A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.
Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.
A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A hereditary disorder characterized by reduced or absent DELTA-GLOBIN thus effecting the level of HEMOGLOBIN A2, a minor component of adult hemoglobin monitored in the diagnosis of BETA-THALASSEMIA.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

A complex haemoglobinopathy diagnosis in a family with both beta zero- and alpha (zero/+)-thalassaemia homozygosity. (1/248)

The occurrence of point mutation alpha-thalassaemia and of complex combinations of haemoglobin defects is underestimated. Haemoglobinopathies, the most frequent monogenic recessive autosomal disorder in man, occur predominantly in Mediterranean, African and Asiatic populations. However, countries of immigration with a low incidence in the indigenous population, are now confronted with a highly heterogeneous array of imported defects. Furthermore, the occurrence of severe phenotypes is bound to increase in the near future because of the endogamous growth of the ethnical minorities and the lack of prevention. We describe an Afghan family in which both partners of a consanguineous relationship are carriers of a beta- as well as an alpha-thalassaemia determinant. The combination of defects was revealed by the in vitro measurement of the beta/alpha biosynthetic ratio and was characterised at the DNA level. The molecular defects involved are the Cd5(-CT), a Mediterranean beta zero-thalassaemia mutation, and the alpha 2(zero/+)-thalassaemia AATA(-AA) polyadenylation defect. The alpha-thalassemia defect is a rare RNA-processing mutant described only twice before in heterozygous form in Asian-Indian patients. The mutation suppresses the expression of a alpha 2 gene and reduces the expression of the less efficient, 3' located alpha 1 gene as well, inducing a near alpha zero-thalassaemia phenotype. This defect is now described for the first time in the homozygous condition in one of the children who, in addition to being homozygous for the alpha-thalassaemia point mutation, is also a carrier of the beta zero-thalassaemia defect. A previously described homozygous case of the alpha (zero/+)-thalassaemia condition, caused by a similar polyadenylation defect, was characterised by a severe HbH disease. However, the patient described here present at 7 years of age with severe caries, like his beta-thalassaemia homozygous brother but without hepatosplenomegaly, haemolysis or severe anaemia. The haematological analysis revealed 9.5 g/dl Hb; 5.4 x 10(12)/I RBC; 0.33 I/I PCV; 61 fl MCV; 17.6 pg MCH and 6.2% of HbA2. The biosynthetic ratio beta:alpha was 1.6 and no HbH fraction was detectable either on electrophoresis or as inclusion bodies. The parents reported no complications during pregnancy, at birth, or in the neonatal period in rural Afghanistan. We presume therefore that the counterbalancing effect induced by the co-existing beta-thalassaemia defect could have modified a potentially severe perinatal HbH disease into a strongly hypochromic but well compensated 'alpha zero-like heterozygous' thalassaemia phenotype. The risk of a severe HbH disease, could have been easily missed in this family which was referred because of a child affected with beta-thalassaemia major.  (+info)

Cardiac blood flow studies in fetuses with homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 at 12-13 weeks of gestation. (2/248)

OBJECTIVE: Fetuses affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 develop anemia as early as the first trimester. Our objective was to study hemodynamic indices in affected fetuses at 12-13 weeks of gestation to determine whether these would be useful in the prediction of anemia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SUBJECTS: Women referred before 14 weeks of gestation for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. METHODS: Transabdominal and/or transvaginal Doppler sonography was performed to measure the flow velocities in the fetal ascending aorta and pulmonary artery at 12-13 weeks. The Doppler indices were compared between those that were subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 and those that were unaffected. RESULTS: Between June 1997 and April 1998, 60 eligible women were recruited. Doppler examination was successful in 58 fetuses. Of these, 22 were subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. The diagnosis was made by chorionic villus sampling and DNA analysis in two affected fetuses and by cordocentesis and hemoglobin evaluation in 20 affected fetuses. Hemoglobin concentrations could be measured in ten fetuses and these ranged from 4 to 8 g/dl. The affected fetuses had significantly higher peak velocities at the pulmonary valve and ascending aorta and a larger inner diameter of the pulmonary valve than that in unaffected fetuses. The total cardiac output was increased by one-third in affected fetuses and was mainly due to an increase of the right-side cardiac output. CONCLUSION: In the early stage of anemia, the fetus responds mainly by increasing its right-side cardiac output. However, there is extensive overlap of the values of cardiac output between the affected and the unaffected fetuses, precluding its use in the prediction of anemia.  (+info)

Evaluation of a mutation screening strategy for sporadic cases of ATR-X syndrome. (3/248)

We report on the evaluation of a strategy for screening for XNP/ATR-X mutations in males with mental retardation and associated dysmorphology. Because nearly half of the mutations in this gene reported to date fall into a short 300 bp region of the transcript, we decided to focus in this region and to extend the mutation analysis to cases with a negative family history. This study includes 21 mentally retarded male patients selected because they had severe mental retardation and a typical facial appearance. The presence of haemoglobin H or urogenital abnormalities was not considered critical for inclusion in this study. We have identified six mutations which represents a mutation detection rate of 28%. This figure is high enough for us to propose this strategy as a valid first level of screening in a selected subset of males with mental retardation. This approach is simple, does not require RNA preparation, does not involve time consuming mutation detection methods, and can thus be applied to a large number of patients at a low cost in any given laboratory.  (+info)

Intrathoracic extramedullary haematopoiesis complicated by massive haemothorax in alpha-thalassaemia. (4/248)

Intrathoracic extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare entity that is usually asymptomatic. A 44 year old man with alpha-thalassaemia is described who developed dyspnoea and massive left sided haemothorax. The haemoglobin disorder was established by Hgb H staining and haemoglobin electrophoretic studies. The DNA analysis revealed it to be a case of double heterozygous terminal codon mutation with the genotype alphaalphaCS/alphaalphaT. Computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax showed multiple paravertebral masses which were found by thoracoscopic biopsy to be extramedullary haematopoiesis. Although no additional sclerosing pleurodesis or low dose radiation therapy was given, the lung expanded well and there has been no recurrence of haemothorax to date.  (+info)

Impairment of Plasmodium falciparum growth in thalassemic red blood cells: further evidence by using biotin labeling and flow cytometry. (5/248)

Certain red blood cell (RBC) disorders, including thalassemia, have been associated with an innate protection against malaria infection. However, many in vitro correlative studies have been inconclusive. To better understand the relationship between human RBCs with thalassemia hemoglobinopathies and susceptibility to in vitro infection, we used an in vitro coculture system that involved biotin labeling and flow cytometry to study the ability of normal and variant RBC populations in supporting the growth of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Results showed that both normal and thalassemic RBCs were susceptible to P falciparum invasion, but the parasite multiplication rates were significantly reduced in the thalassemic RBC populations. The growth inhibition was especially marked in RBCs from alpha-thalassemia patients (both alpha-thalassemia1/alpha-thalassemia2 and alpha-thalassemia1 heterozygote). Our observations support the contention that thalassemia confers protection against malaria and may explain why it is more prevalent in malaria endemic areas.  (+info)

The contribution of alpha+-thalassaemia to anaemia in a Nigerian population exposed to intense malaria transmission. (6/248)

The proportion to which alpha-thalassaemia contributes to anaemia in Africa is not well recognized. In an area of intense malaria transmission in South-West Nigeria, haematological parameters of alpha-thalassaemia were examined in 494 children and 119 adults. The -alpha3.7 type of alpha+-thalassaemia was observed at a gene frequency of 0.27. Nine and 36.5% of individuals were homozygous and heterozygous, respectively. P.falciparum-infection was present in 78% of children and in 39% of adults. The alpha-globin genotypes did not correlate with the prevalence of P. falciparum-infection. alpha+-thalassaemic individuals had significantly lower mean values of haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin than non-thalassaemic subjects. Anaemia was seen in 54. 7% of children with a normal alpha-globin genotype, in 69.9% of heterozygous (odds ratio: 1.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-3.00, P = 0.001), and in 88.4% of homozygous alpha+-thalassaemic children (odds ratio: 7.72, 95% confidence interval: 2.85-20.90, P = 0.0001). The findings show that alpha+-thalassaemia contributes essentially to mild anaemia, microcytosis, and hypochromia in Nigeria.  (+info)

A normal beta-globin allele as a modifier gene ameliorating the severity of alpha-thalassemia in mice. (7/248)

Thalassemia is a heritable human anemia caused by a variety of mutations that affect expression of the alpha- or the beta-chain of hemoglobin. The expressivity of the phenotype is likely to be influenced by unlinked modifying genes. Indeed, by using a mouse model of alpha-thalassemia, we find that its phenotype is strongly influenced by the genetic background in which the alpha-thalassemia mutation resides [129(sv/ev)/129(sv/ev) (severe) or 129(sv/ev)/C57BL/6 (mild)]. Linkage mapping indicates that the modifying gene is very tightly linked to the beta-globin locus (Lod score = 13.3). Furthermore, the severity of the phenotype correlates with the size of beta-chain-containing inclusion bodies that accumulate in red blood cells and likely accelerate their destruction. The beta-major globin chains encoded by the two strains differ by three amino acids, one of which is a glycine-to-cysteine substitution at position 13. The Cys-13 should be available for interchain disulfide bridging and consequent aggregation between excess beta-chains. This normal polymorphic variation between murine beta-globin chains could account for the modifying action of the unlinked beta-globin locus. Here, the variation in severity of the phenotype would not depend on a change in the ratio between alpha- and beta-chains but on the chemical nature of the normal beta-chain, which is in excess. This work also indicates that modifying genes can be normal variants that-absent an apparent physiologic rationale-may be difficult to identify on the basis of structure alone.  (+info)

Nuchal translucency in fetuses affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 at 12-13 weeks of gestation. (8/248)

OBJECTIVE: Fetuses affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 are anemic in the first trimester. We studied their nuchal translucency (NT) measurements at 12-13 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Nuchal translucency was measured prospectively in fetuses at risk of homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. Measurements of those fetuses subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 but with a normal karyotype were compared to those of 440 controls. The controls were from the general obstetric population who had NT measurements at 12 or 13 weeks with known normal outcome. All the NT measurements were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) for the gestational day. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 1998, 94 at-risk pregnancies were studied. Of these, 32 were subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. Chromosome study was not carried out in three cases and these were excluded from the analysis. Nuchal translucency MoMs for cases and controls were found to fit a log Gaussian distribution. The log means (standard deviation) for case and control NT MoM were 0.075 (0.156) and -0.0019 (0.091), respectively. The median NT MoM (95% CI) for cases was 1.19 (1.08-1.62) and was significantly higher than that of the controls (p < 0.001). However, there was extensive overlap of NT between cases and controls. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was a 19% increase in NT MoM in fetuses affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. This represents a difference of only 0.3-0.4 mm, which is clinically insignificant. This finding indirectly suggests that the increased NT in trisomic fetuses cannot be explained by fetal anemia. Conversely, the presence of increased NT in a fetus at risk of homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormality rather than being attributed to fetal anemia.  (+info)

Alpha-thalassemia is a fairly common blood disorder that results in reduced amounts of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cell in the body. This lowers the amount of oxygen that cells receive, causing various health problems, including anemia. There are two types of alpha-thalassemia that can cause serious health problems and two types that can cause mild symptoms. The most serious is called hemoglobin Bart. Fetuses affected with hemoglobin Bart usually do not survive beyond the newborn period. While still in the uterus, they experience health complications, including swelling, fluid buildup around the organs, heart defects and genital abnormalities. The mothers of these fetuses experience health complications including preeclampsia, (extreme hypertension), excessive amniotic fluid or reduced amniotic fluid, bleeding in the genital tract, and premature delivery. Due to the lack of very effective treatment and severe complications, termination of these pregnancies ...
Alpha-thalassemia is very common throughout all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean regions, compound heterozygotes and homozygotes may have anemia that is mild to severe (hemoglobin [Hb] H disease) or lethal (Hb Barts hydrops fetalis). We have developed a reliable, single-tube multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the 6 most frequently observed determinants of alpha-thalassemia. The assay allows simple, high throughput genetic screening for these common hematological disorders. (Blood. 2000;95:360-362)
X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities, and alpha thalassemia. Patients with ATR-X syndrome frequently present with gastrointestinal problems, in particular feeding difficulties, regurgitation and vomiting, abdominal pain, distension, and chronic constipation. Parental reports of prolonged food refusal and distress in these children are common and although these episodes are suspected to be gastro-intestinal in origin they are rarely investigated. Death in early childhood from aspiration of vomitus or from pneumonia presumed to be secondary to aspiration has been recorded in a number of ATR-X cases. In this report we review the gastrointestinal phenotype of ATR-X syndrome in 128 cases. We also demonstrate that in two siblings, regurgitation was secondary to gastric pseudo-volvulus, a condition in which the stomach does not have a normal system of peritoneal ligaments and changes position
X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities, and alpha thalassemia. Patients with ATR-X syndrome frequently present with gastrointestinal problems, in particular feeding difficulties, regurgitation and vomiting, abdominal pain, distension, and chronic constipation. Parental reports of prolonged food refusal and distress in these children are common and although these episodes are suspected to be gastro-intestinal in origin they are rarely investigated. Death in early childhood from aspiration of vomitus or from pneumonia presumed to be secondary to aspiration has been recorded in a number of ATR-X cases. In this report we review the gastrointestinal phenotype of ATR-X syndrome in 128 cases. We also demonstrate that in two siblings, regurgitation was secondary to gastric pseudo-volvulus, a condition in which the stomach does not have a normal system of peritoneal ligaments and changes position
Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measures cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) of basal intracranial vessels and is used clinically to detect stroke risk in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Co-inheritance in SCA of alpha-thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) polymorphisms is reported to associate with high CBFv and/or risk of stroke. The effect of a common functional polymorphism of haptoglobin (HP) is unknown. We investigated the effect of co-inheritance of these polymorphisms on CBFv in 601 stroke-free Tanzanian SCA patients aged |24 years. Homozygosity for alpha-thalassaemia 3·7 deletion was significantly associated with reduced mean CBFv compared to wild-type (β-coefficient -16·1 cm/s, P = 0·002) adjusted for age and survey year. Inheritance of 1 or 2 alpha-thalassaemia deletions was associated with decreased risk of abnormally high CBFv, compared to published data from Kenyan healthy control children (Relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0·53 [95% confidence interval (CI)
We will develop a simple PCR method to diagnosis alpha-thalassemias. Phase I of the project willconduct feasibility study for the development of a non-isotopic sensitive assay to detect the deletionsof five frequently occurring genotypes of alpha-thalassemia using differential PCR. The Investigator willuse newly developed DNA/PCR mediated color complimentary assay which they developed to test driedblood samples on filter papers. These will be obtained from patients with alpha thalassemic disorders.The specimens will be made available to them by Dr. Griffin Rodgers, the Chief of the MolecularHematology Unit at the National Institutes of Health. We will develop a diagnostic kit for the detectionand quantification of hemoglobin alpha-genes in patients with alpha-thalassemia. The kit will be usedfor screening potential carriers with alpha-thalassemia in the United States, Southeast Asia andSouthern China. This should identify patients at risk of having offspring with symptomatic alpha-thalass-emia ...
For a discussion of alpha-thalassemia, see Alpha Thalassemia. A list of HBA1 and HBA2 alpha-thalassemia mutations is on the HBA2 page. ...
ATRX is an X-linked gene of the SWI/SNF family, mutations in which cause syndromal mental retardation and downregulation of α-globin expression. Here we show that ATRX binds to tandem repeat (TR) sequences in both telomeres and euchromatin. Genes associated with these TRs can be dysregulated when ATRX is mutated, and the change in expression is determined by the size of the TR, producing skewed allelic expression. This reveals the characteristics of the affected genes, explains the variable phenotypes seen with identical ATRX mutations, and illustrates a new mechanism underlying variable penetrance. Many of the TRs are G rich and predicted to form non-B DNA structures (including G-quadruplex) in vivo. We show that ATRX binds G-quadruplex structures in vitro, suggesting a mechanism by which ATRX may play a role in various nuclear processes and how this is perturbed when ATRX is mutated.
在大多数IVF实验室,他们是在公开式系统下处理胚胎,通过显微镜,胚胎在一个薄片状、温暖的兜帽下被操作。人体卵子及胚胎若曝露于室温及空气,这将不利于它们的成长及达到成功的IVF进度。研究显示,若将它们曝露于室内空气中2分钟,其细胞生理受碳酸氢盐培养基的pH值影响更大。. 在AFC,我们在一个独立式、先进系统的IVF温箱处理卵子及胚胎。由于是在如此良好环境控制的条件下进行,我们的受精率及怀孕率相对提高。. 因此,在我们中心进行IVF周期,您能肯定您的卵子及胚胎是受无尽的保护及安全的。. ...
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a quite sensitive diagnostic tool but its specificity may be hampered because of contamination of foreign DNA. In order to determine the diagnostic accuracy of PCR in diseases due to gross gene deletion, a total
Four main conditions resulting from deletion or inactivation (nondeletion mutants) of one, two, three, or all four alpha-globin genes are recognized. Carriers of alpha0-thalassemia (two deleted alpha-globin genes, ie, alpha-thalassemia trait) show microcytosis, hypochromia, and normal percentages of HbA2 and HbF, carriers of alpha+-thalassemia (one deleted or nonfunctional alpha-globin gene, ie, alpha-thalassemia silent carrier) have either a silent hematologic phenotype or present with a moderate thalassemia-like hematologic picture. Two are the alpha-thalassemia clinically significant forms: Hb Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome and HbH disease (four and three deleted or nonfunctional alpha-globin genes, respectively). Hb Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome is the most severe form, characterized by fetal onset of generalized edema, pleural and pericardial effusions, and severe hypochromic anemia, in the absence of ABO or Rh blood group incompatibility. Death usually occurs in the neonatal period. HbH ...
The global market for alpha thalassemia is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 8.8% during the forecast period 2017-2023.. Get Exclusive Sample Copy @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/sample_request/5148 . Alpha Thalassemia Global Market - Segmentation. The alpha thalassemia is segmented on the basis of type, diagnosis, treatment, and end-users.. On the basis of the type, the market is segmented into hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome or Hb Bart syndrome (the more severe form), HbH disease, silent carrier state, and trait.. On the basis of the diagnosis, the market is segmented into perinatal testing, prenatal testing, and pre-implantation. Further, the perinatal testing sub-categorized into complete blood count (CBC) And DNA testing. The prenatal testing segment is divided into Prenatal Genetic Testing and Chorionic Villus Sampling. On the basis of the treatment, the market is segmented into blood transfusions, iron chelation, bone marrow, or stem cell transplant, surgery and ...
There are at least 4 different and distinct alpha-thalassaemias: silent carrier (1 affected alpha-globin gene), alpha-thalassaemia trait (2 affected alpha-globin genes), Hb H disease (typically 3 affected alpha-globin genes), and Hb Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome (typically deletion of all 4 alpha...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythrocyte alterations in hemoglobin H disease. AU - Szelényi, J.. AU - Lelkes, G.. AU - Horányi, M.. AU - Földi, J.. AU - Szász, I.. AU - Hollán, S.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - This study on erythrocytes in hemoglobin H (Hb-H) disease reveals that unstable Hb-H is bound to membranes to a greater extent, especially when it forms methemoglobin or is precipitated as an inclusion body. The methemoglobin content of these erythrocytes is elevated in spite of a higher activity of NADH-methemoglobin reductase. The ATPase activity is doubled and ATP is presumably used for phosphorylation of membrane proteins, which leads to cross-linking of membrane proteins. This assumption could be supported by the observed decrease in non-electrolyte permeability, by increased binding of hemoglobin to the membrane, and polymerisation of membrane proteins detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By means of electron microscopy, it could also be shown that the inclusion bodies are bound ...
Alpha thalassemia carrier. Two alpha chain genes are deleted. Alpha thalassemia minor or alpha thalassemia-1 trait are other terms for this condition. If both deleted genes are from the same #16 chromosome, it is called a cis deletion and is inherited from one parent. If instead one gene is missing from both #16 chromosomes, it is called a trans deletion and is inherited from both parents. This results in an anemia that is usually mild to moderate, but can be severe. When both parents are carriers of the cis deletion, there is a one in four, or 25 percent, chance with each pregnancy, to have a baby with alpha thalassemia major. Identifying whether an alpha thallasemia carrier has the cis deletion versus two trans deletions requires testing by DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis. DNA testing is usually done from a blood sample and looks at the alpha chain genes on each #16 chromosome, to determine which are deleted. ...
In normal individual, hemoglobin consists of alpha globin chain and beta globin chain. There are two forms of thalassemia. These include alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia. Alpha thalassemia occurs due to excess of beta globin chain than alpha glob
Alpha thalassemia causes mild anemia and is found in many ethnic groups. Usually it is found in regions where malaria is endemic. We have found that alpha thalassemia is common in Ashkenazim, whose countries of origin are in temperate climates.. We are analyzing the alpha globin polymorphisms to determine the haplotypes of individuals of many ethnic groups and will compare to try to define the origin of thalassemia in these individuals of European extraction. ...
Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parents genes. It causes anemia in affected children. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Alpha thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin. There are different types of thalassemia. The severity of anemia depends on the type the child has. ...
Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parents genes. It causes anemia in affected children. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Alpha thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.
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Objective: To determine the utility of the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) as a screening modality for prenatal diagnosis of Alpha thalassemia (α-thalassemia) Methods: We reviewed eighty-eight charts of pregnant women in a large Community Health Center in Miami, Florida who underwent DNA analysis for α-globin gene mutations from June 2010 to February 2012 and compiled a database of each patients hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), MCH and DNA analysis. Results: Forty-five of the 88 patients had α-globin gene mutations. Approximately nine (20%) of these patients had normal MCV (80-100 fL), normal Hb electrophoresis but low MCH (|27 |pg). All patients in our study were carriers of a single α-globin gene mutation. Conclusion: Results suggest that the MCH can be a valuable indicator for including in the screening for α-globin gene mutations in pregnant women. Further population-based studies should be conducted to determine if the addition of MCH in combination with the
The alpha thalassemia (α-thalassemia) syndromes are a group of hereditary anemias of varying clinical severity. They are characterized by reduced or absent production of 1 or more of the globin chains of which human hemoglobin is composed.
Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. It is passed down from one or both parents through their genes. Learn about the4 types of alpha thalassemia, symptoms, treatment options, and more.
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Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.
Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.
Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parents genes. It causes anemia in affected children. Learn more about symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
Abstract. Hematologic evaluation of a Nigerian obstetrical patient disclosed the presence of sickle-cell trait as well as evidence of a hemoglobin alpha- chain
Disease Markers is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the identification of disease markers, the elucidation of their role and mechanism, as well as their application in the prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
All right welcome back, so we have been talking about anemia, microcytic anemia, now were talking about Thalassemia…in the last video we have talked about alpha-thalassemia (link in description). Today…. Read more ». ...
Background X-linked alpha thalassemia, mental retardation syndrome in individuals is a uncommon recessive disorder caused by mutations in the em ATRX /em gene. of both varieties. In testes, em ATRY /em manifestation was recognized in the Sertoli cells, germ cells and some interstitial cells. In the developing ovaries, em ATRX /em was initially restricted to the germ cells, KW-6002 ic50 but was present KW-6002 ic50 in the granulosa cells of mature Rabbit polyclonal to ABCA6 ovaries from the primary follicle stage onwards and in the corpus luteum. em ATRX /em mRNA manifestation was also examined outside the gonad in both mouse and tammar wallaby KW-6002 ic50 whole embryos. em ATRX /em was recognized in the developing limbs, craniofacial elements, neural tissues, tail and phallus. These sites correspond with developmental deficiencies displayed by ATR-X individuals. Conclusions There is a complex expression pattern throughout development in both mammals, consistent with many of the observed ATR-X ...
Monoclonal antibody against ATRX; Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked expressed by ATRX for use in Immunoprecipitation, Microarray against Human
Numerous genetic pathways associated with glioblastoma development have been identified. In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of IDH1 and ATRX mutations and WT-1 and p53 expression in glioblastomas and that of surgical methods, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 83 patients with...
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Alpha-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder associated with severe developmental delay, mental retardation and craniofacial dysmorphism. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the ATRX gene which encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins. ATR-X patients exhibit dwarfism and skeletal defects, including hand and foot deformities. I hypothesized that the skeletal deformities in ATR-X syndrome are due to a direct role of ATRX in the development of the skeleton. My objective was to characterise skeletal phenotypes observed in three animal models conditionally deficient for ATRX in different skeletal tissues. Mice lacking the Atrx gene in forelimb mesenchyme, cartilage, or bone were generated using the Cre-lox system with Cre-recombinase under control of Prx1, Col2a1 or Col1a2 promoters, respectively. Mice lacking ATRX in cartilage or bone displayed limited skeletal phenotypes and did not recapitulate the defects seen in ATR-X
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hb seal rock [(α2)142 term→Glow, Codon 142 TAA→GAA]. T2 - An extended α chain variant associated with Anemia, Microcytosis, and α-Thalassemia-2 (- 3.7 Kb)a. AU - Merritt, D.. AU - Jones, R. T.. AU - Head, C.. AU - Thibodeau, S. N.. AU - Fairbanks, V. F.. AU - Steinberg, M. H.. AU - Coleman, M. B.. AU - Rodgers, G. P.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Hb Seal Rock was first reported in a young African-American woman and her 2-year-old daughter (1). It is an extended a chain variant which, like Hb Constant Spring, is present in small quantity and is expressed as an α- Hb H disease was observed in the index case with Hb Pakse. In that case, however, the genotype of the proband was α(Pakse)α/- -, inasmuch as she had the SEA α-thal-1 deletion on one chromosome 16 and the α2-Pakse mutation on the other. In another family in which Hb Pakse, Hb Constant Spring, and the -3.7 kb α-thal-2 gene occurred, it was ...
The pathophysiology of the thalassemias can be traced to the deleterious effects of the globin-chain subunits that are produced in excess. In β-thalassemia, excess α chains cause damage to the red cell precursors and red cells and lead to profound anemia. This causes expansion of the ineffective marrow, with severe effects on development, bone formation, and growth. The major cause of morbidity and mortality is the effect of iron deposition in the endocrine organs, liver, and heart, which results from increased intestinal absorption and the effects of blood transfusion. The pathophysiology of the α-thalassemias is different because the excess β chains that result from defective α-chain production form β4 molecules, or hemoglobin H, which is soluble and does not precipitate in the marrow. However, it is unstable and precipitates in older red cells. Hence, the anemia of α-thalassemia is hemolytic rather than dyserythropoietic. ...
Dr Androulla Eleftheriou. Thalassaemia International Federation. Continuing our theme of rare diseases this month, we interview Dr Androulla Eleftheriou on the topic of thalassaemia prevention and the work of the The Thalassaemia International Federation.. Thalassaemia is a rare, non-malignant haematological, genetic disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Effective prevention and management of the disease can only be achieved with national commitments to integrate disease management into national policies.. The Thalassaemia International Federation (TIF) strives to achieve such commitment with the aim to develop and implement national control programmes for the prevention and clinical management of thalassaemia, across all affected countries.. Continuing the theme of rare diseases, we interview Dr Androulla Eleftheriou on the work of the TIF and how we can achieve effective prevention of thalassaemia.. Interview summary. RA: Dr Eleftheriou, thank you for agreeing to ...
Background : Non-deletional hemoglobin (Hb) H disease is the severest form of α- thalassemia ( thal ) compatible with post-natal life, which is caused by the interaction of an α-globin gene mutation with α 0 -thal. Therefore, it is important to identify rare α-globin gene mutations for the pre...
hemoglobin J Tongariki: alpha chain variant; affected chromosome carries only a single active alpha globin gene; this condition is present in alpha thalassaemia
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ATRX antibody [GT4212] (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (RAD54 homolog, S. cerevisiae)) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-ATRX mAb (GTX629703) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Thalassemia is a genetic blood disorder that severely affects the patients bone marrow. Know more about types of Thalassemia, symptoms and cure for Thalassemia from our experts.
Activated spleen cDNA RIKEN full-length enriched library clone:F830044L17 product:alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked homolog (human) full insert sequence ...
The Thalassaemia from A to Z electronic glossary is a comprehensive, easy to use, educational tool for thalassaemia, including definitions of all important concepts on the prevention, management, treatment, organ complications, and plenty of other aspects related to the disease.. ...
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INTERNATIONAL THALASSAEMIA DAY 2021 - 8 MAY Addressing Health Inequalities Across the Global Thalassaemia Community Visit the International Thala
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Question - How to treat thalassemia?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Thalassemia, Ask a General & Family Physician
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Thalassemia Minor - People with this disorder dont actually have any symptoms. However, they act as the carriers of this disorder to next generation. With the lack of visibility of any symptoms, it is not possible to identify this disorder. It makes important for us to get tested if any of the family members or relatives have this disorder. ...
Thalassemia Minor - People with this disorder dont actually have any symptoms. However, they act as the carriers of this disorder to next generation. With the lack of visibility of any symptoms, it is not possible to identify this disorder. It makes important for us to get tested if any of the family members or relatives have this disorder. ...
Learn more about Thalassemia at Grand Strand Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Thalassemia was clinically described almost 100 years ago and treatment of this genetic disease has seen a great progress during this period. DNA-base..
Thalassemia.. Tak ramai yang tahu penyakit ni. Mungkin kita pernah dengar, tetapi tidak mengetahui apakah sebenar penyakit dan penyakit ini. KENALI THALASSEMIA Thalassemia merupakan sejenis penyakit genetik yang mengganggu ...
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থ্যালাসেমিয়া (ইংরেজি: Thalassemia) একটি অটোজোমাল মিউট্যান্ট প্রচ্ছন্ন জিনঘটিত বংশগত রক্তের রোগ। এই রোগে রক্তে অক্সিজেন পরিবহনকারী হিমোগ্লোবিন কণার উৎপাদনে ত্রুটি হয়। থ্যালাসেমিয়া ধারণকারী মানুষ সাধারণত রক্তে অক্সিজেনস্বল্পতা বা অ্যানিমিয়াতে ভুগে থাকেন। অ্যানিমিয়ার ফলে অবসাদগ্রস্ততা থেকে শুরু করে অঙ্গহানি ঘটতে পারে। থ্যালাসেমিয়া দুইটি প্রধান ধরনের হতে পারে: আলফা ...
থ্যালাসীমিয়া সম্পর্কে খুব বেশী তথ্য আমি খুঁজে পেলাম না। বাংলাদেশ থ্যালাসীমিয়া হাসপাতাল থেকে আনা প্রচারপত্র অনান্য যায়গায় থেকে কিছু তথ্য সগ্রহ করে আমার ছোট জ্ঞানে কিছু তথ্য তুলে ধরলাম।. থ্যালাসীমিয়া (Thalassemia) একটি ভয়াবহ ঘাতক ব্যাধি। এই রোগে রক্তে অক্সিজেন পরিবহনকারী হিমোগ্লোবিন কণার উৎপাদন কম হয় ফলে রোগী রক্তে অক্সিজেনস্বল্পতা বা অ্যানিমিয়াতে ভুগে থাকেন (রক্তশুণ্যতা)। ...

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