Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Betaretrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.GeeseTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).PrimatesCercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Cebidae: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases: Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalDictionaryNatural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Dictionaries, PharmaceuticDictionaries, DentalUnified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.

Production and characterization of a soluble, active form of Tva, the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor. (1/332)

The receptor for the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(A)] is the cellular glycoprotein Tva. A soluble form of Tva, sTva, was produced and purified with a baculovirus expression system. Using this system, 7 to 10 mg of purified sTva per liter of cultured Sf9 cells was obtained. Characterization of the carbohydrate modification of sTva revealed that the three N glycosylation sites in sTva were differentially utilized; however, the O glycosylation common to Tva produced in mammalian and avian cells was not observed. Purified sTva demonstrates significant biological activity, specifically blocking infection of avian cells by ASLV(A) with a 90% inhibitory concentration of approximately 25 pM. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, developed to assess the binding of sTva to ASLV envelope glycoprotein, demonstrates that sTva has a high affinity for EnvA, with an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 0.3 nM. Once they are bound, a very stable complex is formed between EnvA and sTva, with an estimated complex half-life of 6 h. The soluble receptor protein described here represents a valuable tool for analysis of the receptor-envelope glycoprotein interaction and for structural analysis of Tva.  (+info)

Substitutions in the receptor-binding domain of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope uncouple receptor-triggered structural rearrangements in the surface and transmembrane subunits. (2/332)

The retrovirus avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) enters cells via pH-independent membrane fusion. This reaction is catalyzed by the viral glycoprotein Env, composed of a membrane-distal subunit, SU, and a membrane-anchored subunit, TM. Previous mutational analysis of a variable region, central within the SU subunit, indicates that this region constitutes part of the receptor-binding domain for subgroup A envelope (EnvA) and furthermore that basic residues (R210, R213, R223, R224, and K227) within this region are critical determinants of efficient ASLV infection. Substitutions of these basic residues exert effects on both receptor binding and postbinding events in EnvA-mediated entry. In this study, we performed biochemical analysis of the EnvA protein from three of the receptor-binding domain mutants (R213A/K227A, R213A/R223A/R224A, and R213S) to define the role of this domain in early molecular events in the entry pathway. Protease sensitivity assays demonstrated that receptor binding was sufficient to trigger conformational changes in the SU subunit of mutants R213A/K227A and R213S similar to those in the wild-type EnvA, while R213A/R223A/R224A was constitutively sensitive to protease. In contrast, all three receptor-binding domain mutants disrupted receptor-triggered conversion of EnvA to an active, membrane-binding conformation as assessed by liposome flotation assays. Our results demonstrate that mutations in the receptor-binding site can dissociate receptor-triggered conformational changes in the SU subunit from membrane binding. Furthermore, they suggest that communication between the receptor-binding subunit, SU, and the fusogenic subunit, TM, is crucial for efficient activation of the fusogenic state of EnvA. Analysis of these mutants continues earlier observations that binding to the cellular receptor provides the trigger for efficient activation of this pH-independent viral envelope protein.  (+info)

Development of a flexible and specific gene delivery system for production of murine tumor models. (3/332)

To develop models of human cancer we have expressed the avian retroviral receptor, TVA, under a variety of mammalian promoters in transgenic mice, thus rendering mice susceptible to infection with avian leukosis virus-derived gene vectors. TVA-based retroviral gene transfer offers advantages over current murine models of human cancer. A single transgenic mouse line can be used to evaluate multiple genetic lesions, individually and in combination. Furthermore, mutant genes are introduced somatically into animals, as occurs in the majority of naturally occurring tumors. Because the avian viral vectors replicate only in avian cells, the viral receptor in infected transgenic mouse cells remains available for multiple rounds of infection with different ASLV vectors. We discuss the theoretical and practical aspects of using recombinant avian retroviruses with TVA transgenic mice to generate cancer models.  (+info)

An Mpsi-containing heterologous RNA, but not env mRNA, is efficiently packaged into avian retroviral particles. (4/332)

Retroviruses preferentially package full-length genomic RNA over spliced viral messages. For most retroviruses, this preference is likely due to the absence of all or part of the packaging signal on subgenomic RNAs. In avian leukosis-sarcoma virus, however, we have shown that the minimal packaging signal, MPsi, is located upstream of the 5' splice site and therefore is present on both genomic and spliced RNAs. We now show that an MPsi-containing heterologous RNA is packaged only 2.6-fold less efficiently than genomic Rous sarcoma virus RNA. Thus, few additional packaging sequences and/or structures exist outside of MPsi. In contrast, we found that env mRNA is not efficiently packaged. These results indicate that either MPsi is not functional on this RNA or the RNA is somehow segregated from the packaging machinery. Finally, deletion of sequences from the 3' end of MPsi was found to reduce the packaging efficiency of heterologous RNAs.  (+info)

Secondary structure analysis of a minimal avian leukosis-sarcoma virus packaging signal. (5/332)

We previously identified a 160-nucleotide packaging signal, MPsi, from the 5' end of the Rous sarcoma virus genome. In this study, we determine the secondary structure of MPsi by using phylogenetic analysis with computer modeling and heterologous packaging assays of point mutants. The results of the in vivo studies are in good agreement with the computer model. Additionally, the packaging studies indicate several structures which are important for efficient packaging, including a single-stranded bulge containing the initiation codon for the short open reading frame, uORF3, as well as adjacent stem structures. Finally, we show that the L3 stem-loop at the 3' end of MPsi is dispensable for packaging, thus identifying an 82-nucleotide minimal packaging signal, microPsi, composed of the O3 stem-loop.  (+info)

The central proline of an internal viral fusion peptide serves two important roles. (6/332)

The fusion peptide of the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus (ASLV) envelope protein (Env) is internal, near the N terminus of its transmembrane (TM) subunit. As for most internal viral fusion peptides, there is a proline near the center of this sequence. Robson-Garnier structure predictions of the ASLV fusion peptide and immediate surrounding sequences indicate a region of order (beta-sheet), a tight reverse turn containing the proline, and a second region of order (alpha-helix). Similar motifs (order, turn or loop, order) are predicted for other internal fusion peptides. In this study, we made and analyzed 12 Env proteins with substitutions for the central proline of the fusion peptide. Env proteins were expressed in 293T cells and in murine leukemia virus pseudotyped virions. We found the following. (i) All mutant Envs form trimers, but when the bulky hydrophobic residues phenylalanine or leucine are substituted for proline, trimerization is weakened. (ii) Surprisingly, the proline is required for maximal processing of the Env precursor into its surface and TM subunits; the amount of processing correlates linearly with the propensity of the substituted residue to be found in a reverse turn. (iii) Nonetheless, proteolytically processed forms of all Envs are preferentially incorporated into pseudotyped virions. (iv) All Envs bind receptor with affinity greater than or equal to wild-type affinity. (v) Residues that support high infectivity cluster with proline at intermediate hydrophobicity. Infectivity is not supported by mutant Envs in which charged residues are substituted for proline, nor is it supported by the trimerization-defective phenylalanine and leucine mutants. Our findings suggest that the central proline in the ASLV fusion peptide is important for the formation of the native (metastable) Env structure as well as for membrane interactions that lead to fusion.  (+info)

Soluble receptor-induced retroviral infection of receptor-deficient cells. (7/332)

Current models of retroviral entry hypothesize that interactions between the host cell receptor(s) and viral envelope protein induce structural changes in the envelope protein that convert it to an active conformation, allowing it to mediate fusion with the membrane. Recent evidence supporting this hypothesis is the demonstration that Tva, the receptor for subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV-A), induces conformational changes in the viral envelope protein. These changes include conversion of the envelope protein to an active, membrane-binding state likely representing a fusogenic conformation. To determine whether binding of the soluble Tva (sTva) receptor was sufficient to activate fully the fusogenic potential of the ASLV-A envelope protein, we have evaluated the ability of ASLV-A to infect receptor-deficient cell lines in the presence of sTva. Soluble receptor efficiently mediated infection of cells devoid of endogenous Tva in a dose-dependent manner, and this infection was dependent absolutely on the addition of sTva. The infectivity of the virus was enhanced dramatically in the presence of the polycationic polymer Polybrene or when centrifugal forces were applied during inoculation, resulting in viral titers comparable to those achieved on cells expressing endogenous receptor. sTva functioned to mediate infection at low concentrations, approaching the estimated binding constant of the receptor and viral envelope protein. These results demonstrate that receptor binding can activate the ASLV-A envelope protein and convert it to a fusogenic conformation competent to mediate the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes.  (+info)

Selection of a subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope resistant to soluble ALV(A) surface glycoprotein. (8/332)

The host developing resistance to retroviral infection is believed to be a major force in the evolution of multiple receptor usage by retroviruses. The avian leukosis-sarcoma virus (ALV) group of retroviruses provides a powerful system for studying the envelope-receptor interactions involved in retrovirus entry; different members of this group of closely related viruses use distinct cellular receptors. Analysis of the ALV envelope subgroups suggests that the different ALVs evolved from a common ancestor by mutations in the env gene. Cells and animals that express subgroup A ALV envelope glycoproteins are highly resistant to ALV(A) infection due to receptor interference. In this study, we tested whether expression of a soluble form of subgroup A surface glycoprotein (SU) would result in receptor interference and whether this interference would select for resistant viruses with altered receptor usage. Chicken cells expressing the secreted ALV(A) SU immunoadhesin SU(A)-rIgG, which contains the subgroup A SU domain fused to the constant region of a rabbit immunoglobulin (IgG) heavy chain, showed significant receptor interference. A variant virus resistant to SU(A)-rIgG receptor interference was obtained. This virus had a six-amino-acid deletion in the subgroup A hr1 that altered receptor usage. This approach may identify regions of SU that play a critical role in receptor specificity.  (+info)

*Alpharetrovirus

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ICTVdb Viralzone: Alpharetrovirus. ... Alpharetrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. It has type C morphology. Members can cause sarcomas, other tumors, and ...

*Retrovirus

The following genera are included here: Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma ...

*Avian sarcoma leukosis virus

It is of the Alpharetrovirus genus, and has a C-type morphology. Hence, it is an enveloped virus with a condensed, central core ...

*Equine foamy virus

... of the viruses from the Retroviridae family are classified under the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae which include alpharetrovirus ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Alpharetrovirus Avian carcinoma Mill Hill virus 2 Avian leukosis virus Avian myeloblastosis virus Avian myelocytomatosis virus ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... alpharetrovirus MeSH B04.820.650.070.250 --- erythroblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.650.070.500 --- leukosis virus, avian ... alpharetrovirus MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.250 --- erythroblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.500 --- leukosis virus ... alpharetrovirus MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.250 --- erythroblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.500 --- leukosis virus ...

*List of genera of viruses

Alphanecrovirus Alphanodavirus Alphanudivirus Alphapapillomavirus Alphapartitivirus Alphapermutotetravirus Alpharetrovirus ...
The Poultry Research Center Virus II (PRC II) is a replication-defective avian sarcoma virus with envelope determinants of the A and B subgroups. In nonproducing cells transformed by PRCII the products of the replicative genes gag, pol, and env are not demonstrable, but a single polyprotein of Mr 105,000 (p105) can be detected. P105 contains peptides of the gag proteins p19 and p27 plus transformationspecific sequences. It does not contain peptides of gPr95env of Pr180gag-PoI (with the possible exception of one pol peptide). The transformation-specific sequences of p105 are distinct form those of p100 of avian carcinoma virus MH2, of p1 10 coded for by avian myelocytoma virus MC29, and of p75 or p40 of avian erythroblastosis virus AEV. They also show no resemblance to p60src of Rous sarcoma virus. P105 is phosphorylated on a tyrosine residue and has an associated Phosphokinase activity. P105 appears to be capable of autophosphorylation and of phosphorylating homologous immunoglobulin. ...
Looking for Erythroblastosis faetalis? Find out information about Erythroblastosis faetalis. a disease manifested at birth or shortly thereafter and generally caused by incompatibility of the mothers blood with that of the fetus with respect to the... Explanation of Erythroblastosis faetalis
ERG antibody, Internal (v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog) for WB. Anti-ERG pAb (GTX77743) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
RecombinantHuman V-erb-b2 Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (avian)protein, was expressed in Human HEK293 cells and purified by SDS-PAGE andCoomassie blue staining
Køb det officielle Casio Edifice ur EFR-549RBB-2AER online hos Uniwatches. Vi har GRATIS fragt på alle ure inkl. Casio Edifice armbåndsur EFR-549RBB-2AER
Looking for online definition of leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases in the Medical Dictionary? leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases explanation free. What is leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases? Meaning of leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases medical term. What does leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases mean?
Hamster cells transformed with the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of avian sarcoma virus were selected for resistance to ethidium bromide (EB). The resistant cell lines proliferated in the presence of up to 30 µg/ml EB.. From avian sarcoma virus-transformed hamster cells already resistant to bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdU), ethidium bromide-resistant cells which were able to grow in 10 µg/ml EB were also prepared. These cells remain deficient in thymidine kinase activity and are suitable for selective preparation of hybrid cells.. The EB resistance was genetically stable. The EB-resistant cell lines, and doubly resistant cells (BrdU, EB) showed no differences in mitochondrial ultrastructure compared with the original cell lines. Thymidine incorporation into mitochondrial DNA was not influenced by EB resistance.. All resistant cell lines, including the doubly resistant cell line, contained the avian sarcoma virus genome. The number of cells needed for positive rescue experiments for avian sarcoma virus genome ...
Electron microscopic heteroduplex analysis of avian RNA tumor viruses has been undertaken by using 35S viral RNA and long, complementary DNA synthesized in vitro. In this initial study, heteroduplex molecules were formed between complementary DNA from Rous sarcoma virus [Prague B strain (Pr-B)] and RNAs from Pr-B and Rous sarcoma virus [Prague C strain (Pr-C)] and from their transformation defective (td) derivatives, td-Pr-B and td-Pr-C. In the case of heteroduplexes with the td viruses, a deletion loop was observed of the order of two kilobases in size and less than one kilobase from the 3 terminus of the RNA. This deletion probably spans part or all of the sequences of one or more genes in the nondefective sarcoma virus which are essential for cell transformation. The sizes and the positions of the deletions in the td-Pr-B and td-Pr-C viruses were slightly, but significantly, different. No nonhomology features were observed in the Pr-B· Pr-C hybrids, thus confirming the close genetic ...
The proto- oncogene c- erbB- 1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v- erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus ( AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c- ErbB- 1 gene lacking the amino- terminal ligand- binding domain. Overexpression of erbB- 1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c- erbB- 1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12 ...
Chicken erythroblasts transformed with avian erythroblastosis virus or S13 virus provide suitable model systems with which to analyze the maturation of immature erythroblasts into erythrocytes. The transformed cells are blocked in differentiation at around the colony-forming unit-erythroid stage of development but can be induced to differentiate in vitro. Analysis of the expression and assembly of components of the membrane skeleton indicates that these cells simultaneously synthesize alpha-spectrin, beta-spectrin, ankyrin, and protein 4.1 at levels that are comparable to those of mature erythroblasts. However, they do not express any detectable amounts of anion transporter. The peripheral membrane skeleton components assemble transiently and are subsequently rapidly catabolized, resulting in 20-40-fold lower steady-state levels than are found in maturing erythrocytes. Upon spontaneous or chemically induced terminal differentiation of these cells expression of the anion transporter is initiated ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
ETS1 (phospho Thr38) antibody (E26 avian leukemia oncogene 1, 5 domain) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-ETS1 (phospho Thr38) pAb (GTX55307) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Define erythroblastosis fetalis. erythroblastosis fetalis synonyms, erythroblastosis fetalis pronunciation, erythroblastosis fetalis translation, English dictionary definition of erythroblastosis fetalis. n. A severe hemolytic disease of a fetus or newborn infant caused by the production of maternal antibodies against the fetal red blood cells, usually...
Looking for erythroblastosis neonatorum? Find out information about erythroblastosis neonatorum. The abnormal presence of erythroblasts in the blood. A virus disease of birds; considered to be part of the avian leukosis complex in which there is an... Explanation of erythroblastosis neonatorum
The sequence of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor shows great homology with the avian erythroblastosis virus v-erb B oncogene, raising the possibility that the receptor gene is identical to the c-erb B protooncogene. Human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells, which have an unusually high number of EGF receptors, were examined to determine whether elevated EGF receptor levels correlate with gene amplification. Southern blots of genomic DNAs from A431 and other human cell lines were probed with either a v-erb B gene fragment or a human EGF receptor complementary DNA clone (pE7), previously isolated from an A431 complementary DNA library. When either probe was used to analyze Eco RI- or Hind III-generated DNA fragments, EGF receptor DNA sequences were amplified about 30-fold in A431. Differences in the banding pattern of A431 DNA fragments relative to normal fibroblast DNA indicate the occurrence of a rearrangement in the region of the receptor gene. Furthermore, A431 cells contain a ...
Research proven affinity purified rabbit polyclonal cMyc antibody. Studies also have shown that c-Myc is essential for tumor cell development in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis that distribute blood throughout the cells, and which brought extensive attention in the development of new therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. Designed for immunofluorescence, western blotting and related applications. IF and WB image in product description.
Four previously uncharacterized avian sarcoma viruses were screened and two of these, RPL30 and CTIO, were found to encode apparently novel oncogenes. Biologically active CTIO DNA was molecularly cloned and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The CTIO genome encodes a gag-fusion polypeptide of 47 kilodaltons, termed p47gag-crk. This protein contains blocks of sequence similarity to a noncatalytic, potentially regulatory region found in the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, and the ras GTPase activator protein; no homology was found to any known catalytic domain. Potential roles for the homologous domains, termed SH2 and SH3, in normal signal transduction and in the biological activity of p47gag-crk are discussed. Biochemical data demonstrated that phosphotyrosine levels on at least three cellular proteins were greatly elevated in CTI0-infected cells, and that a tyrosine kinase activity was immunoprecipitated in association with p47gag-crk. A specific
At the first baby, there are no antibodies against Rh+, while birth, blood of the baby and the mother mixes and there are some antibodies produced, And those antibodies make the second baby die or born with some abnormalities. IgG can pass through placenta. Actually erythroblastosis fetalis can also be defined as the lysis of fetal RBCs by maternal IgGs ...
Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs due to Rh incompatibility between the mother and the fetus, resulting in severe anemia and sometimes death of the fetus.
Austin, John Holcombe, "Erythroblastosis fetalis: Pathogenesis and prognosis. A study of clinical obstetrical data" (1965). Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. 2367 ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-b) oncogene homolog, avian); EGFR; ERBB; ERBB1; HER1; mENA; ...
Homo sapiens epidermal growth factor receptor (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-b) oncogene homolog, avian) (EGFR), transcript variant 4, mRNA. (H00001956-R16) - Products - Abnova
EPA757Hu61, Eukaryotic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), 表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)真核蛋白, ErbB-1; ErbB1; ER1; ERB-B1; MENA; HER1; Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral(v-Erb-B)oncogene Homolog,Avian; Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-1; Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-1 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Erbb2 - Erbb2 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian), available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Its another beautiful day on the Old McDonald|farm, and having fed and watered the horses, cows, sheep, and other assorted barnyard animals, you decide...
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芸姬 的使用心得,包含:溫和低刺激,保濕,清爽,不油膩,滋潤,不致痘,感謝ur和薇姿提供試用的機會~~拿到的時候天氣已經變熱了,
hypothetical protein, transcription factor protein, A306_09622, anon-WO03040301.171, avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, avian myelocytomatosis viral (v-myc) oncogene homolog, bHLHe39, bHLHe57, cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene, CG10798 gene product from transcript CG10798-RB, CG10798-PA, CG10798-PB, class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 39, cmyc, c-MYC, c-myc20, c-Myc-a, c-Myc-b, c-myc-like protein, c-myc proto-oncogene, diminuitive, diminutive, DM, dm/dMyc, Dmel_CG10798, dm/myc, d-myc, dMYC, dmyc1, EG:BACN5I9.1, EGK_19271, lethal (1) G0354, lethal (1) G0359, MDA_GLEAN10014535, mMyc, MRTL, Myc2, myc-a, myc-b, MYCC, Myc-PA, Myc-PB, myc proto-oncogene protein, myc-related translation/localization regulatory factor, myelocytomatosis oncogene, myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, N303_07797, N307_12984, N309_06569, Niard, Nird, oncoprotein myc, PAL_GLEAN10003365, Proto-oncogene c-Myc, RNCMYC, transcription factor Myc, transcription factor p64, TREES_T100017263, uncharacterized ...
ERG (o también V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian)) es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen erg.[1]​[2]​[3]​ La proteína ERG ha demostrado ser capaz de interaccionar con: ETS2[4]​ c-Jun[5]​ «Entrez Gene: ERG v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian)». Reddy ES, Rao VN, Papas TS (septiembre de 1987). «The erg gene: a human gene related to the ets oncogene». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (17): 6131-5. PMC 299022. PMID 3476934. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.17.6131. Rao VN, Modi WS, Drabkin HD, Patterson D, OBrien SJ, Papas TS, Reddy ES (noviembre de 1988). «The human erg gene maps to chromosome 21, band q22: relationship to the 8; 21 translocation of acute myelogenous leukemia». Oncogene 3 (5): 497-500. PMID 3274086. Basuyaux, J P; Ferreira E, Stéhelin D, Butticè G (Oct. de 1997). «The Ets transcription factors interact with each other and with the c-Fos/c-Jun complex via distinct protein domains in a DNA-dependent and -independent ...
La proteína C-ets-2 (V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (avian) o ETS2) es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen ets2.[1]​[2]​ La proteína codificada por este gen pertenece a la familia de los factores de transcripción ETS.[1]​ La proteína ETS2 ha demostrado ser capaz de interaccionar con: ZMYND11[3]​ ERG[4]​ Cdk10[5]​ c-Jun[4]​ Dwyer J, Li H, Xu D, Liu JP (octubre de 2007). «Transcriptional regulation of telomerase activity: roles of the the Ets transcription factor family». Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1114: 36-47. PMID 17986575. doi:10.1196/annals.1396.022. «Entrez Gene: ETS2 V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (avian)». Wei, Guo; Schaffner Alicia Erbe, Baker Kimberly M, Mansky Kim C, Ostrowski Michael C. «Ets-2 interacts with co-repressor BS69 to repress target gene expression». Anticancer Res. (Greece) 23 (3A): 2173-8. ISSN 0250-7005. PMID 12894593. La referencia utiliza el parámetro obsoleto ,coautores= (ayuda) Basuyaux, J P; ...
Seventy-two patients with Rh erythroblastosis were treated with promethazine hydrochloride (P-HCl) during a seven-year period. Compared to the pregnancy outcome of the immediately preceding pregnancies, we have found a significant decrease in perinat
Proteins encoded by oncogenes such as v-fps/fes, v-src, v-yes, v-abl, and v-fgr are cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases which, unlike transmembrane receptors, are localized to the inside of the cell. These proteins possess two contiguous regions of sequence identity: a C-terminal catalytic domain of 260 residues with homology to other tyrosine-specific and serine-threonine-specific protein kinases, and a unique domain of approximately 100 residues which is located N terminal to the kinase region and is absent from kinases that span the plasma membrane. In-frame linker insertion mutations in Fujinami avian sarcoma virus which introduced dipeptide insertions into the most stringently conserved segment of this N-terminal domain in P130gag-fps impaired the ability of Fujinami avian sarcoma virus to transform rat-2 cells. The P130gag-fps proteins encoded by these transformation-defective mutants were deficient in protein-tyrosine kinase activity in rat cells. However v-fps polypeptides derived
A DNA fragment size variant for the growth hormone gene, Gh, has been identified among inbred strains of mice. The inbred strains SM/J and CAST/Ei carry the less frequent allele Ghb and 11 other strains carry the Gha allele. Segregation analysis of data from two crosses involving SM/J and NZB/BINJ and a cross involving BALB/cJ and CAST/Ei confirmed the assignment of Gh to mouse chromosome 11 and placed the locus 2.6 +/- 1.8 map units distal to Erba (avian erythroblastosis oncogene A), a position consistent with the assignment of the Gh locus to the q22-q24 region of chromosome 17 on the human map. Segregation analysis also refined the location of Sparc (secreted acidic cysteine-rich glycoprotein) on mouse chromosome 11 to a position 16.7 +/- 4.2 map units proximal to Evi-2 (ecotropic viral integration site 2).
Gene Information This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that resides in multiple locations in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. It interacts with a wide variety of proteins such as apoptosis antigen Fas centromere protein C and transcription factor erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1. In the nucleus the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. Its repression can be relieved by the sequestration of this protein into promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies or nucleoli. This protein also associates with centromeres in G2 phase. In the cytoplasm the encoded protein may function to regulate apoptosis. The subcellular localization and function of this protein are modulated by post-translational modifications including sumoylation phosphorylation and polyubiquitination. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq Nov 2008]. ...
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If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
stillborn; erythroblastosis fetalis, Rh negative mother, Rhtiter negative; anec due since 10/23/1961; Rhtiter was negative; 40 weeks; 8#7oz ...
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Avian Lymphoid leukosis has been the most common form of the leukosis/sarcoma group of diseases seen in chicken flocks. Members of the leukosis/sarcoma group of avian retroviruses, have similar physical and molecular characteristics and share a common group-specific antigen. Avian leukosis occurs naturally only in chickens. Experimentally, some of the viruses of the leukosis/ sarcoma group can infect and produce tumors in other species of birds or even mammals. VetPCR ALV/RSV Detection Kit is the direct detection of Avian leukosis virus/Rous sarcoma virus on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose very fast and accurately. It can amplify only specific gene using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, and take only 4 hours for detection. Therefore, it is a very fast, accurate and reliable technique.
Avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) infect and cause cancers in chickens. Poultry workers are exposed to ALSV and other infectious agents in the workplace. This study examines if industrial hygiene assessment of antibody levels in poultry workers can identify risky job tasks at the higher exposure risk to an infectious agent, i.e., ALSV. We compared ALSV antibody levels in poultry workers and co
BACKGROUND: The majority of prostate cancers harbor gene fusions of the 5-untranslated region of the androgen-regulated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) promoter with erythroblast transformation-specific transcription factor family members. The common fusion between TMPRESS2 and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) is associated with a more aggressive clinical phenotype, implying the existence of a distinct subclass of prostate cancer defined by this fusion.. METHODS: We used complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, ligation, and extension to determine the expression profiles of 6144 transcriptionally informative genes in archived biopsy samples from 455 prostate cancer patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (1987-1999) and the United States-based Physicians() Health Study cohort (1983-2003). A gene expression signature for prostate cancers with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was determined using partitioning and classification models and used in ...
Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks and its effect on early growth.: Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosi
Rh factor is a red blood cell antigen found in most people. Those with Rh factor are Rh positive, while those without are Rh negative. In this...
All the postings of mine in this whole Blogspot is not my own collection. All are downloaded from internet posted by some one else. I am just saving some time of our Blogspot users to avoid searching everywhere. So none of these are my own videos or pictures. I Am not violating any copy rights law or not any illegal action i am not supposed to do.If anything is against law please notify so that they can be removed. Thanks ...
Induction of lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by replication competent, non-transforming avian retroviruses (Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally...
L. D. Hernandez, Peters, R. J., Delos, S. E., Young, J. A. T., Agard, D. A., and White, J. M., "Activation of a retroviral membrane fusion protein: soluble receptor-induced liposome binding of the ALSV envelope glycoprotein", The Journal of cell biology, vol. 139, no. 6, pp. 1455-1464, 1997. ...
Lewis Thomas, in his semi-autobiographical book The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine-Watcher, reminisced about his father, an internist in the early twentieth century who would sit by his patient, holding his hand while nature affected the cure. There was little else he could offer. Now, after almost 100 years, we have crossed vast frontiers in medicine, from hormones to the immune system to unlocking the promise of genomics. We have relegated diseases such as erythroblastosis to the history books and transformed AIDS from a death sentence to a chronic illness. ...
The line was derived from normal lung tissue from a child who died of erythroblastosis (Rh incompatibility). A normal skin line derived from the same patient is available as ATCC CRL-1497.
Kaoru Fujinami; Shuhei Kameya; Sachiko Kikuchi; Shinji Ueno; Mineo Kondo; Takaaki Hayashi; Kei Shinoda; Shigeki Machida; Kazuki Kuniyoshi; Yuichi Kawamura; Masakazu Akahori; Kazutoshi Yoshitake; Satoshi Katagiri; Ayami Nakanishi; Hiroyuki Sakuramoto; Yoko Ozawa; Kazuo Tsubota; Kunihiko Yamaki; Atsushi Mizota; Hiroko Terasaki; Yozo Miyake; Takeshi Iwata; Kazushige ...
@amistre64 PLZZ I NEED UR HELP!!name for reactants that are affected by enzymes. @SolomonZelman . Enzymes lower the activation energy, they increase ...
1) Make sure the Power Button on the right front of the imager shows a green light. If not press it until the green light comes on and wait 5-10 min for warm up. 2) Open the UV transilluminator drawer on the lower front of the imager and make sure that the XcitaBlue Conversion Screen is in place. If not find it and position it covering the glass. Clean it with water and a paper towel if necessary. 3) Position your gel in the center of the glass. 4) Close the drawer, remove gloves, and wash your hands before using the computer to the left of the imager. 5) Open the ImageLab 4.0.1 software by double clicking on the icon on the computer desktop 6) Find and open the Protocol called SybrSafe under Recent Protocols or from the Open Menu. Double click to open it. 7) Click Position Gel (yellow button) to check the position of your gel. 8) Click Run Protocol (green button) to take the photo. 9) To Save your image (if you are not going to analyze it quantitatively), find or make a folder for your work in ...
Summary Peripheral blood lymphocytes of chickens bearing tumours induced by avian sarcoma virus can be specifically stimulated to divide by the crude culture fluids of virus-infected cells. In this communication, we show that relevant antigenic activity apparently resides in each of the internal virus proteins p15 and p27. The ability of infectious culture fluids to be mitogenic for sensitized lymphocytes is greatly reduced following treatment with antibodies specific for either total avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) protein or for p27.
Citation: Lupiani, B., Williams, S.M., Silva, R.F., Hunt, H.D., Fadly, A.M. 2003. Pathogenicity of two recombinant avian leukosis viruses. Avian Diseases. 47:425-432. Interpretive Summary: Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an economically important virus infection that can cause cancer-like disease and other production problems in meat-type chickens. Previous observations suggest that the virus is mutating at a higher rate, however, information regarding the effect of genetic recombination among various subgroups of ALV on its disease-inducing potential is not known. Understanding the molecular structure and relationships among recombinant strains of ALV-J is an important component of any effort to develop specific diagnostics and effective control programs. Our data show that the disease-inducing potential of two recombinant ALVs containing genetic components of two subgroups namely, A and J differed from that of the parental strains. This new information is significant and should be ...
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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) controls metabolic adaptations. We now show that PGC-1α in skeletal muscle drives the expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) B in an estrogen-related receptor-α-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PGC-1α reduces the expression of LDH A and one of its regulators, the transcription factor myelocytomatosis oncogene. PGC-1α ...
These Ntv-a mice express a transgene expressing the avian cell surface receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis viruses directed by a promoter derived from the human nestin gene.
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Citation: Qin, A., Cui, Z., Lee, L.F., Fadly, A.M. 2001. Cloning and sequence of envelope gene of subgroup j avian leukosis virus. Chinese Journal of Virology. 1:54-59. Interpretive Summary: Avian leukosis subgroup J virus (ALV-J) is an economically important virus that can cause cancer-like disease and other production problems in meat-type chickens. In an attempt to develop specific diagnostics, we used molecular methods to determine the DNA sequence of a field strain of ALV-J termed ADOL-4817. The research showed that the molecular structure of this strain of ALV-J is very similar to that of other ALV-J strains. This information about molecular structure of field strains of ALV-J will help scientists in academia and industry develop better diagnostic tests and more effective control programs. Technical Abstract: The envelope gene of ADOL-4817 strain of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into TA vector. The sequence analysis ...
1AEV: Introduction of novel substrate oxidation into cytochrome c peroxidase by cavity complementation: oxidation of 2-aminothiazole and covalent modification of the enzyme.
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Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta. Among these antibodies are some which attack the red blood cells in the fetus circulation, which are broken down and destroyed (hemolysis). The fetus can develop reticulocytosis and anemia. This fetal disease ranges from mild to very severe, and fetal death from heart failure (hydrops fetalis) can occur. When the disease is moderate or severe, many erythroblasts (immature red blood cells) are present in the fetal blood, and so these forms of the disease can be called erythroblastosis fetalis (or erythroblastosis foetalis). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disease tropism of c-erbB. T2 - Effects of carboxyl-terminal tyrosine and internal mutations on tissue-specific transformation. AU - Pelley, R. J.. AU - Maihle, Nita Jane. AU - Boerkoel, C.. AU - Shu, H. K.. AU - Carter, T. H.. AU - Moscovici, C.. AU - Kung, H. J.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Avian leukosis virus induces erythroleukemia in chickens by proviral insertional mutation of the proto-oncogene c-erbB. The product of the insertionally activated c-erbB locus lacks the extracellular ligand-binding domain and is strictly leukemogenic. It has previously been demonstrated that the disease spectrum associated with aberrant c-erbB expression can be expanded by structural perturbation of the cytoplasmic domain of this protein. In this report, we use mutagenesis and retroviral vectors to identify specific mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the insertionally activated c-erbB product that are sufficient to activate the sarcomagenic potential of this protein. ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To prospectively analyze the factors that are currently used for risk-group assignment (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog [MYCN] copy number by fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH], deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] content by flow cytometry, and tumor histology using the International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification System) in neuroblastoma tumors at the time of diagnosis.. II. To maintain a reference bank containing clinically and genetically characterized frozen tumor tissue, tumor DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA), histology slides and paraffin blocks, neuroblastoma-derived cell lines, patient serum and paired normal DNA obtained at the time of diagnosis, at the time of second-look surgery and at the time of relapse for future research studies.. III. To prospectively analyze 1p, 11q, 14q and 17q allelic status, MYCN copy number by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and the expression pattern of neurotrophin-related ...
Morbidity is low but mortality high. Mortality tends to be chronically higher than normal for a prolonged period. Egg production is somewhat reduced. There may be increased susceptibility to other infectious diseases due to damage to the immune system. Vertical transmission is most important by infection of the egg white in infected breeders (who are long-term carriers), lateral transmission is poor but infection may occur by the faecal-oral route, especially in young birds. In lymphoid leukosis the incubation period is about 4-6 months; it may be as short as 6 weeks for some of the other manifestations. The causative viruses are rapidly inactivated at ambient temperature and on exposure to most disinfectants ...
After exsanguinotransfusion had been tried and abandoned during the 17th century it was not used again until recently, when total replacement of blood was reintroduced by American clinicians for the treatment of fetal erythroblastosis. Bessis1 in 1947 used exsanguinotransfusions in adults for the treatment of leukemia and later recommended the same method for the treatment of uremic patients, especially in cases of uremia due to acute anuria.2 The quantities of dialyzable substances (urea, non-protein-nitrogen, etc.) removed during an exsanguinotransfusion are considerably smaller than those removed by the artificial kidney or with peritoneal irrigation.3 Bessis himself reports that one exsanguinotransfusion usually ...
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Looking for online definition of RNA tumor virus in the Medical Dictionary? RNA tumor virus explanation free. What is RNA tumor virus? Meaning of RNA tumor virus medical term. What does RNA tumor virus mean?
To the Editor: In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection and tumors in commercial layer chickens and breeders of egg-type chickens have been emerging in the Peoples Republic of China. ALV-J was first isolated from meat-type chickens with myeloid leukosis in 1988. Although egg-type chickens have been experimentally infected with ALV-J to induce tumors (1), field cases of ALV-J infection and tumors in commercial layer chickens were not found worldwide until 2004 (2).. ALV-J has recently been found to have induced various tumors and caused production problems in commercial layer flocks and local chicken breeds in China (2,3). Many field cases of ALV-J infection and tumors have occurred in 15- to 29-week-old egg-type chickens in several provinces. Affected flocks had dramatically reduced egg production and hemorrhage in the skin surrounding the phalanges and feather follicles. Some birds had gray-white nodules in the liver, spleen, or kidneys, and liver and spleen ...
The other group of antigens found in RBCs is the Rh Factor. The Rh antigen that is used most often is the D antigen or Rho(D). If this Rh antigen is found on a persons RBCs they are Rh positive, if not then they are Rh negative. Rh+ doesnt make antibodies against antigens, but Rh- does. Rh+ is the more common condition then Rh-. This process is very important during pregnancy. The Rh Factor can cause problems when an Rh- Mother has Rh+ babies. During birth the mother can be exposed to Rh+ blood from the fetus. So when the mother gets pregnant again she will produce Rh antibodies. Erythroblastosis fetalis- happens when Rh antibodies from the mother cross the placenta and combines with Rh+ antigens on the fetal blood cells causing hemolysis of the fetal RBCs. This can cause many health issues and even can cause a still born baby. There are medications out now that can prevent this condition to happen. ...
Rolf Erb, former head of the Erb Group, which went bust in 2003 with debts of CHF2 billion ($1.98 billion), died of natural causes.
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Purified preparations of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) appear to lack the endogenous RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity present in most, if not all, avian RNA tumor viruses. Although no endogenous RNA-directed DNA polymerase could be detected in REV, we have been able to demonstrate the presence of a virion-associated DNA polymerase by employing exogenous synthetic homopolymers as template .primer. A comparison of the REV-associated DNA polymerase activity with the RNA-directed DNA polymerase of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) reveals similarities in the preference of the enzymes to utilize certain synthetic template .primer complexes containing ribopolymers as template. For example, both enzymes prefer poly(rA) .oligo(dT),, to poly(dA) .oligo(dT),, as template .primer. In addition, poly(rC) .oligo(dG)lo appears to be efficiently utilized by the REV DNA polymerase under conditions whereby a DNA-directed DNA polymerase does not utilize this synthetic homopolymer as template.primer. Although the REV 70
BioAssay record AID 416251 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of quorum sensing-regulated chitinase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa NH57388A mucoid isolate harboring GFP-fused avian sarcoma virus lasB gene assessed as enzyme activity per cell at 2 ug/mL after 24 hrs relative to control.
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Alpharetrovirus - WikipediaAlpharetrovirus - Wikipedia

Alpharetrovirus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ICTVdb Viralzone: Alpharetrovirus. ... Alpharetrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. It has type C morphology. Members can cause sarcomas, other tumors, and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpharetrovirus

Retrovirus - WikipediaRetrovirus - Wikipedia

Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SsRNA-RT_virus

Retrovirus - WikipediaRetrovirus - Wikipedia

Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retrovirus

Virus-Taxonomie - WikipediaVirus-Taxonomie - Wikipedia

Genus Alpharetrovirus. *Genus Betaretrovirus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus. *Genus Deltaretrovirus. *Genus Epsilonretrovirus. *Genus ...
more infohttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus-Taxonomie

Avian carcinoma Mill Hill virus 2 - WikispeciesAvian carcinoma Mill Hill virus 2 - Wikispecies

Genus: Alpharetrovirus Species: Avian carcinoma Mill Hill virus 2 Name[edit]. Avian carcinoma Mill Hill virus 2 ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Avian_carcinoma_Mill_Hill_virus_2

Retroviridae - The Full WikiRetroviridae - The Full Wiki

Alpharetrovirus. Betaretrovirus. Gammaretrovirus. Deltaretrovirus. Epsilonretrovirus. Lentivirus. Subfamily: Spumaretrovirinae ... Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Retroviridae

Frontiers | MicroRNAs in the Host Response to Viral Infections of Veterinary Importance | Veterinary ScienceFrontiers | MicroRNAs in the Host Response to Viral Infections of Veterinary Importance | Veterinary Science

Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the genus Alpharetrovirus of the Retroviridae family. This virus is capable of inducing ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2016.00086/full

ASMscience | Retroviral DNA TransposiASMscience | Retroviral DNA Transposi

The single cell reproductive cycle of the alpharetrovirus, ALV. The virus life cycle is divided into an early phase that ... The single cell reproductive cycle of the alpharetrovirus, ALV. The virus life cycle is divided into an early phase that ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555819217.chap48

Frontiers | The roles of lipids and nucleic acids in HIV-1 assembly | MicrobiologyFrontiers | The roles of lipids and nucleic acids in HIV-1 assembly | Microbiology

Importin beta family members mediate alpharetrovirus Gag nuclear entry via interactions with MA and NC. J. Virol. 80, 1798-1806 ... and an alpharetrovirus (RSV), betaretrovirus (MPMV), gammaretrovirus (MLV), and deltaretrovirus (HTLV-2) are depicted. In each ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00253/full

Nomenclature for endogenous retrovirus (ERV) loci | Retrovirology | Full TextNomenclature for endogenous retrovirus (ERV) loci | Retrovirology | Full Text

... and Alpharetrovirus/Betaretrovirus-related (AB). Placeholder groups are reserved for ERVs that do not group within the ... and Alpharetrovirus/Betaretrovirus-related (AB). Placeholder groups (indicated by coloured squares) are reserved for ERVs that ...
more infohttps://retrovirology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12977-018-0442-1

Nucleic Acid Binding by Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus CA Promotes Virus Assembly and Genome Packaging | Journal of VirologyNucleic Acid Binding by Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus CA Promotes Virus Assembly and Genome Packaging | Journal of Virology

Importin-beta family members mediate alpharetrovirus gag nuclear entry via interactions with matrix and nucleocapsid. J Virol ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/90/9/4593

An Amino Acid in the Central Catalytic Domain of Three Retroviral Integrases That Affects Target Site Selection in Nonviral DNA...An Amino Acid in the Central Catalytic Domain of Three Retroviral Integrases That Affects Target Site Selection in Nonviral DNA...

That these data were obtained with two lentiviruses and an alpharetrovirus suggests that this finding is a general property of ... We have now extended these findings to the integrases of a nonprimate lentivirus and a more distantly related alpharetrovirus. ... and a more distantly related alpharetrovirus (Rous sarcoma virus [RSV], formerly classified in the Oncovirinae retrovirus ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/77/6/3838?ijkey=199ac6e48aa2ded637f4b749d6944b2c0c6a8138&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A minor tyrosine phosphorylation site located within the CAIN domain plays a critical role in regulating tissue-specific...A minor tyrosine phosphorylation site located within the CAIN domain plays a critical role in regulating tissue-specific...

TY - JOUR. T1 - A minor tyrosine phosphorylation site located within the CAIN domain plays a critical role in regulating tissue-specific transformation by erbB kinase. AU - Chan, C. M.. AU - Shu, H. K.G.. AU - Ravi, L.. AU - Pelley, R. J.. AU - Shu, H.. AU - Kung, H. J.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Avian c-erbB encodes a protein that is homologous to the human epidermal growth factor receptor. Truncation of the amino-terminal, ligand-binding domain of this receptor results in an oncogene product which is a potent inducing agent for erythroleukemias but not fibrosarcomas in chickens. Here we show that mutation of a single tyrosine residue, p5, in the carboxyl terminus of the erbB oncogene product allows it to become sarcomagenic in vivo and to transform fibroblasts in vitro. Mutations of other autophosphorylation sites do not generate comparable effects. The increased transforming activity of the p5 mutant is accompanied by an elevated level of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/a-minor-tyrosine-phosphorylation-site-located-within-the-cain-dom

Shopping Page. Buy or upgrade website.   - Healthmatics | Page 62Shopping Page. Buy or upgrade website. - Healthmatics | Page 62

The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS ...
more infohttp://healthmatics.info/products-page/62/

November | 2016 | Veterian KeyNovember | 2016 | Veterian Key

Keywords Retroviruses; oncogene; alpharetrovirus; betareovirus; lentivirus Chapter Outline Properties of…. read more ...
more infohttps://veteriankey.com/2016/11/

Alterations in the genomes of avian sarcoma viruses.  - authors@Fred HutchAlterations in the genomes of avian sarcoma viruses. - [email protected] Hutch

Alpharetrovirus/genetics; Animals; Cell Line; Cell Transformation, Viral; DNA Restriction Enzymes; DNA, Viral/analysis; ...
more infohttp://authors.fhcrc.org/109/

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

alpharetrovirus (1) 1 Filter by. Remove filter. alpharetrovirus - genetics (1) 1 Filter by. Remove filter. amino acid motifs (1 ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Dumay-Odelot,%20H%C3%A9l%C3%A8ne

Qin) Infection of the chANXA2-transfected cells.Geese  | Open-iQin) Infection of the chANXA2-transfected cells.Geese | Open-i

Alpharetrovirus/genetics/metabolism*. *Annexin A2/biosynthesis*/genetics. *Avian Proteins/biosynthesis*/genetics. *Receptors, ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4300512_srep07935-f4&req=4

Discovery of endogenous viruses | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesDiscovery of endogenous viruses | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

In chickens, an immunological assay for Gag antigen was used to screen flocks to determine whether they harboured the alpha-retrovirus ... This finding indicated that the alpha-retrovirus endogenous sequences had colonized the germ-line very recently in evolution, ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/368/1626/20120494

Read-Only Case Details   Reviewed: May 2010Read-Only Case Details Reviewed: May 2010

Avian Leukosis Virus: The avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses are a group of a single-stranded, RNA, oncogenic alpharetrovirus; ...
more infohttp://www.askjpc.org/vspo/show_page.php?id=cEpJWlovZFZHb1JZWlVxMG1TaXFBUT09

Viruses | The Pirbright InstituteViruses | The Pirbright Institute

It belongs to the Alpharetrovirus genus of the family Retroviridae. It is divided into subgroups A, B, C, D, E and J, depending ...
more infohttp://www.pirbright.ac.uk/viruses-page/a

Human transposable elements in Repbase: genomic footprints from fish to humans | Mobile DNA | Full TextHuman transposable elements in Repbase: genomic footprints from fish to humans | Mobile DNA | Full Text

No ERV2 elements closely related to Alpharetrovirus were detected. HERVK is the only lineage of ERVs that has continued to ...
more infohttps://mobilednajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13100-017-0107-y
  • We have now extended these findings to the integrases of a nonprimate lentivirus and a more distantly related alpharetrovirus. (asm.org)