Interleukin-6 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-6 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6.Receptors, Interleukin-5: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Interleukin-5 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-5 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-5. Several isoforms of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha subunit exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Interleukin-10 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-10 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with JANUS KINASE 1.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Interleukin-4 Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a component of the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. It signals through interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Interleukin-21 Receptor alpha Subunit: An interleukin-21 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for interleukin-21. It signals via interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1 and JANUS KINASE 3.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Interleukin-15 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-15 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-15.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-3 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-3.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Interleukin-18 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit: An interleukin-13 receptor subunit that is closely-related to the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. The receptor is found as a monomeric protein and has been considered to be a decoy receptor for interleukin-13 due the fact that it lacks cytoplasmic signaling domains.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta: A ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric receptor that is specific for both INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It is composed of two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The IFNAR2 subunit is believed to serve as the ligand-binding chain; however both chains are required for signal transduction. The interferon alpha-beta receptor signals through the action of JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Retinoid X Receptor alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR GAMMA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-7 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-7.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methoxamine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Receptors, Prostaglandin E: Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that is expressed primarily in IMMUNE SYSTEM cells. It has specificity for membrane-bound form of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and mediates intracellular-signaling through TNF RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative: Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mice, Inbred BALB CTryptophan Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.1.20.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Receptors, Interleukin-13: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.

*Interleukin 20 receptor, alpha subunit

... is a subunit for the interleukin-20 receptor. IL20RA is its human gene. The protein ... "The T-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor ... The receptor of IL20 is a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of this protein and interleukin 20 receptor beta (IL20B). ... 2003). "Interleukins 19, 20, and 24 signal through two distinct receptor complexes. Differences in receptor-ligand interactions ...

*Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit

Interleukin 5 receptor, alpha (IL5RA) also known as CD125 (Cluster of Differentiation 125) is a subunit of the Interleukin-5 ... Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit has been shown to interact with: Interleukin 5, Janus kinase 2, Protein unc-119 homolog, ... The receptor is composed of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for ... "Interleukin 5 regulates the isoform expression of its own receptor alpha-subunit". Blood. 95 (5): 1600-7. PMID 10688814. ...

*Interleukin 11 receptor alpha subunit

Interleukin 11 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 11 receptor. IL11RA is its human gene. Interleukin 11 is ... 2007). "Expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11) and IL-11 receptor alpha in human gastric carcinoma and IL-11 upregulates the ... 1996). "The human interleukin-11 receptor alpha gene (IL11RA): genomic organization and chromosome mapping". Genomics. 32 (1): ... 2003). "Expression and function of interleukin-11 and its receptor alpha in the human endometrium". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 9 (2): 75 ...

*IL13RA2

Interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2 (IL-13Rα2), also known as CD213A2 (cluster of differentiation 213A2), is a membrane ... IL-13Rα2 is closely related to IL-13Rα1, a subunit of the interleukin-13 receptor complex. This protein binds IL13 with high ... 1997). "A novel 4-kb interleukin-13 receptor alpha mRNA expressed in human B, T, and endothelial cells encoding an alternate ... Evidence that it is distinct from the cloned Il-13 receptor and Il-4 receptor alpha-chains". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (14): 9474-80. ...

*Interleukin 5

... has been shown to interact with Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit. The IL-5 receptor is composed of an α and a ... "Binding interactions of human interleukin 5 with its receptor alpha subunit. Large scale production, structural, and functional ... The α subunit is specific for the IL-5 molecule, whereas the βc subunit also recognised by interleukin 3 (IL3) and granulocyte- ... Through binding to the interleukin-5 receptor, interleukin 5 stimulates B cell growth and increases immunoglobulin secretion. ...

*Interleukin 10

IL-10 has been shown to interact with Interleukin 10 receptor, alpha subunit. The receptor complex for IL-10 also requires the ... Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual Review of ... Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001-01-01). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual ... IL-10 signals through a receptor complex consisting of two IL-10 receptor-1 and two IL-10 receptor-2 proteins. Consequently, ...

*Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha subunit

Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha is a subunit of the interleukin-27 receptor. IL27RA is its human gene. In mice, CD4+ helper T- ... Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha subunit has been shown to interact with STAT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000104998 - ... IL27RA interleukin 27 receptor, alpha". Takeda A, Hamano S, Yamanaka A, Hanada T, Ishibashi T, Mak TW, Yoshimura A, Yoshida H ( ... This gene encodes a protein which is similar to the mouse T-cell cytokine receptor Tccr at the amino acid level, and is ...

*Interleukin-9 receptor

1998). "Heteromerization of the gammac chain with the interleukin-9 receptor alpha subunit leads to STAT activation and ... 2000). "14-3-3zeta interacts with the alpha-chain of human interleukin 9 receptor". Biochem. J. 345 Pt 3 (3): 741-7. doi: ... 1999). "Tip60 interacts with human interleukin-9 receptor alpha-chain". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 263 (1): 149-55. doi: ... Interleukin 9 receptor (IL9R) also known as CD129 (Cluster of Differentiation 129) is a type I cytokine receptor. IL9R also ...

*Interleukin 10 receptor, alpha subunit

... is a subunit for the interleukin-10 receptor. IL10RA, is its human gene. IL10RA has also ... Activation of this receptor leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 kinases. Interleukin 10 receptor, alpha subunit ... IL10RA interleukin 10 receptor, alpha". Ho AS, Liu Y, Khan TA, Hsu DH, Bazan JF, Moore KW (December 1993). "A receptor for ... Ho AS, Liu Y, Khan TA, Hsu DH, Bazan JF, Moore KW (1994). "A receptor for interleukin 10 is related to interferon receptors". ...

*Interleukin 15 receptor, alpha subunit

... is a subunit of the interleukin 15 receptor that in humans is encoded by the IL15RA gene ... The IL-15 receptor is composed of three subunits: IL-15R alpha, CD122, and CD132. Two of these subunits, CD122 and CD132, are ... "Functional characterization of the human interleukin-15 receptor alpha chain and close linkage of IL15RA and IL2RA genes". J. ... "Identification of an interleukin-15alpha receptor-binding site on human interleukin-15". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24313-22. doi ...

*Interleukin-15 receptor

... binding interleukin-15. It consists of an interleukin 15 receptor, alpha subunit and shares common beta and gamma subunits with ... Interleukin-15 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor, ... Receptors, Interleukin-15 at the US National Library of ... "Functional characterization of the human interleukin-15 receptor alpha chain and close linkage of IL15RA and IL2RA genes". J. ... the IL-2 receptor. Anderson DM, Kumaki S, Ahdieh M, Bertles J, Tometsko M, Loomis A, Giri J, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins ...

*NFRKB

Urban MB, Schreck R, Baeuerle PA (1991). "NF-kappa B contacts DNA by a heterodimer of the p50 and p65 subunit". EMBO J. 10 (7 ... a novel DNA-binding protein that recognizes the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain kappa B site". New Biol. 3 (11): 1063-73. ... 14 (2): 270-4. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80216-2. PMID 1427843. "Entrez Gene: NFRKB nuclear factor related to kappaB binding ...

*Janus kinase 2

"JAK2 and JAK1 constitutively associate with an interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor alpha and betac subunit, respectively, and are ... the GM-CSF receptor family (IL-3R, IL-5R and GM-CSF-R), the gp130 receptor family (e.g., IL-6R), and the single chain receptors ... "Physical interaction between interleukin-12 receptor beta 2 subunit and Jak2 tyrosine kinase: Jak2 associates with cytoplasmic ... and its receptor: actions, signal transduction pathways and phenotypes observed in PRL receptor knockout mice". Endocrine ...

*Interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 1

This subunit forms a receptor complex with IL4 receptor alpha, a subunit shared by IL13 and IL4 receptors. This subunit serves ... Interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 1, also known as IL13RA1 and CD213A1 (cluster of differentiation 213A1), is a human gene. The ... Orchansky PL, Kwan R, Lee F, Schrader JW (1999). "Characterization of the cytoplasmic domain of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha ... 1997). "cDNA cloning and characterization of the human interleukin 13 receptor alpha chain". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (46): 29265-70 ...

*T helper cell

Activated T cells also produce the alpha sub-unit of the IL-2 receptor (CD25 or IL-2R), enabling a fully functional receptor ... "Interleukin-10 production by Th1 cells requires interleukin-12-induced STAT4 transcription factor and ERK MAP kinase activation ... they express the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and variable regions. The ... CD4, a co-receptor of the TCR complex, also binds to a different section of the MHC molecule. These interactions bring these ...

*IL3RA

Milatovich A, Kitamura T, Miyajima A, Francke U (1993). "Gene for the alpha-subunit of the human interleukin-3 receptor (IL3RA ... The receptor is composed of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for ... "Structure of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the human interleukin 3 receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 208 (1): ... Interleukin 3 receptor, alpha (low affinity) (IL3RA), also known as CD123 (Cluster of Differentiation 123), is a human gene. ...

*Interleukin 2

One of the checkpoints is signaling through TCR receptor, antigen receptor of T-lymphocytes after recognizing MHC-peptide ... α subunit has low affinity for its ligand but has the ability (when bound to the β and ϒ subunit) to increase the IL-2R ... each member of which has a four alpha helix bundle; the family also includes IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21. IL-2 signals ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. It is a protein that ...

*IL-2 receptor

... these subunits are also parts of receptors for other cytokines. The β and γ chains of the IL-2R are members of the type I ... The alpha chain does not participate in signaling, but the beta chain is complexed with an enzyme called Janus kinase 1 (JAK1 ... The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as ... The three receptor chains are expressed separately and differently on various cell types and can assemble in different ...

*Interleukin-5 receptor

The interleukin-5 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor. It is a heterodimer of the interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit and ... "JAK2 and JAK1 constitutively associate with an interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor alpha and betac subunit, respectively, and are ... In fact, the β-subunit of the IL-5 receptor is also found in IL-3 and GM-CSF receptors where it is associated with IL-3Rα and ... Therefore, it is known as the common β receptor or βc. As with the IL-5Rα subunit, the β subunit's cytoplasmic domain is ...

*Interleukin 13

This receptor is a heterodimer receptor complex consisting of alpha IL-4 receptor (IL-4Rα) and alpha Interleukin-13 receptor ( ... Interleukin-13 and its associated receptors with α subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL-4Rα) allows for the downstream activation ... Interleukin-13 receptor, the IL-13 receptor GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020383 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ... IL-13 also binds to another receptor known as IL-13Rα2. IL-13Rα2 (which is labelled as a decoy receptor) is derived from Th2 ...

*GNAI2

... has been shown to interact with: EYA2, GPSM2, Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha, MDFI, RGS5, and RIC8A. GRCh38: Ensembl ... alpha i-G alpha s chimeras define the function of alpha chain domains in control of G protein activation and beta gamma subunit ... "Identification of G protein alpha-subunits in RINm5F cells and their selective interaction with galanin receptor". Diabetes. 40 ... "Distribution of the alpha-subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi2 and its comparison to G alpha o". Journal of ...

*Interleukin-6 receptor

IL6R subunit is also shared by many other cytokines. Interleukin-6 receptor has been shown to interact with Interleukin 6 and ... The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The IL6 receptor is a protein complex consisting of an IL-6 receptor subunit (IL6R) and interleukin 6 signal transducer ... Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. Interleukin 6 ...

*IL2RB

This protein also forms one of the three subunits of the IL-15 receptor. Activation of the receptor increases proliferation of ... The intermediate affinity form consists of a gamma/beta subunit heterodimer, while the high affinity form consists of an alpha/ ... forms of the receptor are involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and transduction of mitogenic signals from interleukin 2. ... generation of three receptor forms by cloned human alpha and beta chain cDNA's". Science. 244 (4904): 551-6. doi:10.1126/ ...

*Interleukin 11

As a signaling molecule, interleukin 11 has a variety of functions associated with its receptor interleukin 11 receptor alpha; ... Signal specificity is provided by the IL-11Rα subunit. Signal transduction is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11Ralpha ... receptor alpha and stoichiometry of in vitro IL-11 receptor complexes with gp130". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (48): 30986-91. doi: ... Sims NA, Jenkins BJ, Nakamura A, Quinn JM, Li R, Gillespie MT, Ernst M, Robb L, Martin TJ (July 2005). "Interleukin-11 receptor ...

*Interleukin 31

The receptor for IL-31 is a heterodimer of the interleukin 31 receptor alpha (IL-31RA) and OSMR. IL-31RA was originally ... IL-31 signals via a receptor complex that is composed of IL-31 receptor A (IL31RA) and oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) subunits. ... These receptor subunits are expressed in activated monocytes and in unstimulated epithelial cells. IL-31RA binds IL-31 through ... Hermanns HM (2015). "Oncostatin M and interleukin-31: Cytokines, receptors, signal transduction and physiology". Cytokine & ...
Circulating IL-6 levels correlate with the severity of blood-stage malaria in humans and mouse models, but the impact of IL-6 classic signaling through membrane IL-6Rα, as well as IL-6 trans-signaling through soluble IL-6Rα, on the outcome of malaria has remained unknown. In this study, we created IL-6Rα-deficient mice that exhibit a 50% survival of otherwise lethal blood-stage malaria of the genus Plasmodium chabaudi. Inducing IL-6 trans-signaling by injection of mouse recombinant soluble IL-6Rα in IL-6Rα-deficient mice restores the lethal outcome to malaria infection. In contrast, inhibition of IL-6 trans-signaling via injection of recombinant sGP130Fc protein in control mice results in a 40% survival rate. Our data demonstrate that IL-6 trans-signaling, rather than classic IL-6 signaling, contributes to malaria-induced lethality in mice, preceded by an increased inflammatory response. Therefore, inhibition of IL-6 trans-signaling may serve as a novel promising therapeutic basis to combat ...
Loss of estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression and gain of TWIST (TWIST1) expression in breast tumors correlate with increased disease recurrence and metastasis and poor disease-free s...
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BACKGROUND: Estrogen acutely activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). However, the identity of the receptors involved in this rapid response remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We detected an estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) transcript in human endothelial cells that encodes a truncated 46-kDa ERalpha (Delta1a-hERalpha-46). A corresponding 46-kDa ERalpha protein was identified in endothelial cell lysates. Transfection of cDNAs encoding the full-length ERalpha (ERalpha-66) and Delta1a-hERalpha-46 resulted in appropriately sized recombinant proteins identified by anti-ERalpha antibodies. Confocal microscopy revealed that a ...
Sales, means the sales volume of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Revenue, means the sales value of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator This report studies sales (consumption) of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator in United States market, focuses on the top players, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player, covering Pfizer Inc. (USA) Abbott Laboratories (USA)
TY - JOUR. T1 - The roles of membrane estrogen receptor subtypes in modulating dopamine transporters in PC-12 cells. AU - Alyea, Rebecca A.. AU - Laurence, Stephanie E.. AU - Kim, Sung H.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, John A.. AU - Watson, Cheryl S.. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - The effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on dopamine (DA) transport could explain gender and life-stage differences in the incidence of some neurological disorders. We tested the effects of E2 at physiological concentrations on DA efflux in nerve growth factor-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma cells that express estrogen receptors (ER) α, ERβ, and G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), and DA transporter (DAT). DAT efflux was determined as the transporter-specific loss of 3H-DA from pre-loaded cells; a 9-15 min 10-9 M E2 treatment caused maximal DA efflux. Such rapid estrogenic action suggests a non-genomic ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Detection of endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulators such as 27-hydroxycholesterol. AU - Nelson, Erik R.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - The estrogen receptors (ERs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, and as such act as ligand inducible transcription factors, mediating the effects of estrogens. However, their pharmacology is complex, having the ability to be differentially activated by ligands. Such ligands possess the ability to behave as either ER-agonists or ER-antagonists, depending on the cellular and tissue context, and have been termed Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs). Several SERMs have been identified with clinical relevance such as tamoxifen and raloxifene. Recently, 27-hydroxycholesterol has been characterized as the first identified endogenous SERM leading to the notion that other endogenous SERMs may exist, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen receptor alpha signaling promotes Sle1-induced loss of tolerance and immune cell activation and is responsible for sex bias in B6.Sle1 congenic mice. AU - Yoachim, Shayla D. AU - Nuxoll, Jenny S.. AU - Bynoté, Kimberly K.. AU - Gould, Karen A. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Sex bias in lupus incidence is thought to be due, in part, to the ability of estrogens to promote loss of tolerance. Previously, we showed that estrogens promote lupus via estrogen receptor α (ERα). C57BL/6 (B6) mice carrying the Sle1 lupus susceptibility locus (B6.Sle1) display loss of tolerance and develop anti-nuclear antibodies and immune cell hyperactivation. The incidence of loss of tolerance in B6.Sle1 females is greater than in males. Here, we show that a deficiency of either estrogens or ERα attenuates loss of tolerance and autoantibody development in B6.Sle1 females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ...
Summary Two polymorphisms of the aromatase and estrogen receptor genes appeared to interact to influence the risk of hip fractures in women. Introduction Allelic variants of the aromatase gene have been associated with bone mineral density and vertebral fractures. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between two polymorphisms of the aromatase and estrogen receptor genes and hip ...
Endocrine therapies focus on the service of the oestrogen receptor alpha dog (Emergency room) via distinct systems, but it all is not very clear whether breasts tumor cells may adapt to treatment using drug-specific systems. development. Finally, we demonstrate that a CB-based personal might become utilized to improve the stratification of Emergency room breast cancer individuals before adjuvant treatment. Outcomes Version to AI treatment qualified prospects to invasiveness ETs are designed to stop oestrogen-driven expansion by interfering with one particular TF (for example, Emergency room). Nevertheless, we hypothesized that the advancement of level of resistance may follow specific ways and generate alternate phenotypes through the different molecular systems particular to each agent2. To check this speculation, we utilized a series of isogenic cell lines resistant to solitary real estate agents or a mixture of real estate agents ...
Title: GPER and ER: Estrogen Receptors with Distinct Biological Roles in Breast Cancer. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Edward J. Filardo. Affiliation:Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Medicine, 593 Eddy Street, Aldrich Building Rm 708, Providence, RI 02903, USA.. Keywords:Estrogen, G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), seven transmembrane receptors, estrogen receptors (ERs), nuclear steroid hormone receptors, tamoxifen, faslodex, epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), aromatase inhibitors, breast cancer. Abstract: Comparative clinical studies indicate that blockade of estrogen biosynthesis by the use of aromatase inhibitors may have benefit over estrogen receptor (ER) antagonism as a strategy for treating breast cancer. One plausible explanation for this idea is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body mass index, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor subtype. AU - Shieh, Yiwey. AU - Scott, Christopher G.. AU - Jensen, Matthew R.. AU - Norman, Aaron D.. AU - Bertrand, Kimberly A.. AU - Pankratz, V. Shane. AU - Brandt, Kathleen R. AU - Visscher, Daniel W. AU - Shepherd, John A.. AU - Tamimi, Rulla M.. AU - Vachon, Celine M. AU - Kerlikowske, Karla. PY - 2019/4/3. Y1 - 2019/4/3. N2 - Background: Obesity and elevated breast density are common risk factors for breast cancer, and their effects may vary by estrogen receptor (ER) subtype. However, their joint effects on ER subtype-specific risk are unknown. Understanding this relationship could enhance risk stratification for screening and prevention. Thus, we assessed the association between breast density and ER subtype according to body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen response elements function as allosteric modulators of estrogen receptor conformation. AU - Wood, Jennifer R.. AU - Greene, Geoffrey L.. AU - Nardulli, Ann M.. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of estrogen-responsive genes. ER-mediated transcriptional changes are brought about by interaction of the ER with the estrogen response element (ERE). In this study, we examined the interaction of the Xenopus laevis ER DNA binding domain (DBD) and the intact ER with the X. laevis vitellogenin A2 ERE and the human pS2 ERE. Using gel mobility shift, DNase I footprinting, and methylation interference assays, we demonstrated that the DBD bound only as a dimer to the A2 ERE. However, the DBD bound as a monomer to the consensus pS2 ERE half site at lower DBD concentrations and then as a homodimer to the consensus and imperfect pS2 ERE ...
The transition to the postmenopausal stage is associated with an increased risk for vascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke. This has been linked to a decrease in estrogen production. Estrogens mediate their effects on the brain to a major extent through binding to nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha and beta. It is possible that positive and adverse effects of estrogens are related to interactions between receptor genotypes and hormones. Notably, the estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism c 454-397T/T is associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke, with a synergistic relationship between this genotype and hypertension. In experimental stroke settings estrogens influence recovery of cognitive functions, possibly via induction of neurotrophic factors and specific ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repression of translation of human estrogen receptor α by G-quadruplex formation. AU - Balkwill, Graham D.. AU - Derecka, Kamila. AU - Garner, Thomas P.. AU - Hodgman, Charlie. AU - Flint, A. P F. AU - Searle, Mark S.. PY - 2009/12/8. Y1 - 2009/12/8. N2 - Tissue-specific expression of the human estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) is achieved through multiple promoter sequences resulting in various mRNA transcripts encoding a common protein but differing in their 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR). Many cancers are estrogen-sensitive with neoplastic growth stimulated through the estrogen receptor, a transcription factor that regulates developmental genes. We demonstrate that the human ESR1 gene is rich in potential quadruplex-forming sequences with 3 of 20 identified within exonic regions. In particular,we show using CD, UV, and NMR spectroscopy that a stable DNAG-quadruplex motif is formed within ...
We have previously demonstrated that the DEAD-box RNA helicase p68 is an important regulator of gene expression [1, 2], whilst other groups have shown that p68 interacts with and coactivates estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) [3, 4]. The main focus of our project is to investigate the molecular mechanism of ERα coactivation by p68 and to examine the potential consequences for breast cancer development.. We have established that the interaction of p68 and ERα requires the DNA binding domain of ERα and the C terminus of p68. Importantly, this region of p68 lies outside the conserved helicase core and was previously shown by us to be essential for transcriptional regulation by p68. Additionally, coactivation of ERα by p68 requires the ligand binding/AF2 region of ERα and is consistent with the model that p68 is recruited to ERα-responsive promoters in response to estrogen [4]. We have also shown that p72, a helicase that is very highly related to ...
By Verdier-Sevrain, S ABSTRACT Estrogens have a profound influence on skin. The relative hypoestrogenism that accompanies menopause exacerbates the deleterious effects of both intrinsic and environmental aging. Estrogens prevent skin aging. They increase skin thickness and improve skin moisture. Beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on skin aging have been well documented, but HRT cannot obviously be recommended solely to treat skin aging in menopausal women. Topical estrogen application is highly effective and safe if used by a dermatologist with expertise in endocrinology. The question of whether estrogen alternatives such as phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators are effective estrogens for the prevention of skin aging in postmenopausal women remains unanswered. However, preliminary data indicate that such treatment may be of benefit for skin aging treatment. Key words: SKIN AGING, HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY, TOPICAL ESTROGEN, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of estrogen receptor gene in mouse oocyte and during embryogenesis. AU - Wu, T. C J. AU - Wang, L.. AU - Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Estrogen is required for oocyte maturation and embryonic development in vivo; however, the mechanism involved is not clear. Since the effect of estrogen is mediated through the estrogen receptor (ER), we examined the ontogeny and expression of the ER gene in mouse oocytes and embryos of various gestational stages using the highly sensitive reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Total RNA, extracted from 40 ovulated oocytes, 2-cell embryos, morulae, and blastocysts, was reverse transcribed into cDNA. A pair of primers flanking the 453-bp region encoding the hormone-binding domain of ER was used for 30 cycles of PCR. The identity of the amplified product was confirmed by sizing and Southern blot hybridization. The results indicated that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel estrogen receptor ligands based on an anthranylaldoxime structure. T2 - Role of the phenol-type pseudocycle in the binding process. AU - Minutolo, Filippo. AU - Antonello, Michela. AU - Bertini, Simone. AU - Ortore, Gabriella. AU - Placanica, Giorgio. AU - Rapposelli, Simona. AU - Sheng, Shubin. AU - Carlson, Kathryn E.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, Benita S. AU - Katzenellenbogen, John A.. AU - Macchia, Marco. PY - 2003/9/11. Y1 - 2003/9/11. N2 - The 3,4-diphenylsalicylaldoxime system 1 is an estrogen receptor (ER) ligand of unusual structure, having a hydrogen-bonded pseudocyclic A′-ring in place of the paradigmatic phenolic A-ring that is characteristic of most estrogens. We have investigated the role played by the pseudocycle A′ in binding to the ER by preparing 3,4-diphenylbenzaldoxime (4), a compound that completely lacks this ring but still preserves all of the other features of the original molecule 1, as well as a ...
SCOPE Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L., Grossulariaceae) contain high amounts of anthocyanin polyphenols, which have antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic health benefits. This study analyzed the potential phytoestrogenic effects of blackcurrant extract (BCE) in breast cancer (MCF-7) and human endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cell lines that over-express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), as well as in immature female rats. METHODS AND RESULTS Microarray analysis and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis showed that BCE activated the ERα pathway, whereas quantitative-PCR confirmed that BCE and four types of anthocyanins up-regulated genes downstream of ERα. BCE (0.1-1.0 μg/mL) and anthocyanins (0.1-10 μM) induced MCF-7 cell proliferation; however, this effect was blocked by ER antagonist fulvestrant. Flow cytometry showed that anthocyanins reduced and increased the number of MCF-7 cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, respectively. Anthocyanins stimulated ERα ...
G protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor 1 is a member of the GPCR family and is encoded in Humans by the GPER gene. Alternate transcriptional splice variants that encode the same protein have been characterized. It is a member of the rhodopsin-like family and is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. GPER binds estrogen with high affinity, resulting in intracellular calcium mobilization and synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in the nucleus.
Merck & Co was developing orally administered, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) that specifically acts on estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes,
6HHP: Ternary complex of Estrogen Receptor alpha peptide and 14-3-3 sigma C42 mutant bound to disulfide fragment PPI stabilizer 1
In brief, the currently available estrogen therapies used to treat menopausal symptoms are non-selective to both of the two known estrogen receptors, alpha and beta. Because of this non-selectivity, all estrogens marketed to treat menopausal symptoms have the potential to cause elevated risks for breast and uterine cancers due to the proliferative effects on breast and uterine tissues mediated through the estrogen receptor alpha. Selective activation of the estrogen receptor beta, however, does not lead to proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines or an increase for uterine cancer in mouse xenograph models. Bionovo is taking advantage of the differential effects caused by the two estrogen receptors on cancer formation by developing selective estrogen receptor beta ...
Two estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, are expressed in breast cancer but their role in treatment response is unclear. The overall objective of this study was to determine if the presence of ERbeta protein in breast cancer cell lines is an indicator of a poor prognosis based on cell proliferation. In addition, we determined the effect of estradiol (E2) and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and genistein, on ERalpha and ERbeta protein regulation, to help in the understanding of the mechanism behind their role in modulating cell proliferation. Using western blot and immunofluorescence analysis, the ER positive cell lines, MCF-7 and T47D, were found to contain both ERalpha and ERbeta, and thus were used as model systems. E2 and genistein, which increased cell proliferation in both cell lines, induced an ...
Prostate cancer is the commonest, non-cutaneous cancer in men. At present, there is no cure for the advanced, castration-resistant form of the disease. Estrogen has been shown to be important in prostate carcinogenesis, with evidence resulting from epidemiological, cancer cell line, human tissue and animal studies. The prostate expresses both estrogen receptor alpha (ERA) and estrogen receptor beta (ERB). Most evidence suggests that ERA mediates the harmful effects of estrogen in the prostate, whereas ERB is tumour suppressive, but trials of ERB-selective agents have not translated into improved clinical outcomes. The role of ERB in the prostate remains unclear and there is increasing evidence that isoforms of ERB may be oncogenic. Detailed study of ERB and ERB isoforms in the prostate is required to establish their cell-specific roles, in order to determine if therapies can be directed towards ERB-dependent ...
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are steroid hormone receptors important in development, growth, and reproduction. The 2 well characterized ERs, alpha and beta, interact with a variety of receptor coregulators. These coregulators bind and direct the ERs to specific promoters, varying the ER target genes transcribed to modulate signaling responses. ERs play a large role in cancers of the female reproductive system, especially breast cancer. ER positive breast cancers can be treated with antiestrogen therapy, often yielding an improved prognosis. These types of treatments use selective estrogen receptor modulators to diminish side effects on other organs expressing estrogen receptors. In addition, estrogen signaling plays a role in other pathophysiological conditions such as osteoporosis and obesity. The mechanisms of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The changes of estrogen receptor-β variants expression in breast carcinogenesis. T2 - Decrease of estrogen receptor-β2 expression is the key event in breast cancer development. AU - Park, Byeongwoo. AU - Kim, Ki Suk. AU - Heo, Min Kyu. AU - Yang, Woo Ick. AU - Kim, Seung Il. AU - Kim, Joo Hang. AU - Kim, Gwi Eon. AU - Lee, Kyong Sik. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - Backgound and Objectives: Although more than five variant forms of estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) have been identilied, their role has not been identified. This study was carried out to investigate the changes of ERβ variants in breast cancer development. Methods: Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and triple primer PCR (TP-PCR), the expression levels of ERβ variants mRNA were measured in 66 paired normal and cancer tissues. The relative expression level of ERβ variants were compared between normal and ...
Human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) is a hormone-responsive nuclear receptor (NR) involved in cell growth and survival that contains both a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). Functionally relevant inter-domain interactions between the DBD and LBD have been observed in sever …
Background Assess the relation between the presence of PVUII and XBAI polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha gene and mammographic density in postmenopausal women.. Methods For the present analysis, 189 postmenopausal women who had never used hormonal therapy and who did not have clinical or mammographic features were selected. Based on the ACR-BIRADSâ 2003 classification, the mammographic density was determined by three independent readers (two subjective ratings and one computerized - Adobe Photoshop â 7.0 software). Blood samples were available to extract DNA according to KIT GFX â protocol. PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) was then used to identify the polymorphisms.. Results There was a high degree of agreement among the three readers to determine the mammographic density (Kappa,0.75). Sixty women (32%) had dense breasts and 129 (68%) had non-dense breasts. The PVUII polymorphism was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal vascular function and hypertension in mice deficient in estrogen receptor β. AU - Zhu, Yan. AU - Bian, Zhao. AU - Lu, Ping. AU - Karas, Richard H.. AU - Bao, Lin. AU - Cox, Daniel. AU - Hodgin, Jeffrey. AU - Shaul, Philip W.. AU - Thorén, Peter. AU - Smithies, Oliver. AU - Gustafsson, Jan Åke. AU - Mendelsohn, Michael E.. PY - 2002/1/18. Y1 - 2002/1/18. N2 - Blood vessels express estrogen receptors, but their role in cardiovascular physiology is not well understood. We show that vascular smooth muscle cells and blood vessels from estrogen receptor β (ERβ) - deficient mice exhibit multiple functional abnormalities. In wild-type mouse blood vessels, estrogen attenuates vasoconstriction by an ERβ-mediated increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In contrast, estrogen augments vasoconstriction in blood vessels from ERβ-deficient mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells isolated ...
In Silico Prediction of Estrogen Receptor Subtype Binding Affinity and Selectivity Using Statistical Methods and Molecular Docking with 2-Arylnaphthalenes and 2-Arylquinolines. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
There are several potential explanations for the failure of acute hormone replacement therapy to reduce ambulatory ECG ischemia in our study. Although human endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells express estrogen receptors (12,26), Losordo et al. (27)reported that atherosclerotic coronary arteries expressed fewer estrogen receptors than coronary arteries without significant atherosclerosis. Furthermore, Post et al. (28)reported increased rates of estrogen receptor gene promoter methylation with increasing age, both in nondiseased vessels and even more so in areas with atherosclerotic plaque. Increased promoter methylation inactivates estrogen receptor gene transcription. Since women with UA are usually elderly with significant atherosclerosis, they may be unresponsive to hormone therapy due to lack of the estrogen receptor. It also is ...
You may already have read about teas ability to decrease your chance of heart disease and reduce your stress but will it help shift a few pounds? Well, there have been studies, and yes, it seems that tea can help you lose weight.. Increase Your Energy Many people these days suffer from a lack of energy so turn to caffeine tablets and pills but a better way of increasing your energy is by drinking tea. Because tea gives you more energy theres no excuse for not exercising which means you can burn off extra fat calories.. Tea has also been shown to increase your bodys metabolic rate so that you can burn of fat. It seems that according to studies, tea can help you burn off 80 calories a day along with exercising.. You may or may not have heard of "flavanoids". Flavanoids work by increasing your bodys natural hormone "norepinephrine". So how does this help you? Well, norepinephrine encourages the bodys metabolic rate for burning of the fat calories.. Fat Oxidation Studies have also shown that if ...
MARSHMALLOW - Soothing from the throat to the urinary tract. Used for bladder/kidney infections because it soothes the mucous membranes. Herb Wisdom says, "Marshmallow extract contains flavanoids, which contain anti-inflammatory properties. The flavanoids are able to reduce inflammation while the mucilage holds them in place and prevents further damage. The extracts also induce phagocytosis, which is the process in which certain cells engulf bacteria, dead cell tissues or other solid particles. This helps speed up the healing process. The mucilage remains unaltered until it reaches the colon, which is why marshmallow works well on most inflammatory digestive disorders." ...
Orange juice is a healthy drink due to the presence of flavonoids, which help fight diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, says study published last week.. The news is sure to please manufacturers, who for a long time have been promoting orange juice as a healthy drink, despite its high sugar content.. The study, carried out by the University of Buffalo in the US, examined flavonoids present in orange juice the way that they suppress oxygen free radicals, also known as reactive oxygen species (ROS).. Paresh Dandona, the studys senior author, concluded that the studys findings are more important than fears over the sugar content of juice, especially in the US.. "Obesity, being overweight and type 2 diabetes are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and more than 60 per cent of US population is affected by these conditions," Dandona said.. The study involved 32 healthy participants between the ages of 20 and 40, who were of normal weight, with a body mass index of 20-25 ...
In this prospective study, we found that moderate habitual chocolate intake was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed with intake of ≥3 servings per week. Results were similar when we did not adjust for self-reported hypertension and when we restricted the analysis to participants with follow-up times ,2 years. Furthermore, consumption of snacks all were strongly related to chocolate intake but was not associated with HF, suggesting a specific association between chocolate and HF incidence.. Chocolate is one of the most concentrated sources of flavanoids,23 a subclass of polyphenols. Short-term randomized feeding trials suggest that the flavanoids in chocolate may be responsible for the improvement in cardiovascular risk factors.3,4 Some5,6,24 but not all25,26 feeding trials have indicated that chocolate intake significantly reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure, possibly by acting as an angiotensin-I-converting ...
Plant anticancer agents, XLVIII. New cytotoxic flavonoids from Muntingia calabura roots: 12 new flavonoids were isolated (7 flavans, 3 flavones, two biflavans). Most of the isolates demonstrated cytotoxic activity and some exhibited selective activities when evaluated with a number of human cancer cell lines.. Main source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Aratiles.html. ...
Licorice (Liquorice) in the scientific news again! Tumor specificity of various flavanoids of liquorice were studies by Ohno et al. Ten licorice flavonoids were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QASR) analysis with cytotoxicity assay with four human oral carcinoma and three normal cell lines. Results suggest that the flavanoids Licurazid and Isoliquiritigenin had the highest…
Dyslexia, or specific reading disability, is the unexpected failure in learning to read and write when intelligence and senses are normal. One of the susceptibility genes, DYX1C1, has been implicated in neuronal migration, but little is known about its interactions and functions. As DYX1C1 was suggested to interact with the U-box protein CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein), which also participates in the degradation of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), we hypothesized that the effects of DYX1C1 might be at least in part mediated through the regulation of ERs. ERs have shown to be important in brain development and cognitive functions. Indeed, we show that DYX1C1 interacts with both ERs in the presence of 17beta-estradiol, as determined by co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays. Protein levels of endogenous ...
Estrogen receptor á (ERá) is transcriptional factor that promotes breast cancer growth by inducing a set of genes that regulate cell cycle and proliferation. ERá is activated by estrogen binding and/or by crosstalk with different signaling pathways. Here, PKA regulation of ERá action was investigated in tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 and T47D, and tamoxifen-resistant MCF7-LCC2 breast cancer cells. Forskolin/IBMX (F/I), which elevates cAMP, induced ligand-independent activation of ERá but repressed estradiol activation of ERá in PKA-dependent manner as assessed by estrogen response element (ERE)-reporter gene assays. However, F/I exhibited gene specific effects on endogenous ER-regulated genes. F/I enhanced estradiol induction of pS2 and cMyc that was correlated with rapid and cyclic ERá recruitment to the respective promoters as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In contrast, F/I repressed estradiol induction of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein that was correlated with ...
BioAssay record AID 404864 submitted by ChEMBL: Activation of human estrogen receptor beta expressed in HEK293 cells at 1 nM beta-galactosidase reporter gene assay relative to control.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that produces synovial proliferation and joint erosions. The pathologic lesions of RA are driven through the production of inflammatory mediators in the synovium mediated, in part, by the transcription factor NF-κB. We have identified a non-steroidal estrogen receptor ligand, WAY-169916, that selectively inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity but is devoid of conventional estrogenic activity. The activity of WAY-169916 was monitored in two models of arthritis, the HLA-B27 transgenic rat and the Lewis rat adjuvant-induced model, after daily oral administration. In both models, a near complete reversal in hindpaw scores was observed as well as marked improvements in the histological scores. In the Lewis rat adjuvant model, WAY-169916 markedly suppresses the adjuvant induction of three serum acute phase proteins: haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Gene expression experiments also ...
Estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) play critical roles in breast cancer, however the clinical value of PR is controversial and it is unclear how PR modulates estrogen signaling. This study reports that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin are genomic agonists as they regulate genes in similar directions but with differing intensities of gene expression and with varying functional annotation of the genes induced. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action, however, in the presence of both hormones, progestin antagonizes estrogen-regulated processes and it behaves as a phenotypic antagonist of estrogen. This principle of genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism rationalizes the good prognosis associated with PR-positivity of ER+ tumors. Importantly, when both the ...
[77 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Estrogen Receptor (ER Alpha or Estradiol Receptor or Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 3 Group A Member 1 or NR3A1 or ESR1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Estrogen Receptor (ER Alpha or Estradiol Receptor or Nuclear Receptor...
Recently in the pig hypothalamus a vasopressin- and oxytocin-containing nucleus was identified which, like the supraoptic nucleus, becomes sexually dimorphic after puberty. Following the increase in circulating steroids at puberty, the vasopressin- and oxytocin-containing nucleus becomes twice as large in both males and females. In adulthood, the vasopressin- and oxytocin-containing nucleus of females is approximately twice as large as that in males. Because these alterations are possibly due to an influence of gonadal steroids, i.e. estrogens, the vasopressin- and oxytocin-containing the presence of estrogen receptors. In addition to the area of the vasopressin- and oxytocin-containing nucleus, the present study documented the distribution of estrogen receptors in the septal area and other parts of the hypothalamus of intact post-pubertal male and female pigs, by utilizing immunocytochemical methodology. Intense nuclear estrogen ...
Repairable skeletal muscle damage is an occurrence that everyone experiences. The most common route of damage is through exercise, and more specifically eccentric exercise. During eccentric contractions the muscle lengthens generating tension that leads to molecular damage. After exercise, reactive oxygen species ((ROS) are elevated in skeletal muscle in response to an increase in oxidative phosphorylation and an infiltration of macrophages to damaged tissue (Urso and Clarkson, 2003). The hormone estrogen carries antioxidant properties, which allows for the possibility of protection from peroxidative damage and may have an influence on post-injury inflammatory response (Tildus, 2001). Estrogen exerts its effects on tissue by binding to one of its receptors. There are three proteins that are classified as estrogen receptors (ERs): ERл±, ERл_ and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). This study ...
The ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor and estrogen receptor-related receptors. The ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs): Estrogen receptors are a group of receptors which are activated by the hormone estrogen. Estrogen regulates many physiological processes including reproduction, bone integrity, cardiovascular health, and behavior. The main mechanism of action of the estrogen receptor is as a transcription factor by binding to the estrogen response element of target genes upon activation by estrogen and then recruiting coactivator proteins which are responsible for the transcription of target genes. Additionally some ERs may associate with ...
Estrogen and progesterone receptors were measured in cystosols prepared from 32 normal ovaries and 25 benign and 49 malignant ovarian tumors. In normal ovarian tissue, estrogen and progesterone receptors were detected in 22 and 75% of specimens, respectively. Estrogen receptors were present in low concentrations ranging from 2 to 9 fmol/mg cytosol protein. The estrogen receptor content and distribution were similar in benign tumors (20%), but progesterone receptors were significantly decreased in 16% of specimens (P less than 0.001). In malignant ovarian tissues, estrogen receptors were present in 57% of specimens in concentration ranging from 1 to 132 fmol/mg cytosol protein. Of these, 72% of tissues had estrogen-receptor concentrations greater than 10 fmol/mg cytosol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zinc finger protein 131 inhibits estrogen signaling by suppressing estrogen receptor α homo-dimerization. AU - Oh, Yohan. AU - Chung, Kwang Chul. PY - 2013/1/4. Y1 - 2013/1/4. N2 - Steroid hormone estrogen elicits various physiological functions, many of which are mediated through two structurally and functionally distinct estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ. The functional role of zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) is poorly understood, but it is assumed to possess transcriptional regulation activity due to the presence of a DNA binding motif. A few recent reports, including ours, revealed that ZNF131 acts as a negative regulator of ERα and that SUMO modification potentiates the negative effect of ZNF131 on estrogen signaling. However, its molecular mechanism for ERα inhibition has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF131 directly interacts with ERα, which consequently inhibits ERα-mediated trans-activation ...
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63 ...
There is increasing evidence for the involvement of miRNAs in mammalian biology and breast cancer. For instance, the levels of MiR-206 have been found to be higher in ERalpha-negative MB-MDA-231 cells than in ERalpha-positive MCF-7 cells [12], and enforced expression of miR-125a or miR-125b leads to coordinate suppression of ERBB2 and ERBB3 in the human breast cancer cell line SKBR3 [13]. Furthermore, MiR-27b, which is expressed in MCF-7 cells, may be one of the causes of high expression of the drug-metabolising enzyme CYP1B1 in cancerous tissues [14]. Finally, as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells, miR-17-5p regulates breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting the translation of AIB1 mRNA [15].. Research on the roles of BCSC-related miRNAs in breast cancer has great significance. Ponti [16] isolated tumorigenic breast cancer cells with stem/progenitor cell properties from a breast cancer cell line, and Huang [17] screened side ...
Background Breast cancer is currently classified in 3 groups based on estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ERBB2) gene expression: one basal-like (ER-ERBB2-), one HER2−enriched (ERBB2+) and one luminal (ER+). Yet, in transcriptome-based classifications, ER-ERBB2+ group partially overlaps with more recently defined ER-AR+ (androgen receptor positive) group. This type was named molecular apocrine, in reference to the histopathologically characterized apocrine carcinomas (H-Apo), in which a marked activation of AR signaling was demonstrated with a distinct proteomic signature. H-Apo tumors correspond to 1% of invasive breast carcinomas and are clearly morphological distinct from other AR+ tumors. However, no specific H-Apo transcriptome signature has been reported for this sub-group. In an effort to better characterize those tumors, we ...
Cardiovascular mortality in patients with RA is 50% higher than the general population. Although well established that the incidence of CVD is increased, the precise cause is unclear. There is increasing recognition that systemic inflammation is a major driver of increased CV risk. IL-6 is implicated in CVD in the general population but its role in CVD in RA is undefined. Of the two modes of IL-6 signaling, evidence demonstrates that trans-signaling is pro-inflammatory whereas classical signaling has regenerative or anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this thesis is to examine the role of IL-6 trans-signaling in CVD in RA by experimental and translational studies. Methods Myography was used to determine the effect of IL-6 trans-signaling blockade, using sgp130Fc, on aortic constriction in mice with CIA. Serum CCL2 and VCAM-1 were measured. The effect of IL-6 trans-signaling, using Hyper-IL-6, on atherosclerotic plaque size and fibrous cap thickness was assessed in ApoE-/- mice. Arterial and ...
Approximately 70% of all breast tumors express estrogen receptor (ER)1 and are classified as estrogen receptor-alpha positive (ER+) breast cancers (1). Activation of ER by its ligand estrogen (E2), plays an essential role not only in regulating normal mammary gland development but also in the progression of hormone dependent breast cancer (2). Tamoxifen, a selective ER modulator (SERM), competes with E2 binding on ER and induces conformational changes leading to inactivation of ER (3, 4). Tamoxifen has been used for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer for more than three decades (5, 6). However, up to 40% of patients receiving tamoxifen adjuvant therapy develop recurrent disease within 5 years (7, 8). This resistance to tamoxifen and other endocrine therapy remains a major challenge in breast cancer management.. During the past two decades, a large battery of studies has been carried out to explore ...
Selective estrogen receptor modulators--a new age of estrogens in cardiovascular disease?: A large body of evidence suggests hormone replacement therapy (HRT) r
Cell migration is central to embryonic development, homeostasis and disease, processes in which cells move as part of a group or individually. Whereas the mechanisms controlling single-cell migration in vitro are relatively well understood, less is known about the mechanisms promoting the motility of individual cells in vivo. In particular, it is not clear how cells that form blebs in their migration use those protrusions to bring about movement in the context of the three-dimensional cellular environment. Here we show that the motility of chemokine-guided germ cells within the zebrafish embryo requires the function of the small Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA, as well as E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer we demonstrate that Rac1 and RhoA are activated in the cell front. At this location, Rac1 is responsible for the formation of actin-rich structures, and RhoA promotes retrograde actin flow. We propose that these actin-rich structures undergoing ...
Vega V.B., Lin C.-Y., Lai K.S., Kong S.L., Xie M., Su X., Teh H.F., Thomsen J.S., Yeo A.L., Sung W.K., Bourque G., Liu E.T. (2006). Multiplatform genome-wide identification and modeling of functional human estrogen receptor binding sites. Genome Biology 7 (9) : R82. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2006-7-9- ...
Background Estrogen receptor- (ER)-negative breast malignancy is clinically aggressive and normally does not respond to conventional estrogen target-directed therapies. including xenograft and spontaneous breast cancer mouse models were used to test the efficacy of GE expression and this effect was synergistically enhanced when combined with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 PCI-32765 breast malignancy cells. GE treatment also re-sensitized ER-dependent cellular responses to activator 17-estradiol (E2) and antagonist TAM. Further studies revealed that GE can lead to remodeling of the chromatin structure in the promoter thereby contributing to reactivation. Consistently, dietary GE significantly prevented cancer development and reduced the growth of ER-negative mouse breast tumors. Dietary GE further enhanced TAM-induced anti-cancer efficacy due at least in part to epigenetic reactivation. Conclusions Our research claim ...
Commander Estrogen Receptor alpha anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-Estrogen Receptor alpha anticorps.
Exercise and physical activity levels influence myokine release from skeletal muscle and contribute to circulating concentrations. Indeed, many myokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-15, secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 are higher in the circulation after an exercise bout. Since these peptides modulate muscle metabolism and can also be targeted toward other tissues to induce adaptations to energy demand, they are of great interest regarding metabolic diseases. Therefore, we set out to compare, in six women with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and five healthy women (BMI 22-29.9 kg/m2), the effect of an acute bout of moderate-intensity, continuous cycling exercise (60 min, 60% VO2peak) on the release of myokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, SPARC, and FGF21) in plasma for a 24-h time course. We found that plasma IL-8 and SPARC levels were reduced in the group of women with obesity, whereas plasma IL-13 concentrations were elevated in ...
repairing free radical damage. Flavanoids also have anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergenic effects. Scientific studies indicate that their ability to prevent blood clots may help decrease the risk of strokes. Research also suggests that high flavanoid intake may help prevent heart attacks and cancer as well. With all these beneficial effects, it should come as no surprise that drinking white tea is also good for your skin.. But its not just the physical but also the mental effects of white tea that make it such a potent holistic remedy. In China, tea was originally used as a medicine for improving mood and mental prowess, as well as eyesight and digestive and kidney function. Teas association with an alert, yet calm and harmonious mental state persisted in Chinese Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Monks in China and other countries where these religions are practiced continue to rely on tea as an aid to meditation. In fact, in Taoist tradition, the very ...
The benefits of red wine (in moderation) for health have been known for ages. In an effort to understand the French Paradox (why French people can indulge in fatty foods but not develop heart disease) red wine came into focus in 1991 on an episode of 60 Minutes. Since then, scientists have been feeding components of red wine to mice and other animals in an attempt to understand the full health benefits. Heres what we know so far:. Flavanoids and Antioxidants:. Red wine is high in flavonoids (a type of polyphenol), which are antioxidants. One of the most studied antioxidants is resveratrol, which comes from grape skins and seeds. Antioxidants help prevent certain molecules, known as free radicals, from damaging cells.. Does red wine prevent cancer?:. Resveratrol helps prevent cancer by limiting tumor growth.. How much should I drink?:. To receive the benefits of red wine, it must be drunk in moderation (1-2 glasses maximum per day) and regularly.. Does the alcohol help?:. The alcohol in wine ...
Strawberries are an excellent source of vitamins C and K as well as providing a good dose of fibre, folic acid, manganese and potassium. They also contain significant amounts of phytonutrients and flavanoids which makes strawberries bright red. They have been used throughout history in a medicinal context to help with digestive ailments, teeth whitening and skin irritations. Their fibre and fructose content may help regulate blood sugar levels by slowing digestion and the fibre is thought to have a satiating effect. Leaves can be eaten raw, cooked or used to make tea.. The vibrant red colour of strawberries is due to large amounts of anthocyanidin, which also means they contain powerful antioxidants and are thought to protect against inflammation, cancer and heart disease.. ...
If youre searching for an ingredient that can cater to most of your skin care needs, look no further than Citrus Limon Extract. Citrus Limon Extract is known to be an ideal way of ensuring smooth, supple and flawless looking skin. It is considered to be rich in Vitamins B and C, Carbohydrates and Phosphorus, all of which are extremely important for your skin. Citrus Limon Extract, also known as Lemon Peel Extract, also contains the essential oil limonene, about 44 unique flavones glycosides, plant acids, citric acid, phenols, pectins, citral and flavanoids.. According to the Ohio State University Extension, Citrus Limon Extract acts as a potent antioxidant that can help in reducing and preventing birth defects and reducing the risk of stroke. One of the key features of Citrus Limon Extract is that it is rich in citroflavonoids, something that helps it in improving microcirculation, making it anti-inflammatory and allowing it to act as an antioxidant. The citric acid present in this extract also ...
1.The original work "The microbial metabolite desaminotyrosine protects from influenza through type I interferon." Steed AL, Christophi GP, Kaiko GE, Sun L, Goodwin VM, Jain U, Esaulova E, Artyomov MN, Morales DJ, Holtzman MJ, Boon ACM, Lenschow DJ, Stappenbeck TS. Science. 2017 Aug 4;357(6350):498-502. doi: 10.1126/science.aam5336.. 2. Some food sources of Flavanoids from "Improving the estimation of flavonoid intake for study of health outcomes", Julia J. Peterson, Johanna T. Dwyer, Paul F. Jacques, Marjorie L. McCullough, Nutr Rev. 2015 Aug; 73(8): 553-576. Published online 2015 Jun 16. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv008. 3. The original article reconstructing the ancient flower - "The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification". Sauquet H, von Balthazar M, Magallón S, Doyle JA, Endress PK, Bailes EJ, Barroso de Morais E, Bull-Hereñu K, Carrive L, Chartier M, Chomicki G, Coiro M, Cornette R, El Ottra JHL, Epicoco C, Foster CSP, Jabbour F, Haevermans A, Haevermans T, Hernández R, ...
1.The original work "The microbial metabolite desaminotyrosine protects from influenza through type I interferon." Steed AL, Christophi GP, Kaiko GE, Sun L, Goodwin VM, Jain U, Esaulova E, Artyomov MN, Morales DJ, Holtzman MJ, Boon ACM, Lenschow DJ, Stappenbeck TS. Science. 2017 Aug 4;357(6350):498-502. doi: 10.1126/science.aam5336.. 2. Some food sources of Flavanoids from "Improving the estimation of flavonoid intake for study of health outcomes", Julia J. Peterson, Johanna T. Dwyer, Paul F. Jacques, Marjorie L. McCullough, Nutr Rev. 2015 Aug; 73(8): 553-576. Published online 2015 Jun 16. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv008. 3. The original article reconstructing the ancient flower - "The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification". Sauquet H, von Balthazar M, Magallón S, Doyle JA, Endress PK, Bailes EJ, Barroso de Morais E, Bull-Hereñu K, Carrive L, Chartier M, Chomicki G, Coiro M, Cornette R, El Ottra JHL, Epicoco C, Foster CSP, Jabbour F, Haevermans A, Haevermans T, Hernández R, ...
Zenthonic combines high quality mangosteen with a variety of other fruit juices chosen and blended especially for their excellent antioxidant ingredients. It contains large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin C. As well, it is exceptionally rich in several beneficial antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, flavanoids, and catechins.
Abstract: Several classes of flavonoids [flavanoids (1-10), flavonol (11), isoflavones (12-18), isoflavanones (19-22), isoflavans (23-26), chalcones (27-30), auronol (31), pterocarpans (32-37), 2-arylbenzofuran (38), and neoflavonoid (39)] and lignans (40-42) isolated from the MeOH extract of Brazilian red propolis were investigated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of six different cancer cell lines including murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine B16-BL6 melanoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, and human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell lines ...
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). This carbon structure can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6. According to the IUPAC nomenclature, they can be classified into: flavonoids or bioflavonoids isoflavonoids, derived from 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure neoflavonoids, derived from 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone) structure The three flavonoid classes above are all ketone-containing compounds, and as such, are anthoxanthins (flavones and flavonols). This class was the first to be termed bioflavonoids. The terms flavonoid and bioflavonoid have also been more loosely used to describe non-ketone polyhydroxy polyphenol compounds which are more specifically termed flavanoids. The three cycle or heterocycles in the ...
One of the best natural sources of vitamin K - Though it might not contain as much vitamin K as its fellow "supergreen," kale, spinach still remains one of the worlds greatest sources of this important, blood-boosting nutrient: 889 micrograms, or 1,111 percent of our recommended daily intake (RDI), per cup to be exact. Vitamin K performs a number of important roles in our bodies, such as facilitating cell growth and helping to build bone, but its best-known function is aiding blood clot formation. This is the reason why wine fortified with spinach juice was given to French soldiers in World War I who were suffering from hemorrhages - the vitamin K in the juice helped prevent excessive bleeding.. Rich in cancer-fighting phytochemicals - Spinach contains high concentrations of carotenoids, saponins, and flavanoids, which are phytochemicals that are found almost exclusively in plant-based food sources. According to a May 2007 study published in the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, ...
NOTE: Large quantities/sizes of any product may have to be special ordered. If thats the case, please allow a minimum of 6 business days for a new supply to arrive at our warehouse. Cancellations are not allowed because an items not in stock. What do we consider large quantities/sizes of our products? Some examples are products classified as bulk, essential and fragrance oils sold in 5+ lbs. and certain quantities of packaging materials.. Sold by weight. This is pure, unadulterated Argan oil, a clear yellow liquid, which is rich in vit. E, antioxidants and carotenes, bottled in a plastic bottle or jug depending on the size ordered. This oil is used in making soaps, lotions and other body and hair products, as well as for massage and skin care. Some major manufacturers use Argan oil for their anti-aging products because it is rich in skin-replenishing components, including flavanoids, oleic acid, linoleic acid and fatty acids. This is not a "new" oil, its been available for a very long time ...
prephenic acid: nonaromatic biosynthetic intermediate, probable immediate precursor of aromatic systems such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tannins, flavanoids; isolated from cultures of mutant E coli; structure
You know, gout is mainly brought on by increased uric acid level, and medicines for treating gout may perhaps increase the risk of gout attack as well. So the natural remedies are instead valuable for individuals to ease the pain and remedy gout. I learned some organic treatments it is possible to make full use of. These are some fruits containing flavanoids and also rich in vitamin c, including cherries, apples, juices. Apart from, drinking a great deal of drinking water is good for you. Furthermore, you need to alter yourself on eating and ingesting. Avoid extreme alcohol and foods which will lead to substantial uric acid. And some herbs are beneficial for dealing with gout. Click The following To Grab Your Copy ...
Nodules are a growth on the roots of leguminous plants where the bacteria reside. The plant roots secrete amino acids and sugars into the rhizosphere. The rhizobia move toward the roots and attach to the root hairs. The plant then releases flavanoids, which induce the expression of nod genes within the bacteria. The expression of these genes results in the production of enzymes called Nod factors that initiate root hair curling. During this process, the rhizobia are curled up with the root hair. The rhizobia penetrate the root hair cells with an infection thread that grows through the root hair into the main root. This causes the infected cells to divide and form a nodule. The rhizobia can now begin nitrogen fixation.. ...
Background Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CV risk is increased early in the disease course. Subclinical inflammation and dyslipidaemia are often seen in RA before patients become symptomatic, suggesting the presence of subclinical CV disease. Inflammation, as measured by acute phase reactants, is associated with CV disease in RA. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a major driver of the acute phase response in RA. Notably, systemic elevations in inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 correlate with CV risk. Importantly, IL-6 regulates both immune homeostasis and inflammatory processes linked with chronic disease progression. Control of these processes is regulated by two modes of IL-6 signaling; classical IL-6 receptor signaling and IL-6 trans-signaling. Cellular responses controlled by IL-6 trans-signaling are mediated via soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and is widely ...
1C8P: The solution structure of the cytokine-binding domain of the common beta-chain of the receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3 and interleukin-5.
Purified Guinea Pig Ovary Lysate, Total Protein from Creative Biomart. Guinea Pig Ovary Lysate, Total Protein can be used for research.
Purified Guinea Pig Ovary Membrane Lysate, Total Protein from Creative Biomart. Guinea Pig Ovary Membrane Lysate, Total Protein can be used for research.
Rabbit anti Human GM-CSF antibody recognizes human GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), a 14.6kDa haematopoietic gro
Interleukin 5 receptor, alpha (IL5RA) also known as CD125 (Cluster of Differentiation 125) is a subunit of the Interleukin-5 receptor. IL5RA also denotes its human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 5 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. The receptor is composed of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL5). The binding of this protein to IL5 depends on the beta subunit. The beta subunit is activated by the ...
1C8P: The solution structure of the cytokine-binding domain of the common beta-chain of the receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3 and interleukin-5.
Common beta chain antibody [7D20] (colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)) for WB. Anti-Common beta chain mAb (GTX52647) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
GM-CSF Receptor alpha recombinant proteins are produced in house and quality guaranteed.All the GM-CSF Receptor alpha recombinant proteins are in stock.
Gene Information This gene product belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane glycoproteins composed of a distinct alpha chain and a common beta chain. They are found on a wide variety of cell types including T cells fibroblasts and platelets. Integrins are involved in cell adhesion and also participate in cell-surface mediated signalling. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a potential neuroprotective factor for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) exposed to elevated pressure. In glaucomatous retina, IL-6 is prod...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We have provided data showing that newborn girls have higher insulin and proinsulin concentrations and total proinsulin-to-insulin ratios in cord blood than newborn boys despite weighing less at birth. As insulin is a principal growth factor in utero, the higher insulin coupled with reduced growth in newborn girls suggests that girls are more insulin resistant in utero and after birth.. The higher insulin and proinsulin(s) in girls compared with boys for glucose/weight indicate insulin resistance in girls. The higher proinsulins in girls compared with boys have been noted before in neonates (11-13), and these are the more stable molecules. Changes in ratios and percentages may not have been seen if stability of insulin had not been maximized and, hence, was variable.. Our finding that insulin and insulin propeptides in cord blood are higher in girls than in boys is consistent with an intrinsic difference between the sexes, which is unlikely to be determined by environmental factors. Other ...
The other proposal denies that basic physical processes are time symmetric and argues, in contrast, that the causal asymmetry is objective and therefore that there exists an intrinsic difference between the cause and the effect of all physical processes. Hence backward causation should not be considered as a notion about boundary conditions but as a notion concerned with processes that nomically distinguish themselves from forward causal processes. Thus, if there are processes in the world that might be seen as a manifestation of backward causation, these are not to be depicted by a description that leaves them to be time reversed cases of ordinary forward causal processes (Faye 1981/1989, 1997, 2002). This alternative interpretation rests on a basic claim and four assumptions.. The fundamental claim is that for any observer it is possible to identify experimentally the cause and the effect so that these remain the same even in relation to counter-observers, i.e., observers having the opposite ...
Buy our Recombinant human GM-CSF protein. Ab9668 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
Abstract] [Full text] [PDF] [PubMed] [PMC]. IL-6 Trans-Signaling via the Soluble IL-6 Receptor: Importance for the Pro-Inflammatory Activities of IL-6 ...
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Pese a su limitada formación, logró convertirse en el maestro del género del realismo social de Chile. Su pluma crítica se convirtió en una defensa emotiva de las clases populares durante la primera mitad del siglo XX.. Por Salvador Oskita. Baldomero Lillo fue un escritor chileno nacido en Lota que vivió entre los años 1867-1923. En su vida, el escritor logró desarrollar una sensibilidad tal al momento de escribir que lo catapultó a ser considerado el "padre del realismo social chileno".. La afición de Lillo por la lectura parte desde muy pequeño gracias a su padre, desarrollando una riqueza descriptiva en sus relatos que se nutren principalmente por su infancia vivida en Lota.. Baldomero quizás, como muchos lotinos de la época, tuvo que abandonar sus estudios y comenzar a trabajar desde muy joven. Es así, que comienza a trabajar en una pulpería para aportar al sustento familiar.. El trabajo aquí no era tan duro como las labores campesinas o las de los piques del carbón, por lo ...
Exposure to methylene chloride occurs mostly from breathing contaminated air, but may also occur through skin contact or by drinking contaminated water. Breathing in large amounts of methylene chloride can damage the central nervous system. Contact of eyes or skin with methylene chloride can result in burns. Methylene chloride has been found in at least 882 of 1,569 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Il2ra - Interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Il2ra gene & proteinIl2ra - Interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Il2ra gene & protein

The receptor is involved in the regulation of immune tolerance by controlling regulatory T cells (TREGs) activity. TREGs ... help/subunit_structure target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Subunit structurei. Non-covalent dimer of an alpha and a beta subunit. ... alpha subunit). The high and intermediate affinity forms also associate with a gamma subunit. ... Receptor for interleukin-2. The receptor is involved in the regulation of immune tolerance by controlling regulatory T cells ( ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P01590

Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; Antigens, CD25; CD25 Antigens; Interleukin-2 Receptors alpha; Tac P55 PeptideInterleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; Antigens, CD25; CD25 Antigens; Interleukin-2 Receptors alpha; Tac P55 Peptide

Interleukin-2 Receptors alpha; Tac P55 Peptide. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ... Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; Antigens, CD25; CD25 Antigens; ... receptor beta subunit and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2. ... Interleukin-2 receptor alpha subunit (Antigens, CD25; CD25 Antigens; Interleukin-2 Receptors alpha; Tac P55 Peptide). A low ...
more infohttps://lookfordiagnosis.com/mesh_info.php?term=Interleukin-2+Receptor+alpha+Subunit&lang=1

IL22RA2 - Interleukin 22 receptor subunit alpha 2 - Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) - IL22RA2 gene & proteinIL22RA2 - Interleukin 22 receptor subunit alpha 2 - Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) - IL22RA2 gene & protein

Interleukin 22 receptor subunit alpha 2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,H2PKF4,H2PKF4_PONAB Interleukin 22 receptor subunit alpha 2 OS=Pongo abelii GN=IL22RA2 PE=4 SV=1 ... Q969J5-2. UPI00019A9F3D. A0A1D5R5L4. A0A096NQT9. UPI000036D9B6. UPI00020AA98A. UPI00027462D6. UPI00029DC411. UPI00045DCCFD. ... UniRef90_Q969J5-2. Cluster: Isoform 2 of Interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-2. 16. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/H2PKF4

A genome-wide association study of emotion dysregulation: Evidence for interleukin 2 receptor alpha.  - PubMed - NCBIA genome-wide association study of emotion dysregulation: Evidence for interleukin 2 receptor alpha. - PubMed - NCBI

Among males, SNP rs6602398, located within the interleukin receptor 2A gene, IL2RA, was significantly associated with emotion ... A genome-wide association study of emotion dysregulation: Evidence for interleukin 2 receptor alpha.. Powers A1, Almli L2, ... A Genome-Wide Association Study of Emotion Dysregulation: Evidence for Interleukin 2 Receptor Alpha ... A Genome-Wide Association Study of Emotion Dysregulation: Evidence for Interleukin 2 Receptor Alpha ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27643478

Atlas: IL22RA2 (interleukin 22 receptor subunit alpha 2)Atlas: IL22RA2 (interleukin 22 receptor subunit alpha 2)

... membrane integral component of membrane cytokine-mediated signaling pathway interleukin-22 binding interleukin-22 receptor ... membrane integral component of membrane cytokine-mediated signaling pathway interleukin-22 binding interleukin-22 receptor ... FN3_dom Ig-like_fold Interferon/interleukin_rcp_dom Domain families : Pfam (Sanger). Interfer-bind (PF09294) Tissue_fac ( ... IL22RA2 116379 interleukin 22 receptor subunit alpha 2. Aliases. CRF2-10; CRF2-S1; CRF2X; IL-22BP; ...
more infohttps://atlasgeneticsoncology.usal.es/classic/Genes/GC_IL22RA2.html

Generation of Affibody ligands binding interleukin-2 receptor alpha/CD25.Generation of Affibody ligands binding interleukin-2 receptor alpha/CD25.

... receptor alpha subunit, also known as CD25, were selected by phage-display technology from a combinatorial protein library ... receptor alpha subunit, also known as CD25, were selected by phage-display technology from a combinatorial protein library ... 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/IL2RA protein, human; 0/Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit ... The Affibody molecules were, on biosensor analysis, found to compete for the same binding site as the natural ligand IL-2 and ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Generation-Affibody-ligands-binding-interleukin/18284375.html

Interleukin-2 and subunit alpha of its soluble receptor in autoimmune Addisons disease--an association study and expression...Interleukin-2 and subunit alpha of its soluble receptor in autoimmune Addison's disease--an association study and expression...

2015 Mar;48(2):100-7. doi: 10.3109/08916934.2014.976628. Epub 2014 Oct 27. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Serum interleukin-2 in AAD subjects was significantly higher compared to controls (4.61 ± 4.3 versus 1.71 ± 3.2 pg/mL, p , ... Interleukin-2 and subunit alpha of its soluble receptor in autoimmune Addisons disease--an association study and expression ... Functional studies consisted of gene expression analysis in cultured PBMCs exposed to 21OH and evaluation of serum interleukin ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=114109

anti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [OX-39] (FITC)  | GeneTexanti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [OX-39] (FITC) | GeneTex

... interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha) for FACS. Anti-IL2 Receptor alpha mAb (GTX43661) is tested in Rat samples. 100% Ab- ... IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [OX-39] (FITC) See all IL2 Receptor alpha products ... alpha chain of the interleukin 2 receptor; human homolog homodimerizes to form low affinity receptor [RGD, Feb 2006]. ... FACS analysis of stimulated rat spleen cells using GTX43661 IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [OX-39] (FITC).. Top ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/IL2-Receptor-alpha-antibody-OX-39-FITC-GTX43661.html

IL2RA Gene - GeneCards | IL2RA Protein | IL2RA AntibodyIL2RA Gene - GeneCards | IL2RA Protein | IL2RA Antibody

Interleukin 2 Receptor Subunit Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... alpha subunit). The high and intermediate affinity forms also associate with a gamma subunit. ... Receptor for interleukin-2. The receptor is involved in the regulation of immune tolerance by controlling regulatory T cells ( ... constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor. Homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) result in low-affinity receptor, while homodimeric ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=IL2RA&origene_full_trans=3

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/bioss ntese. Leucemia Mielog nica Cr nica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagn stico. Leucemia ... 0 (Antigens, CD34); 0 (BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, human); 0 (Biomarkers, Tumor); 0 (IL2RA protein, human); 0 (Interleukin-2 ... Receptor alpha Subunit); 0 (Membrane Glycoproteins); 0 (Neoplasm Proteins); EC 2.7.10.2 (Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl); EC 3.2.2.5 ... Recent data suggest that CML LSCs aberrantly express the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain CD25. Whereas normal CD34 /CD38 BM ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.395.550

Multiple Autoimmune-Associated Variants Confer Decreased IL-2R Signaling in CD4+ CD25(hi) T Cells of Type 1 Diabetic and...Multiple Autoimmune-Associated Variants Confer Decreased IL-2R Signaling in CD4+ CD25(hi) T Cells of Type 1 Diabetic and...

IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for optimal stability and function of CD4(+)CD25(hi)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells ( ... Thus, we hypothesized that decreased response to IL-2 may be a common phenotype of subjects who have … ... Schulz O, Sewell HF, Shakib F (1998) Proteolytic cleavage of CD25, the alpha subunit of the human T cell interleukin 2 receptor ... Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2 / metabolism Actions. * Search in PubMed ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24376757/

B3(Fv)-PE38KDEL recombinant immunotoxin
     Summary Report | CureHunterB3(Fv)-PE38KDEL recombinant immunotoxin Summary Report | CureHunter

... one that expresses IL2R alpha (ATAC-4) and one that does not (A431, parental). ". 01/01/2012 - "Synergism, therefore, appears ... Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit 4. Exotoxins 5. Antigens 6. gemcitabine Related Therapies and Procedures. 1. Drug Therapy ... 2. Leukemia 12/15/2000 - "Recent clinical trials showed that LMB-2 is a promising agent for the treatment of patients with Tac- ... 10/01/2007 - "Despite inducing a reduction in Treg cell numbers in vivo, LMB-2 therapy did not augment the immune response to ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC077707-B3-Fv--PE38KDEL-recombinant-immunotoxin.do

Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug InformationDrug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug Information

An anti-TAC (INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT) monoclonal antibody; immunoglobulin G1 disulfide with human-mouse monoclonal ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/name/daclizumab

Treatment with the T. spiralis AES reduced the levels o | Open-iTreatment with the T. spiralis AES reduced the levels o | Open-i

Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism. *Lymph Nodes/drug effects/metabolism. *Lymphocytes/drug effects/metabolism ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4008629_pone.0096454.g003&req=4

Gene expression profiles of Ikaros family members in ma | Open-iGene expression profiles of Ikaros family members in ma | Open-i

Bottom Line: While DN Ikaros-transduced cells had higher expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain, DN Ikaros-transduced ... Bottom Line: While DN Ikaros-transduced cells had higher expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain, DN Ikaros-transduced ... While DN Ikaros-transduced cells had higher expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain, DN Ikaros-transduced cells achieved ... While DN Ikaros-transduced cells had higher expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain, DN Ikaros-transduced cells achieved ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3585008_pone.0057435.g001&req=4

A genome-wide association study of emotion dysregulation: Evidence for interleukin 2 receptor alpha.  - PubMed - NCBIA genome-wide association study of emotion dysregulation: Evidence for interleukin 2 receptor alpha. - PubMed - NCBI

Among males, SNP rs6602398, located within the interleukin receptor 2A gene, IL2RA, was significantly associated with emotion ... A genome-wide association study of emotion dysregulation: Evidence for interleukin 2 receptor alpha.. Powers A1, Almli L2, ... A Genome-Wide Association Study of Emotion Dysregulation: Evidence for Interleukin 2 Receptor Alpha ... A Genome-Wide Association Study of Emotion Dysregulation: Evidence for Interleukin 2 Receptor Alpha ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=152798

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 10 - Conditions - GTR - NCBIDiabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 10 - Conditions - GTR - NCBI

Summary: interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha. Clinical features. HelpList of clinical features of the condition/phenotype ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C1866040/

Anti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [PC61] (ab86908)Anti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [PC61] (ab86908)

Rat monoclonal IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [PC61] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 2 publications. ... Receptor for interleukin-2.. * Involvement in disease. Genetic variations in IL2RA are associated with susceptibility to ... Anti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [PC61]. See all IL2 Receptor alpha primary antibodies. ... IL-2R subunit alpha antibody. *IL2 RA antibody. *IL2-RA antibody. *IL2R antibody ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/il2-receptor-alpha-antibody-pc61-ab86908.html

Anti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody (FITC) [7D4] | AbcamAnti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody (FITC) [7D4] | Abcam

Anti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody conjugated to FITC [7D4] validated for IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 1 ... Identification and initial characterization of a rat monoclonal antibody reactive with the murine interleukin 2 receptor-ligand ... Anti-IL2 Receptor alpha antibody [7D4] (FITC). See all IL2 Receptor alpha primary antibodies. ... IL-2R subunit alpha antibody. *IL2 RA antibody. *IL2-RA antibody. *IL2R antibody ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/il2-receptor-alpha-antibody-7d4-fitc-ab25000.html

astrocytoma adult infiltrating 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineastrocytoma adult infiltrating 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor ... Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / blood. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / ... Receptor. A1.4.1.1.4. Indicator, Reagent, or Diagnostic Aid. A1.4.1.1.5. Hazardous or Poisonous Substance. A1.4.1.2. Chemical ... Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. *[MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alleles. Brazil. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=astrocytoma+adult+infiltrating+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)

... interleukin 3 receptor subunit alpha 3566 IL4R; interleukin 4 receptor 3568 IL5RA; interleukin 5 receptor subunit alpha 3570 ... interleukin 10 receptor subunit alpha 3588 IL10RB; interleukin 10 receptor subunit beta 3594 IL12RB1; interleukin 12 receptor ... 3597 IL13RA1; interleukin 13 receptor subunit alpha 1 3598 IL13RA2; interleukin 13 receptor subunit alpha 2 3601 IL15RA; ... interleukin 15 receptor subunit alpha 23765 IL17RA; interleukin 17 receptor A 8809 IL18R1; interleukin 18 receptor 1 8807 ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsa04090+4486

The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Esophageal Cancer Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb)The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Esophageal Cancer Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb)

Interleukin 2 Receptor Subunit Alpha (TAC ... $ 3500 October 2018 Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily ... $ 3500 ... 1.3.2 STEP 2. FILTERING AND SMOOTHING. Based on the aggregate view of esophageal cancer monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as defined ... In order to eliminate short-term effects of business cycles, the series are smoothed using a 2-year moving average weighting ...
more infohttps://www.reportlinker.com/p04859944/The-World-Outlook-for-Esophageal-Cancer-Monoclonal-Antibodies-mAb.html

2019-2023 Bahrain Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) Market: Supplier Shares and Strategies, Country Volume and Sales Segment Forecasts...2019-2023 Bahrain Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) Market: Supplier Shares and Strategies, Country Volume and Sales Segment Forecasts...

Interleukin 2 Receptor Subunit Alpha - Pip ... $ 3500 December 2019 Acute Renal Failure (ARF) (Acute Kidney In ... $ 2000 ... C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 - Pipeline R ... $ 3500 November 2019 Radiation Toxicity (Radiation Sickness, Ac ... $ 2000 ...
more infohttps://www.reportlinker.com/p05401924/Bahrain-Nucleic-Acid-Testing-NAT-Market-Supplier-Shares-and-Strategies-Country-Volume-and-Sales-Segment-Forecasts-Infectious-and-Genetic-Diseases-Cancer-Forensic-and-Paternity-Testing.html

Nektar Therapeutics Reports - Research and MarketsNektar Therapeutics Reports - Research and Markets

Interleukin 2 Receptor Subunit Alpha (TAC Antigen or p55 or CD25 or IL2RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018 * Drug Pipelines ... Interleukin 2 Receptor Subunit Alpha (TAC Antigen or p55 or CD25 or IL2RA) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 * Drug Pipelines ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/companies/nektar-therapeutics

Daclizumab - DrugBankDaclizumab - DrugBank

Humanized IgG1 Mab that binds to the human interleukin-2 receptor (anti-Tac or anti-CD25). Daclizumab is a composite of human ( ... from the global market on 2 March 2018. This withdrawal was concurrent to the European Medicines Agency announcement of a ... UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit C. Not Available. Human. ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-A. Not ... Receptor for interleukin-2. The receptor is involved in the regulation of immune tolerance by controlling regulatory T cells ( ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00111
  • Although Zinbryta (daclizumab) was available for patients as needed until 30 April 2018, Biogen and Abbvie announced a voluntary withdrawal of their product Zinbryta (daclizumab) from the global market on 2 March 2018 [ 1 ] . (drugbank.ca)
  • An endothelial growth factor receptor binding fragment used to treat colorectal cancer as well as squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (drugbank.ca)
  • While DN Ikaros-transduced cells had higher expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain, DN Ikaros-transduced cells achieved their competitive advantage through an IL-2 independent mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Since the IL2RArs2104286 haplotype is associated with T1D and MS, we measured pSTAT5 in controls carrying the rs2104286 risk haplotype to test whether this variant contributed to reduced IL-2 responsiveness. (nih.gov)
  • The Ikaros transcription factor regulates responsiveness to IL-12 and expression of IL-2 receptor alpha in mature, activated CD8 T cells. (nih.gov)
  • The receptor is involved in the regulation of immune tolerance by controlling regulatory T cells (TREGs) activity. (uniprot.org)
  • Hong X, Avetisyan M, Ronilo M, Standley S. SAP97 blocks the RXR ER retention signal of NMDA receptor subunit GluN1-3 through its SH3 domain. (bio-connect.nl)