A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC 1.13.11.27.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.

All-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate is a better vitamin E source than all-rac-alpha-tocopherol succinate for broilers. (1/780)

The difference in bioavailabilities of the acetate and succinate esters of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol was investigated in a feeding experiment with broilers. The experiment was initiated with 96 12-d-old male Cobb broilers and lasted for 4 wk. The two sources of vitamin E were fed to eight groups of broilers at four different dietary levels (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg feed, including the naturally occurring alpha-tocopherol). A total collection of droppings for determination of apparent tocopherol absorption were performed at two separate time periods (d 28-34 and d 35-41). There were no differences among the eight experimental groups with respect to animal performance or feed intake. At all dietary levels, the apparent absorption coefficient for all-rac-alpha-tocopherol succinate was significantly lower than that of the acetate ester. The mean (+/- SD) apparent absorption coefficient for all-rac-alpha-tocopherol succinate was 58.0 +/- 5.4 compared with 70. 8 +/- 5.6 for all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate. Furthermore, the apparent absorption coefficients for both esters was significantly lower in the first collection period (d 28-34) than in the second collection period (d 35-41). This difference in the apparent absorption coefficient between the succinate and the acetate ester was accompanied by significant differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations in plasma, breast muscle, liver and adipose tissue of the broilers, which were lower in those fed the succinate ester. Based on a comparison of plasma and tissue responses, the succinate ester was utilized only 69-76% as efficiently as the acetate ester. In vitro studies showed a significantly higher capacity of pancreatic carboxyl ester hydrolase to hydrolyze alpha-tocopherol acetate compared to alpha-tocopherol succinate. This difference in intestinal hydrolysis of the two vitamin E sources may explain the observed differences in biopotency.  (+info)

Effects of UV light and tumor promoters on endogenous vitamin E status in mouse skin. (2/780)

Recent reports indicate that both orally administered and topically applied alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, TH) prevent UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. Because UVB exposure causes the formation of oxidants associated with tumor promotion, epidermal TH status may be an important determinant of susceptibility to photocarcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we studied the status of epidermal TH in C3H mice following exposure to single and repeated UVB exposures at doses typical of chronic photocarcinogenesis protocols. Exposure of mice to a single 13 kJ/m(2) dose over 60 min resulted in no acute depletion of epidermal TH and a modest increase in TH within 6-12 h. Daily exposure to 6.5 kJ/m(2) over 30 min resulted in a gradual increase in epidermal TH, which reached 5-fold after five daily exposures. The increase in epidermal TH was accompanied by an increase in the TH oxidation products alpha-tocopherolquinone (TQ) and alpha-tocopherolhydroquinone (THQ). We also studied the effect of the prooxidant chemical tumor promoter benzoyl peroxide and the prooxidant azo initiators azobis(amidinopropane HCl) and azobis(2, 4-dimethylvaleronitrile). Topical application of these prooxidant chemicals acutely oxidized epidermal TH to TQ and THQ. Topical treatments with the phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) increased epidermal TH levels without producing a significant accumulation of TH oxidation products. The results indicate that UVB and tumor promoting chemicals all exert qualitatively different effects on epidermal TH status and that UVB and TPA trigger an adaptive response involving epidermal TH accumulation.  (+info)

Vitamin E reduces chromosomal damage and inhibits hepatic tumor formation in a transgenic mouse model. (3/780)

We have previously shown that chronic activation of mitogenic signaling induced by over-expression of c-myc and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) transgenes in mouse liver induces a state of oxidative stress. We therefore proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation might be responsible for the extensive chromosomal damage and acceleration of hepatocarcinogenesis characteristic for TGFalpha/c-myc mice. In this study, we show that vitamin E (VE), a potent free radical scavenging antioxidant, is able to protect liver tissue against oxidative stress and suppress tumorigenic potential of c-myc oncogene. Dietary supplementation with VE, starting from weaning, decreased ROS generation coincident with a marked inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation while increasing the chromosomal as well as mtDNA stability in the liver. Similarly, dietary VE reduced liver dysplasia and increased viability of hepatocytes. At 6 mo of age, VE treatment decreased the incidence of adenomas by 65% and prevented malignant conversion. These results indicate that ROS generated by over-expression of c-myc and TGFalpha in the liver are the primary carcinogenic agents in this animal model. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that dietary supplementation of VE can effectively inhibit liver cancer development.  (+info)

Effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on esophageal adenocarcinogenesis in a surgical model with rats. (4/780)

Two well-known antioxidative nutrients, vitamin E and selenium, were used in this study to investigate possible inhibitory action against the formation of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in rats. In this model, carcinogenesis is believed to be driven by oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were divided into four groups and received esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA) surgery plus iron supplementation (12 mg/kg/week). Vitamin E and selenium were supplemented in the diet in the forms of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (750 IU/kg) and sodium selenate (1.7 mg Se/kg), which were 10 times the regular amounts in the basic AIN93M diet. At 40 weeks after surgery, all the EDA groups had lower body weights than the non-operated control group. Iron nutrition (hemoglobin, total serum iron and transferrin saturation) was normal as a result of iron supplementation after EDA. Vitamin E supplementation maintained the normal plasma level of alpha-tocopherol in EDA rats, but not those of gamma-tocopherol and retinol. Selenium supplementation increased the serum and liver selenium contents of the EDA rats. Histopathological analysis showed that selenium supplementation increased the incidence of EAC and the tumor volume. The selenium level in the tumor is higher than that in the duodenum of the same animal. Vitamin E supplementation, however, inhibited carcinogenesis, especially in the selenium-supplemented group. We believe that vitamin E exerts its effect through its antioxidative properties, and a high dose of inorganic selenium may promote carcinogenesis by enhancing oxidative stress.  (+info)

Oxidation of plasma proteins is not increased after supplementation with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. (5/780)

BACKGROUND: It is generally thought that as the intake of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids increases, so should that of alpha-tocopherol, to protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids from increased in vivo peroxidation. However, there are little quantitative data about the concentration of alpha-tocopherol that is necessary when eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are consumed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure changes produced in 2 indexes of lipid oxidation after supplementation with EPA and DHA from fish oil and 3 doses of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Daily supplements of fish oil providing 2.5 g EPA and 1.8 g DHA and 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate were given to 46 postmenopausal women in a 4-treatment, 4-period crossover design. RESULTS: The supplements increased plasma concentrations of EPA, DHA, and alpha-tocopherol. The fish-oil supplement increased the plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (P: = 0.0001) but not that of oxidatively modified protein, as indicated by the carbonyl content. The alpha-tocopheryl acetate and fish-oil supplements had no significant effect on plasma concentrations of TBARS or oxidized protein. CONCLUSIONS: Although these data show a small but statistically significant increase in oxidative stress on the basis of plasma TBARS concentrations after the consumption of EPA and DHA, the clinical relevance of this change is questionable. In addition, as supplements of alpha-tocopheryl acetate were added to the diet, neither the plasma TBARS concentration nor the protein oxidation changed. Consequently, the results of this study indicate that there is no basis for vitamin E supplementation after consumption of EPA and DHA.  (+info)

Altered susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated-perfused hearts of short-term diabetic rats associated with changes in non-enzymatic antioxidants. (6/780)

The effects of short-term (2-week) diabetes on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury and associated changes in myocardial non-enzymatic antioxidant level were examined. Isolated-perfused hearts prepared from control and diabetic rats were subjected to increasing periods of ischemia and reperfusion, and myocardial I-R injury was assessed by measuring the extent of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and contractile force recovery. While a brief period (20 min) of post-ischemic reperfusion caused a smaller extent of LDH leakage, the prolonged period (40 min) of reperfusion produced a greater degree of I-R injury in diabetic hearts, as indicated by the impaired recovery of contractile force. The apparent protection against I-R injury in diabetic hearts during the early phase of post-ischemic reperfusion was associated with increases in myocardial reduced glutathione/ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol levels, with the effect on a-tocopherol being most prominent. Insulin treatment could reverse the diabetes-associated changes in susceptibility to myocardial I-R injury and antioxidant response. The ensemble of results indicates that the myocardium isolated from short-term diabetic rat can produce a beneficial antioxidant response to I-R challenge, which may, in turn, be attributable to the decreased susceptibility to I-R injury observable during the early phase of reperfusion.  (+info)

Differential effects among thiazolidinediones on the transcription of thromboxane receptor and angiotensin II type 1 receptor genes. (7/780)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been reported to be anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic. We have previously shown that one of the TZDs troglitazone significantly suppressed the transcription of both thromboxane receptor (TXR) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) genes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by activating PPAR-gamma. In the present study, we compared the effects of troglitazone and other TZDs on the transcription of these genes. TXR and AT1R mRNAs in rat VSMCs were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Luciferase chimeric constructs containing either the 989-bp rat TXR gene promoter or the 1,969-bp rat AT1R gene promoter were transiently transfected into VSMCs. The cells were incubated with troglitazone, RS-1455 (a derivative of troglitazone which does not contain the hindered phenol resembling alpha-tocopherol), pioglitazone, or rosiglitazone for 12 h before harvesting. mRNA expression levels of TXR and AT1R were significantly decreased by troglitazone in contrast to rosiglitazone. TXR gene and AT1R gene transcription was significantly suppressed by troglitazone in a dose-dependent manner, while RS-1455 was less potent. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone weakly suppressed the transcription of both genes in a manner almost similar to RS-1455. We have shown that troglitazone suppresses transcription of both the TXR and AT1R genes more potently than other TZDs. The structure of troglitazone and RS-1455 is identical except the hindered phenol, which is recently recognized to function as an antioxidant. Moreover, we have shown that the potency for activating PPAR-gamma is almost identical between troglitazone and RS-1455. We therefore speculate that the strong transcriptional suppression of the TXR and AT1R genes by troglitazone may be mediated in part by its antioxidant effect.  (+info)

Evidence of a lysosomal pathway for apoptosis induced by the synthetic retinoid CD437 in human leukemia HL-60 cells. (8/780)

The novel synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid (AHPN/CD437) has been proven to be a potent inducer of apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell types. However, the mechanism of its action remains to be elucidated. Recent studies suggest that the lysosomal protease cathepsin D, when released from lysosomes to the cytosol, can initiate apoptosis. In this study, we examined whether cathepsin D and free radicals are involved in the CD437-induced apoptosis. Exposure of human leukemia HL-60 cells to CD437 resulted in rapid induction of apoptosis as indicated by caspase activation, phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial alterations and morphological changes. Addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol acetate effectively inhibited the CD437-induced apoptosis. Measurement of the intracellular free radicals indicated a rise in oxidative stress in CD437-treated cells, which could be attenuated by alpha-tocopherol acetate. Interestingly, pretreatment of cells with the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A blocked the CD437-induced free radical formation and apoptotic effects, suggesting the involvement of cathepsin D. However, Western blotting revealed no difference in cellular quantity of any forms of cathepsin D between control cells and CD437-treated cells, whereas immunofluorescence analysis of the intracellular distribution of cathepsin D showed release of the enzyme from lysosomes to the cytosol. Labeling of lysosomes with lysosomotropic probes confirmed that CD437 could induce lysosomal leakage. The CD437-induced relocation of cathepsin D could not be prevented by alpha-tocopherol acetate, suggesting that the lysosomal leakage precedes free radical formation. Furthermore, a retinoic acid nuclear receptor (RAR) antagonist failed to block these effects of CD437, suggesting that the action of CD437 is RAR-independent. Taken together, these data suggest a novel lysosomal pathway for CD437-induced apoptosis, in which lysosomes are the primary target and cathepsin D and free radicals act as death mediators.  (+info)

Alpha-tocopherol, a lipid soluble antioxidant, has been shown to protect endothelial cells against oxidative damage (18-21). Previous reports showed that alpha-tocopherol supplementation restored endothelial function in parallel with suppression of lipid peroxidation in low density lipoproteins (LDL) in experimental hypercholesterolemic animals (19,21). In this regard, the present study also showed that the improvement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation was associated with decrease in plasma TBARS levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, after alpha-tocopherol treatment in patients with high remnants levels. This strongly suggests that the beneficial effect of alpha-tocopherol, as shown in the present study, was at least partly mediated through prevention of endothelial function from oxidative stress-induced injury in patients with high remnant lipoproteins levels. We have previously shown that oxidatively modified LDL causes endothelial dysfunction and has an important role in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alpha-tocopherol supplementation decreases the oxidative susceptibility of LDL in renal failure patients on dialysis therapy. AU - Islam, Kazi Nazrul. AU - OByrne, Dawn. AU - Devaraj, Sridevi. AU - Palmer, Biff. AU - Grundy, Scott M.. AU - Jialal, Ishwarlal. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who have undergone dialysis treatment. The oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The increased oxidative stress and attendant increased oxidizability of lipoproteins, such as LDL could contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis in dialysis patients. Since α-tocopherol (AT) is the major antioxidant in LDL, the aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of RRR-AT supplementation (800 I.U. per day) for 12 weeks on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. The study subjects comprised patients with ...
Lower plasma a-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman after deuterium labeled a-tocopherol supplementation suggests decreased vitamin E metabolism in smokers ...
Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that dietary factors such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and b ta-carotene are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This study was carried out within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study ATBC Study, whose participants were randomly assigned to four...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
Health,SEATTLE The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) ... Results from two separate sub-studies in ATBC presented today at th... A Prospective Investigation of Height and Prostate Cancer ...The results showed that the tallest men experienced a 20 percent in...However when this relationship was analyzed according to how far t...,Study,in,male,smokers,continues,to,provide,clues,into,the,causes,and,prevention,of,multiple,cancers,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Abstract: alpha-Tocopherol reduced distinctly the intensity and duration of the stress reaction. Preadministration of alpha-tocopherol into animals before stress prevented the corticosterone elevation as well as the catecholamine decrease in heart muscle and adrenal glands; at the same time, the vitamin reduced 2-fold the duration of eosinopenia. Besides, the intensity of NA-3N neuronal uptake was twice increased in these tissues ...
Koll, Michael, Patel, Vinood B., Sherwood, R.A., Seitz, H.K., Simanowski, U.A., Richardson, P.J., Peters, T.J. and Preedy, Victor R. (2001) Alpha-Tocopherol supplementation does not prevent acute alcohol-induced heart muscle damage. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 60. P125A. ISSN 0029-6651 ...
The human a-tocopherol transfer protein (h-a-TTP) is understood to be the entity responsible for the specific retention of a-tocopherol (a-toc) in human tissues over all other forms of vitamin E obtained from the diet ...
CAS: 59-02-9 Molecular Formula: C29H50O2 Molecular Weight (g/mol): 430.7 MDL Number: MFCD00072045 InChI Key: GVJHHUAWPYXKBD-IEOSBIPESA-N Synonym: +-alpha-tocopherol, 2r,4r,8r-alpha-tocopherol, 5,7,8-trimethyltocol, alpha-tocopherol, d-alpha-tocopherol, dl-a-tocopherol, eprolin, phytogermine, r,r,r-alpha-tocopherol, vitamin e PubChem CID: 14985 ChEBI: CHEBI:18145 IUPAC Name: (2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol SMILES: CC1=C(C(=C2CCC(OC2=C1C)(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)C)C)O ...
ALPHA-T2 is a clean jitter free blend of three POWERFUL and pure ingredients that are combined at perfect doses. Whether you are trying to drop weight
Going on vacation in 3 weeks, and as soon as I get back I wanted to give these three products a try. Only because I BELIEVE (and I am wrong a lot)
The original one-room school was established in 1848 by Enoch Turner (1792-1866), a wealthy brewer and philanthropist, to educate the children in the poor neighbourhood surrounding his brewery.[2] Because many of the areas immigrant families were from County Cork in Ireland, the neighbourhood became known as Corktown - a nickname it still carries today.[2] Turner supplied the funds to construct the Schoolhouse and the land was donated by the adjacent Little Trinity Church.[3][2] In 1849, the school opened with space for 240 pupils and Turner paid for its operation for three years.[2] It was the first free school in Toronto.[4][2] Enoch Turner founded his free school following the Common Schools Act of 1846. After the act was passed, municipalities had the power to raise funds for public education through taxation. However, city officials were unwilling to introduce such taxes, and as a result, all schools that benefited from any kind of public support were closed for a year. This prompted ...
Looking for online definition of a-tocopherol in the Medical Dictionary? a-tocopherol explanation free. What is a-tocopherol? Meaning of a-tocopherol medical term. What does a-tocopherol mean?
This page contains the abstract Human Plasma and Tissue Alpha-tocopherol Concentrations in Response to Supplementation with Deuterated Natural and Synthetic Vitamin E http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/Human_Plasma_and_Tissue_Alpha.shtml
Enzymatic syntheses of water-soluble alpha-tocopheryl glycosides were carried out in di-isopropyl ether using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold or beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond. Optimum conditions for the amyloglucosidase were: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D: -glucose 0.5 mmol, 400 activity unit (AU) amyloglucosidase, 0.2 mM pH 7 phosphate buffer and 72 h; and for the beta-glucosidase: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D: -glucose 0.5 mmol, 110 AU beta-glucosidase, 0.1 mM pH 6 phosphate buffer and 72 h. Out of 11 carbohydrates employed, amyloglucosidase reacted only with D: -glucose to give 50% of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol. However, the beta-glucosidase gave 6-O-(beta-D: -glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D: -galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(beta-D: -galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D: -mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol and 6-O-(beta-D: -mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol in yields ranging from 10-25%. Water solubility of 6-O-(alpha-D: ...
The project is a passive follow-up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort. Originally, this was a large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2x2 factorial primary prevention trial testing the effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality. The study was conducted in Finland as a collaboration between the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Public Health Institute of Finland. NCI has maintained passive surveillance of the cohort through Finnish national registries, including the cancer registry.. The primary purpose of the ATBC cohort follow-up is to use the existing risk factor data and biological specimens (i.e., serum, whole blood, DNA, red blood cells, and toenails) to test hypotheses relevant to cancer etiology, survival, early detection, and prevention. These data and biospecimens continue to provide an invaluable resource for the study of biochemical, nutritional, genetic, and ...
Press release - Allied Market Research - Synthetic Vitamin E Industry (Market) growth analysis By Top Key Players | BASF SE Corporation, Koninklijke DSM N.V., Eisai Food & Chemical Co.Ltd., Southwest Synthetic Pharmaceuticals Corp Ltd., Zhejiang Medicine Co Ltd. - published on openPR.com
Vitamin E has been shown to be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The following research is concerned with assessing vitamin E status in healthy people and those with increased risk of CVD, who may have an altered vitamin E status. To understand the relationship between vitamin E intake, blood concentrations and metabolism healthy subjects were given varying single doses of RRR alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TA) up to 780 mg (n=20). There was a greater uptake of alpha-tocopherol in plasma and erythrocytes compared with platelets and lymphocytes. No dose-response relationship was observed, however there was a positive correlation between percentage increase in a-tocopherol concentration in plasma and erythrocyte with mg urinary alpha-carboxyethylhydroxychroman (alpha-CEHC) excreted. Less than 1% of alpha-TA was excreted as urinary a-CEHC. Research into the absorption of deuterium labelled (d6) alpha-TA showed a greater uptake into plasma and chylomicrons over 9 h when ...
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of castration on cell death rate of the adult rat prostates and to evaluate the benefic action of alpha tocopherol supplementation to avoid apoptosis post-orchiectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were divided into three groups: group I - they were subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and sacrificed eight weeks after the procedure; group II - subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure; and group III - subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure and for eight weeks afterwards ...
MYTH: Natural Vitamins are better for the body than synthetic vitamins.. TRUTH: Not necessarily. In some cases the synthetic vitamin molecule is bio-identical to the same molecule found in nature.. Confusion arises because natural and synthetic are not opposites. The true opposite of natural is artificial. Synthesis is the process by which new compounds are produced by combining simpler substances, and this can happen either in the body or in a laboratory. Synthetic vitamins can be either natural or artificial.. All synthetic vitamins A, D and E are artificial. Their molecular structures differ slightly from the same vitamins found in nature. All documented cases of toxicity from overdosing on vitamin A appear to have been from consuming artificial vitamin A. There are no documented cases of harm from consuming artificial vitamin E; however, this form of the vitamin is less efficiently utilized by the body than is natural vitamin E.. Synthetic vitamin C and all synthetic B-vitamins, ...
Synthetic vitamin E derived from petroleum products is manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate with three chiral centers. This mixture has only one alpha tocopherol molecule (moiety) in 8 molecules as actual R, R,R-alpha tocopherol. The 8-isomer all-rac vitamin E is always marked on labels simply as dl-tocopherol or dl-tocopheryl acetate, even though it is (if fully written out) actually dl,dl,dl-tocopherol. The present largest manufacturers of this type are DSM and BASF. (An earlier semisynthetic vitamin E actually contained 50% d,d,d-alpha tocopherol moiety and 50% l,d,d-alpha-tocopherol moiety, as synthesized by an earlier process which started with a plant sterol intermediate with the correct chirality in the tail, and thus resulted in a racemic mixture at only one chiral center. This form, known as 2-ambo tocopherol, is no longer made.) Natural alpha-tocopherol is the RRR-alpha (or ddd-alpha) form. The synthetic dl,dl,dl-alpha (dl-alpha) form is not as active as the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of β-carotene and α-tocopherol on the levels of tissue cholesterol and triglyceride in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Lee, S.-M. and Clemens, M. G. (1992), Effect of α-tocopherol on hepatic mixed function oxidases in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Hepatology, 15: 276-281. doi: 10.1002/hep.1840150217 ...
Vitamin E is necessary for ruminants to maintain a well functioning immune system, high reproduction level, and good milk and meat quality. The content of antioxidants in colostrum affects the absorption of antibodies in newborn calves. Selenium content of soils may be low, and thus home-grown forage may be low in selenium. If the roughage is also low in vitamin E, which interacts with the biological effects of selenium, deficiency may easily occur. Therefore, the rations of ruminants must be supplemented with synthetic vitamin E to ensure an adequate intake of vitamin E. However, it is known that 87,5% of the molecules of synthetic vitamin E have a non-natural configuration and is not as effective as biological vitamin E. For this reason it is important to find alternative natural vitamin and antioxidant sources that are cheap and sustainable to produce and easy to handle, especially for the organic livestock production but also for traditional livestock production. It was therefore conducted a ...
Trace amounts of Manganese (Mn) are essential for the proper functioning of a variety of physiological processes, including development, in all living organisms. However, several studies indicate that high Mn levels may be toxic to terrestrial and aquatic organisms, especially due to its neurotoxic properties. In the present study, the young and adult albino rats (2 months and 4 months old) were exposed to low dose (2.5mg/kg body weight) and high dose (5mg/kg body weight) of Mn through intraperitoneal injection for a period of 3 weeks and a separate batch treated with Mn was left for a period of one week supplementation with Alpha-tocopherol at a dose of 5mg/kg body weightalong with Mn until the end of the study.Control animals received only deionized water without Mn. In the present study, it was observed that, the potential effect of Adenosine Triphosphatase (ATPase) activity (EC 3.6.1.3); Mg2+ATPase and Na+K+ ATPase activities were assayed. From our observation, it was cleared that the ...
There are a variety of benefits to taking your Vitamin E. Vitamin E functions to help fat-soluble antioxidants. It helps to protect the cells from damage, and it may also aid in reducing other health issues such as heart disease and cancer, as well as prevention of dementia.. Vitamin E helps to improve the function of the immune system and protects the eyes and the eyesight. A study of the Dept of Epidemiology and Health Statistics of Qingdao University also found that the vitamin intake and the higher serum tocopherol levels have been linked to a lower risk of cataracts due to age.. Vitamin E also functions in creating the hormone prostaglandins which regulates many of the body processes like blood pressure and reproduction, as well as muscle contractions. In recent studies, it also helps to repair the muscles.. For those who are suffering from Crohns disease and cystic fibrosis or even an inability to get rid of the bile in the liver, this may also help them to avoid further issues with their ...
How much of Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is present in Chicken, fryers or broilers, dark meat, meat with skin, raw natural in details, quantity how high or low Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) nutrient content it has.
How much of Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is present in Cereals ready-for-eating, KELLOGGS KRAVE double chocolate cereal in details, quantity how high or low Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) nutrient content it has.
Wrong type of vitamins can increase risk of stroke.Intake of synthetic vitamin can increase it by 30%.So its important to get higher quality vitamin.
Do you know about Alpha-tocopherol? If not, here is a hint: Alpha-tocopherol is important to staying healthy! Read on to find out why.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
In our study, 400 IU/day of RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate administered for an average of 4.5 years to people with diabetes and at high risk for CV events had a neutral effect on CV outcomes, on microvascular complications, and on glycemic control.. The results on CV outcomes are very robust, with a large number of events and with consistent lack of benefit associated with vitamin E therapy on the composite primary outcome, on each component of the primary outcome, and on all secondary and additional CV outcomes for the entire diabetic study population and for all subgroups evaluated.. In spite of the strong biological rationale for a fundamental role of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and the supportive epidemiological data, randomized clinical trials have overall, with few exceptions, failed to detect clear benefits of vitamin E supplementation on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions or on clinical events (8-11,15,16). While vitamin E was shown to improve endothelial function in ...
Cosmetic Analysis has rated the ingredient Tocopherol. Alternative names: Alpha-Tocopherol; a-Tocopherol; D-Alpha-Tocopherol; Vitamin E; D-MIXED-TOCOPHEROLS...
Comstock GW, Alberg AJ, Huang HY, Wu K, Burke AE, Hoffman SC, Norkus EP, Gross M, Cutler RG, Morris JS, Spate VL, Helzlsouer KJ. The risk of developing lung cancer associated with antioxidants in the blood: ascorbic acid, carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and total peroxyl radical absorbing capacity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 1997; 6(11): 907-16 ...
Unbalanced Fox news report misleads about vitamin-mineral safety By Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA I watched the special health report on vitamins and minerals on FOX-32 (How Do Vitamins and Minerals Really Affect Your Body? on 2/12/08, see link below), but was disappointed that the report exaggerated the risks of vitamins and minerals and minimized their benefits without any mention of the common deficiencies that exist in the American population. For example, the report cautioned about vitamin E causing blood thinning, but the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine has set an upper tolerable intake level (UL) for vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) at 1,500 IU per day, which is the highest dose unlikely to result in bleeding problems; though the Institute has also said that the danger of the vitamin inhibiting clotting was not convincing. In other words, taking about four times the most common strength of even a hi-potency vitamin E capsule might be a problem in terms of affecting ...
In this study, antioxidant biodegradable films based on pea protein and alpha-tocopherol were successfully developed by solution casting. The effect of both the homogenization conditions (rotor-stator and microfluidizer) and the relative humidity (RH) on the microstructure and physical properties (transparency, tensile, oxygen and water vapour barrier properties) of pea protein/alpha-tocopherol-based films was evaluated. The addition of alpha-tocopherol produced minimal changes in the films transparency, while providing them with antioxidant properties and improved water vapour and oxygen barrier properties (up to 30 % in both water vapour and oxygen permeability) when films were at low and intermediate RH. The addition of alpha-tocopherol in microfluidized films gave rise to an increase in their resistance to break and extensibility (up to 27 % in E values) at intermediate and high RH. These results add a new insight into the potential of employing pea protein and alpha-tocopherol in the ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of A liquid chromatographic method for quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in rat brain. by Govind T. Vatassery et al.
Alpha-Tocopherol,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
PMID: 26674283 Open Access Sobotka O, Drahota Z, Kucera O, Endlicher R, Rauchova H, Cervinkova Z (2015) Physiol Res Abstract: We compared the effect of alpha-tocopheryl succinate (TOS) on succinate-dependent respiration in rat liver mitochondria, homogenate and permeabilized hepatocytes in both a coupled and uncoupled state. In isolated mitochondria, a significant inhibitory effect was observed at a concentration of 5 microM, in liver homogenate at 25 microM and in permeabilized hepatocytes at 50 microM. The inhibitory effect of TOS on succinate respiration in an uncoupled state was less pronounced than in a coupled state in all the experimental models tested. When the concentration dependence of the TOS inhibitory effect was tested, the most sensitive in both states were isolated mitochondria; the most resistant were permeabilized hepatocytes. • Keywords: Tocopheryl succinate, Complex II, Liver, Mitochondria, Homogenate, Hepatocytes • O2k-Network Lab: CZ Hradec Kralove Cervinkova Z, CZ ...
Background: Circulating total cholesterol has been inversely associated with cancer risk; however, the role of reverse causation and the associations for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol have not been fully characterized. We examined the relationship between serum total and HDL cholesterol and risk of overall and site-specific cancers among 29,093 men in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort.. Methods: Fasting serum total and HDL cholesterol were assayed at baseline, and 7,545 incident cancers were identified during up to 18 years of follow-up. Multivariable proportional hazards models were conducted to estimate relative risks (RR).. Results: Higher serum total cholesterol concentration was associated with decreased risk of cancer overall (RR for comparing high versus low quintile, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.91; P trend ,0.001; ,276.7 versus ,203.9 mg/dL), and the inverse association was particularly evident for cancers of the lung and ...
Learn more about Vitamin E at Grand Strand Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Alpha Tocopherol D-Tocopherol DL-Tocopherol DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Tocopheryl...
Learn more about Vitamin E at Grand Strand Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Alpha Tocopherol D-Tocopherol DL-Tocopherol DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Tocopheryl...
Learn more about Vitamin E at Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Alpha Tocopherol D-Tocopherol DL-Tocopherol DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Tocopheryl...
Learn more about Vitamin E at Largo Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Alpha Tocopherol D-Tocopherol DL-Tocopherol DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Tocopheryl.....
Learn more about Vitamin E at Memorial Hospital Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Alpha Tocopherol D-Tocopherol DL-Tocopherol DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Tocopheryl...
Learn more about Vitamin E at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Alpha Tocopherol D-Tocopherol DL-Tocopherol DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Tocopheryl...
Medical information for Tocopherol on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse Effect, Interaction.
Internet Numbers RFC 997 Network Numbers R 192.012.024.rrr MICANET MITRE (Experimental) [WDL] R 192.012.025.rrr CSS-GRAMINAE CSS Workstation Net [16,RR2] R 192.012.026.rrr NOSC-NETR Net-R Testbed at BBN [26,CP10] R 192.012.027.rrr UR-LASER UR Laser Energetics [30,WXL] R*192.012.028.rrr RIACS-X-NET RIACS-Experimental-Net [DG28] D 192.012.029.rrr RF-EVANS ADDCOMPE DC3 LAN1 [30,MB31] D 192.012.030.rrr RF-HEX-A ADDCOMPE DC3 LAN2 [30,MB31] D 192.012.031.rrr USNA-ENET USNA Engineering Net [30,TS9] R*192.012.032.rrr CMU-VINEYARD CMU File Cluster Net [30,MXK] R 192.012.033.rrr SRI-CSL-NET SRI-CSL 10MB Ethernet [GEOF] C*192.012.034.rrr-192.012.043.rrr Schlumberger PA Net [30,RXB] R 192.012.044.rrr T NRTC-NET Northrop Research Net [30,RSM1] R 192.012.045.rrr ACC-SB-IMP-NET ACC Santa Barbara IMP [AB20] R 192.012.046.rrr ACC-SB-ETHER ACC Santa Barbara Ethernet[AB20] R 192.012.047.rrr UMN-UCC-NET Univ. of Minnesota [RG12] G 192.012.048.rrr AMES-ED-EXPNET Code ED Exp. Net. [30,MSM1] G 192.012.049.rrr ...
In most cases, processed foods arent really food at all. They are manufactured food items that are packed with chemicals, synthetic vitamins, artificial colors, and other unhealthy additives. These foods do not provide the same beneficial nutrients as fresh, whole foods. More research needs to be conducted, however, its believed that genetically modified organisms (GMO) may threaten human health. Since theyre cheaper to produce, GMO crops are generally used to produce a wide range of processed meals and snacks.. Although processed foods tend to be convenient, they produce poor eating habits. Once a person is into the routine of making meals from scratch, it is soon realized it is not as time-consuming as many believe. There are plenty of quick and easy recipes available, helping you and your family eat better. Swap those frozen dinners for a more nutrient-rich meal plan.. ...
Forty-six Holstein heifer calves were used from birth to 3 rno to study the effect of supplemental vitamin E at 1400 or 2800 mg dl-a.-tocopherol acetate given orally at weekly intervals or 1400 mg dl-a-tocopherol by ...
KKK KKK R KK KK RRRR RR KKK KKK RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR KKK KKK RRRRRRRRRRRRRRR R KKK KK KK KKK RRRRR KKK K K KKK RRRRR KKKK K K KKKK RRRRR R KKKKKK KKKK KKKK KKKKKK RRRRRRR RR KKKKKKK KKK KKK KKKKKKK RRRRRRRRRR RRR KKKKKKK K K KKKKKKK R RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR KKKKKKK KKK KKK KKKKKKK RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRR KKKKK K KK KK K KKKKK RRRRRRRRRRR RR KKKKKK KKKKKK RRRRRR RRR KKKKKKK K K KKKKKKK RR KKKKKKK KK KK KKKKKKK RRR KKK KKKKKKK KKKKKK KKK RRR KKKK KKKKKK KKKKK KKKK RRR KKK KKKK KKKK KKK RRR KKK KKK KKKK KKK RR KK KKK KKK KK RR K KKK KKK K RR K KK KK K RRR K KK KK K RRR KK KK KK KK RRRR K KK KK K RRR KK KK RR KK KK RR KK KK R K K RRR K K - W H O W I L L S U R V I V E ? ? - RRRRR K K RRR K K R =============================================================================== ----------P L A Y E R S G U I D E----------- TO - L E G A C Y O F K A I N : D E F I A N C E - =============================================================================== - This Document is under copyright. Intended for private use, ...
Study Flashcards On rrr_u_nts_1 at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Alpha-carotene 1.6E-29 g Alpha-Tocopherol 8.7E-16 g ... Delta-tocopherol 1.04E-15 g Vitamin C, B-Vitamins, Niacin, ...
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1) ... renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1). *degradation (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase or CYP24A1) ...
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1) ... Four alpha helices connect successive beta strands.[10] Residues 9 - 24 are termed "Met20" or "loop 1" and, along with other ... renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1). *degradation (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase or CYP24A1) ...
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1) ... renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1). *degradation (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase or CYP24A1) ... have shown that gephyrin also interacts with the intracellular loop between the transmembrane helices TM3 and TM4 of alpha and ...
Vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (mg) 0.49 0.11 1.01 0.01 0.19 0 0.26 0.39 0 0.14 15 ... Carotenoid compounds include provitamin A alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which are converted to the essential nutrient, ...
... alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and four retinyl esters ... Azzi A (July 2007). "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 43 (1): 16-21. doi: ... "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action" by A. Azzi and "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more" by M. Traber and J. ... Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) Vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds Carotenoids (carotenes as provitamin A) Fruit, vegetables ...
TTPAL: encoding protein Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein-like. *UCKL1: encoding enzyme Uridine-cytidine kinase-like 1 ...
Manor D, Morley S (2007). "The alpha-tocopherol transfer protein". Vitam. Horm. 76: 45-65. doi:10.1016/S0083-6729(07)76003-X. ... Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency Abetalipoproteinemia Tocopherol Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin E". Dietary ... caused by mutations in the gene for the tocopherol transfer protein. These individuals have an extremely poor capacity to ...
... alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and four retinyl esters ... Azzi A (July 2007). "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 43 (1): 16-21. doi: ... "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action" by A. Azzi and "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more" by M. Traber and J. ... Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and ...
... alpha) transfer protein-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTPAL gene. "Entrez Gene: Tocopherol (alpha) ...
The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the ... Carotenes are found in plants in two primary forms designated by characters from the Greek alphabet: alpha-carotene (α-carotene ... α-tocopherol) and the incidence of lung cancer. The study was done using supplements and researchers were aware of the ...
Kohar I, Baca M, Suarna C, Stocker R, Southwell-Keely PT (Aug 1995). "Is alpha-tocopherol a reservoir for alpha-tocopheryl ...
"Characterization of irradiated blends of alpha-tocopherol and UHMWPE". Biomaterials. 26 (33): 6657-63. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Teupser D, Thiery J, Seidel D (1999). "Alpha-tocopherol down-regulates scavenger receptor activity in macrophages". ...
Rokitzki L. (1994). "Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in racing cyclist during extreme endurance training". International ...
Vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (mg) 0.49 0.11 1.01 0.01 0.19 0 0.26 0.39 0 0.14 15 ... Country code; ISO 3166-1 alpha-3, oth 86; other 86 countries. Top 8 countries produced 94.82% in 2016. ... alpha amylase inhibitor, trypsin inhibitors, and prolamin storage proteins of cereals and grasses.[28] ...
Vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (mg) 0.49 0.11 1.01 0.01 0.19 0 0.26 0.39 0 0.14 15 ...
Ikeda S, Tohyama T, Yoshimura H, Hamamura K, Abe K, Yamashita K (February 2003). "Dietary alpha-tocopherol decreases alpha- ... The vitamin E family comprise four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). ... Various studies have shown that alpha-tocopherol interferes with tocotrienol benefits. High levels of α-tocopherol increase ... "Structural and dynamic membrane properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol: implication to the molecular mechanism of ...
Tocopherols can occur in various forms. Its alpha form, also known as vitamin E, has antioxidant properties which results in ... Alpha-tocopherol is also able to scavenge reactive oxygen species involved in the ORN disease process, by inducing cell ... Azzi A, Ricciarelli R, Zingg JM (May 2002). "Non-antioxidant molecular functions of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E)". FEBS Letters ... α-tocopherol, and clodronate". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 124 (5): 464-471. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Azzi (2007). "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action". Free radical biology & medicine 43 (1): 16-21. PMID 17561089. ... "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action" by A. Azzi and "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more" by M. Traber and J. ... Bin, Q; Hu, X, Cao, Y, Gao, F (2011 Apr). "The role of vitamin E (tocopherol) supplementation in the prevention of stroke. A ... Atkinson; Epand, RF; Epand, RM (2008). "Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: a critical review". Free radical biology & ...
The naturally occurring plant form of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) is RRR-α-tocopherol whereas the synthetic form (all-racemic ... the human body prefers alpha-tocopherol. A matter of stereochemistry". J Med Life. 1 (4): 376-382. PMC 5654212. PMID 20108516. ... so that 1.36 mg of dl-tocopherol is considered equivalent to 1.0 mg of d-tocopherol. Macroscopic examples of chirality are ... vitamin E, or dl-tocopherol) is equal parts of the stereoisomers RRR, RRS, RSS, SSS, RSR, SRS, SRR, and SSR with progressively ...
... or gamma-tocopherol can be extracted, purified, and methylated to create d-alpha-tocopherol. In contrast to alpha-tocopherol ... This synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol has approximately 50% of the potency of d-alpha-tocopherol. Manufacturers of dietary ... The naturally occurring plant form of alpha-tocopherol is RRR-α-tocopherol, also referred to as d-tocopherol, whereas the ... Upon reaching the liver, RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially taken up by alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP). All ...
Alpha-tocopherol is the main form in which vitamin E is consumed. Recent studies showed that some tocotrienol isomers have ... Vitamin E, including tocotrienol and tocopherol, is fat soluble and protects lipids. Sources include wheat germ, seabuckthorn, ... Iodide Melatonin Alpha-carotene - found in carrots, winter squash, tomatoes, green beans, cilantro, Swiss chard Astaxanthin - ...
Poppy seeds are especially high in tocopherols other than vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol). Compared to other vegetable oils, ...
2008). "Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes". Diabetologia. 51 (1 ... Three vitamins, ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; and β-carotene, are well recognized for their antioxidant activities in human. ...
"999 Foods Highest in Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol) (based on levels per 200 Calories)". "Nutritional Summary for Oil, wheat germ ...
... and alpha-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) (5 studies) content; milk studies reported on beta-carotene (4 studies) and alpha- ... alpha-tocopherol in pork or beef, or vitamin A (retinol) in beef. The authors analyzed 11 other nutrients reported in studies ... tocopherol levels (4 studies). Few studies examined vitamin content in meats, but these found no difference in beta-carotene in ... α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- ...
"Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in smokers". Oral Dis ...
... alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and four retinyl esters ... Azzi A (2007). "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 43 (1): 16-21. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action" by A. Azzi and "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more" by M. Traber and J. ... Atkinson J, Epand RF, Epand RM (2007). "Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: A critical review". Free Radic. Biol. Med. ...
Other members of the family are alpha-tocopherol transfer protein and phosphatidylinositol-transfer protein (Sec14). They ... "Crystal structure of human alpha-tocopherol transfer protein bound to its ligand: implications for ataxia with vitamin E ... alpha-tocopherol and phosphatidylinositol or phosphatidylcholine, respectively) between different intracellular membranes. ... The structure contains several alpha helices as well as a beta sheet composed of 6 strands. Strands 2,3,4 and 5 form a parallel ...
2002). »Comparison of the effects of alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinone-10 and probucol at therapeutic doses on atherosclerosis in ...
Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase amidates peptide hormones by removing the glyoxylate residue from their c- ... Eipper BA, Stoffers DA, Mains RE (1992). "The biosynthesis of neuropeptides: peptide alpha-amidation". Annual Review of ... "Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: a multifunctional protein with catalytic, processing, and routing domains" ...
Plasma LDL and HDL subspecies are heterogeneous in particle content of tocopherols and oxygenated and hydrocarbon carotenoids: ... alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein, on colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats. - Cancer Lett, 1996, kd ... Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene. - Nutr ...
Dl-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) - antioksidan. *Dodecyl gallate - antioksidan. EDüzenle. *EDTA - Antioksidan, ...
In 1996, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published regulations requiring the addition of folic acid to enriched breads, cereals, flours, corn meals, pastas, rice, and other grain products.[95][96] This ruling took effect on January 1, 1998, and was specifically targeted to reduce the risk of neural tube birth defects in newborns.[97] There were concerns expressed that the amount of folate added was insufficient.[98] As a result of the folic acid fortification program, fortified grain foods became a major source of folic acid in the American diet.[8][99] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia used data from 23 birth defect registries covering about half of United States births, and extrapolated their findings to the rest of the country. These data indicate that since the addition of folic acid in grain-based foods as mandated by the FDA, the rate of neural tube defects dropped by 25% in the United States.[100] Before folic acid fortification, about ...
লেখাগুলো ক্রিয়েটিভ কমন্স অ্যাট্রিবিউশন/শেয়ার-আলাইক লাইসেন্সের আওতাভুক্ত; এর সাথে বাড়তি শর্ত প্রযোজ্য হতে পারে। এই সাইট ব্যবহার করার মাধ্যমে, আপনি এটি ব্যবহারের শর্তাবলী ও এর গোপনীয়তা নীতির সাথে সম্মত হচ্ছেন। উইকিপিডিয়া®, অলাভজনক সংস্থা উইকিমিডিয়া ফাউন্ডেশনের একটি নিবন্ধিত ট্রেডমার্ক ...
InChI=1S/C20H23N7O6/c21-20-24-16-15(18(31)25-20)27-9-26(8-12(27)7-22-16)11-3-1-10(2-4-11)17(30)23-13(19(32)33)5-6-14(28)29/h1-4,12-13H,5-9H2,(H,23,30)(H,28,29)(H,32,33)(H4,21,22,24,25,31)/t12?,13-/m0/s1 ...
... saturated fatty acids and serum palmitic combined with alpha-tocopherol supplementation[68] are associated with increased risk ...
... and tocopherol in beef". Vop Pitan. 25 (2): 52-5.. Chem Abstr 1966;65,1297b ... alpha-keto acids). Examples include: *Present in most species *pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (also ...
Adverse effects have been documented from vitamin B6 supplements, but never from food sources. Damage to the dorsal root ganglia is documented in human cases of overdose of pyridoxine.[33] Although it is a water-soluble vitamin and is excreted in the urine, doses of pyridoxine in excess of the dietary upper limit (UL) over long periods cause painful and ultimately irreversible neurological problems.[16] The primary symptoms are pain and numbness of the extremities. In severe cases, motor neuropathy may occur with "slowing of motor conduction velocities, prolonged F wave latencies, and prolonged sensory latencies in both lower extremities", causing difficulty in walking.[34] Sensory neuropathy typically develops at doses of pyridoxine in excess of 1,000 mg per day, but adverse effects can occur with much less, so doses over 200 mg are not considered safe.[35] Symptoms among women taking lower doses have been reported.[36] Existing authorizations and valuations vary considerably worldwide. As ...
Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA ... tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (1): 160 ... However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic ... While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic ...
"Alpha-bungarotoxin Binding to Target Cell in a Developing Visual System by Carboxylated Nanodiamond." Nanotechnology, 19 (20): ... "Protective Effects of Idebenone and α-tocopherol on β-amyloid-(1-42)-induced Learning and Memory Deficits in Rats: Implication ...
See the main article tocopherol for more information. See also[edit]. *alpha-Tocopherol ... γ-Tocopherol is one of the chemical compounds that is considered vitamin E. As a food additive, it has E number E308. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gamma-Tocopherol&oldid=872356665" ...
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA). *Ascorbic acid (vitamin C). *Carotenoids (vitamin A). *Curcumin ... Tocopherols (vitamin E). *Tocotrienols (vitamin E). *Tyrosol. *Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). *Uric acid ...
... are found in highest abundance in meat. Most are also found in small quantities in whole unprocessed carbohydrate based foods. Processed carbohydrates such as sugar and white flour tend to have lower B vitamin than their unprocessed counterparts. For this reason, it is required by law in many countries (including the United States) that the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and folic acid be added back to white flour after processing. This is sometimes called "Enriched Flour" on food labels. B vitamins are particularly concentrated in meat such as turkey, tuna and liver.[1] Good sources for B vitamins include legumes (pulses or beans), whole grains, potatoes, bananas, chili peppers, tempeh, nutritional yeast, brewer's yeast, and molasses. Although the yeast used to make beer results in beers being a source of B vitamins,[2] their bioavailability ranges from poor to negative as drinking ethanol inhibits absorption of thiamine (B1),[3][4] riboflavin (B2),[5] niacin (B3),[6] ...
Hydroxylation in the kidneys of calcifediol to calcitriol by 1-alpha-hydroxylase is tightly regulated: it is stimulated by ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase, a kidney enzyme that converts calcifediol to calcitriol. ...
TocopherolTocopherol (Vitamin E). *Topoisomerase. *Trí-iadaitíoróinín Triiodothyronine (T3). *Gabhdóirr tréscannáin ... α-Amanatin, see Alpha-amanitin. *Aimínaigéad Amino acid. *Séaróideach anabalach Anabolic steroid ...
... is a source of potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E (alpha tocopherol), vitamin K, thiamin, ...
There is some evidence that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) may work as a milder chelator of tissue-bound copper. Alpha lipoic acid is ... Accessed March 11, 2011 "Comparison of the effect of α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol supplementation on measures of oxidative ... "Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: part I: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. ( ...
The United States Public Health Service recommends an extra 0.4 mg/day for newly pregnant women, which they can take as a pill. However, many researchers believe this supplementation can never work effectively enough, since about half of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned, and not all women comply with the recommendation. Approximately 53% of the US population uses dietary supplements and 35% uses dietary supplements that contain folic acid.[109] Men consume more folate (in dietary folate equivalents) than women, and non-Hispanic whites have higher folate intakes than Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks.[109] Twenty-nine percent of black women have inadequate intakes of folate.[109] The age group consuming the most folate and folic acid is the ,50 group.[109] 5% of the population exceeds the Tolerable Upper Intake Level.[109] In 1996, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published regulations requiring the addition of folic acid to enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...
... has been used as a vitamin C dietary supplement.[8] As a cosmetic ingredient, dehydroascorbic acid is used to enhance the appearance of the skin.[9] It may be used in a process for permanent waving of hair[10] and in a process for sunless tanning of skin.[11] In a cell culture growth medium, dehydroascorbic acid has been used to assure the uptake of vitamin C into cell types that do not contain ascorbic acid transporters.[12] As a pharmaceutical agent, some research has suggested that administration of dehydroascorbic acid may confer protection from neuronal injury following an ischemic stroke.[7] The literature contains many reports on the antiviral effects of vitamin C,[13] and one study suggests dehydroascorbic acid has stronger antiviral effects and a different mechanism of action than ascorbic acid.[14] Solutions in water containing ascorbic acid and copper ions and/or peroxide, resulting in rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid, have been shown to ...
Argan oil contains: 44% Oleic acid 30% Alpha-linolenic acid 12% Palmitic acid 6% Stearidonic acid 5% Linoleic acid(Conflicts ... tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic compounds should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects". European Journal ...
L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also ... Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will ... For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as ... Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood-brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of acetylcholine ...
Ang karamihan sa mga hayop at halaman ay may kakayahang mag-sintesis(synthesize) ng kanilang sariling bitamina C sa pamamagitan ng sekwensiya ng apat na pinapatakbo ng enzyme na mga hakbang na kumokonberte sa glucose patungo sa bitamina C[2]. Ang glucose na kailangan upang mag-sintesis ng ascorbate sa atay(sa mga mammal at mga ibon na nagsasagawa ng perching) ay kinakatas mula sa glycogen. Ang sintesis ng ascorbate ay isang nakabatay sa glycogenolisis na proseso. Sa mga reptilya at mga ibon, ang biosintesis ay isinasagawa sa mga kidney nito[3]. Kabilang sa mga hayop na nawalan ng kakayahan na mag-sintesis ng sariling bitamina C ang mga simian at tarsier na ang pinagsamang ito ay bumubuo sa dalawang pangunahing mga suborder ng primate na anthropoidea na tinatawag ring haplorrhini. Kabilang sa pangkat na ito ang mga tao(humans). Ang ibang mga mas primitibong mga primate(strepsirrhini) ay may kakayahang gumawa ng sariling bitamina C. Ang sintesis ay hindi naisasagawa sa ilang mga species sa pamilya ...
The "essential" fatty acids are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, and linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty ... vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols, vitamin K includes vitamin K1 and K2). The list: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ...
α-tocopherol (CHEBI:18145) is a α-tocopherol (CHEBI:22470) (+)-α-tocopherol (CHEBI:18145) is enantiomer of (−)-α-tocopherol ( ... 13-hydroxy-α-tocopherol (CHEBI:84962) has functional parent (+)-α-tocopherol (CHEBI:18145). (−)-α-tocopherol (CHEBI:46430) is ... via alpha-tocopherol ). fat-soluble vitamin Vitamins like A, D, E and K that dissolve in fats and are stored in body tissues. ... via alpha-tocopherol ). food antioxidant An antioxidant that used as a food additives to help guard against food deterioration. ...
Functional activity of alpha-tocopherol. The function of alpha tocopherol is as a fat-soluble antioxidant, which breaks the ... Sources of tocopherols. Tocopherols are found in almost all plant seeds, the best sources of alpha-tocopherol include plant ... Alpha-tocopherol esters in supplements are chiefly succinate and acetate, and these are converted to alpha-tocopherol in the ... called alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherol respectively. The form used in the human body is alpha tocopherol, and this form ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research ...
Alpha-Tocopherol): learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol). pronounced as (al fa toe kof er ol) ...
... is 1 mg of d-alpha-tocopherol or 2 mg of dl-alpha-tocopherol. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9931. Rigotti A (2007). "Absorption, ... RRR-α-tocopherol is the natural one. The older name of RRR-α-tocopherol is d-α-tocopherol, but this d/l naming should be no ... The SRR may be named 2-epi-α-tocopherol, the diastereomeric mixture of RRR-α-tocopherol and 2-epi-α-tocopherol may be called 2- ... ambo-α-tocopherol (formerly named dl-α-tocopherol). The mixture of all eight diastereomers is called all-rac-α-tocopherol One ...
Ben-Shabat S, Kazdan Y, Beit-Yannai E, Sintov AC (May 2013). "Use of alpha-tocopherol esters for topical vitamin E treatment: ... α-Tocopherol palmitate is the palmitate ester of α-tocopherol and is a form of vitamin E. Progesterone/hydroxyprogesterone ... heptanoate/α-tocopherol palmitate Baxter JG, Robeson CD, Taylor JD, Lehman RW (1943). "Natural α-, β- and γ-Tocopherols and ...
alpha-tocopherol synonyms, alpha-tocopherol pronunciation, alpha-tocopherol translation, English dictionary definition of alpha ... tocopherol. n. An alcohol, C29H50O2, that is one of the components of vitamin E and is present in vegetable oils, nuts, and ... Alpha-tocopherol - definition of alpha-tocopherol by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/alpha-tocopherol ... alpha-tocopherol. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. al·pha-to·coph·e·rol. (ăl′fə-tō-kŏf′ə-rôl′, -rōl′). n.. An ...
Products containing TOCOPHEROL, D-ALPHA- made by company: Subversive Apothecary There are no products in the database that ...
Topical tocopherol did not normalize established sun-induced lesions, but DL-alpha-tocopherol-induced reductions in polyamine ... Chemoprevention of human actinic keratoses by topical DL-alpha-tocopherol.. Foote JA1, Ranger-Moore JR, Einspahr JG, Saboda K, ... Topically applied DL-alpha-tocopherol was substantially absorbed in skin, but the 6-month application did not significantly ... Prior research shows that topical application of free, nonfatty acid-conjugated vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol) prevents skin ...
alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Names. alpha-TTP. tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein (ataxia (Friedreich-like) with vitamin ... TTPA alpha tocopherol transfer protein [Homo sapiens] TTPA alpha tocopherol transfer protein [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:7274 ... alpha tocopherol transfer proteinprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:12404 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000137561 MIM: ... XM_006716468.4 → XP_006716531.1 alpha-tocopherol transfer protein isoform X1. Conserved Domains (2) summary. smart01100. ...
alpha-TOCOPHEROL EXPLANATION alpha-Tocopherol and mixed tocopherol concentrate were evaluated for acceptable daily intake at ... of 300 mg alpha-tocopherol daily. Incidences of allergic reactions seem to be very rare. alpha-Tocopherol may be an essential ... alpha-tocopherol (Carpenter, 1972), and d-alpha-tocopherol acetate given as a single oral dose or in 3 consecutive daily doses ... alpha-tocopherol (Shute, 1938). Effects of alpha-tocopherol on some biochemical parameters have been reported in man. A group ...
Structure of BthTX-I complexed with alpha-tocopherol. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3CXI/pdb ... two of which were grown in the presence of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Comparative structural analysis of these and other ...
... alpha tocopherol indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Oxidative Stress, DNA damage, and ... 1 Abstracts with Vitamin E: alpha tocopherol & Cancer Mortality Research. [x] Remove Focus on Cancer Mortality. Filter by Study ... 73 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Vitamin E: alpha tocopherol Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... Substances : Carotenoids, Fruit: All, Vegetables: All , Vitamin C, Vitamin E: alpha tocopherol ...
... alpha tocopherol indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Oxidative Stress, DNA damage, and ... 73 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Vitamin E: alpha tocopherol Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... 1 Abstracts with Vitamin E: alpha tocopherol & Photorefractive Keratectomy Research. [x] Remove Focus on Photorefractive ... 312 Diseases Researched for Vitamin E: alpha tocopherol Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
... (vitamin E) is listed as an ingredient in Natpro. From what ... Dl-Alpha Tocopherol. Hello,. I have a question. Natpro claim it is a "natural organic cream." Dl-alpha tocopherol (vitamin E) ... Dl-Alpha Tocopherol by: Wray Hi there Unfortunately natural vitamin E cannot be used as an in vitro antioxidant, it doesnt ... From what I have read, dl-alpha tocopherol a synthetic form of vitamin E. How can it be listed as a "natural" ingredient? Just ...
Tocopherols. Vitamin E. Tocotrienols. alpha-Tocopherol. Carotenoids. Beta Carotene. Antioxidants. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of ... Kataja-Tuomola M, Sundell JR, Männistö S, Virtanen MJ, Kontto J, Albanes D, Virtamo J. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta- ...
We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, ... Alpha-tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells.. ... Alpha-tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells.. ... and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. The IC50 of alpha-tcp on an IL-1-induced response was 45 microM. The ...
A11HA03 - Tocopherol (Vitamin E). Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, developers, local distributors and ...
... Author(s). Grievink, L.; Waart, F.G. de; Schouten, ... Serum carotenoids, -tocopherol, and lung function among Dutch elderly.. Comments. There are no comments yet. You can post the ... Subjects in the highest quintile of the other carotenoids or -tocopherol did not have significantly higher FEV1 or FVC compared ... In conclusion, this study shows that from the six major serum carotenoids and -tocopherol studied, particularly -carotene, - ...
Alfa-Tocopherol indications, usages and related health products lists ... Alfa-Tocopherol information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Nizhpharm, ... A11HA03 - Tocopherol (Vitamin E). Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, developers, local distributors and ... Find online pharmacy, drugstore, pharma or beauty shop where to order or buy Alfa-Tocopherol brand or generic online:. ...
The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study was a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2x2 ... Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC Study) Population. Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age:. 50 Years ... Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC Study) Population. The ATBC study was a randomized, double- ... a-tocopherol as dl-a-tocopheryl acetate (50 mg/day), (Beta)-carotene as. all-trans-(Beta)-carotene (20 mg/day), both ...
... the homeostasis of alpha-tocopherol is changed. Decreased erythrocyte levels of the vitamin are probably due to the limited ... Low concentration of alpha-tocopherol in erythrocytes of atopic dermatitis patients] Med Wieku Rozwoj. Oct-Dec 2004;8(4 Pt 1): ... Mean concentration of alpha-tocopherol in erythrocytes was significantly lower in children with DA (2.14 +/- 0.69 mmol/L) than ... Results: There were no differences between mean plasma alpha-tocopherol content (19.44 +/- 4,61 mmol/l vs 18.74 +/- 3.38 mmol/l ...
Return to Dl-Alpha Tocopherol.. Join in and write your own page! Its easy to do. How? Simply click here to return to ...
As D-Alpha Tocopherol Plus Mixed Tocopherols, 1000 IU, Softgels Solgar Natural Vitamin E, As D-Alpha Tocopherol Plus Mixed ... Natural Vitamin E, As D-Alpha Tocopherol Plus Mixed Tocopherols, 1000 IU, Softgels. ... Natural Vitamin E, As D-Alpha Tocopherol Plus Mixed Tocopherols, 1000 IU, Softgels ... Soybean Oil, Gelatin, Glycerin, D-Gamma Tocopherol, D-Delta Tocopherol, Safflower Oil, D-Beta Tocopherol, Water. ...
The antioxidant effect of dihydrolipoate and lipoate was examined in microsomal fractions obtained from normal and alpha- ... tocopherol-deficient animals after initiation of lipid peroxidation with an NADPH/iron/ADP system. Dihydrolipoate prolonged the ... Antioxidant activity of dihydrolipoate against microsomal lipid peroxidation and its dependence on alpha-tocopherol Biochim ... a slower loss of alpha-tocopherol and a slower accumulation, but unchanged maximal levels, of thiobarbituric acid-reactive ...
Alpha and gamma-tocopherol reduce oxidative stress and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome patients - Life Extension ... but not in those receiving alpha-tocopherol alone.. "The combination of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol supplementation ... Gamma-tocopherol is one of eight forms of vitamin E, which include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol has ... Alpha-tocopherol supplementation reduces gamma and delta-tocopherol levels *Mixed tocopherols better at preventing platelet ...
Among these α-tocopherol has been shown to improve swine oocyte maturation and the development of bovine and swine embryos. The ... Pig oocytes were cultured for 45 hours at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere; in M199 containing several α-tocopherol (5, 10, 20, 40 and ... Afterwards, the presumed zygotes were cultured in NCSU-23 droplets supplemented with α-tocopherol (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μM) in ... At 48 hours after fertilization it was apparent that α-tocopherol supplementation increased embryo development to the 4-8 cell ...
Shop for Natures Life Vitamin E d-Alpha Tocopherols Unesterified at Ralphs. Find quality health products to add to your ...
... alpha-tocopherol, etc.), and nitrites (Ahn et al., 2007). Alpha-tocopherol has antioxidant effects on cellular and subcellular ... meat from the animals t and did not receive the alpha-tocopherol acetate supp It is likely that the levels of alpha-tocopherol ... Sensory profile of warmed-over flavour in tenderloin from steers supplemented with alpha-tocopherol ... The addition of alpha-tocopherol did not reduce or delay the occurrence of undesirable warmed-over flavour in cooked tenderloin ...
Buy D-alpha-Tocopherol(P) - CAS Number 59-02-9 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability ... R,R,R)-α-Tocopherol ; Profecundin ; Rhenogran Ronotec 50 ; α-Vitamin E ; Eprolin ; α-Tocopherol ; NatAlc ;RRR-alpha-Tocopherol ... α-Tocopherol ; Etavit ; Copherol F 1300C ; (+)-2R,4R,8R-α-Tocopherol ; Etamican ; E 307 (tocopherol) ; EMF 1490 ; Verrol ; ( ... α-D-Tocopherol ; Covitol F 1300 ; Tokopharm ; Viteolin ; Phytogermin ; Cadvion ; Tenox GT 1 ; Covitol F 1000 ; D-α-Tocopherol ; ...
  • Alpha-tocopherol esters in supplements are chiefly succinate and acetate, and these are converted to alpha-tocopherol in the intestine before absorption. (news-medical.net)
  • Effect of dietary levels of vitamin E (all-rac-tocopheryl acetate) with or without added fat on weanling pig performance and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Certain microsomal hydroxylations appear to be regulated by alpha-tocopherol (Carpenter, 1972), and d-alpha-tocopherol acetate given as a single oral dose or in 3 consecutive daily doses of 450 mg/kg to rats caused a significant increase in aminopyrine demethylase activity in the liver (Cawthorne et al . (inchem.org)
  • Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a-tocopherol as dl-a-tocopheryl acetate (50 mg/day), beta-carotene as all-trans-beta-carotene (20 mg/day), both supplements, or placebo capsules for 5-8 years (median 6.1 years) through April 30, 1993. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A total of 24 animals were confined, 12 of which received 1200 mg/head/day of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 90 days. (scielo.br)
  • Differences in natural and synthetic vitamin E concentrations were measured directly under equal dosage conditions using an equimolar mixture of deuterated RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. (chiro.org)
  • This patient information on Alpha Tocopherol Acetate is provided by John L. Meisenheimer, M.D. a board certified Dermatologist and skin care specialist based in Orlando, Florida. (orlandoskindoc.com)
  • The results from your patch testing showed a positive reaction (contact allergy) to Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate. (orlandoskindoc.com)
  • Your immune system reacts with its defense mechanisms with each exposure of Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate to your skin. (orlandoskindoc.com)
  • Products listed on your contact allergen resource database will be free of Alpha Tocopherol Acetate and safe to use. (orlandoskindoc.com)
  • Temperature dependent FTIR spectroscopic study of the interaction of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl acetate with phospholipid bilayers. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • FTIR spectroscopy has been employed in order to investigate α-tocopherol (α-T) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TA) induced effects on the molecular organization of dimyristoyl- L -α-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers, at various temperatures and concentrations. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Does allicin combined with vitamin B-complex have superior potentials than alpha-tocopherol alone in ameliorating lead acetate-induced Purkinje cell alterations in rats? (viamedica.pl)
  • The current article aims to explore the protective potentials of α -tocopherol alone and the combination of allicin and vitamin B-complex against lead-acetate neurotoxicity on the cerebellar cortex. (viamedica.pl)
  • Group 4 was administered lead acetate (10 mg/kg BW) and α -tocopherol (100 mg/kg BW). (viamedica.pl)
  • Although both a-tocopherol and the combination of allicin and vitamin B-complex can be used as possible adjuvant therapies to ameliorate nervous system ailments attributable to lead acetate, α -tocopherol showed more protective potential. (viamedica.pl)
  • 1 IU is also defined as 1 milligram of the 8-isomer mix all-rac -alpha-tocopheryl acetate (commercially now "called" dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, even though it is more precisely dl,dl,dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate). (wikidoc.org)
  • The original dl,l,l semi-synthetic molecular mix, originally called dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate also, but actually more precisely known as 2-ambo-alpha-tocopherol, is no longer manufactured. (wikidoc.org)
  • Extensive list of Vitamin E (DL-Alpha Tocopherol Acetate) drugs and related products- all under one e-roof! (catalog.md)
  • Subjects in the highest quintile of the other carotenoids or -tocopherol did not have significantly higher FEV1 or FVC compared with subjects in the first quintile of these antioxidants. (wur.nl)
  • It is assumed that one of the functions of tocopherols in cells is to prevent the formation of peroxides from unsaturated fatty acids-that is, to play the role of natural antioxidants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In many cases, pathological symptoms that result from a tocopherol-deficient diet may be eliminated or prevented by certain antioxidants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tocopherols are used as natural antioxidants to stabilize vitamins A and D and to prevent vegetable oils from becoming rancid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present investigation was designed to determine the relationship between serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol levels (powerful antioxidants), and leukocyte telomere length (a biomarker of biological aging). (mdpi.com)
  • Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. (springer.com)
  • A longitudinal study of 442 elderly persons found a statistical association of serum levels of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and β-carotene-but not α-tocopherol-with better memory ( 1 ). (acpjc.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Evidence of the chemopreventive effects of the dietary antioxidants alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and l-selenomethionine (selenium) comes from secondary analysis of two phase III clinical trials that found treatment with these antioxidants reduced the incidence of prostate cancer. (umassmed.edu)
  • All of these various derivatives with vitamin activity, may correctly be referred to as "vitamin E". Tocopherols and tocotrienols are fat-soluble antioxidants . (wikidoc.org)
  • Originally, this was a large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2x2 factorial primary prevention trial testing the effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The ATBC study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary prevention trial to determine whether daily supplementation with a-tocopherol, beta-carotene, or both would reduce the incidence of lung or other cancers among male smokers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The combination of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol supplementation appears to be superior to either supplementation alone on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and needs to be tested in prospective clinical trials to elucidate its utility in cardiovascular disease prevention," the authors conclude. (lifeextension.com)
  • At 48 hours after fertilization it was apparent that α-tocopherol supplementation increased embryo development to the 4-8 cell (10, 20, 40, 80 μM) and morula (5, 40, 80 μM) stages. (scialert.net)
  • The importance of considering gamma-tocopherol in human nutrition is underscored by reports that supplementation with alpha-tocopherol in doses of 200-1,200 IU per day decreased serum levels of gamma-tocopherol by accelerating its metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We tested the effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on the incidence of colorectal cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 29,133 50-69-year-old male cigarette smokers. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation in Healthy Individuals Reduces Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation but Not Atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • SEATTLE The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study was initiated to test the effect of vitamin supplementation on the prevention of lung and other cancers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 5) With an average of 5.1 years of supplementation of the same doses of synthetic beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, those randomly assigned to vitamin E had the same risk of stomach cancer as those receiving placebo (RR = 0.98), and although it did not reach statistical significance, again the beta-carotene showed a small increase in risk (RR=1.13, 95% CI, 0.65-1.95). (encognitive.com)
  • Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. (encognitive.com)
  • Since α-tocopherol (AT) is the major antioxidant in LDL, the aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of RRR-AT supplementation (800 I.U. per day) for 12 weeks on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. (elsevier.com)
  • Harri Hemila analyzed data from the Alpha-Tocopherol , Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Cancer Prevention Study conducted in Finland from 1985-1993. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The project is a passive follow-up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants were randomly assigned to receive alpha-tocopherol (50 mg), beta-carotene (20 mg), both agents, or a placebo daily for 5-8 years. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our study included 29,133 Finnish male smokers followed prospectively in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1985-2005). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) is one of the randomized double-blinded reports of a few years ago finding synthetic beta-carotene in smokers led to an increased risk of lung cancer compared to placebo. (encognitive.com)
  • The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. (encognitive.com)
  • Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status. (greenmedinfo.health)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine, in the context of a longitudinal study, the change in plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, AT) and their relationship to free radical damage during the evolution of the systemic inflammatory response. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Tocopherol transfer protein does not regulate the cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of α- and γ-tocopherols and -tocotrienols in cultured liver cells. (nih.gov)
  • Gamma-tocopherol is one of eight forms of vitamin E, which include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. (lifeextension.com)
  • A generic descriptor for all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. (selfdecode.com)
  • Vitamin E is the generic descriptor for any of a group of several related fat -soluble organic compounds, tocopherols and tocotrienols, that act as vitamins with antioxidant properties. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Vitamin E is a term that applies to a set of related tocopherols and tocotrienols. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Tocotrienols are related compounds with the major structural difference from tocopherols being an unsaturated side chain that has three double bonds in its farnesyl isoprenoid tail. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Tocopherols and tocotrienols are both fat-soluble oxidants. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The functions of the other forms of vitamin E are less well-studied, although γ-tocopherol (also written as gamma-tocopherol) is a nucleophile that may react with electrophilic mutagens (Brigelius-Flohé and Traber 1999) and the tocotrienols may have specialized roles in protecting neurons from damage (Sen et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Both the tocopherols and tocotrienols occur in alpha, beta, gamma and delta forms, determined by the number of methyl groups on the chromanol ring. (wikidoc.org)
  • The four tocotrienols have structures corresponding to the four tocopherols, except with an unsaturated bond in each of the three isoprene units that form the hydrocarbon tail. (wikidoc.org)
  • This action of alpha-tocopherol is essential to the protection of the lipid bilayer of all cell membranes, as well as enzymes and membrane proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • The most prevalent form, α-tocopherol, is involved in molecular, cellular, biochemical processes closely related to overall lipoprotein and lipid homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antioxidant effect of dihydrolipoate and lipoate was examined in microsomal fractions obtained from normal and alpha-tocopherol-deficient animals after initiation of lipid peroxidation with an NADPH/iron/ADP system. (nih.gov)
  • It is concluded that the dihydrolipoate-mediated protection against lipid peroxidation by prolonging the lag phase is dependent on alpha-tocopherol. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: Lipid-corrected alpha tocopherol concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups, but the CHD group had a lower mean concentration of gamma tocopherol and a higher alpha/gamma ratio. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in cultured human fibroblasts with d-alpha-tocopherol or methylene blue decreased the synthesis of collagen, the steady-state levels of procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNA and the transcription of the procollagen alpha 1(I) gene. (jci.org)
  • Inhibitory effect of 2'-O-glycosyl isovitexin and alpha-tocopherol on genotoxic glyoxal formation in a lipid peroxidation system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocapherol) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that is present in the membranes of intracellular organelles. (elsevier.com)
  • This raises the question of how the lipid-soluble alpha-tocopherol is transported intracellularly in different tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • alpha-Tocopherol C29H50O2, LIPID Vitamin E deriv. (extrasynthese.com)
  • It has been claimed that α-tocopherol is the most important lipid -soluble antioxidant, and that it protects cell membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction (Traber and Atkinson 2007). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 1979). Special study on reproduction Rats At the end of a 90-day study on d-alpha-tocopherol (polyethylene glycol) 1000 succinate (TPGS), a water-soluble form of vitamin E (see rat study under Short-term studies), half the rats from each dose group were maintained on their respective diets and used for a reproduction study. (inchem.org)
  • Customer need is our God for High Quality D-Alpha Tocopherol, Natural Vitamin E 30% Powder , Light Yellow & Brownish Red Natural Vitamin E 70% Liquid China , D-Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate , We maintain timely delivery schedules, impressive designs, high-quality and transparency for our buyers. (naturaltoco.com)
  • High doses of alpha tocopherol (2000 IU/day) may cause bleeding manifestations in individuals on anticoagulants by interfering with the vitamin K- mediated coagulation cascade. (news-medical.net)
  • 1970). Toxicological studies Special studies on carcinogenicity Early reports that high doses of tocopherol, in the form of wheat germ extracts, induced sarcomas in rats proved unrepeatable (Dingemanse & van Eck, 19391 Evans & Emerson, 1939). (inchem.org)
  • 22 These findings also explain why studies using only high doses of alpha tocopherol often fail to produce significant clinical benefits. (lifeextension.com)
  • In this study, the effects of oral doses of natural alpha-tocopherol (75, 200 and 400 IU/day) were studied in order to determine whether the same effects might be achieved with lower intakes of vitamin E and whether inhibition is related to the platelet levels of the antioxidant in platelet membranes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, alpha-tocopherol maintains its antioxidant activity in cooked products because it is resistant to heat (Descalzo & Sancho, 2008). (scielo.br)
  • Antioxidant activity of alpha. (springer.com)
  • The addition of alpha-tocopherol produced minimal changes in the films' transparency, while providing them with antioxidant properties and improved water vapour and oxygen barrier properties (up to 30 % in both water vapour and oxygen permeability) when films were at low and intermediate RH. (springer.com)
  • The addition of alpha-tocopherol in microfluidized films gave rise to an increase in their resistance to break and extensibility (up to 27 % in E values) at intermediate and high RH. (springer.com)
  • The addition of alpha tocopherol did not affect toxicity. (druglib.com)
  • We suggest that this low molecular mass TBP may be responsible for the intracellular transport and distribution of alpha-tocopherol in the tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Indeed the few studies, which have reported on the tocopherol concentration in adzuki beans all reported negligible concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and beta-tocopherol (Yoshida et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in plasma and in erythrocytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: Low concentrations of alpha tocopherol are claimed to be associated with an increased prevalence of coronary heart disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • alpha-TOCOPHEROL EXPLANATION alpha-Tocopherol and mixed tocopherol concentrate were evaluated for acceptable daily intake at the sixth and seventeenth meetings of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (Annex 1, references 6 and 32). (inchem.org)
  • In the group that received alpha-tocopherol alone, plasma levels of the vitamin increased by the end of the study, while, significantly, gamma-tocopherol levels declined by 37 percent. (lifeextension.com)
  • Gamma-tocopherol levels doubled in those that received gamma-tocopherol alone, and increased to a smaller extent in the alpha-gamma combination group. (lifeextension.com)
  • Evidently, gamma-tocopherol levels, but not alpha-tocopherol, account for meaningful increases in biological aging. (mdpi.com)
  • Special studies on mutagenicity/clastogenicity The addition of dl-alpha-tocopherol to leucocyte cultures at a concentration of 10 M reduced by 63% the number of chromosome breaks induced by 1.6 M 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (Shamberger et al . (inchem.org)
  • Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. (jci.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The lower gamma tocopherol concentration and the high ratio between alpha and gamma tocopherol in the CHD group indicate a difference in antioxidative status between CHD patients and healthy subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The amount of bound HRP conjugate is reverse proportional to the concentration of Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa) in the sample. (ebiomall.com)
  • The goal of this study was to establish the influence of several α-tocopherol concentrations on swine embryo development in vitro, in order to improve culture media. (scialert.net)
  • Although the specific mechanism of action remains unclear, alpha-TOC affords nearly complete protection in vitro from the cellular injury induced by amiodarone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a-Tocopherol (α-TocOH) on the relative mRNA abundance of genes involved in cumulus expansion (GJA1, PTGS2), cell cycle and viability (AKT1), cell cycle regulation and apoptosis (Tp53, CASP3) and antioxidant response (SOD2, GPX1, CAT) in rabbit cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) in vitro matured. (upm.es)
  • The immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin E have been demonstrated in vitro, where alpha-tocopherol increases mitogenic response of T lymphocytes from aged mice. (selfdecode.com)
  • Although gamma-tocopherol is a more effective free radical scavenger than alpha-tocopherol in vitro, the reverse is true in vivo, suggesting that the tocopherol distribution systems favor the localization of alpha-tocopherol at the sites where if is required. (elsevier.com)
  • The 14.2 kDa alpha-tocopherol-binding protein stimulates the transfer of alpha-tocopherol from liposomes to mitochondria in vitro by 8 to 10 fold. (elsevier.com)
  • Do α- and γ-tocopherols become incorporated into VLDL, LDL and HDL and influence their oxidation potential in an in vitro and ex vivo situation? (qub.ac.uk)
  • Following (i) an in vitro investigation, where plasma was preincubated with increasing concentrations of either α- or γ-tocopherol and (ii) an in vivo 4-week placebo-controlled intervention with α- or γ-tocopherol. (qub.ac.uk)
  • In vitro: Both tocopherols became incorporated into VLDL, LDL and HDL, which protected VLDL and LDL against oxidation. (qub.ac.uk)
  • 8) Most topical formulations contain synthetic laboratory-made alpha-tocopherol or one of its many esters or ethers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, the LDL/HDL ratio was the best independent discriminator between the groups, followed by the proportion of palmitic acid in the cholesterol esters and the alpha/gamma tocopherol ratio. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2"-O-GIV was more effective than alpha-tocopherol towards fatty acid esters with high numbers of double bonds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene is regulated by oxidative stress and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. (nih.gov)
  • The March 15, 2008 issue of Free Radical Biology and Medicine published the results of a study conducted by investigators at the University of California Davis Medical Center in collaboration with researchers at the Linus Pauling Institute who report that supplementing with alpha and gamma-tocopherol reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in men and women with metabolic syndrome. (lifeextension.com)
  • Blood samples collected upon enrollment and at the end of the study were analyzed for inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1b, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6), C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation), oxidative stress biomarkers, and other factors. (lifeextension.com)
  • All groups receiving tocopherols experienced a decrease in oxidative stress biomarkers. (lifeextension.com)
  • Natural and synthetic alpha tocopherol are different in their composition. (news-medical.net)
  • From what I have read, dl-alpha tocopherol a synthetic form of vitamin E. How can it be listed as a "natural" ingredient? (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture. (selfdecode.com)
  • Now, if you pick up a bottle and the prefix is dl-alpha , you are holding the synthetic version. (honeysweetieacres.com)
  • Contralateral arms of healthy human volunteers with actinic keratoses (AK) were randomly assigned to receive either 12.5% DL-alpha-tocopherol or placebo in a crème base for 6 months. (nih.gov)
  • The subjects were divided to receive 800 milligrams alpha-tocopherol, 800 milligrams gamma-tocopherol, 800 mg alpha plus 800 milligrams gamma-tocopherol, or a placebo daily for six weeks. (lifeextension.com)
  • Although alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and both tocopherols taken together reduced C-reactive protein, only the combination group experienced a significant reduction compared with the placebo group. (lifeextension.com)
  • To compare the effectiveness of selegiline, α-tocopherol, or a combination of both with placebo in slowing the clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). (acpjc.org)
  • The difference shown between the treatment groups primarily resulted from an increased need to institutionalize patients in the placebo group ( P = 0.003 for placebo compared with α-tocopherol). (acpjc.org)
  • The reduced institutionalization in the α-tocopherol group compared with the placebo group may be a proxy for an unknown treatment effect but is consistent with the slower decline on the Blessed Dementia Scale, which measures activities of daily living. (acpjc.org)
  • However, only four of them have the methyl ring at position 2, meaning that chemically synthesized alpha-tocopherol has 50% the biological activity of the natural form. (news-medical.net)
  • According to a standard assay (the rat fetal resorption assay), alpha-tocopherol has the highest biological activity of the four tocopherols, and it is the only form of vitamin E that is officially recognized as being capable of meeting human requirements. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • BIOLOGICAL DATA Biochemical aspects The metabolic fate of alpha-tocopherol is not fully known. (inchem.org)
  • Tocopherol deficiency causes increased permeability or complete disintegration of biological membranes, including the membranes of the mitochondria and lysosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • α-tocopherol possesses the highest biological activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gamma tocopherol has distinctive chemical properties that differentiate it from alpha tocopherol and may explain the observed differences in the biological effects of these two forms of vitamin E. One of these differences makes gamma tocopherol a more effective trap for reactive nitrogen oxides, 15,16 toxic compounds that must be removed from the body. (lifeextension.com)
  • of all eight possible isomers Alpha-tocopherol is traditionally recognized as the most active form of vitamin E in humans, and is a powerful biological antioxidant. (selfdecode.com)
  • However, the term may apply to any tocopherol and tocotrienol derivatives exhibiting the biological effects of α-tocopherol, or it may apply as a collective term for the group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The term vitamin E should be used as the generic descriptor for all tocol and tocotrienol derivatives exhibiting qualitatively the biological activity of α-tocopherol. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Alpha-tocopherol is traditionally considered the most active biological antioxidant in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • This gene encodes a soluble protein that binds alpha-trocopherol, a form of vitamin E, with high selectivity and affinity. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified a new alpha-tocopherol-binding protein of molecular mass 14.2 kDa in the cytosol of heart and liver This protein specifically binds alpha-tocopherol in preference to the delta- and gamma-homologues but does not bind oleate. (elsevier.com)
  • Binds alpha-tocopherol, enhances its transfer between separate membranes, and stimulates its release from liver cells (PubMed:7887897). (enquirebio.com)
  • Only this form is bound by the liver transport protein called alpha-tocopherol transport protein, which carries it to the site where it is incorporated into lipoproteins and carried to other parts of the body. (news-medical.net)
  • The function of alpha tocopherol is as a fat-soluble antioxidant, which breaks the chain of oxidation reactions which are propagating down a cell membrane or plasma protein by means of newly produced free radicals. (news-medical.net)
  • Self-assembled α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Nanoparticles Promote Vitamin E Delivery Across an Endothelial Barrier. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha tocopherol transfer protein (αTTP) is expressed in endometrial carcinoma and is correlated with FIGO stage and 5-year survival. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin E and Phosphoinositides Regulate the Intracellular Localization of the Hepatic α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein. (nih.gov)
  • Data show that, upon binding to its substrate, alpha-TTP acquires tendency to aggregation into thermodynamically stable high molecular weight oligomers with spheroidal particle formed by 24 protein monomers. (nih.gov)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) does not appear to play a role in the alpha-tcp effect since no suppression of phosphorylation of PKC substrates was observed. (jci.org)
  • In PFC and ST, arachidonic acid (AA, µg/mg protein) had a similar membrane distribution to α-tocopherol. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, antioxidant biodegradable films based on pea protein and alpha-tocopherol were successfully developed by solution casting. (springer.com)
  • The effect of both the homogenization conditions (rotor-stator and microfluidizer) and the relative humidity (RH) on the microstructure and physical properties (transparency, tensile, oxygen and water vapour barrier properties) of pea protein/alpha-tocopherol-based films was evaluated. (springer.com)
  • These results add a new insight into the potential of employing pea protein and alpha-tocopherol in the development of fully biodegradable antioxidant films which are of interest in food packaging. (springer.com)
  • GPIIb is the alpha-subunit of this platelet membrane protein. (selfdecode.com)
  • Alpha-tocopherol downregulates GPIIb promoter activity which results in reduction of GPIIb protein expression and decreased platelet aggregation. (selfdecode.com)
  • A 30 kDa alpha-tocopherol-binding protein in the liver cytoplasm may regulate plasma vitamin E concentrations by preferentially incorporating the vitamin E homologue, RRR-alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol), into nascent very low density lipoproteins. (elsevier.com)
  • However this alpha-tocopherol-binding protein is unique to the hepatocyte, whereas alpha-tocopherol is present in the cells of all major tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Homo sapiens (Human) Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (enquirebio.com)
  • Vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopherol), Softgel Capsule Shell: gelatin (from bovine), vegetable glycerin (from palm kernel oil and coconut oil), Mixed tocopherols (d-beta, d-gamma, d-delta, d-alpha tocopherols), Safflower Oil. (bodykind.com)
  • Gamma-tocopherol is the most common isomer of tocopherol found in the American diet, but its absorption and use appear to be significantly less, and its active excretion and metabolism higher, than for alpha-tocopherol. (news-medical.net)
  • Topical tocopherol did not normalize established sun-induced lesions, but DL-alpha-tocopherol-induced reductions in polyamine metabolism are consistent with the inhibition of skin squamous cell carcinogenesis as seen in previous human trials and animal models. (nih.gov)
  • James, W P T. / Vitamin-E requirements, transport, and metabolism : role of alpha-tocopherol-binding proteins . (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of an antioxidant polylactic acid (PLA) film prepared with alpha-tocopherol, BHT and polyethylene glycol using film cast extruder. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, this study shows that from the six major serum carotenoids and -tocopherol studied, particularly -carotene, -carotene, and lycopene were positively associated with lung function in the elderly and may be considered as candidates for further investigations. (wur.nl)
  • Gamma, but not alpha, tocopherol levels in serum are reduced in coronary heart disease patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study was undertaken to see whether measurements of serum tocopherol concentrations can contribute to discrimination between subjects with and without coronary heart disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serum concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (mdpi.com)
  • Changes in serum proteomic patterns by presurgical alpha-tocopherol an" by Jeri Kim, Peiyu Sun et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • This chain is broken by alpha-tocopherol which is a thousand times more susceptible to reaction with the peroxyl radicals than unsaturated fatty acids. (news-medical.net)
  • Triglycerides containing three saturated fatty acids or three molecules of alpha-linolenic acid have not been reported. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • The other R, R, R tocopherol vitamins are slowly being recognized as research begins to elucidate their additional roles in the human body. (wikidoc.org)
  • Stocker, "Cosupplementation with coenzyme Q prevents the prooxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol and increases the resistance of LDL to transition metal-dependent oxidation initiation," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. (mdpi.com)
  • This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. (mdpi.com)
  • α-tocopherol, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-GC/MS) respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • This study reports novel data on α-tocopherol accumulation in primate brain regions and membranes and provides evidence that α-tocopherol and AA are similarly distributed in PFC and ST membranes, which may reflect a protective effect of α-tocopherol against AA oxidation. (mdpi.com)
  • Maximum inhibition of 82% was obtained from oxidation of ethyl arachidonate at 8 mumol 2"-O-GIV, whereas maximum inhibition of 77% was observed from oxidation of ethyl arachidonate at 0.25 mumol alpha-tocopherol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polylactic Acid (PLA) films prepared with the same amount of alpha-tocopherol were used to set a comparative frame and both types of films were applied to two different food models to assess their protective action against oxidation. (upc.edu)
  • Primary oxidation was measured with peroxide value, which revealed that PAAG-12 films with alpha-tocopherol protected oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions up to 29 days, complying with the Codex Alimentarius. (upc.edu)
  • Subsequently while it is inside the capsules, the oil is protected from oxidation by the addition of natural vitamin E. This product contains 5 mg in its d-alpha tocopherol form. (lambertsusa.com)
  • Tocopherol incorporation into VLDL, LDL and HDL was measured via high-pressure liquid chromatography, followed by an assessment of their oxidation potential by monitoring conjugated diene formation. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Tocopherols are made up of a chromanol ring and a 15-carbon saturated isoprenoid tail. (news-medical.net)
  • Chemically, tocopherols are derivatives of chromane (a two-ring aromatic system) combined with an isoprenoid side chain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In food additives list the E number for α-Tocopherol is E307. (traditionaloven.com)
  • E307" (α-tocopherol), "E308" (γ-tocopherol), and "E309" (δ-tocopherol). (wikidoc.org)
  • This study sought to examine whether oral intake of alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant, could improve endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in patients with high remnant lipoproteins levels. (onlinejacc.org)
  • 2001). There are four isomers of tocopherols: α- (or alpha-), β- (beta-), γ- (gamma-) and δ- (delta-) tocopherols. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When more than the daily requirement is administered, there is some storage of tocopherol in the liver (Sebrell & Harris, 1972). (inchem.org)
  • In an elective surgery study in which 22 patients were given 150 mg/d for up to 41 d before surgery, the RRR:rac in tissues was lower than in plasma and the percentage of deuterated alpha-tocopherol was lower in all tissues except gallbladder and liver. (chiro.org)
  • Chemoprevention of human actinic keratoses by topical DL-alpha-tocopherol. (nih.gov)
  • Prior research shows that topical application of free, nonfatty acid-conjugated vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol) prevents skin cancer in mice, as well as immunosuppression induced by UVB radiation. (nih.gov)
  • conversely, the significant reductions in polyamine levels resulting from the topical DL-alpha-tocopherol application are consistent with reductions in tumorigenesis potential. (nih.gov)
  • Topical application of d-alpha tocopherol natural vitamin E is necessary for healthy skin and best achieved by finding products that are nutritive on your skin. (honeysweetieacres.com)
  • Topically applied DL-alpha-tocopherol was substantially absorbed in skin, but the 6-month application did not significantly reduce numbers of preexisting AKs on moderately to severely sun-damaged forearms. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, toxicity from 30 microM amiodarone was significantly reduced by alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOC) at 10, 20 and 40 microM from a cytotoxic index of 41.6 +/- 3.5 to 25.5 +/- 7.9, 10.61 +/- 5.4 and 3.1 +/- 2.8, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Amiodarone concentrations in the HPAE cells incubated in the presence and absence of alpha-TOC were not significantly different, indicating that alpha-TOC did not interfere with the uptake of the drug by the cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa). (ebiomall.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa) and analogues was observed. (ebiomall.com)
  • The microplate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with a monoclonal antibody specific to Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa). (ebiomall.com)
  • A competitive inhibition reaction is launched between biotin labeled Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa) and unlabeled Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa) (Standards or samples) with the pre-coated antibody specific to Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa). (ebiomall.com)
  • Upon plate development, the intensity of the emitted light is reverse proportional to the Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa) level in the sample or standard. (ebiomall.com)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Alpha-Tocopherol (TCPa) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (ebiomall.com)
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Tocopherols and Related Compounds "Composition of Foods Raw, Processed, Prepared USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike alpha tocopherol, gamma tocopherol is a potent defender against disease-provoking compounds in the body known as reactive nitrogen oxides. (lifeextension.com)
  • Alpha-tocopherol ( α-tocopherol ) is one of the compounds of vitamin E, that is believed to exhibit the most activity in the human body. (traditionaloven.com)
  • Tocopherols are organic compounds consisting of various methylated phenols . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Tocopherol, a class of chemical compounds of which many have vitamin E activity, describes a series of organic compounds consisting of various methylated phenols. (wikidoc.org)
  • Natural sources with the highest amounts of alpha-tocopherol include wheat germ, nuts and seeds (particularly sunflower seeds and almonds), and vegetable oils, such as wheat germ and sunflower oils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Natural vitamin E includes four tocopherols, called alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherol respectively. (news-medical.net)
  • Sources of natural alpha-tocopherol in the diet. (news-medical.net)
  • RRR-α-tocopherol is the natural one. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also contains natural Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol). (bodykind.com)
  • This formulation provides a natural source of Vitamin E (as d--Alpha Tocopherol plus d-Gamma, d-Delta and d-Beta). (solgar.com)
  • The vitamin E in this product is derived exclusively from 100% natural unesterified d-alpha tocopherol in a base of mixed tocopherols of d-beta, d-gamma and d-delta. (betterlife.com)
  • A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. (selfdecode.com)
  • As revealed by phase microscopy, alpha-TOC (40 microM) prevented any evidence of toxicity to the amiodarone-treated cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 13-cis RA, 13-cis RA plus alpha tocopherol (13-cis RA/alpha toco) or observation for 12 months. (druglib.com)
  • The form used in the human body is alpha tocopherol, and this form is necessary to treat vitamin E deficiency. (news-medical.net)
  • Tocopherols are the primary form of vitamin E in the leaves of all plants, and the seeds of dicots. (news-medical.net)
  • The other form of Vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol , which is found in olive and sunflower oils, does the opposite. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • α-Tocopherol palmitate is the palmitate ester of α-tocopherol and is a form of vitamin E. Progesterone/hydroxyprogesterone heptanoate/α-tocopherol palmitate Baxter JG, Robeson CD, Taylor JD, Lehman RW (1943). (wikipedia.org)
  • While the alpha tocopherol form of vitamin E has long been valued as a potent antioxidant, its little-known cousin, gamma tocopherol, may be equally important in promoting health and protecting against disease. (lifeextension.com)
  • 12-14 While many published studies examine the effects of the alpha tocopherol form of vitamin E, scientists increasingly are turning their attention to gamma tocopherol. (lifeextension.com)
  • Alphla-tocopherol has long been considered the most biologically active form of vitamin E supplement, but research suggests that other forms provide benefits that may have been underappreciated. (mccordresearch.com)
  • Of these, α-tocopherol (also written as alpha-tocopherol) has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and using this form (Brigelius-Flohé and Traber 1999). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The compound α-tocopherol is a common form of tocopherol added to food products. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Determination of alpha-tocopherol in tissues and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Researchers incubated cultured human lens cells with lutein, zeaxanthin, or alpha-tocopherol for 48 hours, then exposed the cells to hydrogen peroxide for one hour. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • 1 IU of tocopherol is defined as ⅔ milligrams of RRR -alpha-tocopherol (formerly named d-alpha-tocopherol or sometimes ddd-alpha-tocopherol). (wikidoc.org)
  • Alpha-tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells. (jci.org)
  • d-alpha-tocopherol inhibits collagen alpha 1(I) gene expression in cultured human fibroblasts. (jci.org)
  • Higher intake of vitamin C, carotenoids, and α- tocopherol were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause mortality. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The biochemical functions of tocopherols are also associated with tissue respiration processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The naturally occurring stereoisomer of α-tocopherol, it is found particularly in sunflower and olive oils. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Tocopherols are similar in chemical structure and are contained in large quantities in vegetable oils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The highest tocopherol content is found in the germs of cereals and in the oils extracted from them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Found in nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, gamma tocopherol accounts for about 70% of the vitamin E in the North American diet. (lifeextension.com)
  • tocopherols in bulk oils and in oil-in-water emulsions. (springer.com)