A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.

All-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate is a better vitamin E source than all-rac-alpha-tocopherol succinate for broilers. (1/780)

The difference in bioavailabilities of the acetate and succinate esters of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol was investigated in a feeding experiment with broilers. The experiment was initiated with 96 12-d-old male Cobb broilers and lasted for 4 wk. The two sources of vitamin E were fed to eight groups of broilers at four different dietary levels (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg feed, including the naturally occurring alpha-tocopherol). A total collection of droppings for determination of apparent tocopherol absorption were performed at two separate time periods (d 28-34 and d 35-41). There were no differences among the eight experimental groups with respect to animal performance or feed intake. At all dietary levels, the apparent absorption coefficient for all-rac-alpha-tocopherol succinate was significantly lower than that of the acetate ester. The mean (+/- SD) apparent absorption coefficient for all-rac-alpha-tocopherol succinate was 58.0 +/- 5.4 compared with 70. 8 +/- 5.6 for all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate. Furthermore, the apparent absorption coefficients for both esters was significantly lower in the first collection period (d 28-34) than in the second collection period (d 35-41). This difference in the apparent absorption coefficient between the succinate and the acetate ester was accompanied by significant differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations in plasma, breast muscle, liver and adipose tissue of the broilers, which were lower in those fed the succinate ester. Based on a comparison of plasma and tissue responses, the succinate ester was utilized only 69-76% as efficiently as the acetate ester. In vitro studies showed a significantly higher capacity of pancreatic carboxyl ester hydrolase to hydrolyze alpha-tocopherol acetate compared to alpha-tocopherol succinate. This difference in intestinal hydrolysis of the two vitamin E sources may explain the observed differences in biopotency.  (+info)

Effects of UV light and tumor promoters on endogenous vitamin E status in mouse skin. (2/780)

Recent reports indicate that both orally administered and topically applied alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, TH) prevent UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. Because UVB exposure causes the formation of oxidants associated with tumor promotion, epidermal TH status may be an important determinant of susceptibility to photocarcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we studied the status of epidermal TH in C3H mice following exposure to single and repeated UVB exposures at doses typical of chronic photocarcinogenesis protocols. Exposure of mice to a single 13 kJ/m(2) dose over 60 min resulted in no acute depletion of epidermal TH and a modest increase in TH within 6-12 h. Daily exposure to 6.5 kJ/m(2) over 30 min resulted in a gradual increase in epidermal TH, which reached 5-fold after five daily exposures. The increase in epidermal TH was accompanied by an increase in the TH oxidation products alpha-tocopherolquinone (TQ) and alpha-tocopherolhydroquinone (THQ). We also studied the effect of the prooxidant chemical tumor promoter benzoyl peroxide and the prooxidant azo initiators azobis(amidinopropane HCl) and azobis(2, 4-dimethylvaleronitrile). Topical application of these prooxidant chemicals acutely oxidized epidermal TH to TQ and THQ. Topical treatments with the phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) increased epidermal TH levels without producing a significant accumulation of TH oxidation products. The results indicate that UVB and tumor promoting chemicals all exert qualitatively different effects on epidermal TH status and that UVB and TPA trigger an adaptive response involving epidermal TH accumulation.  (+info)

Vitamin E reduces chromosomal damage and inhibits hepatic tumor formation in a transgenic mouse model. (3/780)

We have previously shown that chronic activation of mitogenic signaling induced by over-expression of c-myc and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) transgenes in mouse liver induces a state of oxidative stress. We therefore proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation might be responsible for the extensive chromosomal damage and acceleration of hepatocarcinogenesis characteristic for TGFalpha/c-myc mice. In this study, we show that vitamin E (VE), a potent free radical scavenging antioxidant, is able to protect liver tissue against oxidative stress and suppress tumorigenic potential of c-myc oncogene. Dietary supplementation with VE, starting from weaning, decreased ROS generation coincident with a marked inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation while increasing the chromosomal as well as mtDNA stability in the liver. Similarly, dietary VE reduced liver dysplasia and increased viability of hepatocytes. At 6 mo of age, VE treatment decreased the incidence of adenomas by 65% and prevented malignant conversion. These results indicate that ROS generated by over-expression of c-myc and TGFalpha in the liver are the primary carcinogenic agents in this animal model. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that dietary supplementation of VE can effectively inhibit liver cancer development.  (+info)

Effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on esophageal adenocarcinogenesis in a surgical model with rats. (4/780)

Two well-known antioxidative nutrients, vitamin E and selenium, were used in this study to investigate possible inhibitory action against the formation of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in rats. In this model, carcinogenesis is believed to be driven by oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were divided into four groups and received esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA) surgery plus iron supplementation (12 mg/kg/week). Vitamin E and selenium were supplemented in the diet in the forms of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (750 IU/kg) and sodium selenate (1.7 mg Se/kg), which were 10 times the regular amounts in the basic AIN93M diet. At 40 weeks after surgery, all the EDA groups had lower body weights than the non-operated control group. Iron nutrition (hemoglobin, total serum iron and transferrin saturation) was normal as a result of iron supplementation after EDA. Vitamin E supplementation maintained the normal plasma level of alpha-tocopherol in EDA rats, but not those of gamma-tocopherol and retinol. Selenium supplementation increased the serum and liver selenium contents of the EDA rats. Histopathological analysis showed that selenium supplementation increased the incidence of EAC and the tumor volume. The selenium level in the tumor is higher than that in the duodenum of the same animal. Vitamin E supplementation, however, inhibited carcinogenesis, especially in the selenium-supplemented group. We believe that vitamin E exerts its effect through its antioxidative properties, and a high dose of inorganic selenium may promote carcinogenesis by enhancing oxidative stress.  (+info)

Oxidation of plasma proteins is not increased after supplementation with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. (5/780)

BACKGROUND: It is generally thought that as the intake of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids increases, so should that of alpha-tocopherol, to protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids from increased in vivo peroxidation. However, there are little quantitative data about the concentration of alpha-tocopherol that is necessary when eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are consumed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure changes produced in 2 indexes of lipid oxidation after supplementation with EPA and DHA from fish oil and 3 doses of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Daily supplements of fish oil providing 2.5 g EPA and 1.8 g DHA and 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate were given to 46 postmenopausal women in a 4-treatment, 4-period crossover design. RESULTS: The supplements increased plasma concentrations of EPA, DHA, and alpha-tocopherol. The fish-oil supplement increased the plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (P: = 0.0001) but not that of oxidatively modified protein, as indicated by the carbonyl content. The alpha-tocopheryl acetate and fish-oil supplements had no significant effect on plasma concentrations of TBARS or oxidized protein. CONCLUSIONS: Although these data show a small but statistically significant increase in oxidative stress on the basis of plasma TBARS concentrations after the consumption of EPA and DHA, the clinical relevance of this change is questionable. In addition, as supplements of alpha-tocopheryl acetate were added to the diet, neither the plasma TBARS concentration nor the protein oxidation changed. Consequently, the results of this study indicate that there is no basis for vitamin E supplementation after consumption of EPA and DHA.  (+info)

Altered susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated-perfused hearts of short-term diabetic rats associated with changes in non-enzymatic antioxidants. (6/780)

The effects of short-term (2-week) diabetes on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury and associated changes in myocardial non-enzymatic antioxidant level were examined. Isolated-perfused hearts prepared from control and diabetic rats were subjected to increasing periods of ischemia and reperfusion, and myocardial I-R injury was assessed by measuring the extent of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and contractile force recovery. While a brief period (20 min) of post-ischemic reperfusion caused a smaller extent of LDH leakage, the prolonged period (40 min) of reperfusion produced a greater degree of I-R injury in diabetic hearts, as indicated by the impaired recovery of contractile force. The apparent protection against I-R injury in diabetic hearts during the early phase of post-ischemic reperfusion was associated with increases in myocardial reduced glutathione/ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol levels, with the effect on a-tocopherol being most prominent. Insulin treatment could reverse the diabetes-associated changes in susceptibility to myocardial I-R injury and antioxidant response. The ensemble of results indicates that the myocardium isolated from short-term diabetic rat can produce a beneficial antioxidant response to I-R challenge, which may, in turn, be attributable to the decreased susceptibility to I-R injury observable during the early phase of reperfusion.  (+info)

Differential effects among thiazolidinediones on the transcription of thromboxane receptor and angiotensin II type 1 receptor genes. (7/780)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been reported to be anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic. We have previously shown that one of the TZDs troglitazone significantly suppressed the transcription of both thromboxane receptor (TXR) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) genes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by activating PPAR-gamma. In the present study, we compared the effects of troglitazone and other TZDs on the transcription of these genes. TXR and AT1R mRNAs in rat VSMCs were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Luciferase chimeric constructs containing either the 989-bp rat TXR gene promoter or the 1,969-bp rat AT1R gene promoter were transiently transfected into VSMCs. The cells were incubated with troglitazone, RS-1455 (a derivative of troglitazone which does not contain the hindered phenol resembling alpha-tocopherol), pioglitazone, or rosiglitazone for 12 h before harvesting. mRNA expression levels of TXR and AT1R were significantly decreased by troglitazone in contrast to rosiglitazone. TXR gene and AT1R gene transcription was significantly suppressed by troglitazone in a dose-dependent manner, while RS-1455 was less potent. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone weakly suppressed the transcription of both genes in a manner almost similar to RS-1455. We have shown that troglitazone suppresses transcription of both the TXR and AT1R genes more potently than other TZDs. The structure of troglitazone and RS-1455 is identical except the hindered phenol, which is recently recognized to function as an antioxidant. Moreover, we have shown that the potency for activating PPAR-gamma is almost identical between troglitazone and RS-1455. We therefore speculate that the strong transcriptional suppression of the TXR and AT1R genes by troglitazone may be mediated in part by its antioxidant effect.  (+info)

Evidence of a lysosomal pathway for apoptosis induced by the synthetic retinoid CD437 in human leukemia HL-60 cells. (8/780)

The novel synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid (AHPN/CD437) has been proven to be a potent inducer of apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell types. However, the mechanism of its action remains to be elucidated. Recent studies suggest that the lysosomal protease cathepsin D, when released from lysosomes to the cytosol, can initiate apoptosis. In this study, we examined whether cathepsin D and free radicals are involved in the CD437-induced apoptosis. Exposure of human leukemia HL-60 cells to CD437 resulted in rapid induction of apoptosis as indicated by caspase activation, phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial alterations and morphological changes. Addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol acetate effectively inhibited the CD437-induced apoptosis. Measurement of the intracellular free radicals indicated a rise in oxidative stress in CD437-treated cells, which could be attenuated by alpha-tocopherol acetate. Interestingly, pretreatment of cells with the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A blocked the CD437-induced free radical formation and apoptotic effects, suggesting the involvement of cathepsin D. However, Western blotting revealed no difference in cellular quantity of any forms of cathepsin D between control cells and CD437-treated cells, whereas immunofluorescence analysis of the intracellular distribution of cathepsin D showed release of the enzyme from lysosomes to the cytosol. Labeling of lysosomes with lysosomotropic probes confirmed that CD437 could induce lysosomal leakage. The CD437-induced relocation of cathepsin D could not be prevented by alpha-tocopherol acetate, suggesting that the lysosomal leakage precedes free radical formation. Furthermore, a retinoic acid nuclear receptor (RAR) antagonist failed to block these effects of CD437, suggesting that the action of CD437 is RAR-independent. Taken together, these data suggest a novel lysosomal pathway for CD437-induced apoptosis, in which lysosomes are the primary target and cathepsin D and free radicals act as death mediators.  (+info)

Causes and risk factors:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is lacking in vitamin E can lead to a deficiency. Foods that are low in vitamin E include processed foods, sugary drinks, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease, can lead to malabsorption of nutrients, including vitamin E.
3. Pregnancy and lactation: Pregnant and breastfeeding women have a higher requirement for vitamin E, and a deficiency can occur if they do not consume enough.
4. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as Crohn's disease, can increase the risk of vitamin E deficiency.
5. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders, such as abetalipoproteinemia, can lead to a deficiency in vitamin E.


1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Muscle weakness
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nerve damage
5. Poor wound healing
6. Increased risk of infections
7. Decreased immune function
8. Anemia
9. Skin problems, such as acne and dermatitis
10. Eye problems, such as cataracts and retinal degeneration.


Vitamin E deficiency is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

1. Blood tests: Measurement of serum vitamin E levels can help determine if there is a deficiency.
2. Dietary assessment: A dietitian or nutritionist may evaluate the patient's diet to identify any potential sources of vitamin E deficiency.
3. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of vitamin E deficiency, such as skin problems or muscle weakness.

Treatment and Prevention:

1. Dietary changes: Increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamin E, such as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, can help prevent and treat vitamin E deficiency.
2. Supplementation: Vitamin E supplements can be used to treat and prevent vitamin E deficiency. The recommended daily intake of vitamin E varies by age and sex, but generally ranges from 5-15 mg/day.
3. Addressing underlying causes: If the deficiency is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as Crohn's disease or abetalipoproteinemia, treating the condition can help resolve the deficiency.
4. Supportive care: Patients with severe vitamin E deficiency may require supportive care, such as intravenous nutrition or respiratory support, to manage their symptoms.

Prognosis and Complications:
The prognosis for vitamin E deficiency is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly. However, untreated severe vitamin E deficiency can lead to complications such as:

1. Skin problems: Vitamin E deficiency can cause skin problems, such as acne, dermatitis, and wound healing difficulties.
2. Muscle weakness: Vitamin E is important for muscle function, and deficiency can lead to muscle weakness and wasting.
3. Neurological problems: Vitamin E deficiency can cause neurological problems, such as peripheral neuropathy and seizures.
4. Increased risk of infections: Vitamin E is important for immune function, and deficiency can increase the risk of infections.
5. Reproductive problems: Vitamin E deficiency can cause reproductive problems, such as infertility and miscarriage.

The main symptom of abetalipoproteinemia is a complete absence of chylomicrons, which are small particles that carry triglycerides and other lipids in the bloodstream. This results in low levels of triglycerides and other lipids in the blood, as well as an impaired ability to absorb vitamins and other nutrients from food.

Abetalipoproteinemia is usually diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, when symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and poor growth become apparent. The disorder can be identified through blood tests that measure lipid levels and genetic analysis.

Treatment for abetalipoproteinemia typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements to ensure adequate nutrition and prevent complications such as malnutrition and liver disease. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to lower triglyceride levels or improve the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

The prognosis for abetalipoproteinemia varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of any complications. In general, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent long-term health problems. However, some individuals with abetalipoproteinemia may experience ongoing health issues throughout their lives.

People with AATD have low levels of functional AAT in their blood, which can lead to premature lung disease and liver disease. The most common form of AATD is caused by the Pi*Z phenotype, which results from a missense mutation in the SERPINA1 gene. This mutation leads to misfolding and accumulation of AAT in the liver, where it is normally broken down and secreted into the bloodstream.

The most common symptoms of AATD are:

* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Emphysema
* Lung fibrosis
* Liver cirrhosis
* Gallstones

The diagnosis of AATD is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for AATD typically involves managing the underlying symptoms and preventing complications. For example, individuals with COPD may receive bronchodilators and corticosteroids to help improve lung function and reduce inflammation. Liver disease may be treated with medications to slow the progression of cirrhosis or with liver transplantation in severe cases.

The goal of genetic counseling for AATD is to provide information about the risk of transmitting the disorder to offspring and to discuss options for prenatal testing and family planning. Prenatal testing can be performed on a fetus by analyzing a sample of cells from the placenta or amniotic fluid. Carrier testing can also be performed in individuals who have a family history of AATD.

The prognosis for AATD varies depending on the severity of the mutation and the specific symptoms present. With appropriate management, many individuals with AATD can lead active and productive lives. However, the disorder can be severe and life-threatening in some cases, especially if left untreated or if there is a delay in diagnosis.

Currently, there is no cure for AATD, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. However, research into the genetics of AATD is ongoing, and new developments in gene therapy and other areas may provide hope for improved treatments and outcomes in the future.

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTPA gene. Familial isolated vitamin E ... "Entrez Gene: TTPA tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein (ataxia (Friedreich-like) with vitamin E deficiency)". Gotoda T, Arita M ... Arita M, Sato Y, Miyata A, Tanabe T, Takahashi E, Kayden HJ, Arai H, Inoue K (1995). "Human alpha-tocopherol transfer protein: ... 1996). "Human alpha-tocopherol transfer protein: gene structure and mutations in familial vitamin E deficiency". Ann. Neurol. ...
... is 1 mg of d-alpha-tocopherol or 2 mg of dl-alpha-tocopherol. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9931. Rigotti A (2007). "Absorption, ... α-Tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol) is a type of vitamin E. Its E number is "E307". Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four ... RRR-α-tocopherol is the natural one. The older name of RRR-α-tocopherol is d-α-tocopherol, but this d/l naming should no longer ... One IU of tocopherol is defined as 2⁄3 milligram of RRR-α-tocopherol (formerly named d-α-tocopherol). 1 IU is also defined as ...
Manor D, Morley S (2007). "The alpha-tocopherol transfer protein". Vitam. Horm. Vitamins & Hormones. 76: 45-65. doi:10.1016/ ... Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency Abetalipoproteinemia Tocopherol Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin E". Dietary ... caused by mutations in the gene for the tocopherol transfer protein. These individuals have an extremely poor capacity to ...
... or γ-tocopherol can be extracted, purified, and methylated to create d-alpha-tocopherol. In contrast to α-tocopherol extracted ... 1 IU of tocopherol is defined as ⅔ milligrams of RRR-α-tocopherol (formerly named d-α-tocopherol or sometimes ddd-α-tocopherol ... As a food additive, tocopherol is labeled with these E numbers: E306 (tocopherol), E307 (α-tocopherol), E308 (γ-tocopherol), ... "Mixed tocopherols" in the USA contain at least 20% w/w other natural R, R,R- tocopherols, i.e. R, R,R-α-tocopherol content plus ...
... alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and four retinyl esters ... Azzi A (July 2007). "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 43 (1): 16-21. doi: ... "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action" by A. Azzi and "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more" by M. Traber and J. ... Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and ...
Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTPAL gene. "Entrez Gene: Tocopherol ( ... alpha) transfer protein-like". Retrieved 2013-07-15. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124120 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
Kohar I, Baca M, Suarna C, Stocker R, Southwell-Keely PT (Aug 1995). "Is alpha-tocopherol a reservoir for alpha-tocopheryl ...
"Characterization of irradiated blends of alpha-tocopherol and UHMWPE". Biomaterials. 26 (33): 6657-63. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Teupser D, Thiery J, Seidel D (1999). "Alpha-tocopherol down-regulates scavenger receptor activity in macrophages". ...
The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the ... alpha-carotene (α-carotene) and beta-carotene (β-carotene). Gamma-, delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-carotene (γ, δ, ε, and ζ- ... α-tocopherol) and the incidence of lung cancer. The study was done using supplements and researchers were aware of the ...
Rokitzki L. (1994). "Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in racing cyclist during extreme endurance training". International ...
Ikeda S, Tohyama T, Yoshimura H, Hamamura K, Abe K, Yamashita K (February 2003). "Dietary alpha-tocopherol decreases alpha- ... The vitamin E family comprise four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). ... Various studies have shown that alpha-tocopherol interferes with tocotrienol benefits. High levels of α-tocopherol increase ... "Structural and dynamic membrane properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol: implication to the molecular mechanism of ...
Tocopherols can occur in various forms. Its alpha form, also known as vitamin E, has antioxidant properties which results in ... Alpha-tocopherol is also able to scavenge reactive oxygen species involved in the ORN disease process, by inducing cell ... Azzi A, Ricciarelli R, Zingg JM (May 2002). "Non-antioxidant molecular functions of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E)". FEBS Letters ... α-tocopherol, and clodronate". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 124 (5): 464-471. doi:10.1016/j. ...
3 mg d-alpha-tocopherol = 0.90 mg of dl-alpha-tocopherol Peptides: 1 IU insulin ≙ 0.0347 mg human insulin (28.8 IU/mg) 1 IU ... See Vitamin A § Equivalencies of retinoids and carotenoids (IU). The US NIH has replaced IU with mg d-alpha-tocopherol equiv. ...
The naturally occurring plant form of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) is RRR-α-tocopherol whereas the synthetic form (all-racemic ... the human body prefers alpha-tocopherol. A matter of stereochemistry". J Med Life. 1 (4): 376-382. PMC 5654212. PMID 20108516. ... so that 1.36 mg of dl-tocopherol is considered equivalent to 1.0 mg of d-tocopherol. Macroscopic examples of chirality are ... vitamin E, or dl-tocopherol) is equal parts of the stereoisomers RRR, RRS, RSS, SSS, RSR, SRS, SRR, and SSR with progressively ...
Alpha-tocopherol is the main form in which vitamin E is consumed. Recent studies showed that some tocotrienol isomers have ... Vitamin E, including tocotrienol and tocopherol, is fat soluble and protects lipids. Sources include wheat germ, seabuckthorn, ... Iodide Melatonin Alpha-carotene - found in carrots, winter squash, tomatoes, green beans, cilantro, Swiss chard Astaxanthin - ...
Poppy seeds are especially high in tocopherols other than vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol). Compared to other vegetable oils, ...
"999 Foods Highest in Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol) (based on levels per 200 Calories)". "Nutritional Summary for Oil, wheat germ ...
... and alpha-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) (5 studies) content; milk studies reported on beta-carotene (4 studies) and alpha- ... alpha-tocopherol in pork or beef, or vitamin A (retinol) in beef. The authors analyzed 11 other nutrients reported in studies ... tocopherol levels (4 studies). Few studies examined vitamin content in meats, but these found no difference in beta-carotene in ... α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- ...
Other members of the family are alpha-tocopherol transfer protein and phosphatidylinositol-transfer protein (Sec14). They ... "Crystal structure of human alpha-tocopherol transfer protein bound to its ligand: implications for ataxia with vitamin E ... alpha-tocopherol and phosphatidylinositol or phosphatidylcholine, respectively) between different intracellular membranes. ... The structure contains several alpha helices as well as a beta sheet composed of 6 strands. Strands 2,3,4 and 5 form a parallel ...
... or gamma-tocopherol can be extracted, purified, and methylated to create d-alpha-tocopherol. In contrast to alpha-tocopherol ... This synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol has approximately 50% of the potency of d-alpha-tocopherol. Manufacturers of dietary ... The naturally occurring plant form of alpha-tocopherol is RRR-α-tocopherol, also referred to as d-tocopherol, whereas the ... Upon reaching the liver, RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially taken up by alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP). All ...
"The Isolation from Cottonseed Oil of an Alcohol Resembling Alpha Tocopherol from Wheat Germ Oil". Science. 83 (2157): 421. ... Emerson, O. H.; Emerson, G. A.; Evans, H. M. (1939). "The Occurrence of Gamma Tocopherol in Corn Embryo Oil". Science. 89 (2304 ... α-TOCOPHEROL, HAVING THE PROPERTIES OF VITAMIN E". Nutrition Reviews. 32 (3): 80-82. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1974.tb06280.x. ... a-tocopherol, having the properties of vitamin E". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 113 (1): 319-332. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18 ...
Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Tocopherol Gamma-Tocopherol (+)-δ-Tocopherol at Sigma-Aldrich "Approved additives and E numbers". ... δ-Tocopherol (delta-tocopherol) is a tocopherol and one of the chemical compounds that is considered vitamin E. As a food ...
Zhang P, Omaye ST (February 2001). "Antioxidant and prooxidant roles for beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in ... "Alpha-tocopherol protects against oxidative stress in the fragile X knockout mouse: an experimental therapeutic approach for ... Since dietary sources contain a wider range of carotenoids and vitamin E tocopherols and tocotrienols from whole foods, ex post ...
2008). "Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes". Diabetologia. 51 (1 ... Antioxidants: Three vitamins, ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; and β-carotene, are well recognized for their antioxidant activities ...
Acosta, D; Kass, IS; Cottrell, JE; Chambers, G (1987). "The Effect of Alpha-tocopherol and Free Radicals on Anoxic Damage in ...
The authors found 4 studies on each of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels in milk; differences were heterogeneous and ...
Ingold KU, Bowry VW, Stocker R, Walling C (1993). "Autoxidation of lipids and antioxidation by alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol ... Stocker has made significant contributions to the understanding of the molecular action of Alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) during ... "Ubiquinol-10 protects human low density lipoprotein more efficiently against lipid peroxidation than does alpha-tocopherol". ...
Schweigert, F. J. (2003-06-01). "Concentrations of carotenoids, retinol and alpha-tocopherol in plasma and follicular fluid of ... Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Zamany, Ahmad Jawid; Keum, Young-Soo (2017). "Ripening improves the content of carotenoid, α-tocopherol, ... α-Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in the Oldest Old from the Georgia Centenarian Study". ...
Ben-Shabat S, Kazdan Y, Beit-Yannai E, Sintov AC (May 2013). "Use of alpha-tocopherol esters for topical vitamin E treatment: ... α-Tocopheryl palmitate is the palmitate ester of α-tocopherol and is a form of vitamin E. Related compounds include α- ... Progesterone/hydroxyprogesterone heptanoate/α-tocopherol palmitate Baxter JG, Robeson CD, Taylor JD, Lehman RW (1943). "Natural ... α-, β- and γ-Tocopherols and Certain Esters of Physiological Interest1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 65 (5): 918- ...
... antioxidant Dl-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) - antioxidant Dodecyl gallate - antioxidant Echinacea - EDTA - Antioxidant, ... Tocopherol (Vitamin E) - Tocopherol concentrate (natural) - antioxidant Tragacanth - thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, ... Carotenes - color Alpha-carotene - color Beta-carotene - color Gamma-carotene - color Carrageenan - thickener, vegetable gum, ... Tocopherol) - Vitamin K (Potassium) - Walnut oil - used for its flavor, also used by Renaissance painters in oil paints Wasabi ...
Lee E, Choi MK, Lee YJ, Ku JL, Kim KH, Choi JS, Lim SJ (Nov 2006). "Alpha-tocopheryl succinate, in contrast to alpha-tocopherol ... The particular reaction catalyzed by PTGE2 is thought to be: (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13- ... dienoate = (5Z,13E)-(15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate. The PTGE2 protein functions in part of the ... and alpha-tocopheryl acetate, inhibits prostaglandin E2 production in human lung epithelial cells". Carcinogenesis. 27 (11): ...
... such as tocopherol (or vitamin E acetate that causes vaping-associated pulmonary injury), eugenol, and fatty acids, are added ... methyl-alpha-PPP; and psychedelic tryptamine derivatives such as 4-OH-DET. Packages of synthetic cannabinoid products can claim ...
... and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E)". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 38 (1): 45-48. doi:10.1016/s0190-9622(98) ... "The basophil activation test differentiates between patients with alpha-gal syndrome and asymptomatic alpha-gal sensitization ... "The basophil activation test differentiates between patients with alpha-gal syndrome and asymptomatic alpha-gal sensitization ... In addition, food allergy and in particular the alpha-gal syndrome was the subject of her investigations with the basophil ...
Herrera-Mundo N, Sitges M (2013). "Vinpocetine and α-tocopherol prevent the increase in DA and oxidative stress induced by 3- ... Li W, Lee MK (June 2005). "Antiapoptotic property of human alpha-synuclein in neuronal cell lines is associated with the ...
Exposing ZIP12-deleted cells to antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), MitoQ, or MitoTEMPO can restore neurite ...
... mutant and their interactions with alpha-tocopherol quinone". FEBS Lett. 535 (1-3): 159-165. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03895-4 ... This domain occurs in both the alpha and beta subunits of cytochrome B559. In the alpha subunit, it occurs together with a ... Cytochrome b559, which forms part of the reaction centre core of PSII, is a heterodimer composed of one alpha subunit (PsbE), ...
... tocopherols, alpha-linolenic acid (an Omega-3 fatty acid), protein, sucrose and all other mineral and trace elements, except ...
... and alpha-tocopherol, one of the eight members of the Vitamin E family. Oleuropein, together with other closely related ... provide less γ-tocopherol but more α-tocopherol ... [T]he ratio of α-:γ-tocopherol is at least 1:2. Therefore, the average γ- ... In North America, the intake of γ-tocopherol has been estimated to exceed that of α-tocopherol by a factor of 2-4 ... due to ... In accordance with the lower estimated European intake of γ-tocopherol, the serum levels of γ-tocopherol in European ...
... alpha-tocopherol MeSH D03.438.150.909.750.374 - beta-tocopherol MeSH D03.438.150.909.750.500 - gamma-tocopherol MeSH D03.438. ... alpha-tocopherol MeSH D03.830.219.909.750.374 - beta-tocopherol MeSH D03.830.219.909.750.500 - gamma-tocopherol MeSH D03.830. ... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid MeSH D03.383.129.385.162 - cycloserine MeSH D03.383.129.385.231 - ...
However, one type of omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) can be found in some vegetable oils. Flax oil contains 30- ... containing 35 mg gamma-tocopherol) and sodium (47% DV) added as salt for flavor. Unless fortified with micronutrients during ...
Deree J, Martins JO, Melbostad H, Loomis WH, Coimbra R (June 2008). "Insights into the regulation of TNF-alpha production in ... Patel V, Gadiwalla Y, Sassoon I, Sproat C, Kwok J, McGurk M (June 2016). "Prophylactic use of pentoxifylline and tocopherol in ... Marques LJ, Zheng L, Poulakis N, Guzman J, Costabel U (February 1999). "Pentoxifylline inhibits TNF-alpha production from human ... Pentoxifylline, in combination with tocopherol and clodronate, has been found to heal refractory osteoradionecrosis of the jaw ...
... played a crucial and complementary role in the body similar to those provided by vitamin E supplements with alpha-tocopherol. ... In this role, her research team found evidence that gamma-tocopherol ...
One hundred grams (dry weight) contains 49.3 micrograms (µg) of tocopherols (20.0 µg alpha, 21.3 µg beta, and 8.0 µg gamma) and ...
Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA ... tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (1): 160 ... While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic ... However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic ...
... seed oil, including tocopherols (vitamin E) and high contents of phytosterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as ... linoleic acid, oleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid. Resveratrol, a stilbene compound, is found in widely varying amounts among ...
Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate and/or Hexane-Processed Soy ingredients. The Court excludes from the class anyone with a conflict of ...
... alpha-tocopherol equivalents), selenium, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and folic acid; this mixture is branded as Fortasyn Connect. ...
An antimicrobial quinone methide, 15 alpha-hydroxypristimerin, was isolated from a South American medicinal plant, Maytenus ... 15 times the potency of α-tocopherol), anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. Pristimerin, the methyl ...
Alpha-Tocopherol): learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol). pronounced as (al fa toe kof er ol) ...
... Grant Number: 1R01DK067930-02. PI Name: TRABER, MARET G. ... Project Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolism. Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Drug- ... We propose to: Aim 1. Define the intracellular pathway for a-tocopherol metabolism. Aim 2. Define how a-tocopherol modulates ... The objective of this research is to define hepatic pathways for a-tocopherol catabolism and its disposition, as well as to ...
ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE, DL- (UNII: WR1WPI7EW8) (.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE, DL- - UNII:WR1WPI7EW8) .ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ... Label: BAL-CARE DHA ESSENTIAL- beta carotene, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, .alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-, thiamine ... BAL-CARE DHA ESSENTIAL- beta carotene, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, .alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-, thiamine mononitrate, ... BAL-CARE DHA ESSENTIAL- beta carotene, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, .alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-, thiamine mononitrate, ...
... alpha-tocopherol) supplementation in human spermatozoon submitted to oxidative stress. ANDROLOGIA 50 n.4 p. MAY 2018. Journal ... Effect of in vitro vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation in human spermatozoon submitted to oxidative stress Full text ... 15/02955-3 - The effect of vitamin supplements e (alpha-tocopherol) in vitro on spermatozoa submitted to oxidative stress ... The effect of vitamin supplements e (alpha-tocopherol) in vitro on spermatozoa sub... ...
Alpha-tocopherol (α-Toc), so-called vitamin E, is a low molecular weight lipophilic antioxidant that generally protects plants ... Alpha-tocopherol (α-Toc), so-called vitamin E, is a low molecular weight lipophilic antioxidant that generally protects plants ... Foliar applications of alpha-tocopherol improves the composition of fresh pods of Vigna radiata subjected to water deficiency ... SADIQ, MUHAMMAD; AKRAM, NUDRAT AISHA; and ASHRAF, MUHAMMAD (2017) "Foliar applications of alpha-tocopherol improves the ...
The effect of long-term beta-carotene and vitamin A administration on serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. G E Goodman; G ... A short-term study recently suggested that two of these nutrients, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, may have an adverse ... We have analyzed the effect of beta-carotene supplementation on serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 2319 participants ... these samples were analyzed for beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. After up to 6 years of supplementation with beta-carotene ( ...
Serum Metabolomic Profiling of All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Analysis in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer ...
NDC Products with .alpha.-tocopherol Acetate, Dl-. NDC. Proprietary Name. Non-Proprietary Name. Dosage Form. Route Name. ... tocopherol Acetate, Dl-?. The NDC database has 54 products with the active ingredient .alpha.-tocopherol Acetate, Dl-. The ... alpha.-tocopherol Acetate, Dl-. Oil. Dsm Nutritional Products, Llc. ACTIVE. 63629-1134. Proprietary Name: Multivitamin With ... Acetylcarnitine, L-ampc-alpha-lipoic Ac-a-tocopherol-ascorbic Acid-calc Carb-cit.... Solution/ Drops. Oral. Guna Spa. ACTIVE. ...
Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg). English Text: Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg). Target: Both males and females 0 YEARS - ... DRXIACAR - Alpha-carotene (mcg). Variable Name: DRXIACAR. SAS Label: Alpha-carotene (mcg). English Text: Alpha-carotene (mcg). ... DRXIATOC - Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg). Variable Name: DRXIATOC. SAS Label: ...
... alpha-tocopherol (10x RDA), group 4 (V gp) normal diet/delta-alpha-tocopherol. After 12 months, serum iron, reduced glutathione ... The aim of this study was to determine if high doses of delta-alpha-tocopherol supplementation in iron overload would ... A positive correlation existed between vitamin C and 8-OHdG, suggesting possible delta-alpha-tocopherol toxicity. ... Possible adverse effect of high delta-alpha-tocopherol intake on hepatic iron overload: enhanced production of vitamin C and ...
Some studies looked at α-tocopherol alone, while others looked at α-tocopherol in combination with other antioxidant ... I liaised with our program physician, pharmacist and other RDs on issues related to α-tocopherol. Our staff librarian was most ... My objectives were to weigh the potential risks versus benefits of supplemental α-tocopherol in primary and secondary ... Thus, not enough evidence to support recommending supplemental α-tocopherol for primary prevention of CVD. ...
Alpha.-Tocopherol (UNII: H4N855PNZ1) (.Alpha.-Tocopherol - UNII:H4N855PNZ1) .Alpha.-Tocopherol. 6 mg in 5 mL. ... NOVADHA BABY DHA- omega-3 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, and .alpha.-tocopherol liquid. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs ... NOVADHA BABY DHA- omega-3 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, and .alpha.-tocopherol liquid. Number of versions: 1. ... OTHER INGREDIENTS: Purified arctic cod liver oil, rosemary extract (a natural preservative), D-alpha tocopherol, ...
Gamma-Tocotrienol > Delta-Tocotrienol > Alpha-Tocopherol for Bone Formation in Rats. *Tocotrienols Better than Alpha-Tocopherol ... Tocotrienols Better than Alpha-Tocopherol at Suppressing Peroxidation in Rat Bone. *Tocotrienols Better than Tocopherols for ... Tocotrienols, but not Alpha-Tocopherol, Necessary for Bone Calcification in Growing Female Rats. Abstract. Tocotrienols are ... or 30 mg/kg pure alpha-tocopherol (ATF). In experiment 3 the rats were fed RC and given the same supplements as in experiment 2 ...
Solgar Vitamin E 268 MG (400 IU) Mixed (d-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols),. $16.99. $14.95. ... Be the first to review "Solgar Vitamin E 268 MG (400 IU) Mixed (d-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols)," Cancel reply. Your ... Gluten And Dairy Free; Formula provides Vitamin E as d-Alpha Tocopherol, d-Gamma, d-Delta and d-Beta Tocopherols; Free of: ... Solgar Vitamin E 268 MG (400 IU) Mixed (d-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols), quantity. ...
Delta-tocotrienol upstages alpha-tocopherol in fatty liver disease trial 23-Sep-2022. By Asia Sherman ...
Abbreviations: RAE, retinol activity equivalent; AT, alpha-tocopherol.. a Assumes soup kitchen meal represents half of daily ...
alpha-Tocopherol / administration & dosage * beta Carotene / administration & dosage Substances * Antibodies, Bacterial * ...
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol). Nutrient Val: 13.4 mg. Additional Fortification: Tag Name: TOCPHA. Rounded to dec points: 2. ... Carotene, alpha. Nutrient Val: 0 mcg. Additional Fortification: Tag Name: CARTA. Rounded to dec points: 0. Cryptoxanthin, beta ...
The effect of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene on oxidant-induced injury of proliferating human intestinal ... The effect of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene on oxidant-induced injury of proliferating human intestinal ... The effect of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene on oxidant-induced injury of proliferating human intestinal ... Woods, J A ; OBrien, N M . / The effect of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene on oxidant-induced injury of ...
"HPLC Analysis of Blood and Liver Tissue for Free Alpha-tocopherol," Trace Substances in Environmental Health: Proceedings of ...
We previously found alpha-tocopherol quinine (α-TQ) inhibited Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity, decreased the release of ... Alpha-tocopherol quinine ameliorates spatial memory deficits by reducing beta-amyloid oligomers, neuroinflammation and ... Source URL: http://alzped.nia.nih.gov/alpha-tocopherol-quinine ... phospho-Inhibitor of kappa B alpha (phospho-IkB alpha). ...
ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL, D-,/active_moiety, ,/unii, ,unii, ,unii_code,7QWA1RIO01,/unii_code, ,active_moiety,.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL, DL-,/ ... ", "active_moiety": ".ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL SUCCINATE, D-" }, { "unii_code": "N9PR3490H9", "active_moiety": ".ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL, D ... ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE, DL-,/active_moiety, ,/unii, ,unii, ,unii_code,LU4B53JYVE,/unii_code, ,active_moiety,.ALPHA.- ... ", "active_moiety": ".ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL, DL-" }, { "unii_code": "F43I396OIS", "active_moiety": ".ALPHA.1-PROTEINASE INHIBITOR ...
ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE (UNII: 9E8X80D2L0) GOAT MILK (UNII: XE5K5I4RP7) Packaging. #. Item Code. Package Description. ...
Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol): In addition to its antioxidant properties, vitamin E helps to nourish dry skin. ... Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol): In addition to its antioxidant properties, vitamin E helps to nourish dry skin. ... Tocopherol, Magnesium Sulfate, Disteardimonium Hectorite, Glucosamine Hcl, Tribehenin, Caprylyl Glycol, Allantoin, Disodium ... Tocopherol, Magnesium Sulfate, Disteardimonium Hectorite, Glucosamine Hcl, Tribehenin, Caprylyl Glycol, Allantoin, Disodium ...
Vitamin E/ DL-alpha-Tocopherol. DL-alpha-Tocopherol or Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant, assisting in the protection of cells ... Flaxseed oil contains a n of omega-3 fatty acids, notably alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). It is frequently taken as a dietary ...
These include low molecular-weight antioxidants like ascorbic acid; alpha-tocopherol and glutathione; and antioxidant enzymes ...
Failure of alpha tocopherol to influence chest pain in patients with heart disease. Circulation 1:288-293.. View. ... Comparison of effects of alpha-tocopherol and matching placebo on chest pain in patients with heart disease. Annals of the New ...
α-Tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention ... The study found that higher serum levels of alpha-tocopherol were associated with higher spirometric parameters and that high ... Though the study was observational in nature, it confirmed the mechanistic pathway of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in mice ... However, vitamin E supplements typically only include one form, alpha-tocopherol. [1] ...
  • The effect of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene on oxidant-induced injury of proliferating human intestinal CaCo-2 cells. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The group that most stands out is that of the tocopherols that has 4 members: alpha tocopherol, beta tocopherol, gamma tocopherol and delta tocopherol, the first being the best known and which seems to be more active. (botanical-online.com)
  • The effect of long-term beta-carotene and vitamin A administration on serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A short-term study recently suggested that two of these nutrients, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, may have an adverse interaction, with beta-carotene supplementation leading to markedly decreased serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have analyzed the effect of beta-carotene supplementation on serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 2319 participants enrolled in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial who have taken beta-carotene and vitamin A for up to 6 years. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using standard high pressure liquid chromatography techniques, with attention to quality control, these samples were analyzed for beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After up to 6 years of supplementation with beta-carotene (30 mg/day) and vitamin A (25,000 international units/day) we found a small but statistically significant increase in the serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol in participants taking the active agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that long-term supplementation with the combination of beta-carotene and vitamin A does not decrease serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The trial, dubbed the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC Study), was carried out by the U.S. National Cancer Institute and the National Public Health Institute of Finland. (medicinenet.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine if high doses of delta - alpha-tocopherol supplementation in iron overload would ameliorate the oxidative stress . (bvsalud.org)
  • Equivalent evidence reporting both risk and benefit associated with 22.5 to 800 IU/d for 1.4 to 9.4 years, and increased risk of mortality observed with α-tocopherol supplementation >150 IU/day. (dietitians.ca)
  • Alpha-tocopherol (α-Toc), so-called vitamin E, is a low molecular weight lipophilic antioxidant that generally protects plants from stress-induced cellular oxidation. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Possible adverse effect of high delta-alpha-tocopherol intake on hepatic iron overload: enhanced production of vitamin C and the genotoxin, 8-hydroxy-2'- deoxyguanosine. (bvsalud.org)
  • A positive correlation existed between vitamin C and 8-OHdG, suggesting possible delta - alpha-tocopherol toxicity . (bvsalud.org)
  • In fact, the name of vitamin E, tocopherol , derives from the Greek toco (= birth) an d phereon (= carry out). (botanical-online.com)
  • The necessary daily doses of this vitamin (RDA) for adults are 11-15 mg of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) (or its equivalent to 22.5 IU) daily. (botanical-online.com)
  • In the Finnish study, vitamin E was tested in the form of alpha tocopherol. (medicinenet.com)
  • We use a soy-free, mixed tocopherols source that matches the composition of Vitamin E found in foods. (ritual.com)
  • Some studies looked at α-tocopherol alone, while others looked at α-tocopherol in combination with other antioxidant supplements. (dietitians.ca)
  • A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. (bvsalud.org)
  • Taking the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) course in the past proved helpful as I was able to easily retrieve required information on α-tocopherol. (dietitians.ca)
  • Foliar applications of alpha-tocopherol improves the composition of fr" by MUHAMMAD SADIQ, NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM et al. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Oxidative liver damage, as determined by serum AST and ALT levels, was not attenuated by alpha-tocopherol . (bvsalud.org)
  • My objectives were to weigh the potential risks versus benefits of supplemental α-tocopherol in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to determine specific practice considerations for supplemental α-tocopherol including the type of supplement, dose and duration. (dietitians.ca)
  • Thus, not enough evidence to support recommending supplemental α-tocopherol for primary prevention of CVD. (dietitians.ca)
  • COMT and Alpha-Tocopherol Effects in Cancer Prevention: Gene-Supplement Interactions in Two Randomized Clinical Trials. (cdc.gov)
  • The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture. (bvsalud.org)
  • NDC Active Ingredient .alpha. (ndclist.com)
  • The NDC database has 54 products with the active ingredient .alpha. (ndclist.com)
  • Comparison of effects of alpha-tocopherol and matching placebo on chest pain in patients with heart disease. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • Four groups of 20 male Wistar albino rats were studied group 1 (control) was fed normal diet , group 2 (Fe) 0.75% Ferrocene iron , group 3 (FV gp) 0.75% Ferrocene/ delta - alpha-tocopherol (10x RDA), group 4 (V gp) normal diet / delta - alpha-tocopherol . (bvsalud.org)
  • HPLC Analysis of Blood and Liver Tissue for Free Alpha-tocopherol" by John C. Meadows, Gaylin L. Nickell et al. (mst.edu)
  • HPLC Analysis of Blood and Liver Tissue for Free Alpha-tocopherol," Trace Substances in Environmental Health: Proceedings of University of Missouri's Annual Conference , University of Missouri--Columbia, Jan 1982. (mst.edu)
  • Group III - Calen™ with chlorhexidine at 0.4% with the addition of 20% (weight) of alhatocopherol compound and Group IV - Calen™ with chlorhexidine at 0.4% with the addition of 10% (weight) alphatocopherol. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH of calcium hydroxide (Calen TM ) when associated or not with chlorhexidine 0.4%, and when associated with chlorhexidine with the addition of 20% or 10% of alphatocopherol (Aché TM ), assessed in several periods of time. (bvsalud.org)
  • The mean (SD) serum concentration of 1.77 (0.50) μmol L(-1) for retinol and 30.81 (6.46) μmol L(-1) for α-tocopherol indicates an adequate biochemical status. (nih.gov)
  • Serum haemoglobin, alpha-tocopherol, retinol and magnesium levels were significantly decreased in stunted children compared with the controls. (who.int)
  • Define how a-tocopherol modulates hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) involved in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Determine the ability of a-tocopherol to modulate hepatic transport proteins known to be involved in the biliary excretion of a-tocopherol and/or therapeutic drugs. (nih.gov)
  • It is therefore suggested that alpha-TTP may play a major role in supplying alpha-tocopherol to the foetus prior to delivery and is likely involved in maintaining adequate alpha-tocopherol levels in the foetus. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this research is to define hepatic pathways for a-tocopherol catabolism and its disposition, as well as to specifically address a-tocopherol interactions with pharmacologic agents and their metabolizing systems. (nih.gov)
  • NOVADHA BABY DHA- omega-3 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, and .alpha. (nih.gov)
  • Purified arctic cod liver oil, rosemary extract (a natural preservative), D-alpha tocopherol, cholecalciferol in medium chain triglycerides. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of alpha-TTP has not only been described in animal model liver, but also in diverse other tissues such as rat brain or pregnant mouse uterus, the latter finding stressing the importance of alpha-TTP for embryogenesis and foetal development. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we report the identification of alpha-TTP in human liver by anti-human alpha-TTP monoclonal antibodies made in rat and the cellular localization of alpha-TTP in term human placenta. (nih.gov)
  • Search Results for: ".ALPHA. (nih.gov)
  • The supplemented group was administered with a retinyl palmitate capsule and, 24 h after the first collection, the second colostrum sample was obtained in the two groups for analysis of α-tocopherol. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein is specifically localized at the implantation site of pregnant mouse uterus. (nih.gov)