Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.DNA Probes, HPV: DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)GermanyBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Famous PersonsBence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Petunia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.ArchivesPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Journal ArticleBibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Obstetric Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the pregnant woman for conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. It does not include surgery of the newborn infant.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.

Cell cycle dysregulation in oral cancer. (1/450)

The dysregulation of the molecular events governing cell cycle control is emerging as a central theme of oral carcinogenesis. Regulatory pathways responding to extracellular signaling or intracellular stress and DNA damage converge on the cell cycle apparatus. Abrogation of mitogenic and anti-mitogenic response regulatory proteins, such as the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB), cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6, and CDK inhibitors (p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27(KIP1), and p16(INK4a)), occur frequently in human oral cancers. Cellular responses to metabolic stress or genomic damage through p53 and related pathways that block cell cycle progression are also altered during oral carcinogenesis. In addition, new pathways and cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as p12(DOC-1), are being discovered. The multistep process of oral carcinogenesis likely involves functional alteration of cell cycle regulatory members combined with escape from cellular senescence and apoptotic signaling pathways. Detailing the molecular alterations and understanding the functional consequences of the dysregulation of the cell cycle apparatus in the malignant oral keratinocyte will uncover novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.  (+info)

Modulation of apoptosis by human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins. (2/450)

The regulation of host-mediated apoptosis by the E6 and E7 oncoproteins has garnered attention because it is believed to be an important strategy employed by high-risk (HR)-human papillomaviruses (HPVs) to evade immune surveillance. Additionally, the revelation that E5 can protect cells from tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis suggests that it may also play a role in undermining host defense mechanisms. Cellular transformation is an unintended consequence of persistent infection by HR-HPVs, and it is therefore likely that the primary function of E5, E6 and E7 is to regulate cell survival throughout the normal viral life cycle in order to ensure viral replication and promote the spread of progeny. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the regulation of host-mediated apoptosis by E5, E6 and E7 that describes the mechanisms employed by HR-HPVs to persist in the host and create the conditions necessary for cellular transformation.  (+info)

Vaccines for the prevention of human papillomavirus infections. (3/450)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the known cause of almost all cases of cervical cancer. An understanding of the HPV genome has allowed the development of two prophylactic vaccines capable of protecting against both persistent HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with 100% efficacy in fully vaccinated women. The vaccines, manufactured by Merck (Gardasil, which was approved by the US FDA in June, 2006) and GlaxoSmithKline (Cervarix, which will be submitted for US FDA approval by the end of 2006), both target HPV types 16 and 18, which together account for 70% of cervical cancer. Merck vaccine also targets HPV 6 and 11, covering =90% of genital warts. These vaccines are highly immunogenic and have an excellent safety profile. HPV vaccines promise to offer an exciting contribution to healthcare and cancer prevention. However, many questions remain concerning who to vaccinate, the duration of protection, cost, public acceptance, and the potential for worldwide distribution.  (+info)

Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cavity and oropharynx. (4/450)

The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the oral cavity and oropharynx has not yet been as well studied as its infection of the vaginal tract. However, new study are emerge after the development of molecular biology techniques. The objective of this study is to show the prevalence of HPV in the oral cavity and the oropharynx. An ample bibliographic review was done showing a prevalence of HPV 6, 11 in a normal oral mucous membrane (latent infection). In oral benign lesions associated with HPV, a prevalence of HPV 6 and 11 was observed in squamous cell papilloma (SCP) and condylomas acuminatum, while HPV 2 and 57 were more prevalent in verruca vulgaris lesions. As for focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) and oral cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the prevalence was of HPV 13 and 32, and HPV 16, respectively. The last findings are, nonetheless, controversial. The last findings are, nonetheless, controversial. Showed also discrepancy result the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in normal oral mucous (latent infection) and in oral cancer, however evidenced confirmatory result in oral benign lesions associated with virus.  (+info)

Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections in the female genital tract. (5/450)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.  (+info)

Reducing the health burden of HPV infection through vaccination. (6/450)

Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection and the etiologic cause of genital warts and cervical cancer, is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women. Although cervical screening procedures have significantly reduced the disease burden associated with HPV infection, they are expensive and abnormal results cause significant emotional distress. Therefore, prevention may be an effective strategy for reducing the economic, psychosocial, and disease burden of HPV infection. Multivalent vaccines are now in clinical development. A bivalent vaccine that protects against HPV 16 and 18, and a quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, have been shown to significantly reduce the occurrence of incident and persistent HPV infections in phase 2 clinical trials; phase 3 trials are currently underway. HPV vaccines will be most effective when administered prior to initiation of sexual activity, and vaccination campaigns should aggressively target preadolescent and adolescent populations.  (+info)

E6/E7 expression of human papillomavirus type 20 (HPV-20) and HPV-27 influences proliferation and differentiation of the skin in UV-irradiated SKH-hr1 transgenic mice. (7/450)

The functional role of UV irradiation, in combination with the E6 and E7 proteins of the cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the malignant conversion of benign papillomatous lesions, has not been elucidated. Transgenic SKH-hr1 hairless mice expressing HPV-20 and HPV-27 E6 and E7 proteins in the suprabasal compartment were generated and exposed to chronic UV irradiation. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of skin samples revealed enhanced proliferation of the epidermal layers and papilloma formation in both transgenic strains in comparison to what was observed with nontransgenic mice. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the HPV-20 E6/E7 transgenic line as well as in the HPV-27 E6/E7 transgenic line. Several weeks after cessation of UV-B exposure, enhanced proliferation, as measured by BrdU incorporation, was maintained only in HPV-20 transgenic skin. Keratin 6 expression was increased in the transgenic mice throughout all cell layers. Expression of the differentiation markers involucrin and loricrin was reduced and disturbed. p63alpha expression was differentially regulated with high levels of cytoplasmic expression in clusters of cells in the granular layer of the skin in the transgenic lines 20 weeks after cessation of UV-B exposure, in contrast to uninterrupted staining in the nontransgenic lines. p53 was expressed in clusters of cells in nontransgenic and HPV-27 transgenic mice, in contrast to an even distribution in a higher number of cells in HPV-20 transgenic animals.  (+info)

Human papilloma virus and p53 expression in bladder cancer in Egypt: relationship to schistosomiasis and clinicopathologic factors. (8/450)

The aim of the current study was to compare the role of p53 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in schistosomiasis-related and schistosomiasis-unrelated carcinoma of the urinary bladder. To achieve this aim, we investigated 114 bladder carcinomas for p53 oncoprotein expression by immunohistochemistry and for human papillomavirus by in situ hybridization technique. The results revealed that 64 tumors (56.1%) were schistosomiasis-associated. Sixty seven (58.8%) were transitional cell carcinomas and 32 (28%) were squamous cell carcinomas. The remaining 15 tumors (13.2%) included adenocarcinomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas. In both schistosomiasis-associated and non-associated carcinomas, p53 oncoprotein expression was significantly higher in poorly differentiated tumors. However, it was significantly higher in locally more invasive tumors in the schistosomal carcinomas only. HPV types 16/18 could be detected in 1 of the 114 bladder carcinomas (0.95%), which was schistosomiasis-related squamous cell carcinoma in situ. These results suggest that p53 immunohistochemistry can be a prognostic factor in both schistosomal and nonschistosomal bladder cancer. More importantly, HPV does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of either type of bladder cancer in our country.  (+info)

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