Risk appraisal of narcotic sedation for children.
Since the use of narcotics was initially advocated 28 years ago, serious adverse reactions, including fatalities, have been reported. At least four factors appear to contribute to these reactions: multiple drug administration, excessive dosage, inadequate monitoring, and ineffectual emergency care. Because of the relatively high incidence of life-threatening reactions and the complexity of the required emergency care, the routine use of pediatric sedation techniques that require large doses of narcotics cannot be advocated for use in the private office. (+info
Effects of variable alphaprodine dose levels on arterial blood gases in rhesus monkeys.
The administration of alphaprodine submucosally in doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg to ketaminized rhesus monkeys resulted in Po(2) levels significantly lower than those observed for controls (ketamine only) at the 10 min level. There was a significant increase in Po(2) levels between the 10 and 20 min intervals, thereafter, Po(2) levels returned toward normal and were not statistically different from baseline. Higher alphaprodine doses (1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg) resulted in a non-significant increase in Pco(2) values. Monitoring Po(2) levels during sedation seems preferable to monitoring Pco(2) in view of the findings of this study. (+info
Conscious sedation for minor gynecologic surgery in the ambulatory patient. A pilot study.
A conscious sedation regimen consisting of alphaprodine, hydroxyzine, and methohexital together with intensive behavior modification was evaluated in an open pilot study for patients undergoing minor gynecologic surgery. This combination was found to result in hemodynamic stability, satisfactory patient compliance, and patient and surgeon acceptance. Patients were unable to recognize words taught to them just after drugs were administered.Electroencephalogram (EEG) changes seen in general anesthesia or deep sedation were not found in the EEG records of a subset of patients. These findings suggest that conscious sedation can provide adequate relief of pain and anxiety for minor gynecologic procedures when local anesthesia can achieve only partial pain relief. (+info
The effect of narcotic analgesics on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine and (-)-metaraminol by blood platelets.
1. The effects of narcotic analgesic and related drugs were studied on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and (-)-metaraminol by blood platelets.2. The most potent drug in inhibiting the uptake of 5-HT (10 muM) by human platelets was methadone, followed by pentazocine>piminodine approximately pethidine approximately anileridine approximately cyclazocine approximately thebaine > dextropropoxyphene. Alphaprodine, papaverine, apomorphine, nalorphine, codeine, and morphine were almost without effect. Methadone was slightly less active than desipramine, and had 10% of the activity of imipramine under similar conditions. Naloxone did not antagonize the effect of methadone on 5-HT uptake.3. The most potent inhibitor of metaraminol (3 muM) uptake by human platelets was piminodine, followed by pentazocine>/=anileridine>cyclazocine=methadone > dextropropoxyphene approximately thebaine >/= papaverine approximately alphaprodine >pethidine>morphine. The activity of morphine was 1% of that of piminodine. Piminodine was more potent than desipramine and protriptyline under similar conditions. The order of potency of drugs studied in inhibiting the uptake of metaraminol by rabbit platelets was similar to that obtained with human platelets.4. The effects of the analgesics studied on inhibiting uptake of monoamines did not correlate with their pain-relieving properties. (+info
Opioid analgesics in anesthesia: with special reference to their use in cardiovascular anesthesia.
In this article, an attempt has been made to review the use of receptor stimulating pure agonist opioids in anesthesia, especially in patients with cardiovascular disease. Particular emphasis has been placed on the use of opioids in high doses to produce anesthesia, techniques that recently have become popular in cardiovascular anesthesia. A major benefit of opioid anesthesia is the cardiovascular stability obtained during induction and throughout operation, even in patients with severely impaired cardiac function. There is a considerable body of evidence to support this claim when fentanyl is used. Anesthetic doses of morphine are associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disturbances and other problems, and, therefore, more attention to detail is required in order to achieve adequate anesthesia and hemodynamic stability. Although other opioids have been used as sole or principal agents in anesthesia for cardiovascular surgery, none have gained widespread acceptance. Meperidine, for example, which is widely used in lower (nonanesthetic) doses as a supplement to nitrous oxide in cardiac and noncardiac surgery, has proved unsuitable because of severe hemodynamic disturbances when high doses are given. However, initial reports concerning two of the newer agonist opioids, sufentanil and alfentanil, suggest that they may prove to be suitable alternatives and perhaps provide advantages over morphine and fentanyl in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. Although cardiovascular stability usually can be assured in the chronically sick cardiac patient with opioid anesthesia, this is not always so with the healthier patient, particularly those presenting for coronary artery surgery. A frequently occurring problem in these patients is hypertension during or after sternotomy, which can result in myocardial ischemia and infarction. The incidence of severe hypertension (increases in systolic blood pressure greater than 20% of control values) can be reduced drastically by increasing the dose of opioid, e.g., up to 140 micrograms/kg of fentanyl. However, despite such large doses, some patients will continue to need treatment with vasodilators, inhalation anesthetics, or other supplements at certain periods during cardiovascular operations. The use of very large doses of opioids also will prolong postoperative respiratory depression. High doses of opioids can reduce or prevent the hormonal and metabolic responses to the stress of surgery. However, even very large doses of fentanyl or its newer analogues do not prevent marked increases in plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to cardiopulmonary bypass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) (+info
Neonatal neurobehavioral effects of inhalation analgesia for vaginal delivery.
The authors studied the neonatal neurobehavioral effects of nitrous oxide:oxygen and enflurane:oxygen inhalation analgesia for vaginal delivery. Parturients were assigned randomly to receive no inhalation agent (Group 1, n = 21); enflurane, 0.3 to 0.8 per cent, and oxygen (Group 2, n = 22); or nitrous oxide, 30 to 50 per cent, and oxygen (Group 3, n = 18). Infants were tested at 15 min, 2 h, and 24 h of age using the Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS); and at 2 and 24 h using the Early Neonatal Neurobehavioral Scale (ENNS). No significant differences in neurobehavioral status occurred. For all groups, scores tended to be lowest at two hours of age. We conclude that neither enflurane nor nitrous oxide analgesia adversely affects neonatal neurobehavioral status at 15 min, 2 h, or 24 h of age. (+info