A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.
A specific bacteriochlorophyll that is similar in structure to chlorophyll a.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Organisms that live in water.
*Medically unexceptional, the Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental body of water that separates Southern Europe from Northern Africa and the Middle East, infamous for historical epidemics like plague, which have significantly shaped human health history.*
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.
A genus of facultatively or obligately anaerobic marine phototrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
A genus of rod-shaped, oval, or bean-shaped bacteria found in soil and fresh water. Polar prosthecae are present and cells reproduce by budding at the tips of the prosthecae. Cells of this genus are aerobic and grow best with one-carbon compounds. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A phylum of gram-negative bacteria containing seven class-level groups from a wide variety of environments. Most members are chemoheterotrophs.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "North Sea" is geographical and refers to the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, located between eastern England, east Scotland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France, rather than having a medical definition.
A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the world's five oceans, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. It doesn't have a direct medical definition, as it is not a medical term.
A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Pacific Ocean" is a geographical term referring to the largest ocean in the world, covering an area of about 63,800,000 square miles (165,200,000 square kilometers), and it is not a medical term.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Phylogenetic analysis of Piscirickettsia salmonis by 16S, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 23S ribosomal DNA sequencing. (1/608)

Piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiologic agent of piscirickettsiosis, is a systemic disease of salmonid fish. Variations in virulence and mortality have been observed during epizootics at different geographical regions and in laboratory experiments with isolates from these different locations. This raises the possibility that biogeographical patterns of genetic variation might be a significant factor with this disease. To assess the genetic variability the 16S ribosomal DNA, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the 23S ribosomal DNA of isolates from 3 different hosts and 3 geographic origins were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of this analysis confirm that P. salmonis is a member of the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria and show that the isolates form a tight monophyletic cluster with 16S rDNA similarities ranging from 99.7 to 98.5%. The ITS regions were 309 base pairs (bp), did not contain tRNA genes, and varied between isolates (95.2 to 99.7% similarity). Two-thirds of the 23S rRNA gene was sequenced from 5 of the isolates, yielding similarities ranging from 97.9 to 99.8%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the 16S rDNA, ITS and 23S rDNA sequence data and compared. The trees were topologically similar, suggesting that the 3 types of molecules provided similar phylogenetic information. Five of the isolates are closely related (> 99.4% 16S rDNA similarity, 99.1% to 99.7% ITS and 99.3 to 99.8% 23S rDNA similarities). The sequence of one Chilean isolate, EM-90, was unique, with 16S rDNA similarities to the other isolates ranging from 98.5 to 98.9%, the ITS from 95.2 to 96.9% and the 23S rDNA from 97.6 to 98.5%.  (+info)

Transformation of sulfur compounds by an abundant lineage of marine bacteria in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria. (2/608)

Members of a group of marine bacteria that is numerically important in coastal seawater and sediments were characterized with respect to their ability to transform organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. Fifteen strains representing the Roseobacter group (a phylogenetic cluster of marine bacteria in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria) were isolated from seawater, primarily from the southeastern United States. Although more than one-half of the isolates were obtained without any selection for sulfur metabolism, all of the isolates were able to degrade the sulfur-containing osmolyte dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) with production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Five isolates also degraded DMSP with production of methanethiol, indicating that both cleavage and demethylation pathways for DMSP occurred in the same organism, which is unusual. Five isolates were able to reduce dimethyl sulfoxide to DMS, and several isolates also degraded DMS and methanethiol. Sulfite oxygenase activity and methanesulfonic acid oxygenase activity were also present in some of the isolates. The ability to incorporate the reduced sulfur in DMSP and methanethiol into cellular material was studied with one of the isolates. A group-specific 16S rRNA probe indicated that the relative abundance of uncultured bacteria in the Roseobacter group increased in seawater enriched with DMSP or DMS. Because this group typically accounts for >10% of the 16S ribosomal DNA pool in coastal seawater and sediments of the southern United States, clues about its potential biogeochemical role are of particular interest. Studies of culturable representatives suggested that the group could mediate a number of steps in the cycling of both organic and inorganic forms of sulfur in marine environments.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of the soluble methane monooxygenase of the type II methanotrophic bacterium Methylocystis sp. strain WI 14. (3/608)

Methane monooxygenase (MMO) catalyzes the oxidation of methane to methanol as the first step of methane degradation. A soluble NAD(P)H-dependent methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from the type II methanotrophic bacterium WI 14 was purified to homogeneity. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA and comparison with that of other known methanotrophic bacteria confirmed that strain WI 14 is very close to the genus Methylocystis. The sMMO is expressed only during growth under copper limitation (<0.1 microM) and with ammonium or nitrate ions as the nitrogen source. The enzyme exhibits a low substrate specificity and is able to oxidize several alkanes and alkenes, cyclic hydrocarbons, aromatics, and halogenic aromatics. It has three components, hydroxylase, reductase and protein B, which is involved in enzyme regulation and increases sMMO activity about 10-fold. The relative molecular masses of the native components were estimated to be 229, 41, and 18 kDa, respectively. The hydroxylase contains three subunits with relative molecular masses of 57, 43, and 23 kDa, which are present in stoichiometric amounts, suggesting that the native protein has an alpha(2)beta(2)gamma(2) structure. We detected 3.6 mol of iron per mol of hydroxylase by atomic absorption spectrometry. sMMO is strongly inhibited by Hg(2+) ions (with a total loss of enzyme activity at 0.01 mM Hg(2+)) and Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+) ions (95, 80, and 40% loss of activity at 1 mM ions). The complete sMMO gene sequence has been determined. sMMO genes from strain WI 14 are clustered on the chromosome and show a high degree of homology (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) to the corresponding genes from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylocystis sp. strain M, and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).  (+info)

Poly(aspartic acid) degradation by a Sphingomonas sp. isolated from freshwater. (4/608)

A poly(aspartic acid) degrading bacterium (strain KT-1 [JCM10459]) was isolated from river water and identified as a member of the genus Sphingomonas. The isolate degraded only poly(aspartic acid)s of low molecular masses (<5 kDa), while the cell extract hydrolyzed high-molecular-mass poly(aspartic acid)s of 5 to 150 kDa to yield aspartic acid monomer.  (+info)

Characterization of a separate small domain derived from the 5' end of 23S rRNA of an alpha-proteobacterium. (5/608)

We demonstrate the presence of a separate processed domain derived from the 5' end of 23S rRNA in ribosomes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris, a member of the alpha-++proteobacteria. Previous sequencing studies predicted intervening sequences (IVS) at homologous positions within the 23S rRNA genes of several alpha-proteobacteria, including R.palustris, and we find a processed 23S rRNA 5' domain in unfractionated RNA from several species. 5.8S rRNA from eukaryotic cytoplasmic large subunit ribosomes and the bacterial processed 23S rRNA 5' domain share homology, possess similar structures and are both derived by processing of large precursors. However, the internal transcribed spacer regions or IVSs separating them from the main large subunit rRNAs are evolutionarily unrelated. Consistent with the difference in sequence, we find that the site and mechanism of IVS processing also differs. Rhodopseudomonas palustris IVS-containing RNA precursors are cleaved in vitro by Escherichia coli RNase III or a similar activity present in R.palustris extracts at a processing site distinct from that found in eukaryotic systems and this results in only partial processing of the IVS. Surprisingly, in a reaction unlike characterized cases of eubacterial IVS processing, an RNA segment larger than the corresponding DNA insertion is removed which contains conserved sequences. These sequences, by analogy, serve to link the 23S rRNA 5' rRNA domains or 5.8S rRNAs to the main portion of other prokaryotic 23S rRNAs or to eukaryotic 28S rRNAs, respectively.  (+info)

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and related members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis. (6/608)

Cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis was identified in 12 dogs, of which 11 were seroreactive to Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii antigens. Historical abnormalities were highly variable but frequently included substantial weight loss, syncope, collapse, or sudden death. Fever was an infrequently detected abnormality. Cardiac disease was diagnosed following an illness of short duration in most dogs, but a protracted illness of at least 6 months' duration was reported for four dogs. Valvular endocarditis was diagnosed echocardiographically or histologically in eight dogs, two of which also had moderate to severe multifocal myocarditis. Four dogs lacking definitive evidence of endocarditis were included because of seroreactivity to B. vinsonii antigens and uncharacterized heart murmurs and/or arrhythmias. Alpha proteobacteria were not isolated from the blood by either conventional or lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques. Using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene, B. vinsonii was identified in the blood or heart valves of three dogs. DNA sequence alignment of PCR amplicons derived from blood or tissue samples from seven dogs clustered among members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria and suggested the possibility of involvement of one or more alpha proteobacteria; however, because of the limited quantity of sequence, the genus could not be identified. Serologic or molecular evidence of coinfection with tick-transmitted pathogens, including Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Babesia gibsonii, or spotted fever group rickettsiae, was obtained for seven dogs. We conclude that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and closely related species of alpha proteobacteria are an important, previously unrecognized cause of arrhythmias, endocarditis, myocarditis, syncope, and sudden death in dogs.  (+info)

Oxidation of methyl halides by the facultative methylotroph strain IMB-1. (7/608)

Washed cell suspensions of the facultative methylotroph strain IMB-1 grown on methyl bromide (MeBr) were able to consume methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl iodide (MeI) as well as MeBr. Consumption of >100 microM MeBr by cells grown on glucose, acetate, or monomethylamine required induction. Induction was inhibited by chloramphenicol. However, cells had a constitutive ability to consume low concentrations (<20 nM) of MeBr. Glucose-grown cells were able to readily oxidize [(14)C]formaldehyde to (14)CO(2) but had only a small capacity for oxidation of [(14)C]methanol. Preincubation of cells with MeBr did not affect either activity, but MeBr-induced cells had a greater capacity for [(14)C]MeBr oxidation than did cells without preincubation. Consumption of MeBr was inhibited by MeI, and MeCl consumption was inhibited by MeBr. No inhibition of MeBr consumption occurred with methyl fluoride, propyl iodide, dibromomethane, dichloromethane, or difluoromethane, and in addition cells did not oxidize any of these compounds. Cells displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the various methyl halides, with apparent K(s) values of 190, 280, and 6,100 nM for MeBr, MeI, and MeCl, respectively. These results suggest the presence of a single oxidation enzyme system specific for methyl halides (other than methyl fluoride) which runs through formaldehyde to CO(2). The ease of induction of methyl halide oxidation in strain IMB-1 should facilitate its mass culture for the purpose of reducing MeBr emissions to the atmosphere from fumigated soils.  (+info)

Characterization and identification of numerically abundant culturable bacteria from the anoxic bulk soil of rice paddy microcosms. (8/608)

Most-probable-number (liquid serial dilution culture) counts were obtained for polysaccharolytic and saccharolytic fermenting bacteria in the anoxic bulk soil of flooded microcosms containing rice plants. The highest viable counts (up to 2.5 x 10(8) cells per g [dry weight] of soil) were obtained by using xylan, pectin, or a mixture of seven mono- and disaccharides as the growth substrate. The total cell count for the soil, as determined by using 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, was 4.8 x 10(8) cells per g (dry weight) of soil. The nine strains isolated from the terminal positive tubes in counting experiments which yielded culturable populations that were equivalent to about 5% or more of the total microscopic count population belonged to the division Verrucomicrobia, the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides division, clostridial cluster XIVa, clostridial cluster IX, Bacillus spp., and the class Actinobacteria. Isolates originating from the terminal positive tubes of liquid dilution series can be expected to be representatives of species whose populations in the soil are large. None of the isolates had 16S rRNA gene sequences identical to 16S rRNA gene sequences of previously described species for which data are available. Eight of the nine strains isolated fermented sugars to acetate and propionate (and some also fermented sugars to succinate). The closest relatives of these strains (except for the two strains of actinobacteria) were as-yet-uncultivated bacteria detected in the same soil sample by cloning PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes (U. Hengstmann, K.-J. Chin, P. H. Janssen, and W. Liesack, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:5050-5058, 1999). Twelve other isolates, which originated from most-probable-number counting series indicating that the culturable populations were smaller, were less closely related to cloned 16S rRNA genes.  (+info)

Alphaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes a diverse range of bacterial species that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and the surfaces of plants and animals. Some notable members of Alphaproteobacteria include the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which form symbiotic relationships with the roots of leguminous plants, as well as the pathogenic bacteria Rickettsia, which are responsible for causing diseases such as typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

The Alphaproteobacteria class is further divided into several orders, including Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Caulobacterales. These orders contain a variety of bacterial species that have different characteristics and ecological roles. For example, members of the order Rhizobiales are known for their ability to fix nitrogen, while members of the order Rhodobacterales include photosynthetic bacteria that can use light as an energy source.

Overall, Alphaproteobacteria is a diverse and important group of bacteria that play various roles in the environment and in the health of plants and animals.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Rhodobacteraceae is a family of purple nonsulfur bacteria within the class Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic or aerobic, and can perform photosynthesis under appropriate conditions. They are widely distributed in various environments such as freshwater, marine, and terrestrial habitats. Some members of this family are capable of nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and sulfur oxidation. They play important roles in biogeochemical cycles and have potential applications in wastewater treatment and bioenergy production.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Proteobacteria is a major class of Gram-negative bacteria that includes a wide variety of pathogens and free-living organisms. This class is divided into six subclasses: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta proteobacteria. Proteobacteria are characterized by their single circular chromosome and the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their outer membrane. They can be found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some notable examples of Proteobacteria include Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Rhodospirillaceae is a family of purple bacteria within the class Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, using bacteriochlorophyll and other pigments to capture light energy for use in metabolism. They typically contain one or more polar flagella and have a spiral or curved cell shape. Members of this family can be found in various environments such as freshwater, marine habitats, and soil, where they play important roles in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Some species are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, making them significant contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.

Gammaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of Gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several important pathogens that can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Some examples of Gammaproteobacteria include Escherichia coli (a common cause of food poisoning), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections), Vibrio cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague).

Gammaproteobacteria are characterized by their single flagellum, which is used for motility, and their outer membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides that can elicit an immune response in host organisms. They are found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the guts of animals. Some species are capable of fixing nitrogen, making them important contributors to nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

It's worth noting that while Gammaproteobacteria includes many pathogenic species, the majority of proteobacteria are not harmful and play important roles in various ecological systems.

Rhodospirillales is an order of predominantly gram-negative, aerobic or anaerobic, motile bacteria that are found in various environments such as freshwater, marine habitats, and soil. Many species in this order are capable of photosynthesis, particularly those belonging to the family Rhodospirillaceae. These photosynthetic bacteria, called purple bacteria, use bacteriochlorophyll and can grow under anaerobic conditions using light as an energy source. The order Rhodospirillales belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria.

It is important to note that medical definitions typically focus on bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms of clinical relevance. While Rhodospirillales does include some species that can be pathogenic in certain circumstances, it is not primarily a medical term and is more commonly used in the context of environmental or general microbiology.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

Beijerinckiaceae is a family of bacteria within the order Rhizobiales. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile, and chemoorganotrophic, meaning they obtain energy by oxidizing organic compounds. They are commonly found in soil, water, and plant root nodules. Some members of this family have the ability to fix nitrogen, making them important for agriculture and the global nitrogen cycle. The family is named after the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Willem Beijerinck, who made significant contributions to the study of bacteria and their role in nitrogen fixation.

Bacteriochlorophyll A is a type of pigment-protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. It plays a crucial role in the process of anaerobic photosynthesis, where it absorbs light energy and converts it into chemical energy through a series of reactions.

The structure of bacteriochlorophyll A is similar to that of chlorophylls found in plants and cyanobacteria, but with some key differences. One major difference is the type of light that it absorbs. While chlorophylls absorb light primarily in the blue and red regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, bacteriochlorophyll A absorbs light in the near-infrared region, between 700 and 1000 nanometers.

Bacteriochlorophyll A is an essential component of the photosynthetic apparatus in purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria, which are two groups of photosynthetic bacteria that live in environments with low light levels. These bacteria use bacteriochlorophyll A to capture light energy and power the synthesis of ATP and NADPH, which are used to fuel the production of organic compounds from carbon dioxide.

In summary, bacteriochlorophyll A is a type of pigment-protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria that plays a crucial role in anaerobic photosynthesis by absorbing light energy and converting it into chemical energy through a series of reactions.

Acetobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of converting ethanol into acetic acid, a process known as oxidative fermentation. These bacteria are commonly found in environments such as fruits, flowers, and the gut of insects. They are also used in the industrial production of vinegar and other products. Some members of this family can cause food spoilage or infections in humans with weakened immune systems.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Paracoccus" is not a medical term itself, but it is a genus name in the family of bacteria called "Paracoccaceae." The bacteria belonging to this genus are typically found in various environments such as soil, water, and sewage. Some species of Paracoccus have been reported to cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, such infections are rare.

In a medical context, if a patient has an infection caused by a bacterium identified as Paracoccus, it would typically be described using the specific species name (e.g., Paracoccus yeei) and information about the site of infection, symptoms, and treatment approach.

"Roseobacter" is not a medical term, but a genus of bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as seawater, marine sediments, and associated with marine organisms. These bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in the ocean. They are often studied in the context of microbial ecology and environmental microbiology, rather than medical research.

'Biota' is a term that refers to the total collection of living organisms in a particular habitat, ecosystem, or region. It includes all forms of life such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Biota can be used to describe the communities of living things in a specific area, like a forest biota or marine biota, and it can also refer to the study of these organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. In medical contexts, 'biota' may specifically refer to the microorganisms that inhabit the human body, such as the gut microbiota.

Betaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several genera of bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, and can be found in soil, water, and various organisms including humans. Some members of Betaproteobacteria are important pathogens, causing diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Other members of this class are capable of breaking down environmental pollutants, making them useful in bioremediation applications.

Heterotrophic processes refer to the metabolic activities carried out by organisms that cannot produce their own food and have to obtain energy by consuming other organisms or organic substances. These organisms include animals, fungi, and most bacteria. They obtain energy by breaking down complex organic molecules from their environment using enzymes, a process known as respiration or fermentation. The end products of this process are often carbon dioxide, water, and waste materials. This is in contrast to autotrophic processes, where organisms (like plants) synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

'Aquatic organisms' are living beings that inhabit bodies of water, such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and ponds. This group includes a wide variety of species, ranging from tiny microorganisms like plankton to large marine mammals like whales. Aquatic organisms can be divided into several categories based on their specific adaptations to their environment, including:

1. Plankton: small organisms that drift with the water currents and include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton).
2. Nekton: actively swimming aquatic organisms, such as fish, squid, and marine mammals.
3. Benthos: organisms that live on or in the bottom of bodies of water, including crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and some types of algae.
4. Neuston: organisms that live at the air-water interface, such as certain species of insects and small fish.

Aquatic organisms play a critical role in maintaining the health and balance of aquatic ecosystems, providing food and habitat for other species, and contributing to global nutrient cycling and climate regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Mediterranean Sea" is a geographical term referring to the body of water located between Europe and Africa, and it is not a medical term. It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar in the west and to the Red Sea through the Suez Canal in the east. The Mediterranean Sea is known for its unique climate and biodiversity. If you have any questions related to medical or health topics, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Rickettsiaceae is a family of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are primarily parasitic in arthropods and mammals. They are the causative agents of several important human diseases, including typhus fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and rickettsialpox. These bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods such as ticks, fleas, or lice.

The bacteria in Rickettsiaceae are small, non-motile, and have a unique bipolar appearance with tapered ends. They can only replicate inside host cells, where they manipulate the host cell's machinery to create a protective niche for themselves. This makes them difficult to culture and study outside of their hosts.

Rickettsiaceae bacteria are divided into several genera based on their genetic and antigenic characteristics, including Rickettsia, Orientia, and Coxiella. Each genus contains several species that can cause different diseases in humans. For example, Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, while Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus.

Overall, Rickettsiaceae bacteria are important pathogens that can cause serious and sometimes fatal diseases in humans. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics is essential for a successful outcome.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Ochrobactrum is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical samples. The bacteria are often resistant to multiple antibiotics and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.

Ochrobactrum species have been isolated from a variety of clinical specimens, including blood, urine, respiratory tract secretions, wounds, and the genitourinary tract. They have been associated with various types of infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and catheter-related infections.

The clinical significance of Ochrobactrum infections is not well understood due to their low virulence and the difficulty in distinguishing them from other gram-negative bacteria. However, they can be challenging to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones.

In summary, Ochrobactrum is a genus of environmental bacteria that can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The clinical significance of these infections is not well understood, but they can be challenging to treat due to their antibiotic resistance.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rhodovulum" is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic genus name in the field of microbiology. It belongs to the family of purple sulfur bacteria, Rhodospirillaceae, and includes several species of photosynthetic, gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments. These bacteria are capable of using light as an energy source and sulfur compounds as electron donors during photosynthesis. They play a role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements such as carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen in various ecosystems.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

I apologize for any confusion, but "wetlands" is a term related to environmental science and ecology rather than medicine. Wetlands are transitional areas between land and water that are characterized by the presence of water, which can be permanent or temporary. They are critical ecosystems that provide various important functions, such as water filtration, flood control, and habitat for diverse plant and animal life, including many species of migratory birds.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, please don't hesitate to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hyphomicrobium" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the bacterial kingdom, specifically within the class Betaproteobacteria. These are typically aerobic, motile bacteria that are often found in soil and water environments. They play a role in various biogeochemical processes such as denitrification and carbon cycling. If you have any questions related to biological or environmental sciences, I'd be happy to help with those!

Bacteroidetes is a large phylum of gram-negative, predominantly anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, including humans. They play an important role in the breakdown and fermentation of complex carbohydrates in the gut, producing short-chain fatty acids as a byproduct. Some species of Bacteroidetes have also been identified as opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals or under certain conditions.

The medical relevance of Bacteroidetes lies in their role in maintaining gut homeostasis, modulating the immune system, and protecting against pathogenic bacteria. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, including changes in the abundance and diversity of Bacteroidetes, has been associated with various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the ecology and function of Bacteroidetes is important for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Sewage is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine. Sewage is the wastewater that is produced by households and industries, which contains a variety of contaminants including human waste, chemicals, and other pollutants. It can contain various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause diseases in humans if they come into contact with it or consume contaminated food or water. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of sewage is essential to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and protect public health.

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to separate and analyze DNA fragments (or PCR products) based on their melting behavior. This technique is particularly useful for the analysis of complex DNA mixtures, such as those found in environmental samples or in studies of microbial communities.

In DGGE, the DNA samples are subjected to an increasing gradient of denaturing agents (such as urea and formamide) during electrophoresis. As the DNA fragments migrate through the gel, they begin to denature (or melt) at specific points along the gradient, depending on their sequence and base composition. This results in a distinct melting profile for each DNA fragment, which can be visualized as a band on the gel.

The technique allows for the separation of DNA fragments that differ by only a few base pairs, making it a powerful tool for identifying and comparing different DNA sequences within a mixture. DGGE is often used in conjunction with PCR to amplify specific regions of interest in the DNA sample, such as genes or operons involved in specific metabolic pathways. The resulting PCR products can then be analyzed by DGGE to identify and compare different sequence variants (or "types") within a population.

Overall, DGGE is a valuable tool for studying the diversity and composition of complex DNA mixtures, and has applications in fields such as microbial ecology, molecular biology, and genetic engineering.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

"Gluconobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of oxidizing various alcohols and sugars into their corresponding acids. These bacteria are often found in fruit, flowers, and sap, as well as in fermented foods and beverages. They are known for their ability to rapidly and efficiently oxidize glucose into gluconic acid, which gives them their name. Some species of Gluconobacter can also cause disease in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In medical contexts, Gluconobacter species may be associated with infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, and peritonitis.

Verrucomicrobia is a phylum of bacteria that includes both free-living and symbiotic species. These bacteria are characterized by their unique cell wall structure, which contains a specific type of polysaccharide called Verrucomicrobial polysaccharides. They are widely distributed in various environments, including soil, freshwater, marine habitats, and the guts of animals. Some members of this phylum have been found to play important roles in biogeochemical cycles and in host-associated microbiomes. However, a medical definition of Verrucomicrobia is not commonly used as they are not typically associated with specific human diseases or medical conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North Sea" is not a medical term. It refers to the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, located between eastern England, eastern Scotland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health science, I'd be happy to help with those!

Sphingomonadaceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical samples. They are characterized by the presence of sphingophospholipids in their outer membrane, which differentiates them from other gram-negative bacteria.

Members of this family are often rod-shaped or coccoid and may be motile or nonmotile. Some species have the ability to degrade various organic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons.

Sphingomonadaceae includes several genera of medical importance, such as Sphingomonas, Sphingopyxis, and Novosphingobium. These bacteria have been associated with various infections in humans, including bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, they are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens, and their clinical significance is not well understood.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

"Ochrobactrum anthropi" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is found in various environments, including soil, water, and clinical samples. It is a conditional pathogen, meaning it can cause infection under certain circumstances, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Infections caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi are often associated with medical devices or procedures, such as catheter-related bacteremia, pneumonia, and wound infections. It is inherently resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging.

Quinones are a class of organic compounds that contain a fully conjugated diketone structure. This structure consists of two carbonyl groups (C=O) separated by a double bond (C=C). Quinones can be found in various biological systems and synthetic compounds. They play important roles in many biochemical processes, such as electron transport chains and redox reactions. Some quinones are also known for their antimicrobial and anticancer properties. However, some quinones can be toxic or mutagenic at high concentrations.

Plankton is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of marine biology. Plankton are tiny organisms that live in water and are unable to move independently against the current or tide. They include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton). Phytoplankton are photosynthetic and serve as the base of the ocean food chain, while zooplankton consume phytoplankton and in turn serve as a food source for larger animals. Plankton are important for understanding the health and productivity of aquatic ecosystems.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the five oceans on Earth. It doesn't have a medical definition. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface. It stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, alternatively, to the Antarctica region) in the south, and is bounded by the Americas to the west and Europe and Africa to the east.

Methylocystaceae is a family of aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacteria within the order Rhizobiales. These bacteria are capable of using methane as their sole source of carbon and energy for growth, a process known as methanotrophy. Methylocystaceae are unique among methanotrophs because they possess a type II methanotrophic pathway, which involves the assimilation of formaldehyde into biomass via the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle.

The family Methylocystaceae contains several genera, including Methylocystis, Methylosinus, and Methylocapsa. These bacteria are commonly found in a variety of environments, such as soils, freshwater, and marine systems, where they play an important role in the global carbon cycle by converting methane into carbon dioxide.

It's worth noting that medical professionals may not typically use the term Methylocystaceae in a clinical context, but rather in research or environmental settings related to microbiology and ecology.

Sphingomonas is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment. They are known for their ability to degrade various organic compounds and are often found in water, soil, and air samples. The cells of Sphingomonas species are typically straight or slightly curved rods, and they do not form spores.

One distinctive feature of Sphingomonas species is the presence of a unique lipid called sphingolipid in their cell membranes. This lipid contains a long-chain base called sphingosine, which is not found in the cell membranes of other gram-negative bacteria. The genus Sphingomonas includes several species that have been associated with human infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can include bacteremia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. However, Sphingomonas species are generally considered to be of low virulence and are not typically regarded as major pathogens.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, is the movement of genetic material between organisms in a manner other than from parent to offspring (vertical gene transfer). In horizontal gene transfer, an organism can take up genetic material directly from its environment and incorporate it into its own genome. This process is common in bacteria and archaea, but has also been observed in eukaryotes including plants and animals.

Horizontal gene transfer can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Transformation: the uptake of free DNA from the environment by a cell.
2. Transduction: the transfer of genetic material between cells by a virus (bacteriophage).
3. Conjugation: the direct transfer of genetic material between two cells in physical contact, often facilitated by a conjugative plasmid or other mobile genetic element.

Horizontal gene transfer can play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of organisms, allowing them to acquire new traits and functions rapidly. It is also of concern in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and antibiotic resistance, as it can facilitate the spread of genes that confer resistance or other undesirable traits.

Phototrophic processes refer to the metabolic pathways used by certain organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, to convert light energy into chemical energy. This is primarily achieved through a process called photosynthesis, where these organisms use light, usually from the sun, to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The glucose serves as an energy source for the organism, while the oxygen is released as a byproduct. This process is fundamental to life on Earth as it provides the majority of the oxygen in our atmosphere and forms the base of many food chains.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. They are characterized by the unique structure of their cell walls, membranes, and ribosomes. Archaea were originally classified as bacteria, but they differ from bacteria in several key ways, including their genetic material and metabolic processes.

Archaea can be found in a wide range of environments, including some of the most extreme habitats on Earth, such as hot springs, deep-sea vents, and highly saline lakes. Some species of Archaea are able to survive in the absence of oxygen, while others require oxygen to live.

Archaea play important roles in global nutrient cycles, including the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. They are also being studied for their potential role in industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels and the treatment of wastewater.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Pacific Ocean" is a geographical term referring to the largest single body of saltwater on Earth, extending from the Arctic in the north to the Antarctic in the south. It covers an area of about 63,800,000 square miles (165,200,000 square kilometers).

If you're looking for a medical term or definition, I'd be happy to help with that as well. Could you please provide more context?

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oceans and Seas" are not medical terms. Generally speaking, an ocean is a large body of saltwater that covers a majority of the Earth's surface, and a sea is a smaller body of saltwater that may be partially enclosed by land. However, if you have any questions related to marine biology or environmental science, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Fluid waste disposal in a medical context refers to the proper and safe management of liquid byproducts generated during medical procedures, patient care, or research. These fluids can include bodily excretions (such as urine, feces, or vomit), irrigation solutions, blood, or other biological fluids.

The process of fluid waste disposal involves several steps:

1. Collection: Fluid waste is collected in appropriate containers that are designed to prevent leakage and contamination.
2. Segregation: Different types of fluid waste may require separate collection and disposal methods based on their infectious or hazardous nature.
3. Treatment: Depending on the type and volume of fluid waste, various treatments can be applied, such as disinfection, sterilization, or chemical neutralization, to reduce the risk of infection or harm to the environment and personnel.
4. Disposal: Treated fluid waste is then disposed of according to local regulations, which may involve transporting it to a designated waste management facility for further processing or disposal in a safe and environmentally friendly manner (e.g., deep well injection, incineration, or landfilling).
5. Documentation and tracking: Proper records should be maintained to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and to enable effective monitoring and auditing of the waste disposal process.

It is essential to handle fluid waste disposal carefully to minimize the risk of infection, protect the environment, and maintain regulatory compliance. Healthcare facilities must adhere to strict guidelines and regulations regarding fluid waste management to ensure the safety of patients, staff, and the community.

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Biological pigments are substances produced by living organisms that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect others, resulting in the perception of color. These pigments play crucial roles in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, vision, and protection against harmful radiation. Some examples of biological pigments include melanin, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids.

Melanin is a pigment responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in animals, including humans. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that contains a porphyrin ring with an iron atom at its center, which gives blood its red color and facilitates oxygen transport. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria that absorbs light during photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Carotenoids are orange, yellow, or red pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and some animals that protect against oxidative stress and help maintain membrane fluidity. Flavonoids are a class of plant pigments with antioxidant properties that have been linked to various health benefits.

Water purification is the process of removing or reducing contaminants in water to make it safe and suitable for specific uses, such as drinking, cooking, irrigation, or medical purposes. This is typically achieved through physical, chemical, or biological methods, or a combination thereof. The goal is to eliminate or reduce harmful substances like bacteria, viruses, parasites, heavy metals, pesticides, and other pollutants that can cause illness or negatively impact human health, aquatic life, or the environment.

The specific purification methods used may vary depending on the nature of the contaminants and the desired level of purity for the intended use. Common techniques include filtration (using various types of filters like activated carbon, ceramic, or reverse osmosis), disinfection (using chemicals like chlorine or UV light to kill microorganisms), sedimentation (allowing particles to settle and be removed), and distillation (heating water to create steam, which is then condensed back into pure water).

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Actinobacteria are a group of gram-positive bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and various organic substrates. They are characterized by their high G+C content in their DNA and complex cell wall composition, which often contains mycolic acids. Some Actinobacteria are known to form branching filaments, giving them a characteristic "actinomycete" morphology. Many species of Actinobacteria have important roles in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For example, some produce antibiotics, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds, while others play key roles in biogeochemical cycles such as the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Additionally, some Actinobacteria are pathogenic and can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Porifera, also known as sponges, is a phylum of multicellular aquatic organisms characterized by having pores in their bodies. These pores allow water to circulate through the body, bringing in food and oxygen while expelling waste products. Sponges do not have true tissues or organs; instead, they are composed of specialized cells that perform specific functions. They are generally sessile (non-mobile) and live attached to rocks, coral reefs, or other underwater structures. Some species can be quite large, while others are microscopic in size. Sponges have a long fossil record dating back over 500 million years and play important roles in marine ecosystems as filter feeders and habitat providers for many other marine organisms.

Metagenomics is the scientific study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. This field of research involves analyzing the collective microbial genomes found in a variety of environments, such as soil, ocean water, or the human gut, without the need to culture individual species in a lab. By using high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and computational tools, metagenomics allows researchers to identify and study the functional potential and ecological roles of diverse microbial communities, contributing to our understanding of their impacts on ecosystems, health, and disease.

"Sinorhizobium meliloti" is a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria that forms nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, such as alfalfa and clover. These bacteria have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can then be used by the plant for growth and development. This symbiotic relationship benefits both the bacterium and the plant, as the plant provides carbon sources to the bacterium, while the bacterium provides the plant with a source of nitrogen.

"Sinorhizobium meliloti" is gram-negative, motile, and rod-shaped, and it can be found in soil and root nodules of leguminous plants. It has a complex genome consisting of a circular chromosome and several plasmids, which carry genes involved in nitrogen fixation and other important functions. The bacteria are able to sense and respond to various environmental signals, allowing them to adapt to changing conditions and establish successful symbioses with their host plants.

In addition to its agricultural importance, "Sinorhizobium meliloti" is also a model organism for studying the molecular mechanisms of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and bacterial genetics.

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

Ubiquinone, also known as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a lipid-soluble benzoquinone that plays a crucial role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain as an essential component of Complexes I, II, and III. It functions as an electron carrier, assisting in the transfer of electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) to molecular oxygen during oxidative phosphorylation, thereby contributing to the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

Additionally, ubiquinone acts as a potent antioxidant in both membranes and lipoproteins, protecting against lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Its antioxidant properties stem from its ability to donate electrons and regenerate other antioxidants like vitamin E. Ubiquinone is synthesized endogenously in all human cells, with the highest concentrations found in tissues with high energy demands, such as the heart, liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles.

Deficiency in ubiquinone can result from genetic disorders, aging, or certain medications (such as statins), leading to impaired mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Supplementation with ubiquinone has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for various conditions associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Korea" is not a medical term. It refers to a region in East Asia that is divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea).

If you're looking for medical terms, I'd be happy to help. Could you please provide more context?

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Anthozoa is a major class of marine animals, which are exclusively aquatic and almost entirely restricted to shallow waters. They are classified within the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, sea anemones, and hydroids. Anthozoans are characterized by their lack of medusa stage in their life cycle, as they exist solely as polyps.

This class is divided into two main subclasses: Hexacorallia (also known as Zoantharia) and Octocorallia (also known as Alcyonaria). The primary differences between these subclasses lie in the structure of their polyps and the composition of their skeletons.

1. Hexacorallia: These are commonly referred to as 'stony' or 'hard' corals, due to their calcium carbonate-based skeletons. They have a simple polyp structure with six-fold symmetry (hence the name Hexacorallia), featuring 6 tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Hexacorallia include reef-building corals, sea fans, and black corals.
2. Octocorallia: These are also called 'soft' corals or 'leather' corals because they lack a calcium carbonate skeleton. Instead, their supporting structures consist of proteins and other organic compounds. Octocorallia polyps exhibit eight-fold symmetry (hence the name Octocorallia), with eight tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Octocorallia include sea fans, sea whips, and blue corals.

Anthozoa species are primarily found in tropical and subtropical oceans, but some can be found in colder, deeper waters as well. They play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by providing habitats and shelter for various other marine organisms, particularly on coral reefs. Additionally, they contribute to the formation of limestone deposits through their calcium carbonate-based skeletons.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

Nitrates are chemical compounds that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to three oxygen atoms (NO3-). In the context of medical science, nitrates are often discussed in relation to their use as medications or their presence in food and water.

As medications, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain) caused by coronary artery disease. Nitrates work by relaxing and widening blood vessels, which improves blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Some examples of nitrate medications include nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, and isosorbide mononitrate.

In food and water, nitrates are naturally occurring compounds that can be found in a variety of vegetables, such as spinach, beets, and lettuce. They can also be present in fertilizers and industrial waste, which can contaminate groundwater and surface water sources. While nitrates themselves are not harmful, they can be converted into potentially harmful compounds called nitrites under certain conditions, particularly in the digestive system of young children or in the presence of bacteria such as those found in unpasteurized foods. Excessive levels of nitrites can react with hemoglobin in the blood to form methemoglobin, which cannot transport oxygen effectively and can lead to a condition called methemoglobinemia.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

The Magnetococcales and Mariprofundales are considered basal or sister to the Alphaproteobacteria. The Alphaproteobacteria are ... The phylogeny of Alphaproteobacteria has constantly been revisited and updated. There are some debates for the inclusion of ... "Alphaproteobacteria, not assigned to a family". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved June ... Alphaproteobacteria at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Phylogeny ...
Alphaproteobacteria in China". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 4 (3): 248-50. doi:10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60079-5. ...
in the class Alphaproteobacteria". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 64 (Pt 9): 3075-3080. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.063685-0. PMID 24944335. ... nov.) in the "Alphaproteobacteria"". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 55 (Pt 5): 2033-2037. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63684-0. PMID 16166706 ...
Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others ... Garrity, G.M.; Bell, J.A.; Lilburn, T. (2005). "Class I. Alphaproteobacteria class. nov.". In Brenner, D.J.; Krieg, N.R.; ... The mitochondria of eukaryotes are thought to be descendants of an alphaproteobacterium. The Betaproteobacteria are highly ... Thermithiobacillus Alphaproteobacteria: Brucella, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Caulobacter, Rickettsia, Wolbachia, etc. ...
nov.) in the Alphaproteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55 (Pt 5): 2033-2037. doi ...
in the class Alphaproteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 67 (9): 3375-3380. doi: ...
proposed the family Xanthobacteraceae based on a comparison of 16S rRNA of the members of Alphaproteobacteria. The family ... Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 709-726. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30197-1_258. ISBN ... "Multiphyletic origins of methylotrophy in Alphaproteobacteria, exemplified by comparative genomics of Lake Washington isolates ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Front. Microbiol. 11: 468. doi: ...
CcrM homologs in Alphaproteobacteria have an 80 residues C terminal domain, with non well characterized function. CcrM is ... Alphaproteobacteria are organisms with different life stages from free living to substrate associated, some of them are ... Also CcrM gene has proven to be essential for the viability of various Alphaproteobacteria. CcrM is a type II DNA ... CcrM is essential in other Alphaproteobacteria but is role is not yet determined. CcrM is a highly specific methyltransferase ...
The genus Azospirillum belongs in the alpha-Proteobacteria class of bacteria. Azospirillum are gram-negative, do not form ... 2014). The Prokaryotes: Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007 ...
4-46, a species of alphaproteobacteria. The motif is presumed to function as a non-coding RNA. Weinberg Z, Wang JX, Bogue J, ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. Hördt A, García López M, Meier-Kolthoff JP, Schleuning M, Weinhold LM, Tindall ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Front. Microbiol. 11: 468. doi: ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. Dedysh SN, Haupt ES, Dunfield PF (2016). "Emended description of the ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Front. Microbiol. 11: 468. doi: ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. Hördt A, García López M, Meier-Kolthoff JP, Schleuning M, Weinhold LM, Tindall ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Front. Microbiol. 11: 468. doi: ...
Many Alphaproteobacteria have two circular molecules. In some cases, such as Brucella melitensis, both appear chromosome-like ... Alphaproteobacteria) and Identification of Putative Virulence Factors". Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 2553. doi:10.3389/fmicb. ...
However, the exact relationship of the ancestor of mitochondria to the alphaproteobacteria and whether the mitochondrion was ... Wang S, Luo H (June 2021). "Dating Alphaproteobacteria evolution with eukaryotic fossils". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 3324 ... "Site-and-branch-heterogeneous analyses of an expanded dataset favour mitochondria as sister to known Alphaproteobacteria". ... "Deep mitochondrial origin outside the sampled alphaproteobacteria". Nature. 557 (7703): 101-105. Bibcode:2018Natur.557..101M. ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Frontiers in Microbiology. 11: 468 ...
... is a genus of Alphaproteobacteria. Pankratov TA, Grouzdev DS, Patutina EO, Kolganova TV, Suzina NE, ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. Dahal RH, Chaudhary DK, Kim J (2018). "Pinisolibacter ravus gen. nov., ...
Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteria orders, All stub articles, Alphaproteobacteria stubs). ... nov.) at the base of the Alphaproteobacteria". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 63 (Pt 3): 801-808. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.038927-0. PMID ... The Magnetococcales were an order of Alphaproteobacteria, but now the mitochondria are considered as sister to the ... Wang S, Luo H (June 2021). "Dating Alphaproteobacteria evolution with eukaryotic fossils". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 3324 ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Front. Microbiol. 11: 468. doi: ...
... is a genus of Alphaproteobacteria. Sun L, Liu H, Chen W, Huang K, Lyu W, Gao X (2018). "Alsobacter soli sp. nov., a ...
Sällström, B; Andersson, SG (October 2005). "Genome reduction in the alpha-Proteobacteria". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 8 ...
nov.) at the base of the Alphaproteobacteria". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 63 (Pt 3): 801-808. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.038927-0. PMID ... Magnetococcus is a genus of Alphaproteobacteria. List of bacterial orders List of bacteria genera Bazylinski DA, Williams TJ, ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Frontiers in Microbiology. 11: 468 ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. Kulichevskaya IS, Danilova OV, Tereshina VM, Kevbrin VV, Dedysh SN (2014). " ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. Hördt, A; García López, M; Meier-Kolthoff, JP; Schleuning, M; Weinhold, L-M; ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Front. Microbiol. 11: 468. doi: ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with ... Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Front. Microbiol. 11: 468. doi: ...
... is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. Cole JK, Morton BR, Cardamone HC, Lake HR, Dohnalkova AC, Kim YM, Kyle ...
... are an order of the Alphaproteobacteria. Gene transfer agents are viruslike elements produced by ...
The Magnetococcales and Mariprofundales are considered basal or sister to the Alphaproteobacteria. The Alphaproteobacteria are ... The phylogeny of Alphaproteobacteria has constantly been revisited and updated. There are some debates for the inclusion of ... "Alphaproteobacteria, not assigned to a family". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved June ... Alphaproteobacteria at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Phylogeny ...
Evidence for a second class of S-adenosylmethionine riboswitches and other regulatory RNA motifs in alpha-proteobacteria. * ... Evidence for a second class of S-adenosylmethionine riboswitches and other regulatory RNA motifs in alpha-proteobacteria ... Evidence for a second class of S-adenosylmethionine riboswitches and other regulatory RNA motifs in alpha-proteobacteria. ... of long intergenic repeat sequences associated with DNA methylation sites in Caulobacter crescentus and other alpha-proteobacteria ...
the #Proteobacteria phylum is divided into six classes (previously regarded as subclasses of the phylum): Alphaproteobacteria, ... higher incidence of class Alphaproteobacteria, order #Rhodospirillales, order #Flavobacteriales, and family #Flavobacteriaceae ... https://www.metabiom.org/microbiota/1026/alphaproteobacteria. Keywords: Microbiome, Dysbiosis, Microbiota, Organism, Bacteria ...
Alphaproteobacteria. Methylobacteriaceae. 1. Candidatus Roseomonas massiliae (AF531769). 99.9% (AF538712). 98.8% (AF533352). ...
nov., a carotenoid-producing alphaproteobacterium isolated from coastal seawater. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
10, Pages 235: Nitrogen Removal Characteristics and Constraints of an Alphaproteobacteria with Potential for High Nitrogen ... 10, Pages 235: Nitrogen Removal Characteristics and Constraints of an Alphaproteobacteria with Potential for High Nitrogen ... 10, Pages 235: Nitrogen Removal Characteristics and Constraints of an Alphaproteobacteria with Potential for High Nitrogen ...
Classis: Alphaproteobacteria Ordo: Rhizobiales Familia: Xanthobacteraceae. Genus: Xanthobacter Species: Xanthobacter ...
All 3 are forms of Alphaproteobacteria.. Like Rickettsia, Ehrlichia organisms gain access to the blood via a bite from an ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Pseudomonadota; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; Rickettsiaceae; Rickettsieae; ...
The class Alphaproteobacteria was almost equal or slightly higher in the port side station except April 2014. Among other ... The class Alphaproteobacteria followed by the class Gammaproteobacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria and the class ... Because of their dominancy, the class Flavobacteriia and Alphaproteobacteria were further analysed at a lower phylogenetic ... As the class Flavobacteriia and Alphaproteobacteria were 2 most dominant classes in both the stations throughout study periods ...
Categories: Alphaproteobacteria Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Among the moderately susceptible species, Alphaproteobacteria was generally more dominant in DL tissues. Alphaproteobacteria ... While Alphaproteobacteria was ubiquitous across all tissue sample types of O. faveolata, this class was more abundant in DL ... In the DU and AH tissues of P. strigosa, however, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Gammaproteobacteria were similarly ... Finally, for S. siderea, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups of bacteria ...
Alphaproteobacteria. LSU. GAM42a. GCCTTCCCACATCGTTT. Gammaproteobacteria. Documentation A comprehensive list of probes can be ...
nov., a novel phototrophic alphaproteobacterium from a saltern T. N. R. Srinivas, P. Anil Kumar, Ch. Sasikala, Ch. V. Ramana ... nov., a novel alphaproteobacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll a, and a proposal for reclassification of Stappia aggregata ... Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JA173T clusters with the class Alphaproteobacteria; ...
lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After a 6-h fermentation, 83.27% of total sugars detected after inoculation ... several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important ...
A genome phylogeny for mitochondria among alpha-proteobacteria and a predominantly eubacterial ancestry of yeast nuclear genes. ...
Alphaproteobacteria [B03.660.050]. *Rhizobiaceae [B03.660.050.730]. *Sinorhizobium [B03.660.050.730.835]. *Sinorhizobium ...
ompP1 is predicted to form a β-barrel; Omp3b from Brucella abortus and homologs from various Alphaproteobacteria that are ... found mainly in Alphaproteobacteria. The Major Outer Membrane Protein (ompP1) is found in various strains of Coxiella burnetti ...
Alphaproteobacteria accounted for 35%, and the Betaproteobacteria accounted for 39.0%. The bacteria in the Proteobacteria are ...
Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 49.7%), Gammaproteobacteria (18.4%) and Alphaproteobacteria (10.0%) were the most ... Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 49.7%), Gammaproteobacteria (18.4%) and Alphaproteobacteria (10.0%) were the most ... Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 49.7%), Gammaproteobacteria (18.4%), Alphaproteobacteria (10.0%), Bacilli (7.0%) and ... and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were enriched in homes from the farm area; the latter taxa might ...
... mainly Alphaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. Different bacterial communities were observed in ... mainly Alphaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. Different bacterial communities were observed in ...
Alphaproteobacteria;NA;NA;NA RSV_genus805 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Alphaproteobacteria;OCS116_clade;NA;NA RSV_genus806 Bacteria; ... Alphaproteobacteria;Rhizobiales;JG35-K1-AG5;NA RSV_genus843 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Alphaproteobacteria;Rhizobiales;KF-JG30-B3; ... Alphaproteobacteria;NA;NA RSV_family283 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Alphaproteobacteria;OCS116_clade;NA RSV_family284 Bacteria; ... Alphaproteobacteria;Rhizobiales;JG35-K1-AG5 RSV_family296 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Alphaproteobacteria;Rhizobiales;KF-JG30-B3 ...
The maternally inherited alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia has been proposed as a tool to block transmission of devastating ...
... abundant beta-Proteobacteria and Erysipelotrichi in CuMF rats as well as abundant alpha-Proteobacteria in CuAF rats were ...
SOURCE Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6 ORGANISM Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6 Bacteria; Pseudomonadota; Alphaproteobacteria; ...
... whereas Alphaproteobacteria were growing relatively slowly and used fewer substrates. This finding suggests that growth and ...
Alphaproteobacteria - Preferred Concept UI. M0328413. Scope note. A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two ...
In the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense magnetosomes consist of chains of magnetite crystals (Fe3O4) that ... The discovery of Mic60 homologs among alphaproteobacteria, the closest extant relatives of mitochondria, suggested that cristae ... The development of intracytoplasmic membranes in alphaproteobacteria involves the conserved mitochondrial crista-developing ... and both their disruption and overexpression lead to enlarged ICMs in both studied alphaproteobacteria. We also found that ...
Protein secretion and outer membrane assembly in Alphaproteobacteria. Gatsos, X ; Perry, AJ ; Anwari, K ; Dolezal, P ; Wolynec ... The Alphaproteobacteria in particular seem prone to gene loss and show the presence or absence of specific components mediating ... analysis of outer membrane biogenesis in Alphaproteobacteria, the bacterial group that gave rise to mitochondria, also promises ...
Alphaproteobacteria; Hyphomicrobium; MreB; Rhizobiales; Rhodomicrobium; multicellularity;. Institutions of the University:. ... vannielii is a multicellular and differentiating member of the order Hyphomicrobiales in the class Alphaproteobacteria. Here, ...
  • Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Pseudomonadota (formerly Proteobacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, such as Pelagibacter ubique, are alphaproteobacteria that are a widely distributed and may constitute over 10% of the open ocean microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses and conserved indels in large numbers of other proteins provide evidence that Alphaproteobacteria have branched off later than most other phyla and Classes of Bacteria except Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Container water was significantly more diverse than mosquitoes, and our data suggest that mosquitoes filter out many bacteria, with Alphaproteobacteria in particular being far more abundant in water. (cdc.gov)
  • In the Canada Basin, the most abundant bacterial groups in two sites of water at 10m depth were the Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. (gbif.org)
  • Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 49.7%), Gammaproteobacteria (18.4%) and Alphaproteobacteria (10.0%) were the most abundant bacterial classes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mesocosms with silver carp, Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased in abundance while. (usgs.gov)
  • A recent phylogenomic study suggests the placement of the protomitochondrial clade between Magnetococcidae and all other alphaproteobacterial taxa, which suggests an early divergence of the protomitochondrial lineage from the rest of alphaproteobacteria, except for Magnetococcidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Class Alphaproteobacteria is divided into three subclasses Magnetococcidae, Rickettsidae and Caulobacteridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.2 ] - higher incidence of class Alphaproteobacteria , order #Rhodospirillales , order #Flavobacteriales , and family #Flavobacteriaceae in female with #Bladder cancer . (metabiom.org)
  • In addition to the primary symbionts, up to 5 other bacterial phylotypes belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria (Blazejak et al. (mpi-bremen.de)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences positioned the isolates in the class Alphaproteobacteria within the family Rhodospirillaceae. (univ-brest.fr)
  • Comparative analyses of the sequenced genomes have also led to discovery of many conserved insertion-deletions (indels) in widely distributed proteins and whole proteins (i.e. signature proteins) that are distinctive characteristics of either all Alphaproteobacteria, or their different main orders (viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Alphaproteobacteria are highly diverse and possess few commonalities, but nevertheless share a common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Alphaproteobacteria are a diverse taxon and comprise several phototrophic genera, several genera metabolising C1-compounds (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • nov., a novel phototrophic purple non-sulfur alphaproteobacterium from marine tides of Visakhapatnam, India. (microbiologyresearch.org)