Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
MutS homolog 2 protein is found throughout eukaryotes and is a homolog of the MUTS DNA MISMATCH-BINDING PROTEIN. It plays an essential role in meiotic RECOMBINATION and DNA REPAIR of mismatched NUCLEOTIDES.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
An enzyme that activates phenylalanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.20.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.
Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH; GAMMA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
Peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which can stimulate MELANOCYTES or CORTICOTROPHS. Melanocortins include ACTH; ALPHA-MSH; and other peptides such as BETA-MSH and GAMMA-MSH, derived from other fragments of POMC. These peptides act through a variety of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS to control different functions including steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, feeding, and skin pigmentation.
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.

Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist. (1/562)

1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis.  (+info)

Role of the CNS melanocortin system in the response to overfeeding. (2/562)

The voluntary suppression of food intake that accompanies involuntary overfeeding is an effective regulatory response to positive energy balance. Because the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin system in the hypothalamus promotes anorexia and weight loss and is an important mediator of energy regulation, we hypothesized that it may contribute to the hypophagic response to overfeeding. Two groups of rats were overfed to 105 and 116% of control body weight via a gastric catheter. In the first group, in situ hybridization was used to measure POMC gene expression in the rostral arcuate (ARC). Overfeeding increased POMC mRNA in the ARC by 180% relative to levels in control rats. For rats in the second group, the overfeeding was stopped, and they were infused intracerebroventricularly with SHU9119 (SHU), a melanocortin (MC) antagonist at the MC3 and MC4 receptor, or vehicle. Although SHU (0.1 nmol) had no effect on food intake of control rats, intake of overfed rats increased by 265% relative to CSF-treated controls. This complete reversal of regulatory hypophagia not only maintained but actually increased the already elevated weight of overfed rats, whereas CSF-treated overfed rats lost weight. These results indicate that CNS MCs mediate hypophagic signaling in response to involuntary overfeeding and support the hypothesis that MCs are important in the central control of energy homeostasis.  (+info)

Role of central melanocortins in endotoxin-induced anorexia. (3/562)

Inflammation and microbial infection produce symptoms, including fever, anorexia, and hypoactivity, that are thought to be mediated by endogenous proinflammatory cytokines. Melanocortins are known to act centrally to suppress effects on fever and other sequelae of proinflammatory cytokine actions in the central nervous system, but the roles of melanocortins in anorexia and hypoactivity occurring during the acute phase response are unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effects of exogenous and endogenous alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia in relation to their effects on fever. Rats were fasted overnight to promote feeding behavior, then injected intraperitoneally with LPS (100 micrograms/kg ip), followed 30 min later by intracerebroventricular injection of either alpha-MSH or the melanocortin receptor subtype 3/subtype 4 (MC3-R/MC4-R) antagonist SHU-9119. Food intake, locomotor activity, and body temperature (Tb) were monitored during the ensuing 24-h period. Each of two intracerebroventricular doses of alpha-MSH (30 and 300 ng) potentiated the suppressive effects of LPS on food intake and locomotion, despite the fact that the higher dose alleviated LPS-induced fever. In control rats that were not treated with LPS, only the higher dose of alpha-MSH significantly inhibited food intake, and Tb and locomotor activity were unaffected. To assess the roles of endogenous central melanocortins, LPS-treated rats received intracerebroventricular SHU-9119 (200 ng). Central MC3-R/MC4-R blockade did not affect Tb or food intake in the absence of LPS treatment, but it reversed the LPS-induced reduction in 24-h food intake and increased LPS-induced fever without altering the LPS-induced suppression of locomotion. Taken together, the results suggest that exogenous and endogenous melanocortins acting centrally exert divergent influences on different aspects of the acute phase response, suppressing LPS-induced fever but contributing to LPS-induced anorexia and hypoactivity.  (+info)

First synthesis of a fully active spin-labeled peptide hormone. (4/562)

For the first time in the electron spin resonance (ESR) and peptide synthesis fields, a fully active spin-labeled peptide hormone was reported. The ESR spectra of this alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) analogue (acetyl-Toac0-alpha-MSH) where Toac is the paramagnetic amino acid probe 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, suggested a pH-independent conformation and a more restricted movement comparatively to the free Toac. Owing to its equivalent biological potency in a skin pigmentation assay as compared to the native alpha-MSH and its unique characteristic (paramagnetic, naturally fluorescent and fully active), this analogue is of great potential for investigation of relevant physiological roles reported for alpha-MSH.  (+info)

alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages. (5/562)

The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.  (+info)

STZ-induced diabetes decreases and insulin normalizes POMC mRNA in arcuate nucleus and pituitary in rats. (6/562)

Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and insulin on opioid peptide gene expression were examined in rats. In experiment 1, three groups were administered STZ (75 mg/kg ip single injection). Two groups were killed at either 2 or 4 wk. In the third group, insulin treatment (7.0 IU/kg x 1 day for 3 wk) was initiated 1 wk after STZ injection. STZ induced hyperphagia and reduced weight gain. Insulin decreased food intake and increased body weight relative to diabetes. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in arcuate nucleus (Arc) and pituitary decreased in diabetes and normalized after insulin treatment. Prodynorphin (proDyn) mRNA increased in diabetes and normalized in the pituitary after insulin but not in the Arc. Diabetes did not alter proenkephalin (proEnk) expression in the Arc or pituitary, nor dynorphin A1-17 or beta-endorphin in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide levels were decreased in the PVN and normalized following insulin treatment. Diabetes increased Arc neuropeptide Y mRNA, and insulin suppressed this increase. In experiment 2, insulin (2.5 IU/kg sc) daily for 1 wk in normal rats increased Arc POMC mRNA, but not proDyn and proEnk mRNA. These results suggest that Arc POMC expression and PVN alpha-MSH peptide levels decrease in diabetes. Also, insulin may influence Arc and pituitary POMC activity in neurons that regulate energy metabolism.  (+info)

Down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling mediated by the amino terminus of Agouti protein in Xenopus melanophores. (7/562)

Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) regulate pigmentation and body weight, respectively, by antagonizing melanocortin receptor signaling. A carboxyl-terminal fragment of Agouti protein, Ser73-Cys131, is sufficient for melanocortin receptor antagonism, but Western blot analysis of skin extracts reveals that the electrophoretic mobility of native Agouti protein corresponds to the mature full-length form, His23-Cys131. To investigate the potential role of the amino-terminal residues, we compared the function of full-length and carboxyl-terminal fragments of Agrp and Agouti protein in a sensitive bioassay based on pigment dispersion in Xenopus melanophores. We find that carboxyl-terminal Agouti protein, and all forms of Agrp tested, act solely by competitive antagonism of melanocortin action. However, full-length Agouti protein acts by an additional mechanism that is time- and temperature-dependent, depresses maximal levels of pigment dispersion, and is therefore likely to be mediated by receptor down-regulation. Apparent down-regulation is not observed for a mixture of amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal fragments. We propose that the phenotypic effects of Agouti in vivo represent a bipartite mechanism: competitive antagonism of agonist binding by the carboxyl-terminal portion of Agouti protein and down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling by an unknown mechanism that requires residues in the amino terminus of the Agouti protein.  (+info)

Conformation of the core sequence in melanocortin peptides directs selectivity for the melanocortin MC3 and MC4 receptors. (8/562)

Melanocortin peptides regulate a variety of physiological processes. Five melanocortin receptors (MC-R) have been cloned and the MC3R and MC4R are the main brain MC receptors. The aim of this study was to identify structural requirements in both ligand and receptor that determine gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) selectivity for the MC3R versus the MC4R. Substitution of Asp10 in [Nle4]Lys-gamma2-MSH for Gly10 from [Nle4]alpha-MSH, increased both activity and affinity for the MC4R while the MC3R remained unaffected. Analysis of chimeric MC3R/MC4Rs and mutant MC4Rs showed that Tyr268 of the MC4R mainly determined the low affinity for [Nle4]Lys-gamma2-MSH. The data demonstrate that Asp10 determines selectivity for the MC3R, however, not through direct side chain interactions, but probably by influencing how the melanocortin core sequence is presented to the receptor-binding pocket. This is supported by mutagenesis of Tyr268 to Ile in the MC4R which increased affinity and activity for [Nle4]Lys-gamma2-MSH, but decreased affinity for two peptides with constrained cyclic structure of the melanocortin core sequence, MT-II and [D-Tyr4]MT-II, that also displayed lower affinity for the MC3R. This study provides a general concept for peptide receptor selectivity, in which the major determinant for a selective receptor interaction is the conformational presentation of the core sequence in related peptides to the receptor-binding pocket.  (+info)

Miao Y, Shelton T, Quinn TP. Therapeutic efficacy of a 177Lu-labeled DOTA conjugated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide in a murine melanoma-bearing mouse model. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2007 Jun; 22(3):333-41 ...
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The best known actions of the pleiotrope alpha-melanophore stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) are skin pigment regulation and corticotrope actions in the response to chronic stress. Stress-induced and enhanced release of alpha-MSH may therefore influence skin pigmentation and stress physiology simultaneously. The release of alpha-MSH is under multiple control by hypothalamic hormones and neurotransmitters. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), melanophore concentrating hormone (MCH), and dopamine (DA) have been tested in a superfusion set up for their potential to regulate alpha-MSH release from the pituitary gland of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, in vitro. The release of alpha-MSH was stimulated by TRH and CRH, and was inhibited by MCH and DA. During unstimulated (basal) release, mono-acetylated alpha-MSH was the dominant form. During superfusion with secretagogues, we found that independent of their inhibitory or stimulatory capacity, isoform frequency did not ...
Reduced anorexigenic efficacy of leptin, but not of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II, predicts diet-induced obesity in rats. Add to Wishlist. Melanotan 2 has actually been actually phoned a tan given that when made use of, you literally carry out not require to be actually in the sun. 2012;50(10):1169-73. If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice. Il existe plusieurs récepteurs alpha-MSH dans le corps. Dessa hittar du på Marknadsplatsen i butiken och de är markerade med ett M i vårt reklamblad. WO2004002440A1 PCT/EP2003/006772 EP0306772W WO2004002440A1 WO 2004002440 A1 WO2004002440 A1 WO 2004002440A1 EP 0306772 W EP0306772 W EP 0306772W WO 2004002440 A1 WO2004002440 A1 … Melanotan II could actually be developed in such a way as to limit either effect but now that it has the reputation that it has pharmaceutical companies are likely to be hesitant to try to develop it accordingly. al, 2006). Existing user? PT-141 was ...
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The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) occurs in CNS tissue in neurological disorders, infection, and injury. Its excessive production is believed to contribute to local pathology, in which case modulation of TNF-αproduction should promote survival of neural tissue. The neuropeptideα-melanocyte stimulating hormone [α-MSH (1-13)] inhibits TNF-αproduction in vivo and in vitro, and in this research we tested the capacity of the peptide, and of an anti-inflammatory COOH-terminal tripeptide fragment of it, to inhibit TNF-αproduction induced by bacterial endotoxin in cells of a human glioma line (A-172, anaplastic astrocytoma cells). Both peptides were effective, although theα-MSH (1-13) sequence was more potent. Preincubation of the cells withα-MSH (1-13) markedly increased its effectiveness. The anticytokine effect ofα-MSH in glioma cells may be mediated by human melanocortin-1 receptors; mRNA for this receptor subtype was isolated from resting A-l 72 cells. These ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Eduardo J B Ramos, Michael M Meguid, Antonio C L Campos, Julio C U Coelho].
Following PAGE of trout pituitary extracts three bioactive peaks of MSH were detected. These peaks labelled A, B and C had Rf values of 0.55-0.65, 0.7-0.85 and 0.9-1 respectively. Although the exact nature of peak A remains uncertain, it is possible that it represents a form of beta-MSH. Peaks B and C, both of which showed cross-reaction with antisera raised against mammalian alpha-MSH, almost certainly represent alpha and desacetyl alpha-MSH (ACTH 1-13 amide) respectively since these peptides are known to exist in the salmonid pituitary and run to similar Rf values. These three bioactive peaks were also extracted from flounder pituitaries, while in the lamprey a single bioactive molecule with an Rf value 0.6-0.7 was found to be present. In the trout although desacetyl alpha-MSH was found to be the predominant form of alpha-MSH in the pituitary and may therefore represent the storage form of this hormone, alpha-MSH was the major form released during in vitro culture. It is therefore likely that ...
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Melanotan II 10mg is a preparation that increases the synthesis of the skins own pigment - melanin, which is responsible for the appearance of a smooth and beautiful tan.
YES, it is still not excluded!. 1) For some, a suntan is so socially desirable that theyll do anything to get one. Many expose themselves to heavy doses of sunlight, to the point of burning, and some use sunbeds as well. Beware and remember: you cant rely only on Melanotan to protect your skin against heavy doses of UV or to reduce the risk of skin cancer. Even if you have a tan, you can still burn and still increase your risk of skin cancer.. 2) Melanotan I and Melanotan II have both been tested in several clinical trials. These have generally found that they can increase levels of melanin, as they are meant to do. One study even found that it could provide some protection against sunburn and the DNA damage that accompanies it. So the researchers working to develop Melanotan may be on the right track, but we stress that these studies are in their early stages. They need to be confirmed in larger trials. Means, today Melanotan 2 is still not sufficiently investigated for any guaranteed answers ...
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China Peg-Mgf Progress Hormone Peptides For Fat Loss And Muscle Acquire. After cleansing, saturate a cotton pad with the method and sweep throughout face and neck. Keep away from the eye contour and make contact with with eyes. Dont rinse off. Continue with additional skin therapies as wanted. If persistent irritation occurs, discontinue use and seek the advice of a physician. Sunburn Alert: This product accommodates an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that will increase your skins sensitivity to the solar and notably the potential of sunburn. Use a sunscreen, put on protecting clothing, and restrict solar publicity whereas utilizing this product and for per week afterwards. Use solely as directed. Now this product is the most popular item (selalu bought out), you realize why it is standard? Sebab dia kira dupe for the Alpha H Liquid Gold / Pixi Glow Tonic. Kalau Korean brand possibly macam COSRX punya AHA/BHA toner possibly? This is quite delicate for me sebab dia toner, dia tak intense macam acid products
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Melanotan 2 is a type of laboratory-developed substance that acts in a similar way as a natural hormone that is found in the human body, known as an alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The initial purpose of the hormone was to induce an effect that causes the skin to become darker - this was achieved without the need to be exposed to sunlight for a tanning effect.
Flook AM, Yang J, Miao Y. Substitution of the Lys linker with the ß-Ala linker dramatically decreased the renal uptake of 99mTc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated a-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides. J Med Chem. 2014 Nov 13; 57(21):9010-8 ...
Melanotan 2 gives an array of health benefits As a beginner to the tanning injection Melanotan 2, you can focus on how this tanning peptide acts as a catalyst. You can take note of different aspects of the tanning injections one after another and make positive changes in your approach to prefer and buy the suitable tanning injection. This tanning peptide acts as a catalyst for stimulating the melanin production all through the body. Melanotan 2 replicates the melanocortin peptides function involved with the pigmentation of the skin, sexual arousal and natural response of the body to inflammation among so many biological processes. These peptides increase the reaction of the body to any degree of the UV ray exposure in the natural and safe way. This product reduces the time you have to spend on the tanning bed and possibilities of all health problems associated with the harmful UV exposure to the skin.. Every woman who suffers from the damaged skin cells and also the sunburn in recent times ...
When melanotan was first delivered available to be purchased on the web it accompanied a catch. The bioavailability of the peptide hormone is too low and insufficient when taken orally or transversally. The main way it was managed was by means of a subcutaneous infusion. Which means you would need to give yourself an infusion. This likely would not have spoke to many, however its utilization actually became throughout the long term.. Presently we have a more easy to understand method of taking melanotan. It was found that through nasal conveyance by means of a nasal splash melanotan was still very successful. Actually a variety of peptides can be taken thusly. There are a couple of drawbacks to this technique how to mix melanotan 2. Your mucous layer does not retain peptides with high fondness. Which means a lot higher portion should be taken while conveying the peptide with the nasal shower. Not that, a portion of the shower can go straight down your throat and be demolished. Another negative ...
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Generally, sun tans happen when cells called melanocytes oxidize the amino acid Tyrosine and create melanin, which protects you by dissipating over 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation, the proliferation of which makes your skin darker. Increased exposure to UV radiation from the sun induces production and induction of cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone which lead to increased melanin proliferation in the exposed skin. More sun exposure = faster, easier tan.. If you hide in your basement all winter then take a vacation to Florida in May, you burn to a crisp because all of these systems have down-regulated. Though your DNA has the code to make protections, exposure (or lack thereof) dictates that that part of the DNA is not being read to produce them. This is simply efficiency. Why run those reactions when there is no sun? Your bodys ultra-efficiency is often what gets you into trouble in unnatural environments (Suddenly sunny in January or ...
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Incorporated in 1999, Zengen, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing innovative products to treat and prevent infection and inflammation through application of its proprietary peptide technologies. Zengen s novel molecules were developed from more than 25 years of original research in the US, Europe and Asia on peptide molecules derived from alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (a-MSH). A naturally occurring molecule, a-MSH modulates inflammatory and immune responses. James Lipton, Ph.D., Zengen s chief scientific officer, chairman of the scientific advisory board and director, and his collaborators first demonstrated that a-MSH possesses anti-inflammatory properties and uncovered the specific activity of the carboxy-terminal tripeptide region (C-terminal peptide) of the a-MSH peptide. These discoveries led to the development of Zengen s proprietary peptide molecules, including CZEN 002, a synthetic octapeptide. There is abundant evidence of ...
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While the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is yet to approve Melanotan for commercial use in Australia, there is compelling evidence that its use is increasing among the general population (via legal but unconventional channels). Yet, very little is understood of individual experiences of using Melanotan. Scholarly publications examining individual experiences of Melanotan use are also extremely scarce.. Project Melanotan aims to bring sociological understanding to scholarly discussions about tanning and sun exposure.. By engaging directly with melanotanners in a non-judgemental environment, more can be understood about the various rationales for trying Melanotan, the significance of the tanned aesthetic in contemporary Australia, and user outcomes for self-administered substances.. Researchers are currently seeking adult Australian residents who have previously or are currently using Melanotan to participate in a skype or face-to-face interview, OR face-to-face focus group discussion from ...
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Later study revealed that autoantibodies reactive with alpha-MSH are, in fact, generated against ClpB, a protein produced by ... ClpB protein was identified as a conformational antigen-mimetic of alpha-MSH. In patients with eating disorders plasma levels ... January 2009). "Regulation of feeding and anxiety by alpha-MSH reactive autoantibodies". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34 (1): 140- ... October 2014). "Bacterial ClpB heat-shock protein, an antigen-mimetic of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH, at the origin of ...
They may be stimulated by signals such as leptin, alpha-MSH, and catecholamines; and inhibited by glucocorticoids, neuropeptide ... a-MSH stimulates TRH gene expression in the PVN. This is enhanced by leptin, and inhibited by low leptin. a-MSH is also ...
"Structure-activity relationships of cyclic lactam analogues of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) targeting the ... Non-selective α-MSH β-MSH γ-MSH Afamelanotide Bremelanotide Melanotan II Modimelanotide Setmelanotide MC1-selective BMS-470,539 ... Gonzalez PV, Schiöth HB, Lasaga M, Scimonelli TN (March 2009). "Memory impairment induced by IL-1beta is reversed by alpha-MSH ... Cragnolini AB, Schiöth HB, Scimonelli TN (June 2006). "Anxiety-like behavior induced by IL-1beta is modulated by alpha-MSH ...
The subunit ACTH undergoes further cleavage to produce alpha-MSH, the most important MSH for skin pigmentation. In secondary ... This occurs because melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and ACTH share the same precursor molecule, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC ... After production in the anterior pituitary gland, POMC gets cleaved into gamma-MSH, ACTH, and beta-lipotropin. ...
The role of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in promoting melanin diffusion has been known since the 1960s. In the ... α-MSH) activation of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1 receptor). This is accomplished via small molecule inhibition of salt- ... 1980s, scientists at University of Arizona began attempting to develop α-MSH and analogs as potential sunless tanning agents, ...
Melanocyte-inhibiting factor (melanostatin) inhibits release of other neuropeptides such as alpha-MSH and also has many other ... in Ca2+ is achieved by the releasing hormone coupling and activating G protein coupled receptors coupled to the Gq alpha ...
Alpha-MSH is a cleavage product of ACTH that has an equal affinity for the MC1 receptor on melanocytes as ACTH. Melanosomes are ... This is mainly a consequence of alpha-MSH being secreted along with the hormone associated with reproductive tendencies in ... including the MSH and ACTH peptides that are produced from the precursor proopiomelanocortin. Vitiligo is a skin disease where ...
"The benzodiazepine agonist clonazepam potentiates the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on alpha-MSH release from ...
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (β-MSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone are ... Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) is also used as a skin bleacher, but its biochemical mechanism is unclear. Side effects may include ... While a number of agents-such as kojic acid and alpha hydroxy acid-are allowed in cosmetics in Europe, a number of others such ...
ASIP Agouti signalling peptide (ASIP) acts as an inverse agonist, binding in place of alpha-MSH and thus inhibiting eumelanin ...
MC1R picks up a chemical called alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which is produced by the body, from outside the ... Agouti signalling peptide is a paracrine signaling molecule that competes with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) for ... When MC1R comes into contact with α-MSH, a complex reaction is triggered inside the cell, and the melanocyte begins to produce ... In many species, successive pulses of ASIP block contact between α-MSH and MC1R, resulting in alternating production of ...
Also, the treatment of MC4/MRAP2 transfected cells with the melanocortin ligand alpha -melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) ...
The agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) is a competitive antagonist with alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) to bind with ... Activation by α-MSH causes production of the darker eumelanin, while activation by ASIP causes production of the redder ... Agouti also promotes obesity by antagonizing melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) at the melanocortin receptor (MC4R), as MC4R ... as it agonizes via AgRP neurons in the hypothalamus and antagonizes MSH at MC4Rs which reduce satiety signals. AgRP acts as an ...
Structure-activity relationships of cyclic lactam analogues of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) targeting the ... Cragnolini AB, Schiöth HB, Scimonelli TN (2006). „Anxiety-like behavior induced by IL-1beta is modulated by alpha-MSH through ... Gonzalez PV, Schiöth HB, Lasaga M, Scimonelli TN (2009). „Memory impairment induced by IL-1beta is reversed by alpha-MSH ... Balse-Srinivasan P, Grieco P, Cai M, Trivedi D, Hruby VJ (2003). „Structure-activity relationships of gamma-MSH analogues at ...
... alpha-MSH, ACTH, and MIB-1 between human anterior and corticotroph cell "basophil invasion" of the posterior pituitary". The ...
McCullen RK, Peiffer RL, Jennes L, Hernandez DE (1988). "Inhibition by MIF-I of alpha-MSH induced increase of intraocular ... as well as inhibiting release of other neuropeptides such as alpha-MSH, and potentiating melatonin activity. This complex mix ... Caballero C, Celis ME (May 1993). "The effect of the blockade of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on LH release in the rat ... Melanocyte-inhibiting factor (also known as Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2, Melanostatin, MSH release-inhibiting hormone or MIF-1) is an ...
... rabbits respond to alpha and beta MSH's (therefore not using the ACTH receptor), and guinea pigs responding to both ACTH and ... α-MSH and ACTH are both peptides derived from processed POMC, and both activate the other MCR's, but ACTH is the only agonist ... by human MC2R accessory protein isoforms alpha and beta in isogenic human embryonic kidney 293 cells". Molecular Endocrinology ... other MSH's. In humans, ACTH has little lipolytic effect on adipose tissue. ACTH receptor activation also influences immune ...
... from excess chorionic gonadotropin cross reacting with the alpha MSH receptor), gynecomastia, and weight loss (from excess ...
Aequorin Aflatoxin Agar Alamethicin Alanine Albumins Aldosterone Aleurone Alpha-amanitin Alpha-MSH (Melaninocyte stimulating ... MSH) Melatonin Membrane protein Messenger RNA (mRNA) Metalloprotein Metallothionein Methionine Mimosine Mithramycin A Mitomycin ... hormone) Allantoin Allethrin α-Amanatin, see Alpha-amanitin Amino acid Amylase (also see α-amylase) Anabolic steroid Anandamide ...
... alpha-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.460.075 - beta-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.460.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.180 - ... dynorphins MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.241 - endorphins MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.241.030 - alpha-endorphin MeSH D12.776.641.650. ...
The molecular formula C77H109N21O19S may refer to: Alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ... MSH) This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same molecular formula. If an internal link led ...
"Protective effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on the recovery of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced retinal ... α-MSH is a non-selective full agonist of the melanocortin receptors MC1 (Ki = 0.230 nM), MC3 (Ki = 31.5 nM), MC4 (Ki = 900 nM ... α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an endogenous peptide hormone and neuropeptide of the melanocortin family, with a ... Bremelanotide, another analogue of α-MSH, is currently under development not as a photoprotective agent, but instead for the ...
... alpha-msh MeSH D12.644.400.460.075 - beta-msh MeSH D12.644.400.460.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D12.644.400.465 - msh release- ... alpha-msh MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.690.583.075 - beta-msh MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.690.583.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D12.644.548.691 ... alpha-msh MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.690.130.200 - cosyntropin MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.690.480 - lipotropin MeSH D12.644.548.691 ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.644.360.375.100.200 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ...
... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 - beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 - beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 - ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.130.200 - cosyntropin MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.480 - lipotropin MeSH D06.472.699.631 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.130.200 - cosyntropin MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.480 - lipotropin MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583 ...
melanotropin alpha. melanocyte-stimulating hormone. α-MSH. 138-150 corticotropin-like intermediate peptide. CLIP. 156-176 ... α-MSH that stimulates the production of melanin. A family of related receptors mediates the actions of these hormones, the MCR ... α-MSH). (This common structure is responsible for excessively tanned skin in Addison's disease.) After a short period of time, ... ACTH is cleaved into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and CLIP, a peptide with unknown activity in humans. ...
... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ... alpha adrenergic receptor - Alpha helix - alpha-1 adrenergic receptor - alpha-2 adrenergic receptor - ... transforming growth factor alpha - transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor beta receptor - transient ... MSH - mu opioid receptor - mu-chain immunoglobulin - mucin - Muller's ratchet - multiresistance - muscarinic receptor - muscle ...
However, POMC also gives rise to other peptide hormones, including α- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), resulting ... producing a 31 amino acid-long neuropeptide with an alpha-helical secondary structure. ...
Human MSH has been implicated in non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) and is a mismatch binding protein. Nag N, Rao BJ, ... domain of MutS is responsible for mismatch recognition and forms a 6-stranded mixed beta-sheet surrounded by three alpha- ... Homologues of MutS have been found in many species including eukaryotes (MSH 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 proteins), archaea and ...
Bradbury, A.F., Smyth, D.G. and Snell, C.R. (1975) Biosynthesis of β-MSH and ACTH. In: Peptides, Chemistry, Structure and ... isolation of alpha-N-acetyl peptides. Nature, 272, 252-254. 30. Zakarian, S. and Smyth, D.G. (1982) β-endorphin is processed ... Bradbury, A,F., Smyth, D.G. and Snell, C.R. (1976) Prohormones of β-melanotropin (β-melanocyte stimulating hormone, β-MSH) and ...
All in all, slightly above average for MSH, but not their best." Game News #8 (Oct. 1985) The V.I.P. of Gaming Magazine #3 ( ... Cat's Paw is a scenario set in Canada featuring Alpha Flight vs. The Leader and his minions. Cat's-Paw includes a sixteen-page ... He noted that he was able to use characters other than Alpha Flight: "with very little modification of the plot I managed to ... Jeff Grubb explains in a paragraph in the introduction to Cat's Paw that other characters can be substituted for Alpha Flight. ...
proopiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotropin/ beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-melanocyte stimulating ... γ-MSH. ACTH. β-lipotropin. α-MSH. CLIP. γ-lipotropin. β-endorphin. ...
... is typically used to treat hypothyroidism,[9] and is the treatment of choice for people with hypothyroidism,[10] who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy.[11] It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing.[12][13] Levothyroxine is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion.[14] A subset of people with hypothyroidism treated with an appropriate dose of levothyroxine will describe continuing symptoms despite TSH levels in the normal range.[11] In these people, further laboratory and clinical evaluation is warranted as they may have another cause for their symptoms.[11] Furthermore, it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone levels.[11] Levothyroxine is also used to treat subclinical ...
腎上腺素受體拮抗劑 (α(英語:Alpha blocker) (1(英語:Alpha-1 blocker) ... 糖蛋白激素α亞基(FSH FSHB、LH LHB、TSH TSHB)、催乳素、 POMC(CLIP、ACTH、MSH、內啡肽、促脂解素)、生長激
A number of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha can activate the HPA axis, although IL-1 is the most potent. The ... α-MSH levels, which causes skin darkening (a social signal in salmonoid fish), activation of the HPA axis, and inhibition of ... TNF alpha, and IFN gamma) and increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) in immune ...
Con subunidade α (FSH, LH, TSH) · prolactina · Derivadas da POMC (CLIP, ACTH, MSH, endorfinas, lipotropina) · hormona do ... "Biosynthesis and characterization of adrenocorticotropic hormone, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and an NH2-terminal ...
... including the Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor.[27] BDNF has also been shown to interact with the reelin signaling chain.[28] The ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole ...
platelet alpha granule lumen. • extracellular. Biological process. • regulation of gene expression by genetic imprinting. • ...
The subunit ACTH undergoes further cleavage to produce alpha-MSH, the most important MSH for skin pigmentation. In secondary ... This occurs because melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and ACTH share the same precursor molecule, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC ... After production in the anterior pituitary gland, POMC gets cleaved into gamma-MSH, ACTH, and beta-lipotropin. ...
positive regulation of interleukin-1 alpha production. • positive regulation of interleukin-8 production. • vasodilation. • ... the role of the Leu-based amphipathic alpha-helix". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (34): 24193-203. PMID 16766525. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
platelet alpha granule lumen. • extracellular. • clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • cell membrane. Biological process. • ... Transforming growth factor (Alpha) Epithelial cell Similar to Epidermal growth factor 4 Transforming growth factor (Beta) ... 1p9j: Solution structure and dynamics of the EGF/TGF-alpha chimera T1E ...
The last hydrolysis that releases the active oxytocin nonapeptide is catalyzed by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase ... activity of peptidyl glycine alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase and concentrations of its cofactor, ascorbic acid". The Journal of ...
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). This is also produced in the anterior lobe.[9] When produced in the intermediate lobe, ... The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed ...
... or pro-γ-MSH) α-Melanotropin (α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone, or α-MSH) β-Melanotropin (β-MSH) γ-Melanotropin (γ-MSH) 𝛿- ... "Entrez Gene: POMC proopiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotropin/ beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta- ... Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (𝛿-MSH, present in sharks [1]) ε-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (ε-MSH, present in some teleosts ... while α-MSH secreted from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary regulates the production of melanin. ACTH is a peptide hormone ...
... and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated apoptotic liver damage". The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. ... Agonisti: alfa-MSH • Bremelanotid • Melanotan II. MC4. Agonisti: alfa-MSH • Bremelanotid • Melanotan II • THIQ. Antagonisti: ...
... activity of peptidyl glycine alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase and concentrations of its cofactor, ascorbic acid". J. Endocrinol. ... MSH)) · என்டார்பின்கள் · கொழுப்பூட்டி) (Lipotropin) · வளர் இயக்குநீர் (GH) ... இதில் பிஏஎம் என்று வழங்கப்படும் peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase என்ற பொருள் தக்கவூக்கியாக செயல்படும் [49] ...
α (FSH FSHB, LH LHB, TSH TSHB, CGA) · Prolactin · POMC (CLIP, ACTH, MSH, Endorphins, Lipotropin) · GH ... activity of peptidyl glycine alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase and concentrations of its cofactor, ascorbic acid". J. Endocrinol. ...
It inhibits production of interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha, and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-alpha by ... Cortisol is also metabolized into 5-alpha tetrahydrocortisol (5-alpha THF) and 5-beta tetrahydrocortisol (5-beta THF), ... reactions for which 5-alpha reductase and 5-beta reductase are the rate-limiting factors, respectively. 5-Beta reductase is ...
Gregory JJ, Finlay JL (April 1999). "Alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: their clinical significance as ... MSH)) · என்டார்பின்கள் · கொழுப்பூட்டி) (Lipotropin) · வளர் இயக்குநீர் (GH) ...
platelet alpha granule lumen. • insulin-like growth factor ternary complex. • alphav-beta3 integrin-IGF-1-IGF1R complex. • ...
Epidermal fluorescent cells in fish also respond to hormonal stimuli by the α-MSH and MCH hormones much the same as ... an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon). Stilbene and derivatives are used in scintillation counters to detect such ...
... such as tumor necrosis factor alpha[12] and fatty acids.[13] One of the defining features of Type 2 diabetes is insulin ... The terminal glycine amino acid that results from this cleavage allows the enzyme peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase ...
Melanocyte-inhibiting factor (melanostatin) inhibits release of other neuropeptides such as alpha-MSH and also has many other ... in Ca2+ is achieved by the releasing hormone coupling and activating G protein coupled receptors coupled to the Gq alpha ...
"The benzodiazepine agonist clonazepam potentiates the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on alpha-MSH release from ...
MSH), and somatostatin. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide that is cleaved into MSH, ACTH, and β-endorphin ... Baltatzi M, Hatzitolios A, Tziomalos K, Iliadis F, Zamboulis C (September 2008). "Neuropeptide Y and alpha-melanocyte- ...
... causing receptor conformation that activates Gs alpha subunit of the closely associated G-Protein complex on the intracellular ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... "Discovery of estrogen receptor alpha target genes and response elements in breast tumor cells". Genome Biology. 5 (9): R66. ...
Kad je receptor aktiviran jednom od MSH varijanti, tipično α-MSH, MC1R inicira kompleksnu signalnu kaskadu koja dovodi do ... MC1R - melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor) - Genetics Home Reference".. ... MSH). MC1R je jedan od ključnih proteina koji učestvuju u regulaciji sisarske boje kože i kose. On je lociran na membrani ...
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA). *Ascorbic acid (vitamin C). *Carotenoids (vitamin A). *Curcumin ...
Diacetyl)-alpha-MSH , C79H111N21O20S , CID 16133400 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
BioAssay record AID 234900 submitted by ChEMBL: Relative potency against cyclic-Adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) relative to alpha-MSH.
The alpha-MSH levels in plasma and CSF did not differ significantly from controls in obese subjects at baseline or after weight ... CSF NPY and alpha-MSH did not differ from controls in human obesity, and the CSF NPY level decreased significantly whereas ... Leptin and its principal mediators, NPY and alpha-MSH are postulated to play a pivotal role in energy balance. To determine the ... There was no significant correlation between CSF leptin and CSF NPY or alpha-MSH. This could be the result of leptin resistance ...
Results: : There was no observed α-MSH suppression of death in cells treated with alpha-lactalbumin, or with Sulfasalazine. ... Regulation of Apoptotic Pathways by the Ocular Immunoregulating Neuropeptide Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (-MSH) ... Regulation of Apoptotic Pathways by the Ocular Immunoregulating Neuropeptide Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (-MSH) ... modulate macrophage/microglial cell functionality through alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) showed that this ...
SULFHYDRYL REQUIREMENT FOR ALPHA ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ACTIVITY AND MELANOPHORE STIMULATING HORMONE (MSH) ACTION ON MELANOPHORES ... The inhibition and reversal of MSH-induced darkening by haloalkylamine alpha antagonists and mercurials also suggests a role ... These actions of Dibenamine and phenoxybenzamine also indicate a possible common sulfhydryl requirement for MSH and the alpha ... SULFHYDRYL REQUIREMENT FOR ALPHA ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ACTIVITY AND MELANOPHORE STIMULATING HORMONE (MSH) ACTION ON MELANOPHORES ...
GABA-ergic control of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) release by frog neurointermediate lobe in vitro ... alpha-MSH) release via a Y(5) receptor and suppresses thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced alpha-MSH secretion via a Y(1) ... alpha MSH) release by frog neurointermediate lobe in vitro: evidence for direct stimulation of alpha MSH release by thyrotropin ... alpha-MSH) release by frog neurointermediate lobe in vitro. GABA-ergic control of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha- ...
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Differentiation of cells producing poly peptide hormones acth msh lipotropic hormone alpha endorphin beta endorphin growth ... Differentiation of cells producing polypeptide hormones (ACTH, MSH, LPH, alpha- and beta-endorphin, GH and PRL) in the fetal ... Differentiation of cells producing polypeptide hormones (ACTH, MSH, LPH, alpha - and beta -endorphin, GH and PRL) in the fetal ... ACTH, .beta.-MSH, .beta.-LPH, .alpha.- and .beta.-endorphin appeared at 34 days in the same regular, round or ovoid cells; no ...
... cyclo-alpha-MSH(4-10)amide: a melanocortin-3 receptor agonist ... alpha- MSH(4- 10)amide. Subscribe to New Research on acetyl- ... alpha-MSH: 855*acetyl-norleucyl(4)-(aspartyl(5)-histidyl(6)-phenylalanyl(7)-arginyl(8)-tryptophyl(9)-lysyl(10))cyclo-alpha-MSH( ... alpha-MSH: 855*acetyl-norleucyl(4)-(aspartyl(5)-histidyl(6)-phenylalanyl(7)-arginyl(8)-tryptophyl(9)-lysyl(10))cyclo-alpha-MSH( ... alpha-MSH: 855*acetyl-norleucyl(4)-(aspartyl(5)-histidyl(6)-phenylalanyl(7)-arginyl(8)-tryptophyl(9)-lysyl(10))cyclo-alpha-MSH( ...
... Butcher, ... Based upon peptide analogs of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, Α-MSH, Dr. Quinn has developed a metal cyclized drug ...
Pro-opiomelanocortin, POMC, melanotan I; MT-I; NDP-alpha-MSH; [Nle4, D-Phe7] alpha-MSH Peptide; melanotan-1; Afamelanotide ... alpha-MSH) that is an agonist for melanocortin receptors (MC1R, MC3-5R). Alpha-MSH and analogs cause melanin production in skin ... alpha-MSH Peptide (melanotan I) is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring melanocortin peptide hormone alpha-melanocyte ...
The alpha-MSH content of hindbrain cultures remained at constant low levels, while no alpha-MSH was detectable in cerebral ... The alpha-MSH content in vivo was always highest in the midbrain; a peak content at birth was followed by a transient decline ... The alpha-MSH content in the cerebral hemispheres rose progressively after birth reaching a peak at day 21. Values in the ... ACTH appeared in vivo earlier than alpha-MSH and was detectable in embryonic brains at ED 13-14. A transient rise was seen at ...
... "alpha-MSH" by people in this website by year, and whether "alpha-MSH" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and ... "alpha-MSH" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "alpha-MSH" by people in Profiles. ...
... and this correlates with the variability in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end responses in vivo. Relative rates of alpha-MSH and NAc ... Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) ... Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary ... We conclude that the variation in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end stress responses in vivo correlates with many CRH responses in ...
... ppar-alpha, nqo1, prx, p62, sensins, sesn2, slco1b2, smafs, trx, txn, txnd, ugt1, adamts, alpha-sma, alpha-msh, msh, alt, ap1, ... alpha-ketoglutarate, alpha-msh, foxo, nrf2, ppar-alpha, ppar-gamma, pyruvate, sirt1, tempol, 8-oxo-dg, mmps, mtor, infrared, ... ikb-alpha, ifn-gamma, il-1b, il-4, il6, il-6, il-13, ldl, lh, mao, mchp-1, mmp1, mmp3, mmp13, mpo, alpha-msh, nitric oxide, no ... a-msh, alpha-msh, acth, stress, npy, blood pressure, adrenaline, gender, pcb, mhc, hla, sleep, attractiveness, ifn-g, il-13, il ...
In the presence of α-MSH, insulin failed to inhibit acute hypoglycemia-induced CICR. Finally, stimulation of α-MSH increased ... Increase of [cAMP]c was also observed when α-MSH was applied with IBMX. Acute hypoglycemia-induced CICR via N- and L-type Ca2+ ... In normal level of glucose, application of α-MSH stimulated L-type Ca2+ current induced Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release (CICR) and ... This study investigated the stimulatory effect of α-MSH on mice pancreatic α cell line &alphaTC1-6 cells in cell signaling ...
... ... Finally, we show that plasma levels of anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH are increased in patients with AN, bulimia and ... We show that ClpB-immunized mice produce anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH, influencing food intake, body weight, anxiety ... α-MSH) are involved in regulation of feeding and emotion; however, the origin of such auto-Abs is unknown. Here, using ...
Six control compounds were used as a basis for comparison, and are listed in Table II as HP228, MTII, alpha-MSH, NDP-alpha MSH ... Alpha-MSH is a natural ligand for both the MC-3 and the MC-4 receptors; NDP-alpha-MSH is a peptide having the sequence Ac-Nle- ... The cell-based activity of the AGRP/ASP peptides can be tested by measuring the ability of each peptide to inhibit alpha-MSH ... Experiments for determining dose responses to alpha-MSH can be performed in the presence of a fixed concentration of Mkd65-AGRP ...
Synonym: Collagen type IV alpha 1 COL Origin: Source: Synthetic BI, IF, IHC, SDS ... Synonym: Collagen type IV alpha 1 COL Origin: Source: Synthetic BI, IF, IHC, SDS ...
Alpha-MSH is an important anti-inflammatory molecule that inhibits IL-8 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and ... NK-cell-mediated DC activation is dependent on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In ... alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (. -MSH) targeting the proinflammatory pathways that participate in the pathogenesis of ... an analogue of alpha-MSH) was reported to ameliorate sepsis-induced AKI and mortality in mice [52]. ...
References for Abcams α-MSH (α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone) (ab120189). Please let us know if you have used this product in ... alpha-MSH-alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-ab120189.pdf * Send me a copy of this email ...
... α-MSH = alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; POMC = pro-opiomelanocortin; TNF = tumor necrosis factor. ...
... α-MSH = alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; POMC = pro-opiomelanocortin; TNF = tumor necrosis factor. ...
alpha-MSH. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ...
Alpha MSH in Ocular Disease. *Advanced Dry Macular Degeneration. *Device: Alpha MSH assay ... Level of alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...
alpha-MSH. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... A melanocortin agonist and synthetic peptide analog of the naturally occurring hormone alpha-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating ...
Annona squamosa L. leaves inhibit alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) stimulated melanogenesis.Jun 30, 2020. ...
Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (. MSH) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anticachectic actions. We ... MSH. MSH administration reduced LPS-induced increase in liver TNF. and serum nitrites as well as NF-. B activation in skeletal ... A. B. Cragnolini, M. Perelló, H. B. Schiöth, and T. N. Scimonelli, "α-MSH and γ-MSH inhibit IL-1β induced activation of the ... MSH, LPS increased liver TNF. mRNA but to lower levels than those observed in rats injected with saline (Figure 1(c)). However ...
  • Our previous discovery that retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE) modulate macrophage/microglial cell functionality through alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) showed that this neuropeptide was protecting macrophages from apoptosis induced by the RPE under serum free conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • Administration of GABA (10(-6) to 10(-4) M), to perifused neurointermediate lobes caused a brief stimulation of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) release followed by an inhibition. (eurekamag.com)
  • Based upon peptide analogs of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, Α-MSH, Dr. Quinn has developed a metal cyclized drug that shows very promising results in therapy as well as early detection/imaging of melanoma tumors. (umsystem.edu)
  • Nle4, D-Phe7] alpha-MSH Peptide (melanotan I) is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring melanocortin peptide hormone alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) that is an agonist for melanocortin receptors (MC1R, MC3-5R). (abbiotec.com)
  • Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) during stress responses. (ru.nl)
  • In addition, several authors have demonstrated the renoprotective effects of various anti-inflammatory therapies, for example, mycophenolate, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone ( -MSH) targeting the proinflammatory pathways that participate in the pathogenesis of AKI [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Melanocortin receptors are activated by members of the melanocortin family: alpha-, beta- and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (genecards.org)
  • 2007). Peripheral effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • And the hormones that bind to them have radiated out as well: they're all derived by processing of a common precursor, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and the first big split was the differentiated function of two of those cleavage products into what we would now call adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). (sciencemag.org)
  • On the other hand, genetic control would be exerted by the melanocortin system, and particularly by the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which triggers the production of eumelanins (black pigments). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Alpha-MSH (alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone) is an ancient tridecapeptide with potent inhibitory activity in all major forms of inflammation. (genscript.com)
  • Central neurotranspeptide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is upregulated in patients with congestive heart failure. (genscript.com)
  • ICV administration of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), a natural antagonist of AgRP, may modulate the acyl ghrelin-induced orexigenic effect. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Melanotan II is a peptide hormone belonging to the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) class of mimetics. (steroid.com)
  • Proopiomelanocortin activation from peripheral signals triggers the release of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) from axon terminals. (jaoa.org)
  • The present study examined the effects of melanotan-II (MT-II), a cyclic peptide analogue of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone on appetitive and consummatory aspects of female sexual behavior, including aspects of sexual proceptivity (solicitations, hops and darts, ear wiggling, pacing) and receptivity (lordosis). (deepdyve.com)
  • Bremelanotide, which is a melanocortin 4 receptor agonist drug candidate, is a synthetic peptide analog of the naturally occurring hormone alpha-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone). (prnewswire.com)
  • In vivo and in vitro development of alpha-MSH and ACTH in the embryonic and postnatal rat brain. (unil.ch)
  • ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. (uchicago.edu)
  • Receptor for MSH (alpha, beta and gamma) and ACTH. (uniprot.org)
  • In vertebrates, this control depends on the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, which encodes different peptides that are part of the melanocortin system: α-, β- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • ACTH has structural similarities to alpha-MSH. (genscript.com)
  • ACTH and alpha-MSH can induce grooming, stretching, yawning, penile erection responses in male rats, site of action in the brain and role of melanocortin receptors. (genscript.com)
  • Alpha-MSH is derived from ACTH 1-13. (genscript.com)
  • We show that ClpB-immunized mice produce anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH, influencing food intake, body weight, anxiety and melanocortin receptor 4 signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Update: I should also note bremelanotide , another MSH-like peptide with a very long and convoluted history in the clinic, which is currently heading to the FDA for a controversial female sexual dysfunction indication). (sciencemag.org)
  • So here's a new paper on efforts to develop a more selective MSH peptide from the same group at Arizona that discovered afamelanotide. (sciencemag.org)
  • The β-MSH peptide plays a role in weight regulation by binding to melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The α-MSH peptide can also bind to MC4R and help maintain the correct energy balance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The origin of this variable response was investigated by (1) studying the effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end release in vitro, (2) establishing where in the second messenger pathway coupled to CRH receptors melanotrope responsiveness is determined, and (3) testing modulatory actions of other hypothalamic factors (here opioid beta-endorphin). (ru.nl)
  • Anxiety-like behavior induced by IL-1beta is modulated by alpha-MSH through central melanocortin-4 receptors. (genscript.com)
  • The antihypertensive action of methyldopa seems to be attributable to its conversion into alpha-methylnorepinephrine, which is a potent alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that binds to and stimulates potent central inhibitory alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. (fpnotebook.com)
  • These ligands were tested in an experimental animal model containing tumors that expressed only one (control) or both (target) MSH and CCK receptors. (pnas.org)
  • There are several alpha-MSH receptors in the body. (steroid.com)
  • Structure-activity relationships of gamma-MSH analogues at the human melanocortin MC3, MC4, and MC5 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral injection of α-MSH promotes glucagon secretion in POMC knockout mice, suggesting the role of α-MSH in regulation of pancreatic α cells. (du.edu)
  • Mice with a targeted mutation in the pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene (Pomctm1/tm1 mice) are unable to synthesize desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH and they develop obesity when fed chow diet. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Three similar peptides called alpha-, beta-, and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormones (α-, β-, and γ-MSH) are also cut from the POMC protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Decreased α-MSH in the skin reduces pigment production in melanocytes, which results in the red hair and pale skin often seen in people with POMC deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, chronic intragastric delivery of E. coli in mice decreased food intake and stimulated formation of ClpB- and α-MSH-reactive antibodies, while ClpB-deficient E. coli did not affect food intake or antibody levels. (nih.gov)
  • The alpha-gal syndrome is characterized by the presence of sIgE antibodies to alpha-gal and delayed type I allergic reaction to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) after consump. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An explanation for neurofibrillary staining with alpha-MSH antibodies. (mpg.de)
  • The GABAA agonist muscimol (10(-7) to 10(-4) M) mimicked the biphasic effect of GABA on alpha-MSH release. (eurekamag.com)
  • Administration of baclofen, a specific GABAB agonist (10(-7) to 10(-4) M) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of alpha-MSH secretion. (eurekamag.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Alpha Adrenergic Central Agonist. (fpnotebook.com)
  • An alpha-2 selective adrenergic agonist used as an antihypertensive agent. (fpnotebook.com)
  • An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Alpha-MSH and analogs cause melanin production in skin cells, thereby reduce UV damage by sun exposure. (abbiotec.com)
  • MC1R is the receptor signaling mechanism for melanin production, and is activated by MSH. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2014). Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein as biomarker for survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1a) levels in the lesional skin of patients with non segmental vitiligo. (springer.com)
  • This study investigated the stimulatory effect of α-MSH on mice pancreatic α cell line &alphaTC1-6 cells in cell signaling pathway as well as glucagon secretion. (du.edu)
  • Finally, stimulation of α-MSH increased glucagon secretion significantly. (du.edu)
  • This study aimed to investigate the modulating effect of α-MSH on the central acyl ghrelin-induced food intake, gastrointestinal motility and colonic secretion in rats. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • We examined the effects of α-MSH and acyl ghrelin on food intake, gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, colonic motility, and secretion in conscious rats with a chronic implant of ICV catheters. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. (uchicago.edu)
  • Alpha-MSH is a hormone that stimulates melanogenesis and facilitates learning and memory. (genscript.com)
  • Bicuculline induced by itself a slight stimulation of alpha-MSH release, suggesting that GABA-ergic nerve fibers present in the intermediate lobe are functionally active in vitro. (eurekamag.com)
  • Melanotropes were in a high or low responsive state to CRH in vitro, which was especially evident when tissue was tested from fish kept at higher ambient water temperatures, and this correlates with the variability in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end responses in vivo. (ru.nl)
  • Relative rates of alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end release following stimulation with CRH in vitro match plasma level changes in vivo, and this indicates that the CRH pathway does act in vivo. (ru.nl)
  • Effects of bFGF and alpha-MSH on adhesion and migration of human melanocytes in vitro. (genscript.com)
  • These actions of Dibenamine and phenoxybenzamine also indicate a possible common sulfhydryl requirement for MSH and the alpha adrenergic receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of α-MSH. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, this work shows that the bacterial ClpB protein, which is present in several commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, can be responsible for the production of auto-Abs crossreactive with α-MSH, associated with altered feeding and emotion in humans with ED. Our data suggest that ClpB-expressing gut microorganisms might be involved in the etiology of EDs. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibiting protein kinase C-alpha was shown to be a pivotal step towards restoring the damage done by nephritis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The post Protein kinase C-alpha inhibitor reverses destructive nephritis appeared fir. (bioportfolio.com)
  • alpha-MSH and neurofilament M-protein share a continuous epitope but not extended sequences. (mpg.de)
  • This latter effect is an example of a "catecholamine reversal", characteristic of alpha adrenergic blocking agents, which results from alpha adrenergic inhibition and consequent beta adrenergic stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • GIBF is investing $7 million in the joint venture with Nazareth-based Alpha Omega, which produces devices for deep brain stimulation surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Both α-MSH- and diquat-treated individuals presented larger eumelanin-based traits than controls, but α-MSH+diquat-treated birds showed the largest traits, suggesting that oxidative stress and melanocortins promote additive but independent effects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We hypothesized that MSH administration could attenuate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the skeletal muscle through modifications in IGF-Akt-FoxO1 pathway, or/and in serum corticosterone. (hindawi.com)
  • That last one sounds fairly trivial, but it's the target of a marketed drug, Scenesse (afamelanotide) , which is a modified synthetic version of MSH. (sciencemag.org)
  • To gain insight into the multivalent ligand strategy in vivo, we have generated synthetic htMVLs that contain melanocortin (MSH) and cholecystokinin (CCK) pharmacophores that are connected via a fluorescent labeled, rationally designed synthetic linker. (pnas.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma concentrations of leptin, NPY, and alpha-MSH in obese women and their relationship to negative energy balance. (nih.gov)
  • Leptin and its principal mediators, NPY and alpha-MSH are postulated to play a pivotal role in energy balance. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the possibility of the disturbance in neuropeptides in human obesity and their consequent changes in response to negative energy balance, we evaluated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin, NPY, and alpha-MSH levels in obese women before and after weight loss in comparison with normal control women. (nih.gov)
  • Baseline CSF leptin level correlated with neither the baseline CSF NPY level nor the baseline CSF alpha-MSH level. (nih.gov)
  • There was no significant correlation between CSF leptin and CSF NPY or alpha-MSH. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha-MSH can affect inflammatory and immune responses and peripheral nerve regeneration. (genscript.com)
  • The implications of these results are that the RPE selectively eliminates monocytes that cannot be immunosuppressed by α-MSH and the other mediators of ocular immune privilege. (arvojournals.org)
  • Melanotan II (MT-2) functions by stimulating the alpha-MSH receptor. (steroid.com)
  • The inhibition and reversal of MSH-induced darkening by haloalkylamine alpha antagonists and mercurials also suggests a role for sulfhydryls in MSH activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate that under the same serum-free conditions of our original observation of RPE modulation of macrophage activity α-MSH suppresses the activated extrinsic apoptotic pathway. (arvojournals.org)
  • By now, humans have three forms of the latter (alpha, beta, and gamma MSH), and the receptor proteins have branched into five different MCxR subtypes as well. (sciencemag.org)
  • Studies show that γ-MSH binds to melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the presence of α-MSH, insulin failed to inhibit acute hypoglycemia-induced CICR. (du.edu)
  • The primary role of α-MSH is in the pigment-producing cells of the skin and hair (melanocytes), where it binds to melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In conclusion, desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH play salutary roles in sexually dimorphic melanocortin obesity and sexually dimorphic HF diet-induced C57BL/6J obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Our data show that desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH are required for sexually dimorphic HF diet-induced C57BL/6J obesity. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Caspase 8 induced activity in RAW cells cultured in the serum-free media was suppressed by α-MSH in a dose-dependent manner along with a decrease in TUNEL positive cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • There was no observed α-MSH suppression of death in cells treated with alpha-lactalbumin, or with Sulfasalazine. (arvojournals.org)
  • Alpha-MSH activates the melanocortin 4 receptor, resulting in suppression of food intake. (jaoa.org)
  • Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary melanotropes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. (ru.nl)
  • Here, we show that also within a species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), fish sometimes respond with elevated alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end plasma levels, and at other times not. (ru.nl)
  • Opioid beta-endorphin differentially modulated the actions of CRH, as NAc beta-end, but not alpha-MSH, release was inhibited. (ru.nl)
  • excretion of sodium , urine concentrations of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha1-microglobulin, glutathione transferase-pi, and glutathione transferase-alpha were measured after induction of anesthesia at the end of the operation, and on the first and second postoperative days in the intensive care unit.CPB times were 58 +/- 12 minutes and 116 +/- 18 minutes, respectively. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Since the induction of apoptosis in cultured macrophages can be though caspase dependent and independent pathways, we assayed the apoptotic pathways that α-MSH suppressed in macrophages cultured under serum free conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2009) Estrogen receptor‐alpha mediates the epidermal growth factor‐stimulated prolactin expression and release in lactotrophs. (els.net)
  • One expert called alpha-MSH "the field general of the immune system. (drcarolyndean.com)
  • The alpha-MSH levels in plasma and CSF did not differ significantly from controls in obese subjects at baseline or after weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • CSF NPY and alpha-MSH did not differ from controls in human obesity, and the CSF NPY level decreased significantly whereas alpha-MSH did not differ after weight loss in obese subjects compared with baseline. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we show that plasma levels of anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH are increased in patients with AN, bulimia and BED, and that the ED Inventory-2 scores in ED patients correlate with anti-ClpB IgG and IgM, which is similar to our previous findings for α-MSH auto-Abs. (nih.gov)
  • Differences in the synchronization of alpha oscillations between anterior and posterior brain regions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alpha oscillations generated in the human brain have long been investigated in neuroscience. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Loss of signaling in the brain stimulated by α-MSH and β-MSH dysregulates the body's energy balance, leading to overeating and severe obesity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Synchronized oscillatory activities of numerous neural oscillators are thought to underlie alpha oscillatio. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Zhong Y., and Bellamkonda R.V., Controlled release of alpha-MSH using nitrocellulose coatings for neural implants. (drexel.edu)
  • Augmentation with human alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor is the only specific treatment for Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD), a rare genetic disease with symptoms of progressive COPD. (bioportfolio.com)
  • And so far, this looks possible: their new species has better selectivity than endogenous MSH, and a longer half-life in human plasma (MSH's is five minutes, afamelanotide's is 30 minutes, and the new species is 17 minutes). (sciencemag.org)
  • alpha-MSH" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Alpha DaRT enables the first alpha-radiation-based cancer treatment for various types of solid tumors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A caspase independent apoptotic pathway was induced with alpha-lactalbumin, and a reactive oxygen-dependent pathway was induced with Sulfasalazine. (arvojournals.org)