Herpesvirus 1, Bovine
Herpesvirus 1, Suid
Molecular Sequence Data
Macropodid herpesviruses 1 and 2 occupy unexpected molecular phylogenic positions within the Alphaherpesvirinae. (1/106)The molecular phylogeny of macropodid herpesviruses 1 and 2 (MaHV-1 and -2) has been investigated by cloning and sequencing the genes encoding glycoprotein B from both viruses. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the putative amino acid sequences of glycoprotein B indicate that MaHV-1 and -2 are most closely related to the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Within the Alphaherpesvirinae, MaHV-1 and -2 are closely associated with those herpesviruses that infect primates. This phylogenetic relationship does not fit the constraints of the proposed co-evolution theory described for other members of the Alphaherpesvirinae which have mammalian hosts. (+info)
Cellular elongation factor 1delta is modified in cells infected with representative alpha-, beta-, or gammaherpesviruses. (2/106)Earlier reports (Y. Kawaguchi, R. Bruni, and B. Roizman, J. Virol. 71:1019-1024, 1997; Y. Kawaguchi, C. Van Sant, and B. Roizman, J. Virol. 72:1731-1736, 1998) showed that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection causes the hyperphosphorylation of translation elongation factor 1delta (EF-1delta) and that the modification of EF-1delta is the consequence of direct phosphorylation by a viral protein kinase encoded by the UL13 gene of HSV-1. The UL13 gene is conserved in members of all herpesvirus subfamilies. Here we report the following. (i) In various mammalian cells, accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated form of EF-1delta is observed after infection with alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses, including HSV-2, feline herpesvirus 1, pseudorabiesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and equine herpesvirus 2. (ii) In human lung fibroblast cells infected with recombinant HSV-1 lacking the UL13 gene, the hypophosphorylated form of EF-1delta is a minor species, whereas the amount of the hyperphosphorylated form of EF-1delta significantly increases in cells infected with the recombinant HSV-1 in which UL13 had been replaced by HCMV UL97, a homologue of UL13. These results indicate that the posttranslational modification of EF-1delta is conserved herpesvirus function and the UL13 homologues may be responsible for the universal modification of the translation factor. (+info)
Studies of genetic relationships between bovine, caprine, cervine, and rangiferine alphaherpesviruses and improved molecular methods for virus detection and identification. (3/106)The glycoprotein B (gB) and D (gD) genes from five ruminant alphaherpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), caprine herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1), cervine herpesvirus 1, and rangiferine herpesvirus 1, were partially sequenced. The nucleotide sequence alignments revealed a highly conserved gB gene, with homologies ranging between 87.2 and 99.6%, and a more variable gD gene, with homologies ranging between 71.3 and 98.9%. The phylogenetic analysis of the gB and gD nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed that BHV-5 is the most closely related virus to the BHV-1 subtype 1 and BHV-1 subtype 2 cluster and that CapHV-1 is the most distantly related virus. The phylogenetic data showed a close relationship of all the studied viruses with suid herpesvirus 1. On the basis of sequence data for the gB gene, a nested PCR combined with restriction enzyme analysis (REA) of the PCR products was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of the viruses that were studied. Nested primers from highly conserved sequence stretches were selected in order to amplify a region of 294 bp in all five viruses, and a subsequent REA of the PCR products allowed specific identification. A mimic molecule that served as an internal standard of the amplification efficiency was constructed. The practical diagnostic applicability of the assay was evaluated with clinical samples consisting of semen and organ specimens from experimentally infected animals. (+info)
Complementation of a gl-deficient feline herpesvirus recombinant by allotopic expression of truncated gl derivatives. (4/106)The alphaherpesvirus glycoproteins gE and gI form a hetero-oligomeric complex involved in cell-to-cell transmission. The gI-deficient recombinant feline herpesvirus (FHV), FHVdeltagI-LZ, produces plaques that are only 15% the size of those of wild-type FHV. Here, we have complemented FHV(delta)gI-LZ allotopically by expressing intact gI and C-terminally truncated gI derivatives from the thymidine kinase locus. The effect on gE-gI-mediated cell-to-cell spread was assessed by plaque assay employing computer-assisted image analysis (software available at http://www.androclus.vet.uu.nl/spotter/spotter.htm+ ++). Allotopic complementation with intact gI fully restored plaque size. Deletion of the C-terminal 11 residues of gI did not affect cell-to-cell spread, whereas deletion of the complete cytoplasmic tail reduced plaque size by only 35%. Mutants expressing gI166, roughly corresponding to the N-terminal half of the ectodomain, displayed a small-plaque phenotype. Nevertheless, their plaques were reproducibly larger than those of matched gI-deficient controls, indicating that the gE-gI166 hetero-oligomer, though crippled, is still able to mediate cell-to-cell spread. Our data demonstrate that plaque analysis provides a reliable and convenient tool to measure and quantitate gE-gI function in vitro. (+info)
Mutations in the conserved carboxy-terminal hydrophobic region of glycoprotein gB affect infectivity of herpes simplex virus. (5/106)Glycoprotein gB is the most highly conserved glycoprotein in the herpesvirus family and plays a critical role in virus entry and fusion. Glycoprotein gB of herpes simplex virus type 1 contains a hydrophobic stretch of 69 aa near the carboxy terminus that is essential for its biological activity. To determine the role(s) of specific amino acids in the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic region, a number of amino acids were mutagenized that are highly conserved in this region within the gB homologues of the family HERPESVIRIDAE: Three conserved residues in the membrane anchor domain, namely A786, A790 and A791, as well as amino acids G743, G746, G766, G770 and P774, that are non-variant in Herpesviridae, were mutagenized. The ability of the mutant proteins to rescue the infectivity of the gB-null virus, K082, in trans was measured by a complementation assay. All of the mutant proteins formed dimers and were incorporated in virion particles produced in the complementation assay. Mutants G746N, G766N, F770S and P774L showed negligible complementation of K082, whereas mutant G743R showed a reduced activity. Virion particles containing these four mutant glycoproteins also showed a markedly reduced rate of entry compared to the wild-type. The results suggest that non-variant residues in the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic region of the gB protein may be important in virus infectivity. (+info)
Identification and characterization of bovine herpesvirus type 5 glycoprotein H gene and gene products. (6/106)Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) is the causative agent of a fatal meningo-encephalitis in calves and is closely related to BHV-1 which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The gene encoding BHV-5 glycoprotein gH was sequenced. A high degree of conservation was found between BHV-1 and BHV-5 deduced gH amino acid sequences (86. 4%), which is also observed for all alphaherpesvirus gH sequences. Transcriptional analysis revealed a 3.1 kb mRNA as the specific gH transcript which was detected 2 h post-infection (p.i.). Twelve out of twenty-one MAbs directed against BHV-1 gH immunoprecipitated a 108-110 kDa glycoprotein, which was then designated BHV-5 gH. Synthesis and intracellular processing of BHV- 5 gH was analysed in infected MDBK cells using gH cross-reacting MAbs. Glycoprotein gH was expressed as a beta-gamma protein, detected by radioimmunoprecipitation as early as 3 h p.i. Glycosylation studies indicated that BHV-5 gH contains N-linked carbohydrates which are essential for the recognition of the protein by the MAbs. This suggests that N-linked glycans are involved in protein folding or are targets for the gH cross-reacting MAbs. Plaque- reduction neutralization assays showed that at least one BHV-1 gH antigenic domain is lacking in BHV-5 which may possibly relate to in vivo differences in virus tropism. (+info)
Bovine herpesvirus 5 glycoprotein E is important for neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence in the olfactory pathway of the rabbit. (7/106)Glycoprotein E (gE) is important for full virulence potential of the alphaherpesviruses in both natural and laboratory hosts. The gE sequence of the neurovirulent bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) was determined and compared with that of the nonneurovirulent BHV-1. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences of BHV-1 and BHV-5 gE open reading frames showed that they had 72% identity and 77% similarity. To determine the role of gE in the differential neuropathogenesis of BHV-1 and BHV-5, we have constructed BHV-1 and BHV-5 recombinants: gE-deleted BHV-5 (BHV-5gEDelta), BHV-5 expressing BHV-1 gE (BHV-5gE1), and BHV-1 expressing BHV-5 gE (BHV-1gE5). Neurovirulence properties of these recombinant viruses were analyzed using a rabbit seizure model (S. I. Chowdhury et al., J. Comp. Pathol. 117:295-310, 1997) that distinguished wild-type BHV-1 and -5 based on their differential neuropathogenesis. Intranasal inoculation of BHV-5 gEDelta and BHV-5gE1 produced significantly reduced neurological signs that affected only 10% of the infected rabbits. The recombinant BHV-1gE5 did not invade the central nervous system (CNS). Virus isolation and immunohistochemistry data suggest that these recombinants replicate and spread significantly less efficiently in the brain than BHV-5 gE revertant or wild-type BHV-5, which produced severe neurological signs in 70 to 80% rabbits. Taken together, the results of neurological signs, brain lesions, virus isolation, and immunohistochemistry indicate that BHV-5 gE is important for efficient neural spread and neurovirulence within the CNS and could not be replaced by BHV-1 gE. However, BHV-5 gE is not required for initial viral entry into olfactory pathway. (+info)
Cellular expression of alphaherpesvirus gD interferes with entry of homologous and heterologous alphaherpesviruses by blocking access to a shared gD receptor. (8/106)Several human and animal alphaherpesviruses can enter cells via human herpesvirus entry mediator C (HveC), a receptor for viral glycoprotein D (gD). In previous studies with cells expressing unknown entry mediators, cellular expression of alphaherpesvirus gD was shown to inhibit entry of the homologous virus and sometimes also of heterologous alphaherpesviruses. To investigate the mechanism of gD-mediated interference and the basis for cross-interference among alphaherpesviruses, HveC was expressed in cells as the sole entry mediator, in the presence or absence of one of the gDs encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1, pseudorabies virus, or bovine herpesvirus type 1. Cells expressing HveC alone were highly susceptible to entry of all three viruses, whereas cells coexpressing HveC and any one of the gDs were at least partially resistant to infection by each virus. Coexpression of gD with HveC did not cause reduced levels of cell-surface HveC but the HveC had reduced ability to bind to exogenous gD. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that HveC was complexed with gD in lysates of cells expressing both. Thus, cellular expression of gD can interfere with alphaherpesvirus entry by blocking ligand-binding sites of the gD receptor(s) used for entry and cross-interference can occur because different forms of alphaherpesvirus gD can compete for shared entry receptors. (+info)
Herpesviridae infections are caused by the Herpesviridae family of viruses and can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Symptoms of herpesviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected, but may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and skin sores or rashes.
There is no cure for herpesviridae infections, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission to others. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with those who are infected, can also help prevent the spread of these viruses.
Some common types of herpesviridae infections include:
* Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
* Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) - Causes chickenpox and shingles.
* Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) - Associated with certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma.
Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1
Varicella zoster virus
Human alphaherpesvirus 1
Human alphaherpesvirus 2
Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1
Bovine alphaherpesvirus 5
Equid alphaherpesvirus 8
Human herpesvirus 6
Macacine alphaherpesvirus 2
Testudinid alphaherpesvirus 3
Leporid alphaherpesvirus 4
Gallid alphaherpesvirus 3
Phocid alphaherpesvirus 1
Saimiriine alphaherpesvirus 1
Cervid alphaherpesvirus 2
Equid alphaherpesvirus 9
Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1
Cervid alphaherpesvirus 1
Pteropodid alphaherpesvirus 1
Cercopithecine alphaherpesvirus 2
Monodontid alphaherpesvirus 1
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- VZV is a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid virus included in the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. (medscape.com)
- A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex - like viruses. (dictionary.net)
- Marek's disease virus is a member of the genus Mardivirus within the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. (msdvetmanual.com)
- Background Duck enteritis virus is a member in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and a significant pathogen of water fowl, resulting in an acute conta gious viral condition that lead to considerable economic losses. (peptide-solubility.com)
- Mammalian herpesviruses belong to the ancient virus family Herpesviridae of the order Herpesvirales , which is subdivided into Alphaherpesvirinae , Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)