A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (1/294)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (2/294)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Salmon pancreas disease virus, an alphavirus infecting farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (3/294)

A 5.2-kb region at the 3' terminus of the salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) RNA genome has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences show that SPDV shares considerable organizational and sequence identity to members of the genus alphavirus within the family Togaviridae. The SPDV structural proteins encoded by the 5.2-kb region contain a number of unique features when compared to other sequenced alphaviruses. Based on cleavage site homologies, the predicted sizes of the SPDV envelope glycoproteins E2 (438 aa) and E1 (461 aa) are larger than those of other alphaviruses, while the predicted size of the alphavirus 6K protein is 3.2 K (32 aa) in SPDV. The E2 and E1 proteins each carry one putative N-linked glycosylation site, with the site in E1 being found at a unique position. From amino acid sequence comparisons of the SPDV structural region with sequenced alphaviruses overall homology is uniform, ranging from 32 to 33%. While nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S RNA junction region shows that SPDV is similar to other alphaviruses, analysis of the 3'-nontranslated region reveals that SPDV shows divergence in this region.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (4/294)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Epidemic O'Nyong-Nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic studies in Bbaale village, Rakai District. (5/294)

Entomologic studies were conducted between January 27 and February 2, 1997, in Bbaale village in southcentral Uganda during an o'nyong-nyong (ONN) virus epidemic, which began in mid 1996 and continued into 1997. The objectives were to confirm the role of anophelines in ONN virus transmission and to examine other mosquito species as epidemic vectors of ONN virus. Of 10,050 mosquitoes collected using light traps and pyrethrum knockdown sprays, Anopheles (Cellia) funestus Giles was presumed to be the principal vector because it was the most abundant mosquito species from which a strain of ONN virus was isolated. This virus was isolated for the first time from a culicine species, Mansonia (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald. Bwamba virus and Nyando virus were also isolated from An. funestus.  (+info)

Seroepizootiological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus in regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. (6/294)

A sero-epizootiological survey was conducted for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Getah virus (GeV) at 10 to 20 regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in Japan. It was observed that geometrical mean (GM) antibody titer to JEV and GeV was 10 to 50 times higher than others at several race courses (RCs) almost every year. Of them, several race horses showing high antibody titer, which were suggested to be infected with the virus, were also observed in this survey. These data suggested that the viruses have spread among race horses almost every year in Japan, although, fortunately, no horse showing clinical illness due to these viruses was observed. The calendar years and the names of the race courses in which the spread of JEV was suggested were Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Nakatsu RC in 1992, Arao RC in 1993, Nagoya RC in 1994, Kaminoyama, Urawa, Saga and Arao RCs in 1995 and Ooi and Saga RCs in 1997. Spread of JEV was not observed in 1996. The calendar year and name of the race courses at which the spread of GeV was suggested were at Ooi, Sonoda and Nakatsu RCs in 1991, Arao RC in 1992, Nakatsu RC in 1994 and 1995, Funabashi RC in 1996, Saga RC in 1997. It was suggested that surveillance of JEV and GeV should be continued in the future in at least the southern to middle parts of Japan. It has also been suggested that it is necessary to promote the wider use of vaccines to persons related to horse racing.  (+info)

O'nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996-1997: description of the epidemic and results of a household-based seroprevalence survey. (7/294)

O'nyong-nyong (ONN) fever, an acute, nonfatal illness characterized by polyarthralgia, is caused by infection with a mosquito-borne central African alphavirus. During 1996-1997, south-central Uganda experienced the second ONN fever epidemic ever recognized. During January and early February 1997, active case-finding and a household cluster serosurvey were conducted in two affected and two comparison areas. A confirmed case was defined as an acute febrile illness with polyarthralgia occurring within the previous 9 months plus serologic confirmation or isolation of ONN virus from blood. In affected (n=129) and comparison (n=115) areas, the estimated infection rates were 45% and 3%, respectively, and the estimated attack rates were 29% and 0%, respectively, for an apparent:inapparent infection ratio of nearly 2 in affected areas. In villages sampled near Lake Kijanebalola, Rakai District, the estimated infection and attack rates were 68% and 41%, respectively, and 55% of sampled households had >/=1 case of ONN fever. In conclusion, this epidemic was focused near lakes and swamps, where it was associated with high infection and attack rates.  (+info)

Rainbow trout sleeping disease virus is an atypical alphavirus. (8/294)

Sleeping disease (SD) is currently a matter of concern for salmonid fish farmers in most parts of the world. A viral etiology of SD has recently been suspected, since virus-like particles have been observed in infected rainbow trout cells. In salmonid-derived cell lines, the maximal rate of virus production was observed at 10 degrees C, while little virus was produced at 14 degrees C. Through biochemical, physicochemical, and morphological studies, SD virus (SDV) was shown to be an enveloped virus of roughly 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of 12 kb of RNA, with the appearance of a 26S subgenomic RNA during the time course of SDV replication. The screening of a random-primed cDNA library constructed from the genomic RNA of semipurified virions facilitated the identification of a specific SDV cDNA clone having an open reading frame related to the alphavirus E2 glycoproteins. To extend the comparison between SDV structural proteins and the alphavirus protein counterparts, the nucleotide sequence of the total 4.1-kb subgenomic RNA has been determined. The 26S RNA encodes a 1,324-amino-acid polyprotein exhibiting typical alphavirus structural protein organization. SDV structural proteins showed several remarkable features compared to other alphaviruses: (i) unusually large individual proteins, (ii) very low homology (ranging from 30 to 34%) (iii) an unglycosylated E3 protein, and (iv) and E1 fusion domain sharing mutations implicated in the pH threshold. Although phylogenetically related to the Semliki Forest virus group of alphaviruses, SDV should be considered an atypical member, able to naturally replicate in lower vertebrates.  (+info)

Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 32 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore ...
Mayaro virus disease is a mosquitoborne zoonotic pathogen endemic to certain humid forests of tropical South America. Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days duration. The causative virus, abbreviated MAYV, is in the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus. It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is only known to circulate in tropical South America. Mayaro Virus has a structure similar to other Alphavirus. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of 70 nm. The virus genome is composed of a linear, positive sense, single-stranded RNA with 11,429 nucleotides, excluding the 5 cap nucleotide and 3 poly(A) tail. The MAYV RNA genome contains the 5 untranslated region (UTR), 3 non-coding region (NCR) and two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5 proximal and 3 proximal ORFs are separated by a short non-coding sequence and represent ...
Overexpression of the HER2/neu gene in breast cancer is associated with an increased incidence of metastatic disease and with a poor prognosis. Although passive immunotherapy with the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) has shown some effect, a vaccine capable of inducing T-cell and humoral immunity could be more effective. Virus-like replicon particles (VRP) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus containing the gene for HER2/neu (VRP-neu) were tested by an active immunotherapeutic approach in tumor prevention models and in a metastasis prevention model. VRP-neu prevented or significantly inhibited the growth of HER2/neu-expressing murine breast cancer cells injected either into mammary tissue or intravenously. Vaccination with VRP-neu completely prevented tumor formation in and death of MMTV-c-neu transgenic mice, and resulted in high levels of neu-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and serum IgG. On the basis of these findings, clinical testing of this vaccine in patients with HER2/neu +
During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more ...
FIGUEIREDO, Luiz Tadeu Moraes et al. Estudo com dois diferentes ensaios imuno-enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus Mayaro. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1989, vol.84, n.3, pp.303-307. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761989000300003.. Apresentamos a avaliação de um teste imuno-enzimático no qual células infectadas com o vírus Mayaro são usadas como antígeno (EIA-ICC) e a de um teste de captura de IgM (MAC-ELISA), no diagnóstico sorológico de infecções por Mayaro. Soros humanos em número de 114, obtidos durante uma epidemia ocorrida em 1987 na Bolívia, foram utilizados neste estudo. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HAI). MAC-ELISA mostrou-se duas vezes mais sensível que EIA-ICC na detecção de anticorpos do tipo IgM para Mayaro. MAC-ELISA mostrou-se uma técnica válida e prática para o diagnóstico de infecções recentes por Mayaro. EIA-ICC para detecção de IgG ...
2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from experimental and field studies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. I. Clinical and virological findings. AU - Pinheiro, F. P.. AU - Freitas, R. B.. AU - Travassos Da Rosa, J. F.. AU - Gabbay, Y. B.. AU - Mello, W. A.. AU - LeDuc, James. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - An outbreak of human illness caused by Mayaro (MAY) virus occurred in Belterra, Para, Brazil in the first half of 1978. A total of 55 cases were confirmed, 43 by virus isolation and serology, and 12 by serology alone. The disease in Belterra presented as a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by fever, arthralgia and exanthema. No fatalities could be attributed to MAY virus infection. Arthralgia, accompanied by joint edema in 20% of cases, was a very prominent sign which caused temporary incapacity in many patients. Arthralgia was present in virtually all confirmed cases and persisted in some for at least 2 months, although with decreasing severity. Rash was present in two-thirds of the cases, and was either maculopapular or ...
Looking for pancreas disease? Find out information about pancreas disease. glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. long and 1.5 in. wide. Explanation of pancreas disease
Background Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data - particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT) and step-wise regression (SWR). Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI) with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects) in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
The primary focus of Dr. Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA viruses that are spread to humans and other vertebrates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. Therefore, these viruses have been researched extensively for use as recombinant vaccines.. The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus vectors, or alphavirus-expressed antigens to immunologically relevant cell types such as dendritic cells. An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine.. ...
The present invention relates to a genic expression adenoviral hybrid vector characterized in that it contains at least the following elements, oriented in the direction 5 to 3: i. a first chain of adenoviral origin comprising a first inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence and a signal sequence for packaging of the adenovirus; ii. a first non-encoding stuffer sequence; iii. a sequence corresponding to a tissue specific promoter; iv. a chain of cDNA derived from an alphavirus, the sequence of which is partly complementary to an alphaviral RNA sequence, comprising at least a sequence encoding for at least one exogenous gene of interest; v. a polyadenylation sequence; and vi. a second adenoviral inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence, it preferably relates to an adenoviral hybrid vector comprising as exogenous gene of interest the therapeutic gene of mammalian interleukin IL-12 and even more preferably human interleukin hIL-12; and to the use of the
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquitos subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral
The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. Mosquitoes or other hematophagous arthropods serve as vectors for these viruses. The complete sequences of the +/- 11.7-kb plus-strand RNA genomes of eight alphaviruses have been determined, and partial sequences are known for several others; this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. Full-length cDNA clones from which infectious RNA can be recovered have been constructed for four alphaviruses; these clones have facilitated many molecular genetic studies as well as the development of these viruses as expression vectors. From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. The interactions of the viruses with host cells and host organisms have been exclusively studied, and the molecular basis of ...
Wolcott, J A.; Wust, C J.; and Brown, A, Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4459 ...
To describe frequency and clinical characteristics of MAYV infection in Piura, as well as the association of this pathogen with DENV. A total of 86/496 (17.3%) cases of MAYV were detected, of which 54 were MAYV mono-infection and 32 were co-infection with DENV, accounting for 10.9% and 6.4%, respectively. When evaluating monoinfection by MAYV the main groups were 18-39 and 40-59 years old, with 25.9% and 20.4% respectively. Co-infections were more common in the age group 18-39 and those | 60 years old, with 34.4% and 21.9%, respectively. The most frequent clinical presentation were headaches (94.4%, 51/54) followed by arthralgias (77.8%, 42/54). During the 8-month study period the most cases were identified in the months of May (29.1%) and June (50.0%).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-dependent protection against or exacerbation of disease by a polylactide glycolide microparticle-adsorbed, alphavirus-based measles virus DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques. AU - Pan, Chien Hsiung. AU - Nair, Nitya. AU - Adams, Robert J.. AU - Zink, M. Christine. AU - Lee, Eun Young. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Singh, Manmohan. AU - OHagan, Derek T.. AU - Griffin, Diane E.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Measles remains an important cause of vaccine-preventable child mortality. Development of a low-cost, heat-stable vaccine for infants under the age of 6 months could improve measles control by facilitating delivery at the time of other vaccines and by closing a window of susceptibility prior to immunization at 9 months of age. DNA vaccines hold promise for development, but achieving protective levels of antibody has been difficult and there is an incomplete understanding of protective immunity. In the ...
After defining the best conditions for cell culture harvesting using the highest virus titer, Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cells were infected with a Brazilian MAYV isolate at a MOI of 1 in order to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of MAYV-infected Aag-2 cells by using a label-free semi-quantitative bottom-up proteomic analysis. Time-course analyses were performed at 12 and 48 h post-infection (hpi). After spectrum alignment between the triplicates of each time point and changes of the relative abundance level calculation, the identified proteins were annotated and using Gene Ontology database and protein pathways were annotated using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.. ...
University of Florida researchers have identified a patient in Haiti with a serious mosquito-borne illness that has never before been reported in the Caribbean nation. Known as
Reverse genetics is a critical tool to decrypt the biological properties of arboviruses. However, whilst reverse genetics methods have been usually applied to vertebrate cells, their use in insect cells remains uncommon due to the conjunction of laborious molecular biology techniques and of specific difficulties surrounding the transfection of such cells. To leverage reverse genetics studies in both vertebrate and mosquito cells, we designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus ...
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. This ...
The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections.
Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals Slideshow...
Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases,
As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading.
Arthropod vectored viruses are a major cause of human disease. The alphaviruses are a group of arthropod vectored agents which are responsible for a variety of...
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Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
In a landmark finding published in Science, Hyde et al. have demonstrated that a hairpin RNA structure adjacent to the 5 cap of alphavirus genomic RNA confers the ability of these viruses to evade restriction by the interferon-induced host protein IFIT1 ...
Interleukin, T Cells, Il-4, Regulation, Transcription Factor, Chemokines, Mouse, Calcium, Cell, Chemoattractants, Arthritides, Arthritis, Disease, Virus, and Alphavirus
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Alphaviruses represent a highly important group of human and animal pathogens, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors between vertebrate hosts. the spectrum of WAY-100635 WAY-100635 genes activated... Read More ...
REFERENCES. Abad-Franch F, Grimmer GH, Paula VS, Figueiredo LTM, Braga WSM, Luz SLB 2012. Mayaro virus infection in Amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1846. [ Links ] Aitken TG, Downs WG, Anderson CG, Spence L, Casals J 1960. Mayaro virus isolated from a Trinidadian mosquito, Mansonia vene-zuelensis. Science 131: 986. [ Links ] Anderson CR, Downs WG, Wattley GH, Ahin NW, Reese EAA 1957. Mayaro virus: a new human disease agent. II. Isolation from blood of patients in Trinidad, B.W.I. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6: 1012-1016. [ Links ] Azevedo RSS, Silva EVP, Carvalho VL, Rodrigues SG, Nunes-Neto JP, Monteiro H, Peixoto VS, Chiang JO, Nunes MRT, Vasconcelos PFC 2009. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 1830-1832. [ Links ] Bronzoni RVM, Baleotti FG, Nogueira RMR, Nunes M, Figueiredo LTM 2005. Duplex reverse transcription-PCR followed by nested PCR assays for detection and identification of Brazilian alphaviruses and ...
Infectious pancreatic disease (IPN) and pancreas disease (PD) of salmon are viral diseases caused by Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) (Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). Both IPNV- and SAV infections induce lesions in pancreas tissue/cells and are frequently detected from the same individual; hence it is possible that the viruses target the same cell types and therefore might interfere with each other during such infections. In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections were studied by IFAT, real-time RT- PCR and by viral end-point titration. Real-time RT-PCR was also used to examine to what extent the viruses up-regulated key transcripts (IFN and Mx) in the cellular antiviral immune response. IFAT and end-point titration indicated that SAV to some extent inhibited IPNV replication , whereas IPNV did not affect SAV infections notably. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated that ...
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Semliki Forest Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one positive stranded RNA molecule. Genetic material is enveloped in an icosahedral nucleocapsid.. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When symptoms are present they are mild. During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). When present, symptoms include headache, fever, myalgia and athrolgia. Rare symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis have been reported. The acute phase lasts 2-4 days and is followed by a long period marked by weakness. In the only case reported to ...
Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. New studies define the receptor-binding protein of these viruses and its regulation of the membrane-fusion reaction. See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of infection with the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus in India and southeast Asia. The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that form spikes on the virus surface dissociate in the acidic conditions found in the internal vesicles of host cells, and E1 triggers infection by fusing with the endosomal membrane. Félix Rey and colleagues present the structure of Chikungunya virus envelope glycoprotein at neutral pH, and Michael Rossmann and colleagues reveal the structure of the envelope
gB, but not gD or gH/gL, binds to liposomes.Our laboratory previously showed that HSV virions bind to liposomes when incubated in the presence of a soluble form of the gD receptor, HVEM, at pH 5.0 (55). Second, gB730t, but not soluble forms of gD or gC, can bind to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts (10). Together, these data suggest that HSV may interact with lipids through gB. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the fusion loops of two class II fusion proteins from flavivirus (2) and Semliki Forest virus (35) impair the ability of these proteins to associate with liposomes. Therefore, we theorized that if gB inserts into target membranes via the putative fusion loops, gB730t should associate and float with liposomes, while the soluble forms of the fusion loop mutants should be impaired in this association.. To test this hypothesis, purified soluble gB, gD, and gH/gL were each incubated with two different compositions of liposomes, i.e., PC only or PC/C, at 37°C for 1 h. We then added KCl to ...
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent laboratory strain of the Alphavirus Sindbis kills most cultured cell lines not by lethal parasitism, but by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transfection of cultured cells with the human bcl-2 oncogene can block Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, resulting in a persistent viral infection resembling that observed in brains of immunodeficient mice. We investigated the possibility that neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus could overcome the protective effects of bcl-2--a potential mechanism to explain the ability of these strains to cause fatal disease. Strains of Sindbis virus that were lethal for 2- to 4-week-old mice induced ...
To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors expressing different levels of IL-12. SFV-IL-12 expresses both IL-12 subunits from a single subgenomic promoter, while in SFV-enhIL-12 each IL-12 subunit is expressed …
Understanding the dynamics of pathogen transfer in aquaculture systems is essential to manage and mitigate disease outbreaks. The goal of this study was to understand recent transmission dynamics of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) in Norway. SAV causes significant economic impacts on farmed salmonids in European aquaculture. SAV is classified into six subtypes, with Norway having ongoing …. Genome Sequencing of SAV3 Reveals Repeated Seeding Events of Viral Strains in Norwegian Aquaculture. Read More ». ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
Due to space, on-line registration is now closed however walk-ins are welcome.. Join the National Pancreas Foundation Louisiana Chapter on Sunday, June 9, 2019 at the historic Rockn Bowl for an afternoon of bowling and family fun! ...
Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. The non-structural proteins form the transcription/replication complex. The nsP1 protein is implicated in capping of viral RNAs. The nsP2 gene encodes a putative helicase and a protease , which presents a unique fold distantly related to that of known cysteine proteases. This protease domain is linked to the downstream domain of degenerated O-methyltransferase fold that may regulate transcription/replication through RNA binding. The nsP3 protein is required for RNA replication. Its N-terminal sequence reveals a macro domain, the crystal structures of which have recently been determined (Malet et al., 2009). The nsP4 protein carries the viral RNA dependant RNA Polymerase (RdRP), the key activity for the viral replication/transcription. Unlike the RdRP of ...
The Strep-tag® purification system is based on the highly selective binding of engineered streptavidin, called Strep-Tactin, to Strep-tag II fusion proteins. This technology allows one-step purification of almost any recombinant protein under physiological conditions, thus preserving its bioactivity.
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Drug Uses Lopid (also known as a fibrate medication) is used along with a proper diet to help lower fats (triglycerides) and cholesterol in the blood. This drug is usually prescribed after non-drug treatment options have not been fully successful at lowering cholesterol (e.g., diet change, increase in exercise, weight loss if overweight). This drug is thought to work by decreasing the amount of fat produced by the liver. Reducing cholesterol and triglycerides lowers the risk of heart disease and helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. This drug also helps to prevent pancreas disease (pancreatitis) in patients with very high blood levels of triglycerides. How to use Take this medication by mouth usually twice a day, 30 minutes before your morning and evening meals, or as directed by your doctor. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. It may take ...
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and its Associated Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients, Juliyanti Fu, C Rinaldi A Lesmana, Imam Subekti, Irsa
Learn about some of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas diseases and disorders diagnosed and treated by the Pediatric Liver Center at Johns Hopkins
No exactly related to surfaces, but in terms of killing viruses via heat, a study from a few years ago looked at the time required for inactivation of various Alphaviruses in blood serum samples at 56°C, finding that it could take anywhere from 20 min to 2 hrs [1]. If youre looking for ways that the average person can disinfect surfaces, some fairly common consumer disinfectants are actually already capable of killing certain types of viruses (e.g. Dettol claim that some of their products kill influenza, coronavirus, RSV, etc. [2]). [1] Park, S.L., Huang, Y.-J.S., Hsu, W.-W., Hettenbach, S.M., Higgs, S., and Vanlandingham, D.L. (2016). Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses. Journal of Virological Methods 234, 152-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.04.004. [2] https://www.dettol.com.ng/products-old/see-all-products/. ...
Alphaviruses utilize the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Since presence of the Alphavirus does not have an effect on the ... There is a similar group of Alphavirus known as the New World Alphaviruses that also share much in common with MIDV. These ... Middelburg virus (MIDV) is an alphavirus of the Old World Group that has likely endemic and zoonotic potential. It is of the ... Together E1 and E2 are the glycoproteins that make up the Alphavirus envelope over the nucleocapsid. A final finding of this ...
Salmon Pancreas disease (PD or SPD) is caused by a species of Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) called Salmon pancreas disease virus ( ... Deperasińska, Izabela; Schulz, Patrycja; Siwicki, Andrzej K. (2018-03-30). "Salmonid alphavirus (SAV)". Journal of Veterinary ... Salmonid Alphavirus is an RNA virus. Six genotypes of SAV have been identified (referred to as SAV1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), ... reduces shedding of salmonid alphavirus". Veterinary Research. 47 (1): 78. doi:10.1186/s13567-016-0362-9. ISSN 1297-9716. PMC ...
... virus (CHIKV), is a member of the genus Alphavirus, and family Togaviridae. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... May 2010). "Persistent chronic inflammation and infection by Chikungunya arthritogenic alphavirus in spite of a robust host ... "Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses". Journal of Virology. 75 (21): 10118-31. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.21 ... "Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein induces rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic ...
It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus ... Quetglas, J. I.; Ruiz-Guillen, M.; Aranda, A.; Casales, E.; Bezunartea, J.; Smerdou, C. (2010). "Alphavirus vectors for cancer ...
Alphavirus virions are composed of the lipid envelope in which the E2 and E1 glycoproteins are located, and the nucleocapsid, ... Alphavirus nucleocapsids are assembled in the cytoplasm from the capsid proteins produced in translation of the viral genome. ... Rio Negro virus is an alphavirus that was first isolated in Argentina in 1980. The virus was first called Ag80-663 but was ... The virus is a member of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex (VEEC), which are a group of alphaviruses in the Americas ...
Zacks MA, Paessler S (January 2010). "Encephalitic alphaviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4): 281-6. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Genus Alphavirus belongs to the family Togaviridae. Alpha viruses contain secondary structural motifs in the 5′ UTR that allow ...
The two groups proposed are: the 'altovirus' group (alphaviruses, furoviruses, hepatitis E virus, hordeiviruses, tobamoviruses ... an alphavirus supergroup plus a flavivirus supergroup; the dsRNA viruses; and the -ve strand viruses. The lentivirus group ... This analysis suggests that alphaviruses and flaviviruses can be separated into two families-the Togaviridae and Flaviridae, ... Alphaviruses, carlaviruses, furoviruses, hordeiviruses, potexviruses, rubiviruses, tobraviruses, tricornaviruses, tymoviruses, ...
Alphavirus Polyarthritis Syndrome has an incubation period of 3-21 days, depending on the specific virus, with either a gradual ... This condition is termed alphavirus polyarthritis syndrome. Sindbis virus, which is endemic in Northern Europe, Africa, the ... and lupus erythematosus but can also be caused by infection with an alphavirus such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus. ... Middle East, and Australia, is the most widely distributed of the alphaviruses causing polyarthritis, though infection is ...
Mayaro virus has a structure similar to other alphaviruses. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a ... It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is ... Firth AE, Chung BY, Fleeton MN, Atkins JF (2008). "Discovery of frameshifting in Alphavirus 6K resolves a 20-year enigma". ... Snyder AJ, Mukhopadhyay S (2012). "The alphavirus E3 glycoprotein functions in a clade-specific manner". Journal of Virology. ...
Togaviruses include alphaviruses, which have been detected in bats. Alphaviruses cause encephalitis in humans. Alphaviruses ...
Stiles KM, Kielian M (2016). "Role of TSPAN9 in Alphavirus Entry and Early Endosomes". J. Virol. 90 (9): 4289-97. doi:10.1128/ ...
Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). ISBN 978-0- ...
The Eilat virus is from the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Alphaviruses are miniature spherical shaped (around 70 nm in ... The Eilat virus shows an evolutionary change which may have occurred to alphaviruses. Normally, an alphavirus similar to that ... This would make the EILV be the second alphavirus which is able to employ a Anopheles species as a natural vector. This ... Eilat virus (EILV) is a unique Alphavirus which is known mainly for its host range restriction generally to insects (primarily ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. "ICTV Taxonomy history: Cabassou virus". International Committee on ...
... is a virus species in the genus Alphavirus. According to the Baltimore classification of viruses, it is a class IV ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. It was first isolated in 1961 from culicine mosquitoes collected in ...
Campbell CL, Lehmann CJ, Gill SS, Dunn WA, James AA, Foy BD (August 2011). "A role for endosomal proteins in alphavirus ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. "Bebaru virus ATCC ® VR-1240AF™". "Bebaru virus". Wikispecies [1] https ...
54: Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University ...
Chikungunya: The Chikungunya virus is a single stranded RNA alphavirus typically transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes to another ... and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the Alphavirus genera. All of them are considered ... "Genome-scale phylogeny of the alphavirus genus suggests a marine origin". Journal of Virology. 86 (5): 2729-2738. doi:10.1128/ ...
... is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. It is an Alphavirus isolated from nesting Cliff Swallows, House ... https://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/characterization-of-fort-morgan-virus-an-alphavirus-of-the-wester Wikilinks ... researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/characterization-of-fort-morgan-virus-an-alphavirus-of-the-wester https://wwwn.cdc.gov ...
2003). "Expression of the zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits alphavirus replication". J. Virol. 77 (21): 11555-62. doi: ... zinc finger antiviral protein acts synergistically with an interferon-induced factor for maximal activity against alphaviruses ...
... is a mosquito-borne arbovirus in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from the ... Zhai, You-gang (2008). "Complete sequence characterization of isolates of Getah virus (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) ...
Alphavirus replicase genes are expressed in addition to the vaccine insert. It is not clear how alphavirus replicons raise an ... Recombinant alphavirus-based vectors have been used to improve DNA vaccination efficiency. The gene encoding the antigen of ... The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... interest is inserted into the alphavirus replicon, replacing structural genes but leaving non-structural replicase genes intact ...
... (BFV) is an RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus. This disease was named after the Barmah Forest in the ...
Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus and family Togaviridae. The word chikungunya is from the Makonde which ...
Chung BY, Firth AE, Atkins JF (March 2010). "Frameshifting in alphaviruses: a diversity of 3' stimulatory structures". Journal ...
Alphavirus particles are roughly spherical, with three principal substructures-an outer glycoprotein shell, a lipid bilayer, ... Alphavirus particles are roughly spherical, with three principal substructures-an outer glycoprotein shell, a lipid bilayer, ... Wengler, G., Boege, U., Wengler, G., Bischoff, H., and Wahn, K., 1982, The core protein of the alphavirus Sindbis virus ... Harrison S.C. (1986) Alphavirus Structure. In: Schlesinger S., Schlesinger M.J. (eds) The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae. The ...
The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that ... Sindbis virus can cause fever in humans and is the most extensively studied alphavirus. Comparison of the two structures ... See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of ... Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. New studies define the receptor ...
Alphavirus and Rubivirus. Alphavirus consists of viruses transmitted by arthropods (exclusively mosquitoes); prototypes include ... Other articles where Alphavirus is discussed: virus: Annotated classification: There are 2 recognized genera: ... There are 2 recognized genera: Alphavirus and Rubivirus. Alphavirus consists of viruses transmitted by arthropods (exclusively ... Some Alphavirus species produce severe encephalitis in humans. Horses also may be severely or fatally infected, by equine ...
Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the ... Alphaviruses that could infect both vertebrates and arthropods are referred dual-host alphaviruses, while insect-specific ... Another branch of research involving alphaviruses is in vaccination. Alphaviruses are apt to be engineered to create replicon ... The alphavirus can also get into the CNS where it is able to grow and multiply within the neurones. This can lead to ...
Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that use arthropods such as mosquitoes for transmission to their vertebrate hosts, and ... Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. ... include Semliki Forest and Sindbis viruses [PMID: 15378043]. Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core ...
Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... Alphavirus Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
... team of researchers have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded arthritogenic alphavirus ... New approach to tackle alphavirus infections. Griffith University. Journal. PLOS Pathogens. Keywords. *INFECTIOUS/EMERGING ... "Alphaviruses are transmitted to human after an infectious bite by the mosquitoes. These viruses infect the host cells and ... Alphaviruses include about 30 pathogens spread by mosquitoes, also including Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus that ...
Membrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle.. Kielian M1.. Author information. 1. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein ...
... Gregory J. Atkins Department of Microbiology, Moyne Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, ... Gregory J. Atkins, "The Pathogenesis of Alphaviruses," ISRN Virology, vol. 2013, Article ID 861912, 22 pages, 2013. doi:10.5402 ...
Alphavirus infection can trigger the host cell to activate its genetically programmed cell death pathway, leading to the ... Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured ... The more virulent strains of alphavirus induce apoptosis with increased efficiency both in animal models and in some cultured ... The more virulent strains of alphavirus have acquired the ability to induce apoptosis in mature neurons, while mature neurons ...
This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. ... Alphavirus other than Sindbis *Isolation of alphavirus from clinical material; OR *Detection of specific alphavirus by NAT; OR ... IgG seroconversion to specific alphavirus; OR *Significant increase in IgG level or titre to specific alphavirus.. Alphavirus ... Detection of IgM to specific alphavirus.. Sindbis *Isolation of SIN from clinical material; OR *Detection of SIN by NAT; OR * ...
Alphavirus. A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other ...
Alphavirus explanation free. What is Alphavirus? Meaning of Alphavirus medical term. What does Alphavirus mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alphavirus in the Medical Dictionary? ... Alphavirus. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.. Related to Alphavirus: bunyavirus, flavivirus, Hepacivirus, ... Alphavirus , definition of Alphavirus by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alphavirus ...
Alphaviruses are enveloped, mosquito-borne plus-strand RNA viruses with Sindbis virus (SINV) as the prototype virus (1). SINV ... 2001) Locations of carbohydrate sites on alphavirus glycoproteins show that E1 forms an icosahedral scaffold. Cell 105:127-136. ... Effect of host cell lipid metabolism on alphavirus replication, virion morphogenesis, and infectivity. Ching G. Ng, Isabelle ... 1994) The alphaviruses: Gene expression, replication, and evolution. Microbiol Rev 58:491-562. ...
Development of Alphavirus PCLs with Reduced Potential for RCV.. One possible method for large-scale production of alphavirus ... Two characteristics of alphavirus replication precluded the generation of alphavirus PCL analogous to retrovirus (27, 28) ... Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus- and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. John M. Polo, Barbara A. ... The role of alphavirus structural proteins in virus-induced cytopathology (20-22), coupled with down-regulation of RNA ...
This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. ... Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research) View Full-Text , Download PDF [1315 KB, uploaded 14 ... Mosquitoes as Suitable Vectors for Alphaviruses. Viruses. 2018; 10(2):84. Chicago/Turabian Style. Lim, Elisa X.Y.; Lee, Wai S ...
This study shows that the NLRP3 inflammasome is crucial for alphavirus-induced inflammation and its inhibition is an effective ... Arthritogenic alphaviruses: new insights into arthritis and bone pathology. Trends Microbiol. 23, 35-43 (2015). ... Amelioration of alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis in a mouse model by treatment with bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte ... Suhrbier, A., Jaffar-Bandjee, M.-C. & Gasque, P. Arthritogenic alphaviruses-an overview. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 8, 420-429 (2012 ...
In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long ... In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long ... In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a ... In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a ...
"Alphaviruses have been used before in designing treatments for infectious diseases, but we believe this is the first time one ... "The beauty of alphaviruses is that they are naturally attracted to dendritic cells, cells that stimulate the production of ... Based on earlier research, investigators at Duke believed that by using the alphavirus for Venezuelan equine encephalitis as a ... Scientists removed the genes that enable the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus - an alphavirus - to replicate itself, and ...
Development of Human-Murine Chimeric Immunoglobulin G for Use in the Serological Detection of Human Flavivirus and Alphavirus ...
Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. By B Levine, JM Hardwick, BD Trapp, TO Crawford, RC Bollinger ... Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased ...
... against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of ... Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress Cell. 2015 Nov 19;163(5):1095- ... and Onyongnyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins and viruses, and ... against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of ...
Alphavirus answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... "Alphavirus." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/742335/all/Alphavirus. Alphavirus. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; ... Alphavirus is a sample topic from the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view other topics, please sign in or purchase a ...
alphavirus replication complex purification Semliki Forest virus affinity purification ultracentrifugation Oppiaine: ... Alphaviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that have been the cause of numerous epidemics in the past decades ...
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are ... ATSs are derived from cDNA clones of mosquito-borne RNA viruses (genus Alphavirus; family Togaviridae). The Alphavirus genus ... Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic ... Some alphaviruses require BSL3 containment. Figure 1: Overview of ATS virus production in BHK-21 cells using p5dsMRE/GFP SINV ...
Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence.. J Lewis, S L Wesselingh, D E Griffin, J M ... Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Duration of Alphavirus Neutralizing Antibody in Naturally Infected Birds * Authors: Andrew J. Main, Kathleen S. Anderson, ...
Forsøksdyr: The susceptibility of sea trout juveniles to infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and piscine orthoreovirus ( ... The susceptibility of sea trout juveniles to infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) ...
Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.. C L Frazier, R E Shope ... Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Cell culture-derived antigens detected antibodies to alphaviruses in human sera with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...
  • Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus from the family Togaviridae that causes epizootic outbreaks in equids and humans in Central and South America. (hindawi.com)
  • Winter Ecology of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus ) i" by Charles R. Brown, Stephanie A. Strickler et al. (unl.edu)
  • Within the genus Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ), Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) are two of the most common infections occurring in Australia and cause arthralgia and myalgia [ 8 ]. (springer.com)
  • Infectious pancreatic disease (IPN) and pancreas disease (PD) of salmon are viral diseases caused by Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) (Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). (uib.no)
  • Collet, Bertrand 2013-10-01 00:00:00 Salmon pancreas disease virus is an alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) affecting mainly Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.). Both polyprotein sequences of the Scottish isolate (SAV4640) were determined and compared with those of Irish isolate SAVF93-125. (deepdyve.com)
  • There are 29 registered alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae, 16 of which are known to cause human infection. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • Mayaro (MAY) virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alphaviruses are RNA-containing viruses of the family Togaviridae that cause a wide variety of mosquito-transmitted disease. (histopathology-india.net)
  • Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) including Sindbis virus (SINV) and other human pathogens, are transmitted by arthropods. (itg.be)
  • Alphaviruses, single-stranded RNA viruses within the Togaviridae family, are important human and animal pathogens. (umn.edu)
  • genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae ) is a mosquitoborne RNA virus that causes death in young piglets, miscarriage in pregnant sows, and mild illness in horses (1-3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This alphavirus of the Togaviridae family was first described in 1952 after an outbreak in Tanzania. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Togaviridae , genus: Alphavirus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • El virus del chikunguna (CHIKV) es un miembro del genero de los Alphavirus, perteneciente a la familia Togaviridae (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alphaviruses having single-stranded RNA genome belong to Togaviridae family of viruses and are divided into arthritogenic viruses (old world) and encephalitogenic viruses (new world) including equine encephalitis viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Virus-like-particle vaccine against Salmonid alphavirus - we keep it cool, you get the best. (wur.nl)
  • To compare the susceptibility of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to viral pathogens, fry were experimentally infected with Salmonid alphavirus sub-type 1 (SAV1), the aetiological agent of pancreas disease (PD) affecting Atlantic salmon aquaculture in Europe. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes disease in farmed salmonid fish and is divided into different genetic subtypes (SAV1-6). (uib.no)
  • Bergen Open Research Archive: Co-infection with Norwegian Salmonid Alphavirus (NSAV) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214). (uib.no)
  • Establishment and evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of Salmonid Alphavirus. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes infections in farmed Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in Europe. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the new sequences of salmonid alphavirus are KF668057-KF668084. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The alphavirus infection cycle begins when E2 binds to receptors on the surface of a host cell. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: The alphavirus infection cycle. (nature.com)
  • Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, 4- to 4-mm papules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team has for the first time shown that the protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a crucial role in promoting alphavirus infection and disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Alphavirus infection can trigger the host cell to activate its genetically programmed cell death pathway, leading to the morphological features of apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular genes that are known to regulate the cell death pathway can modulate the outcome of alphavirus infection in cultured cells and perhaps in animals. (nih.gov)
  • The more virulent strains of alphavirus have acquired the ability to induce apoptosis in mature neurons, while mature neurons are resistant to cell death upon infection with less virulent strains. (nih.gov)
  • However following some infections - such as those due to the alphaviruses and flaviviruses - IgM persists for months to years, and may only be used as presumptive evidence of recent infection. (health.gov.au)
  • In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are important tools for expressing genes of interest (GOI) during infection. (jove.com)
  • 1. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. A method for the post-exposure protection of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a vaccine comprising a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing the viral proteins of alphaviruses that stimulate an immune response in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. A method for the prevention of a susceptible animal from alphavirus infection comprising inoculating said animal with a recombinant viral vector containing a DNA sequence capable of producing interferon in said animal in an amount effective for conferring a protective response in the animal before said animal is exposed to said alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, nutrition appears to alter the course of alphavirus infection and should be considered as a critical environmental factor during outbreaks. (prolekare.cz)
  • Viruses are parasites of host cell metabolism and alphaviruses have been shown to increase glycolytic flux during infection to aid viral replication. (bsu.edu)
  • The efficacy of Imatinib treatment at inhibiting alphavirus replication was confirmed at different times post infection (6, 12, 18, and 24 hours post infection), different levels of infection (multiplicities of infection= 0.1, 1, and 10), and within different cell lines (BHK, Huh7 and HEK). (bsu.edu)
  • Further analysis in mouse or other animal models is needed to confirm the utility of Imatinib as a therapeutic option for treating alphavirus infection, but the data are promising and shows a significant reduction in viral replication and may represent a novel treatment option for alphavirus infections. (bsu.edu)
  • There are currently no treatments for alphavirus infections, and detailed information on the structure and life cycle of these viruses is crucial for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines. (nature.com)
  • Griffith University and an international team of researchers have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded arthritogenic alphavirus infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections and the lack of treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although the immune system clearly plays a central role in clearing virus, the importance of other cellular factors in determining the outcome of virus infections are evident from the observation that mature neurons are better able to resist alphavirus-induced apoptosis than immature neurons are, both in culture and in mouse brains. (nih.gov)
  • This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. (health.gov.au)
  • The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This virus-specific inhibition of the antiviral and innate responses makes an additional contribution to rapid spread of alphavirus infections. (asm.org)
  • However, alphavirus infections not endemic to Australia are unlikely to be diagnosed serologically because specific assays are generally available only for those viruses known to circulate in Australia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vectors encoding the alphavirus-derived RNA replicase have been shown to be immunogenic in murine models at doses up to 1,000-fold lower than those used for conventional plasmid vectors ( 11 , 16 ) and are effective when used as vaccines against cancer ( 7 , 12 , 15 , 16 ) or viral infections ( 3 , 5 , 11 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • The goal of IBT's alphavirus antibody program is to develop an immunotherapy for alphavirus infections. (integratedbiotherapeutics.com)
  • Aedes albopictus collected in North America have been shown to be effective vectors of a number of alphaviruses capable of producing severe human infections. (grantome.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses are important re-emerging arboviruses that cause life-threatening disease in equids during epizootics as well as spillover human infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that use arthropods such as mosquitoes for transmission to their vertebrate hosts, and include Semliki Forest and Sindbis viruses [ PMID: 15378043 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) causes encephalomyelitis in mice. (pnas.org)
  • Alphaviruses are enveloped, mosquito-borne plus-strand RNA viruses with Sindbis virus (SINV) as the prototype virus ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors. (pnas.org)
  • Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus are among the alphaviruses being exploited by using such approaches ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. (nih.gov)
  • The replication of dengue, West Nile and three strains of Zika (genus Flavivirus ), and Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis (genus Alphavirus ) viruses was compared in w AlbB-infected cells with Wolbachia -free controls. (springer.com)
  • Sindbis virus is the prototype of the alphavirus group and it has been shown that Aedes albopictus is an efficient vector of Sindbis virus supporting the contention that Sindbis is a good model for the virus system. (grantome.com)
  • The research described in this application focuses ont he biology of Sindbis virus the alphavirus prototype. (grantome.com)
  • 2 provide structural insights into the regulation of the membrane-fusion proteins of enveloped alphaviruses during the viruses' entry into and exit from the host cell. (nature.com)
  • Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses, with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes, making the alphaviruses a member of the collection of arboviruses - or arthropod-borne viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single strand of positive-sense RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The threat of a global alphavirus pandemic remains high, in particular from highly aggressive strains such as Chikungunya virus, and has emphasised the continued need for therapeutic strategies to combat these deadly viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. (mdpi.com)
  • Alphaviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that have been the cause of numerous epidemics in the past decades. (helsinki.fi)
  • Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). (jove.com)
  • This invention can be used to prevent humans from alphavirus-induced encephalitides in the event of a bioterrorism attack or biowarfare in which alphaviruses such as Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV) and western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses are deliberately released to humans, a natural outbreak of alphaviruses, and an accidental exposure to alphaviruses in laboratory. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. (asm.org)
  • this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that can mediate high-level gene expression in mammalian cells, and members of this family have served as a basis for viral vector and DNA plasmid vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer (reviewed in ref. 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two genera of viruses responsible for significant numbers of human disease cases are Flavivirus and Alphavirus . (springer.com)
  • The genus alphavirus contains nine viruses. (histopathology-india.net)
  • The alphavirus family is comprised of 26 related viruses, some of which are significant pathogens of humans or domestic animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Wolbachia pipientis from Drosophila melanogaster (wMel) is an endosymbiotic bacterium that restricts transmission of human pathogenic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, when introduced into the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Alphaviruses are plus-strand RNA viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. (bsu.edu)
  • Rennos Fragkoudis is a virologist whose main research interest is the pathogenesis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and in particular of alphaviruses and bunyaviruses. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • The mosquito Aedes albopictus is a major carrier of viruses including the alphaviruses. (grantome.com)
  • The trans-replicase tools and approaches developed here can be instrumental in studying alphavirus recombination and evolution, but can also be applied to study other viruses such as picornaviruses, flaviviruses and coronaviruses. (itg.be)
  • Finally, it will be investigated whether certain (specific) host factors that have been shown to affect the replication of other viruses play a role in the nido- and alphavirus life cycle as well. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some Alphavirus species produce severe encephalitis in humans. (britannica.com)
  • Many alphaviruses multiply in the cytoplasm of cells of arthropods and are transmitted to humans from mosquitoes, such as those causing equine encephalitis and Semiliki Forest virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientists removed the genes that enable the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus - an alphavirus - to replicate itself, and replaced them with genes that make the biomarker CEA, present in many malignant colon, breast, and lung cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Based on earlier research, investigators at Duke believed that by using the alphavirus for Venezuelan equine encephalitis as a carrier they might be able to thwart that response. (healthcanal.com)
  • Tonate virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strain 78V3531 also appear to be distinct alphavirus species based on genetic, antigenic, and ecological criteria. (caltech.edu)
  • Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases, with clinical signs varying from fever or rash to significant inflammatory pathologies including encephalitis (e.g. (pasteur.fr)
  • It includes those diseases caused by alphaviruses (Barmah Forest and Ross River), flaviviruses (dengue, Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and malaria. (health.gov.au)
  • The alphaviruses are a group of arthropod vectored agents which are responsible for a variety of severe forms of encephalitis in man and domestic animals. (grantome.com)
  • Evolution and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphavirus in the Americas. (cdc.gov)
  • Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. (pnas.org)
  • The general strategy for construction of alphavirus-based expression vectors has been to substitute the viral structural protein genes with a heterologous gene, maintaining transcriptional control via the highly active subgenomic RNA promoter ( 1 , 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • These issues have begun to be addressed through the conversion of alphavirus vectors into functional plasmid DNA formats that directly transcribe RNA vector replicons in vivo ( 8 - 13 ) and the development of split structural protein gene packaging systems ( 2 , 7 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The invention discloses a single dose administration of two types of recombinant viral vectors: one expressing interferon and another expressing the structural proteins of alphaviruses or a single dose administration of the recombinant viral vector co-expressing both interferon and the structural proteins of alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Incorporation of alphavirus replicons into plasmid DNA vectors to direct the amplification of RNA expressing the gene of interest has been an exciting approach toward improving DNA vaccination ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, alphavirus plasmid replicons may offer both quantitative and qualitative advantages compared with conventional plasmid vectors. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 ( IPR002548 ) that associate as a heterodimer. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic mRNA that encodes the structural proteins of the virus required for encapsidation of the genome and maturation of the virus. (jove.com)
  • The Old World and New World alphaviruses use different virus-specific proteins for induction of the transcriptional shutoff. (histopathology-india.net)
  • Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Alphavirus particles are roughly spherical, with three principal substructures-an outer glycoprotein shell, a lipid bilayer, and an RNA-containing core (nucleocapsid). (springer.com)
  • Cellular membranes play important roles in alphavirus replication at the levels of entry, RNA synthesis, glycoprotein trafficking, and budding. (pnas.org)
  • Partial E1 envelope glycoprotein gene sequences and complete structural polyprotein sequences were used to compare divergence and construct phylogenetic trees for the genus Alphavirus. (caltech.edu)
  • Flavivirus/Alphavirus glycoprotein, immunoglobulin-like domain superfamily / Peptidase S3, togavirin / Alphavirus core protein (CP) domain profile. (pdbj.org)
  • Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein was expressed in an alphavirus based replicon expression system. (iastate.edu)
  • Cleavage of the alphavirus precursor glycoprotein p62 into the E2 and E3 glycoproteins before assembly with the nucleocapsid is the key to producing fusion-competent mature spikes on alphaviruses. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Alphaviruses have a single-stranded RNA genome. (tabers.com)
  • Interestingly, MCC950 treatment abrogated disease signs in mice infected with a related arthritogenic alphavirus, Ross River virus, but not in mice infected with West Nile virus-a flavivirus. (nature.com)
  • Here we test the ability of w AlbB to reduce or block the replication of a range of Flavivirus and Alphavirus species in cell culture. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this study is to gain in efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma by combining in a single vector high infectivity using an adenovirus delivery system, high level of transgene expression and induction of apoptosis using an alphavirus vector ( 14 ), and tumor specificity by placing the alphavirus replicon under the transcriptional control of a tumor-specific promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study investigated the immunogenicity of alphavirus vaccine replicon particles (VRP) that encode PSMA (PSMA-VRP). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Development of an Alphavirus Replicon Classical Swine Fever Virus Vacc" by J. Dustin Loy, Mark Mogler et al. (iastate.edu)
  • To address this gap in knowledge, we infected lean, obese, and undernourished mice with arthritogenic arboviruses from the genus Alphavirus and assessed morbidity, virus replication, transmission, and evolution. (prolekare.cz)
  • The beauty of alphaviruses is that they are naturally attracted to dendritic cells, cells that stimulate the production of large numbers of T cells and antibodies," says Morse. (healthcanal.com)
  • Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. (sciencemag.org)
  • We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • Cell culture-derived antigens detected antibodies to alphaviruses in human sera with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. (asm.org)
  • E3 is a by-product of the cleavage of the E2 precursor protein p62 by the enzyme furin (not shown), and is released in some alphavirus species. (nature.com)
  • The virus then exits by budding from the cell surface, with some alphavirus species retaining E3 and others releasing it. (nature.com)
  • The Alphavirus genus contains about 30 different mosquito-borne virus species. (jove.com)
  • The recently identified fish alphaviruses salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus appear to be variants or subtypes of a new alphavirus species. (caltech.edu)
  • Trocara virus, isolated from mosquitoes in Brazil and Peru, also represents a new species and probably a new alphavirus complex. (caltech.edu)
  • Alphaviruses that could infect both vertebrates and arthropods are referred dual-host alphaviruses, while insect-specific alphaviruses such as Eilat virus and Yada yada virus are restricted to their competent arthropod vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). (pnas.org)
  • However, efficient methods for large-scale packaging of alphavirus vector particles, in the absence of RCV, remain to be developed. (pnas.org)
  • This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. (mdpi.com)
  • In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed onto polylactide glycolide (PLG) microparticles. (elsevier.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging alphavirus responsible for several outbreaks worldwide in the past decade, causes debilitating joint inflammation and severe pain. (nature.com)
  • Alphaviruses, including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), produce a transient illness in humans, but severe forms leading to chronic incapacitating arthralgia/arthritis have been reported by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. (jimmunol.org)
  • Myositis and arthritis due to the alphaviruses CHIKV and RRV are also characterized by a significant percentage of lasting pain. (pasteur.fr)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, is recurring in epidemic waves. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • This project is aimed at developing novel antiviral strategies and drug leads, which are currently lacking for alphaviruses (Chikungunya virus) and nidoviruses (SARS- and other human coronaviruses). (cf.ac.uk)
  • Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern. (nih.gov)
  • In collaboration with Mapp Biopharmaceutical, IBT is developing monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics for alphaviruses. (integratedbiotherapeutics.com)
  • The togavirus genera are Alphavirus , which is carried by mosquitoes, and Rubivirus, which contains rubella, or German measles, virus. (britannica.com)
  • Alphaviruses include about 30 pathogens spread by mosquitoes, also including Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus that cause persistent arthritis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Alphaviruses are transmitted to human after an infectious bite by the mosquitoes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. (jove.com)
  • Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a model arthritogenic alphavirus, we determined that both obese and undernourished mice transmit virus less efficiently to mosquitoes than control (lean) mice. (prolekare.cz)
  • however, employment of a pan-alphavirus vaccine able to stimulate protective or even partially protective responses to multiple pathogenic alphaviruses is a much more appealing prospect. (asm.org)
  • A general linear model was used to test for significant differences in replication between flaviviruses and alphaviruses. (springer.com)
  • Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical (although slightly pleomorphic), and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most alphaviruses package only the genomic RNA into virions, which are enveloped particles with icosahedral symmetry, having a triangulation number (T) = 4. (caltech.edu)
  • The more virulent strains of alphavirus induce apoptosis with increased efficiency both in animal models and in some cultured cells. (nih.gov)
  • Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. (asm.org)
  • Tree topologies indicated that the mosquito-borne alphaviruses could have arisen in either the Old or the New World, with at least two transoceanic introductions to account for their current distribution. (caltech.edu)
  • 7. Levi LI, Vignuzzi M. Arthritogenic Alphaviruses: A Worldwide Emerging Threat? (prolekare.cz)
  • Interestingly, we demonstrated that this series exerts broad-spectrum anti-alphavirus activity against a range of arthritogenic alphaviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pathogenic alphaviruses of the Western hemisphere occur primarily in the summer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We show that pathogenic alphaviruses use secondary structural motifs within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of their RNA to alter Ifit1 binding and function. (sciencemag.org)
  • These drugs were also effective against Mayaro virus (MAYV), an under-studied arthritogenic Old world Alphavirus endemic in South American countries with potential risk of emergence, urbanization and dispersion to other regions. (medworm.com)
  • Cellular regulation of alphavirus morphogenesis is a previously unrecognized mechanism for control of virus replication and spread. (pnas.org)
  • Suhrbier, A. & La Linn, M. Clinical and pathologic aspects of arthritis due to Ross River virus and other alphaviruses. (nature.com)
  • The most important findings are as follows: (i) within the first 2 to 4 h postinfection, alphavirus-infected cells become unable to respond to IFN-β, and this occurs before the virus-induced decrease in STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN treatment. (asm.org)
  • Southern elephant seal virus is also a new alphavirus distantly related to all of the others analyzed. (caltech.edu)
  • An alphavirus isolated from nestling Cliff Swallows ( Petrochelidon pyrrhonota ) and House Sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) and from cimicid bugs ( Oeciacus vicarius ) in eastern Colorado, for which we propose the name Fort Morgan (FM) virus, is sensitive to the action of sodium deoxycholate, unstable at pH 2.0-4.0, and demonstrates no characteristics of temperature-sensitive mutants. (ajtmh.org)
  • Mayaro virus: complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other alphaviruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The enveloped alphavirus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), infects cells via endocytosis followed by a membrane fusion reaction triggered by the acid pH present in intracellular vacuoles. (elsevier.com)
  • In this seminar, Rennos talked about, determinents of virulence of alphaviruses and virus persistence. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Replicases of alphaviruses of the Semliki Forest virus complex were able to cross-utilize each other's templates as well as those of outgroup alphaviruses. (itg.be)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/742335/all/Alphavirus. (tabers.com)
  • Consistent with this, the replication and virulence of IFIT1-sensitive alphaviruses was significantly increased in Isg20-/- compared to congenic wild-type mice. (pitt.edu)
  • Alphaviruses are a group of important human and animal pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are a group of important human and animal pathogens that are widely distributed all over the world ( 22 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Mosquito-transmitted alphaviruses are distributed globally and include human pathogens that can cause severe long-term arthritogenic or neurological complications. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We conducted a comprehensive analysis of VEE complex alphaviruses by sequencing the genomes of 94 strains and performing phylogenetic analyses of 130 isolates using complete open reading frames for the nonstructural and structural polyproteins. (cdc.gov)
  • He won't stop making vaccines against single strains of alphavirus while waiting for this to happen, he adds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mapping the structure and function of the E1 and E2 glycoproteins in alphaviruses. (pdbj.org)
  • The alphaviruses, Barmah Forest and Ross River, accounted for 6,574 (78%) of these notifications during 2008-09. (health.gov.au)
  • The genomic RNA is primarily packaged into a virion that has a diameter of 72 nm and which appears to be identical to the virions produced by other alphaviruses. (caltech.edu)
  • Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. (pasteur.fr)
  • There are very limited vaccines and treatment options available to those infected with alphaviruses, resulting in significant human and animal morbidity and mortality each year. (bsu.edu)
  • Membrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, most of the alphaviruses, if not all of them, have developed very efficient means of interfering with induction of the cellular antiviral response ( 4 , 6 , 15 - 17 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the most efficient means of interference with the innate immune response utilized by alphaviruses is inhibition of cellular transcription. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are usually highly lytic in vertebrate cells, but persistently infect susceptible mosquito cells with minimal cytopathology. (jove.com)
  • A number of alphaviruses are also known to induce translational shutoff in infected vertebrate cells ( 18 , 20 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The replication cycle of alphavirus takes place in the cytoplasm of the host cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, alphaviruses replicate efficiently in cells expressing Ifit1 even though their genomic RNA has a 5′ cap lacking 2'-O methylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Filling the current gaps in sequence data for geographic and temporal distributions of MAYV is needed to increase the phylogenetic resolution and aid our understanding of the evolution and spread of this emerging arthralgic alphavirus in the Americas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many alphaviruses can cause disease in humans and animals, including O'nyong nyong fever and Ross River fever. (oup.com)
  • Alphaviruses are distributed throughout the world and cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 are conserved druggable cofactors of Old World Alphavirus genome replication. (medworm.com)
  • Altogether, our results identify FASN and SCD1 as conserved druggable cofactors of Alphavirus genome replication and support the broad-spectrum activity of drugs targeting the host fatty acids metabolism. (medworm.com)
  • Prediction of the RNA secondary structure suggested putative stem-loop structures in both the 5'- and 3'-ends, similar to those of alphaviruses from the terrestrial environment, indicating that the general genome replication initiation strategy for alphaviruses is also utilized by SAV. (uib.no)
  • Nevertheless, most of the alphaviruses are known to induce a type I interferon (IFN) response in vivo . (asm.org)
  • Thiol agents and Bcl-2 identify an alphavirus-induced apoptotic pathway that requires activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B. (rupress.org)
  • The alphavirus genome resembles eukaryotic mRNA, which possesses a 5′ cap and 3′ poly (A) tail and codes for early non-structural and late structural phases during replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are attractive candidates for such applications because of their high levels of replication and gene expression, their ability to infect a variety of diverse cell types, and the ability to manipulate cDNA clones from which infectious viral RNA may be transcribed (for review, see refs. (pnas.org)
  • The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. (asm.org)