), the key activity for the viral replication/transcription. Unlike the RdRP of ...
Strep-tag® Purification and Detection Reagents
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Drug Uses Lopid (also known as a fibrate medication) is used along with a proper diet to help lower fats (triglycerides) and cholesterol in the blood. This drug is usually prescribed after non-drug treatment options have not been fully successful at lowering cholesterol (e.g., diet change, increase in exercise, weight loss if overweight). This drug is thought to work by decreasing the amount of fat produced by the liver. Reducing cholesterol and triglycerides lowers the risk of heart disease and helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. This drug also helps to prevent pancreas disease (pancreatitis) in patients with very high blood levels of triglycerides. How to use Take this medication by mouth usually twice a day, 30 minutes before your morning and evening meals, or as directed by your doctor. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. It may take ...
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and its Associated Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients, Juliyanti Fu, C Rinaldi A Lesmana, Imam Subekti, Irsa
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Learn about some of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas diseases and disorders diagnosed and treated by the Pediatric Liver Center at Johns Hopkins
virology - Can virus survive dessication (and come back functional after rewetting)? - Biology Stack Exchange
No exactly related to surfaces, but in terms of killing viruses via heat, a study from a few years ago looked at the time required for inactivation of various Alphaviruses in blood serum samples at 56°C, finding that it could take anywhere from 20 min to 2 hrs . If youre looking for ways that the average person can disinfect surfaces, some fairly common consumer disinfectants are actually already capable of killing certain types of viruses (e.g. Dettol claim that some of their products kill influenza, coronavirus, RSV, etc. ).  Park, S.L., Huang, Y.-J.S., Hsu, W.-W., Hettenbach, S.M., Higgs, S., and Vanlandingham, D.L. (2016). Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses. Journal of Virological Methods 234, 152-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.04.004.  https://www.dettol.com.ng/products-old/see-all-products/. ...
... is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the ... Alphaviruses that could infect both vertebrates and arthropods are referred dual-host alphaviruses, while insect-specific ... Another branch of research involving alphaviruses is in vaccination. Alphaviruses are apt to be engineered to create replicon ... The alphavirus can also get into the CNS where it is able to grow and multiply within the neurones. This can lead to ...
... may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... 4- to 4-mm papules.: 403 Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the ...
Alphaviruses utilize the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Since presence of the Alphavirus does not have an effect on the ... There is a similar group of Alphavirus known as the New World Alphaviruses that also share much in common with MIDV. These ... Middelburg virus (MIDV) is an alphavirus of the Old World Group that has likely endemic and zoonotic potential. It is of the ... Together, E1 and E2 are the glycoproteins that make up the Alphavirus envelope over the nucleocapsid. A final finding of this ...
Pancreas disease in farmed salmon
Salmon Pancreas disease (PD or SPD) is caused by a species of Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) called Salmon pancreas disease virus ( ... Deperasińska, Izabela; Schulz, Patrycja; Siwicki, Andrzej K. (2018-03-30). "Salmonid alphavirus (SAV)". Journal of Veterinary ... Articles with 'species' microformats, Fish diseases, Alphaviruses, Animal viral diseases). ... Salmonid Alphavirus is an RNA virus. Six genotypes of SAV have been identified (referred to as SAV1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), ...
Rio Negro virus
Alphavirus virions are composed of the lipid envelope in which the E2 and E1 glycoproteins are located, and the nucleocapsid, ... Alphavirus nucleocapsids are assembled in the cytoplasm from the capsid proteins produced in translation of the viral genome. ... Rio Negro virus is an alphavirus that was first isolated in Argentina in 1980. The virus was first called Ag80-663 but was ... It is a former member of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex (VEEC), which are a group of alphaviruses in the Americas ...
Semliki Forest virus
Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Scholia has a topic profile for Semliki Forest virus. Mancini, E. J.; Clarke, M.; Gowen, B ... The Semliki Forest virus is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. It was first isolated from mosquitoes ... Quetglas, J. I.; Ruiz-Guillen, M.; Aranda, A.; Casales, E.; Bezunartea, J.; Smerdou, C. (2010). "Alphavirus vectors for cancer ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Alphaviruses). ...
History of virology
Zacks MA, Paessler S (January 2010). "Encephalitic alphaviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4): 281-6. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Togavirus 5′ plus strand cis-regulatory element
Genus Alphavirus belongs to the family Togaviridae. Alpha viruses contain secondary structural motifs in the 5′ UTR that allow ...
The two groups proposed are: the 'altovirus' group (alphaviruses, furoviruses, hepatitis E virus, hordeiviruses, tobamoviruses ... an alphavirus supergroup plus a flavivirus supergroup; the dsRNA viruses; and the -ve strand viruses. The lentivirus group ... This analysis suggests that alphaviruses and flaviviruses can be separated into two families-the Togaviridae and Flaviridae, ... Alphaviruses, carlaviruses, furoviruses, hordeiviruses, potexviruses, rubiviruses, tobraviruses, tricornaviruses, tymoviruses, ...
Alphavirus Polyarthritis Syndrome has an incubation period of 3-21 days, depending on the specific virus, with either a gradual ... This condition is termed alphavirus polyarthritis syndrome. Sindbis virus, which is endemic in Northern Europe, Africa, the ... and lupus erythematosus but can also be caused by infection with an alphavirus such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus. ... Middle East, and Australia, is the most widely distributed of the alphaviruses causing polyarthritis, though infection is ...
Mayaro virus disease
Mayaro virus has a structure similar to other alphaviruses. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a ... It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is ... Firth AE, Chung BY, Fleeton MN, Atkins JF (2008). "Discovery of frameshifting in Alphavirus 6K resolves a 20-year enigma". ... Snyder AJ, Mukhopadhyay S (2012). "The alphavirus E3 glycoprotein functions in a clade-specific manner". Journal of Virology. ...
Togaviruses include alphaviruses, which have been detected in bats. Alphaviruses cause encephalitis in humans. Alphaviruses ...
Stiles KM, Kielian M (2016). "Role of TSPAN9 in Alphavirus Entry and Early Endosomes". J. Virol. 90 (9): 4289-97. doi:10.1128/ ...
Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). ISBN 978-0- ...
The Eilat virus is from the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Alphaviruses are miniature spherical shaped (around 70 nm in ... The Eilat virus shows an evolutionary change which may have occurred to alphaviruses. Normally, an alphavirus similar to that ... This would make the EILV be the second alphavirus which is able to employ a Anopheles species as a natural vector. This ... Eilat virus (EILV) is a unique Alphavirus which is known mainly for its host range restriction generally to insects (primarily ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. "ICTV Taxonomy history: Cabassou virus". International Committee on ...
... is a virus species in the genus Alphavirus. According to the Baltimore classification of viruses, it is a class IV ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. It was first isolated in 1961 from culicine mosquitoes collected in ...
Major facilitator superfamily
Campbell CL, Lehmann CJ, Gill SS, Dunn WA, James AA, Foy BD (August 2011). "A role for endosomal proteins in alphavirus ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. "Bebaru virus ATCC ® VR-1240AF™". "Bebaru virus". Wikispecies  https ... Alphaviruses, RNA viruses, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ...
... virus (CHIKV), is a member of the genus Alphavirus, and family Togaviridae. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... Akhrymuk I, Kulemzin SV, Frolova EI (July 2012). "Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein ... "Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses". Journal of Virology. 75 (21): 10118-31. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.21. ...
54: Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University ...
Chikungunya: The Chikungunya virus is a single stranded RNA alphavirus typically transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes to another ... and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the Alphavirus genera. All of them are considered ... "Genome-scale phylogeny of the alphavirus genus suggests a marine origin". Journal of Virology. 86 (5): 2729-2738. doi:10.1128/ ...
Fort Morgan virus
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. It is an Alphavirus isolated from nesting Cliff Swallows, House ... an Alphavirus of the Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Complex in an Unusual Ecosystem". The American Journal of Tropical ... researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/characterization-of-fort-morgan-virus-an-alphavirus-of-the-wester https://wwwn.cdc.gov ...
Barmah Forest virus
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. This disease was named after the Barmah Forest in the northern ... Alphaviruses, Diseases and disorders in Australia, Insect-borne diseases). ...
2003). "Expression of the zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits alphavirus replication". J. Virol. 77 (21): 11555-62. doi: ... zinc finger antiviral protein acts synergistically with an interferon-induced factor for maximal activity against alphaviruses ...
... is a mosquito-borne arbovirus in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from the ... Zhai, You-gang (2008). "Complete sequence characterization of isolates of Getah virus (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) ...
Alphavirus replicase genes are expressed in addition to the vaccine insert. It is not clear how alphavirus replicons raise an ... Recombinant alphavirus-based vectors have been used to improve DNA vaccination efficiency. The gene encoding the antigen of ... The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... interest is inserted into the alphavirus replicon, replacing structural genes but leaving non-structural replicase genes intact ...
Neglected tropical diseases
Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus and family Togaviridae. The word "chikungunya" is from the Makonde ...
Class I fusogens are involved in flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis); alphaviruses (Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, ...
Mapping and validation of a major QTL affecting resistance to pancreas disease (salmonid alphavirus) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo...
Mapping and validation of a major QTL affecting resistance to pancreas disease (salmonid alphavirus) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo ... Mapping and validation of a major QTL affecting resistance to pancreas disease (salmonid alphavirus) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo ... Mapping and validation of a major QTL affecting resistance to pancreas disease (salmonid alphavirus) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo ...
Superior Induction of T Cell Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Regions by Electroporated Alphavirus Replicon DNA Compared to That...
What's in the Collection | Division of Vector-Borne Diseases | NCEZID | CDC
Search Results | AJTMH
Enhancement of protein expression by alphavirus replicons by designing self-replicating subgenomic RNAs
Alphaviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm, and their genetic material cannot recombine with cellular DNA. Alphavirus ... Enhancement of protein expression by alphavirus replicons by designing self-replicating subgenomic RNAs Academic Article ... The SG RNA is transcribed from a promoter located in the alphavirus-specific RNA replication intermediate and is not further ... In this study, we have applied the accumulated knowledge of the mechanism of alphavirus replication and promoter structures, in ...
Padronização de ensaio imunoenzimático para diagnóstico de vírus dos gêneros Flavivirus e Alphavirus
None of the MAbs recognized the alphavirus VEEV. To our knowledge, these are the first MAbs raised against Brazilian DENV ... Padronização de ensaio imunoenzimático para diagnóstico de vírus dos gêneros Flavivirus e Alphavirus. ... Abstract: The flavivirus and alphavirus are viruses transmitted by arthropods (arboviruses), which constitute a public health ... pertencente ao gênero Alphavirus, e dos vírus da dengue (DENV), da encefalite de Saint Louis (SLEV) e do oeste do Nilo (WNV), ...
A novel, rapid assay for detection and differentiation of serotype-specific antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis...
Figure 3 - Zoonotic Alphaviruses in Fatal and Neurologic Infections in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa -...
Lwande OW, Obanda V, Bucht G, Mosomtai G, Otieno V, Ahlm C, et al. Global emergence of Alphaviruses that cause arthritis in ... Forrester NL, Palacios G, Tesh RB, Savji N, Guzman H, Sherman M, et al. Genome-scale phylogeny of the alphavirus genus suggests ... van Niekerk S, Human S, Williams J, van Wilpe E, Pretorius M, Swanepoel R, et al. Sindbis and Middelburg old world alphaviruses ... Forrester NL, Palacios G, Tesh RB, Savji N, Guzman H, Sherman M, et al. Genome-scale phylogeny of the alphavirus genus suggests ...
ArboCat Virus: Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEEV)
Meningitis Differential Diagnoses
Targeting the alphavirus virus replication process for antiviral development. | Antiviral Res;210: 105494, 2023 02. |...
Targeting the alphavirus virus replication process for antiviral development. Targeting the alphavirus virus replication ... Alphavirus; Febre de Chikungunya; Vírus Chikungunya; Humanos; Alphavirus/genética; Antivirais/farmacologia; Antivirais/ ... Moreover, the alphavirus RC has therapeutic potential in the form of self-amplifying RNA technology against both infectious and ... Hence, alphavirus RC presents as an ideal multi-enzyme target for the development of structure-based antiviral drugs. ...
Adaptive Changes in Alphavirus mRNA Translation Allowed Colonization of Vertebrate Hosts | ViroBlogy
... and biochemical data presented here support an evolutionary scenario for the natural history of alphaviruses, in which the ... Tags: alphavirus, Evolution, host adaptation. This entry was posted on 10 August, 2012 at 09:35 and is filed under Evolution, ... Adaptive Changes in Alphavirus mRNA Translation Allowed Colonization of Vertebrate Hosts. See on Scoop.it - Virology and ... and biochemical data presented here support an evolutionary scenario for the natural history of alphaviruses, in which the ...
Alphavirus cDNA-based expression vectors: effects of RNA transcription and nuclear export. - Immunology
In these vector systems, the alphavirus replicon is under the control of a strong RNA polymerase II promoter and replicon RNA ... The construction of layered DNA-RNA replicons has facilitated and expanded the use of alphavirus vectors to vaccine development ... Alphavirus cDNA-based expression vectors: effects of RNA transcription and nuclear export. ... In these vector systems, the alphavirus replicon is under the control of a strong RNA polymerase II promoter and replicon RNA ...
Viral arthritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Structural surprises from the flaviviruses and alphaviruses<...
Structural surprises from the flaviviruses and alphaviruses. / Kielian, Margaret.. In: Molecular Cell, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2002, p. ... Kielian, M 2002, Structural surprises from the flaviviruses and alphaviruses, Molecular Cell, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 454-456. ... Structural surprises from the flaviviruses and alphaviruses. Molecular Cell. 2002;9(3):454-456. doi: 10.1016/S1097-2765(02) ... Structural surprises from the flaviviruses and alphaviruses. In: Molecular Cell. 2002 ; Vol. 9, No. 3. pp. 454-456. ...
A humanised murine monoclonal antibody protects mice from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Everglades virus and Mucambo...
Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), ... Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process ... Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), ...
Chikungunya computer virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics - Cholesterol activates the G-protein...
Chikungunya computer virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics. February 3, 2018. rawveronica0 comments ... Chikungunya computer virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics. Home / Uncategorized / Chikungunya ... Chikungunya computer virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics throughout Africa and Asia, causing ... The structure of the At the1 protein in alphaviruses has previously been decided. ...
Viral Diseases in Aquaculture - Exotic and Laboratory Animals - Merck Veterinary Manual
Combined structural, biochemical and cellular evidence demonstrates that both FGDF motifs in alphavirus nsP3 are required for...
Structural rearrangements in the membrane penetration protein of a non-enveloped virus | Nature
Alphavirus E1 sequences used to obtain a consensus. The consensus sequence is used to assess the similarity between the VP4 FG ... 3a, c. The consensus sequence is used to assess the similarity between the VP4 FG loop and the alphavirus E1 fusion loop in ... Comparison of the rotavirus VP4 FG loop and the alphavirus E1 fusion loop. Includes an amino acid sequence comparison and a ... G loop and the alphavirus fusion loop have similar sequences8. Both loops lie at the hydrophobic tips of globular domains ...
Search Results | AJTMH
Mucambo virus | Semantic Scholar
Profiling cross-species humoral immune responses to arboviruses by protein microarray | RIVM
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Chikungunya Fever, Hong Kong - Volume 12, Number 11-November 2006 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
- Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo padronizar ensaios imunoenzimáticos para o diagnóstico sorológico do vírus Chikungunya (CHIKV), pertencente ao gênero Alphavirus, e dos vírus da dengue (DENV), da encefalite de Saint Louis (SLEV) e do oeste do Nilo (WNV), pertencentes ao gênero Flavivirus. (ufpr.br)
- Many alphaviruses , including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are known human pathogens that lack specific and effective antivirals or vaccines available. (bvsalud.org)
- Chikungunya computer virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics throughout Africa and Asia, causing infectious arthritis and reportedly linked with fatal infections in newborns and seniors. (rawveronica.com)
- To the Editor: Chikungunya virus disease, caused by a mosquitoborne alphavirus, is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia. (cdc.gov)
- Chikungunya is an alphavirus infection. (verywellhealth.com)
- Molecular Basis of Arthritogenic Alphavirus Receptor MXRA8 Binding to Chikungunya Virus Envelope Protein. (nih.gov)
- Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus transmitted by infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes Albopictus . (cdc.gov)
- Dengue, a Flavivirus and chikungunya, an Alphavirus, transmitted by Aedesmosquitoes, are a cause of great concern to public health in India. (who.int)
- The MERS- and SARS-coronaviruses, the alphavirus Chikungunya virus, and the flavivirus Zika virus are prominent examples of such (re)emerging +RNA viruses with a serious impact on human health and society. (lumc.nl)
- Chikungunya is an Alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes) and which causes fever, rash, myalgia and arthralgia. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Chikungunya est un alphavirus transmis par les moustiques (Aedes) et qui provoque de la fièvre, des éruptions cutanées, des myalgies et des arthralgies. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus. (valentbiosciences.com)
- Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belongs to the mosquito-borne alphavirus genus, in the family Togaviridae, and was first observed in epidemic form in Africa. (loinc.org)
- The chikungunya pandemic that began 10 years ago was fueled in part by a single, nonsynonymous base change that enabled that alphavirus to replicate more efficiently in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
- In 2011, Yem- situation, one can only expect that en reported an explosive outbreak the situation will not worsen and the 60 countries and territories have reported transmission so far of chikungunya which was the first disease will not spread further. (who.int)
- A A generic nested alphavirus nonstructural polyprotein lphaviruses ( Togaviridae ) include zoonotic, vector- (nsP) region 4 gene reverse transcription PCR ( 10 ) was borne viruses with epidemic potential ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. (medscape.com)
- Trocara virus: a newly recognized Alphavirus (Togaviridae) isolated from mosquitoes in the Amazon Basin. (ajtmh.org)
- 1 (1), 100%] the genus Alphavirus (Togaviridae). (who.int)
- Genome-scale phylogeny of the alphavirus genus suggests a marine origin. (cdc.gov)
- Recent structural studies demonstrate that the alphavirus and flavivirus fusion proteins, although very similar in overall fold, are arranged very differently in the two virions. (elsevier.com)
- Flavivirus , Alphavirus , and Bunyavirus . (cdc.gov)
- SAV Salmonid alphavirus. (gov.scot)
- ABSTRACT: We designed 4 primer pairs to amplify conserved regions of the E1 or nsP4 genes of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and evaluated their performance in optimized 1-step SYBR green real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) assays. (int-res.com)
- In September 2019, Scottish Salmon Watch revealed huge disease problems at Mowi's salmon farm at Kingairloch also in Loch Linnhe (again sourced from a Fish Health Inspectorate report published online ) including Cardiomyopathy Syndrome (CMS), Pasteurella skyensis , multifocal hepatic necrosis, Salmonid Alphavirus , anorexia, lesions, haemorrhaging and deformed hearts. (typepad.com)
- The SG RNA is transcribed from a promoter located in the alphavirus-specific RNA replication intermediate and is not further amplified. (uab.edu)
- In this study, we have applied the accumulated knowledge of the mechanism of alphavirus replication and promoter structures, in particular, to increase the expression level of heterologous proteins from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-based replicons. (uab.edu)
- Targeting the alphavirus virus replication process for antiviral development. (bvsalud.org)
- Combined structural, biochemical and cellular evidence demonstrates that both FGDF motifs in alphavirus nsP3 are required for efficient replication. (scilifelab.se)
- Purification of highly active alphavirus replication complexes demonstrates altered fractionation of multiple cellular membranes. (lumc.nl)
- A structural and functional perspective of alphavirus replication and assembly. (medscape.com)
- Notre étude a permis de mettre en évidence pour la première fois que CHIKV contrôle et détourne à son profit les mécanismes de défense anti-infectieux. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Serologically, CHIKV belongs to the Semliki Forest (SF) subgroup of alphaviruses. (loinc.org)
- To determine if alphaviruses may contribute to undefined to other laboratories for testing for AHSV, equine herpes neurologic infections, we investigated specimens (blood, viruses, and rabies ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Laine M , Luukkainen R , Toivanen A . Sindbis viruses and other alphaviruses as cause of human arthritic disease. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic, phylogenetic, and biochemical data presented here support an evolutionary scenario for the natural history of alphaviruses, in which the acquisition of DLP structure in their mRNAs probably allowed the colonization of vertebrate host and the consequent geographic expansion of some of these viruses worldwide. (rybicki.blog)
- Two external quality assessments were conducted in 2022: on rodent-borne viruses and emerging alphaviruses. (europa.eu)
- Trainers work on DNA and RNA viruses including: human immunodeficiency virus, coronaviruses, alphaviruses and herpes viruses as well as on viral vectors. (upenn.edu)
- Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
- Aug. 20, 2020-Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have identified antibodies that, in animals, block infection by alphaviruses, which can cause chronic and debilitating joint pain and arthritis and are an increasing global health concern. (vumc.org)
- Kielian, M 2002, ' Structural surprises from the flaviviruses and alphaviruses ', Molecular Cell , vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 454-456. (elsevier.com)
- We developed a cross-species protein microarray for humoral immune response profiling of antibodies to flaviviruses, alphaviruses and phleboviruses. (rivm.nl)
- Target antigens NS1 protein for flaviviruses, E1 and E2 for alphaviruses and glycoprotein n-terminus for bunyaviruses were selected, produced and spotted onto nitrocellulose pads using a PerkinElmer non-contact protein array spotter (table 1). (rivm.nl)
- Icosahedral alphaviruses and flaviviruses, among others, have capsids with geometric defects. (elsevier.com)
- Zacks MA , Paessler S . Encephalitic alphaviruses. (cdc.gov)
- The upstream portion of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome of alphaviruses encodes four nonstructural proteins nsP1 to nsP4. (bvsalud.org)
- The structure of the At the1 protein in alphaviruses has previously been decided. (rawveronica.com)
- Recent findings have highlighted the role of the Old World alphavirus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) as a host defence modulator that functions by disrupting stress granules, subcellular phase-dense RNA/protein structures formed upon environmental stress. (scilifelab.se)
- A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever. (loinc.org)
- Alphaviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm, and their genetic material cannot recombine with cellular DNA. (uab.edu)
- In these vector systems, the alphavirus replicon is under the control of a strong RNA polymerase II promoter and replicon RNA is transcribed from DNA before transport to the cytoplasm. (ox.ac.uk)
- Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. (nih.gov)
- Hence, alphavirus RC presents as an ideal multi- enzyme target for the development of structure-based antiviral drugs . (bvsalud.org)
- Since the development of infectious cDNA clones of viral RNA genomes and the means of delivery of the in vitro-synthesized RNA into cells, alphaviruses have become an attractive system for expression of heterologous genetic information. (uab.edu)
- Alphavirus genome-based, self-replicating RNAs (replicons) are widely used vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. (uab.edu)
- The construction of layered DNA-RNA replicons has facilitated and expanded the use of alphavirus vectors to vaccine development, construction of packaging cell lines and long-term heterologous gene expression. (ox.ac.uk)
- The assembly of alphavirus RC and its RNA genome initiates the membrane -derived ultrastructure known as spherule which facilitates viral RNA synthesis protected from host immune responses . (bvsalud.org)
- Alphavirus cDNA-based expression vectors: effects of RNA transcription and nuclear export. (ox.ac.uk)
- Thus alphavirus-glycoprotein pseudotypes hold a potential as suitable vectors for gene therapy/ transfer in Niemann Pick's Disease-Type A, a genetic lipid-storage disorder. (purdue.edu)
- Previously, we have pseudotyped Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV), a retrovirus with the envelope of Ross River Virus (RRV), an alphavirus. (purdue.edu)
- Phylogram of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (348-bp fragment) of alphaviruses rooted at the midpoint and created by using maximum-likelihood analysis (67 taxa, generalized time-reversible model with gamma distribution of rates across sites). (cdc.gov)
- We also show that alphavirus-glycoprotein retroviral pseudotypes require cholesterol for entry into the cells. (purdue.edu)
- Furthermore, excess cholesterol in cells facilitates the entry of alphavirus-glycoprotein retroviral pseudotypes. (purdue.edu)
- The envelope glycoproteins of alphaviruses are the distinguishing factors for testing. (loinc.org)
- Old World alphaviruses are associated mainly quencing, and phylogenetic analysis of a 349-bp E1 gene with febrile disease and arthralgia, are often accompanied fragment (online Technical Appendix) was attempted (Fig- by a maculopapular rash, and are rarely fatal, although ure 1, panel B) to investigate recombination events. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, the alphavirus RC has therapeutic potential in the form of self -amplifying RNA technology against both infectious and non-infectious diseases . (bvsalud.org)