alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.OrosomucoidRadioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.QuinolizinesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Mice, Inbred BALB CCollagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.QuinoxalinesRNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13: A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Genes, T-Cell Receptor alpha: DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.

18F alpha-methyl tyrosine PET studies in patients with brain tumors. (1/126)

We have developed 18F-labeled alpha-methyl tyrosine (FMT) for PET imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application potential of FMT for patients with brain tumors. METHODS: Eleven healthy volunteers and 20 patients with brain tumors were injected with 185 MBq (5 mCi) FMT. In 3 healthy volunteers, whole-body imaging and urinary and plasma analysis were conducted for the assessment of the biodistribution of FMT. The normal range of cortical standardized uptake value (SUV) as a reference for comparing tumor SUV of FMT was estimated by using PET data obtained at 30 min postinjection in 8 healthy volunteers. Dynamic PET scans were conducted for 100 min in 4 healthy volunteers and for 30 min in 15 patients with brain tumors. The 10-min static images in another 4 volunteers and all patients were obtained at 30 min postinjection. In 13 patients, FMT uptake in the brain tumor was compared with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Tumor-to-normal cortex count (T/N) ratio and tumor-to-white matter count (T/W) ratio and SUVs of brain tumors were determined on FMT and FDG PET images. RESULTS: Approximately 1480 MBq (40 mCi) FMT were produced in one radiosynthesis. Percentage injected dose (%ID) of FMT in the brain ranged from 2.8% to 4.9%, and approximately 50%ID of FMT was excreted in urine during 60 min postinjection, of which 86.6% was unmetabolized FMT. A faint physiological brain uptake with SUV of 1.61 +/- 0.32 (mean +/- SD, n = 8) was observed in healthy volunteers. Tumor SUV of FMT ranged from 1.2 to 8.2, with mean value of 2.83 +/- 1.57 (n = 23), which was significantly higher than that of the cortical area in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). T/N and T/W ratios of FMT were significantly higher than those of FDG (2.53 +/- 1.31 versus 1.32 +/- 1.46, P < 0.001; 3.99 +/- 2.10 versus 1.39 +/- 0.65, P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSION: FMT, like other radiolabeled amino acids, can provide high-contrast PET images of brain tumors.  (+info)

Increased methamphetamine neurotoxicity in heterozygous vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knock-out mice. (2/126)

Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that is increasingly abused worldwide. Although it is commonly accepted that the dopaminergic system and oxidation of dopamine (DA) play pivotal roles in the neurotoxicity produced by this phenylethylamine, the primary source of DA responsible for this effect has remained elusive. In this study, we used mice heterozygous for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 +/- mice) to determine whether impaired vesicular function alters the effects of METH. METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity was increased in striatum of VMAT2 +/- mice compared with wild-type mice as revealed by a more consistent DA and metabolite depletion and a greater decrease in dopamine transporter expression. Interestingly, increased METH neurotoxicity in VMAT2 +/- mice was accompanied by less pronounced increase in extracellular DA and indices of free radical formation compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that disruption of vesicular monoamine transport potentiates METH-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and point, albeit indirectly, to a greater contribution of intraneuronal DA redistribution rather than extraneuronal overflow on mediating this effect.  (+info)

alpha2C adrenoceptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase in mouse striatum: potential activation by dopamine. (3/126)

alpha2C adrenoceptors occur in high density in the striatum, but the functional role of these receptors is uncertain. Mice with targeted inactivation of the alpha2C adrenoceptor gene (Adra2c-/-) and genetically related control mice expressing the wild-type alpha2C adrenoceptor (Adra2c+/+) were used to determine whether striatal alpha2C adrenoceptors modulate adenylyl cyclase activation. In striatal slices from Adra2c+/+ mice, the alpha2 adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 facilitated forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, RX821002 had no effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in striatal slices from Adra2c-/- mice or in striatal slices from Adra2c+/+ mice treated with reserpine and alpha-methyl-rho-tyrosine to deplete monoamine neurotransmitters. Given the sparse innervation of the striatum by noradrenergic neurons, the possibility that dopamine can activate the mouse alpha2C adrenoceptor at physiologically relevant concentrations was investigated using normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transfected with the mouse alpha2A or alpha2C adrenoceptor cDNA (NRK-alpha2A or NRK-alpha2C cells). Inhibition of [3H]RX821002 binding by agonists in homogenates of transfected cells revealed an affinity of dopamine for alpha2C adrenoceptors that was higher than the affinity of norepinephrine for its cognate receptor, the alpha2A adrenoceptor. Both norepinephrine and dopamine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in intact NRK-alpha2C cells. In NRK-alpha2A cells, norepinephrine facilitated forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, an effect not observed for dopamine. Together, these data demonstrate that the alpha2C adrenoceptor is negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and is tonically activated in mouse striatal slices. The endogenous activator of the striatal alpha2C adrenoceptor may be dopamine, as well as norepinephrine.  (+info)

Increased baseline occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia. (4/126)

The classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates a hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission at the D(2) receptor. We measured in vivo occupancy of striatal D(2) receptors by dopamine in 18 untreated patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls, by comparing D(2) receptor availability before and during pharmacologically induced acute dopamine depletion. Acute depletion of intrasynaptic dopamine resulted in a larger increase in D(2) receptor availability in patients with schizophrenia (19% +/- 11%) compared with control subjects (9% +/- 7%, P = 0.003). The increased occupancy of D(2) receptors by dopamine occurred both in first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients and in previously treated chronic patients experiencing an episode of illness exacerbation. In addition, elevated synaptic dopamine was predictive of good treatment response of positive symptoms to antipsychotic drugs. This finding provides direct evidence of increased stimulation of D(2) receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia, consistent with increased phasic activity of dopaminergic neurons.  (+info)

Involvement of tyrosine hydroxylase upregulation in cyclosporine-induced hypertension. (5/126)

To identify the mechanism of cyclosporine-induced hypertension, we studied the effect of cyclosporine on the catecholamine synthetic pathway in rats. We administered cyclosporine (10 mg/kg per day, s.c.) for 3 days to 10-week-old male Wistar rats. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly in the cyclosporine-treated group in comparison to that in the control group. Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels in the adrenal medulla and plasma of cyclosporine-treated rats were also significantly higher than levels in the control rats. Moreover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and TH mRNA expression in the adrenal medulla of cyclosporine-treated rats were significantly elevated. Administration of the TH inhibitor alphamethyl-p-tyrosine (200 mg/kg, b.i.d., s.c.) for 3 days significantly suppressed cyclosporine-induced increases in systolic blood pressure. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and its binding activity to DNA in the nuclear fraction from the adrenal medulla of cyclosporine-treated rats were much higher than that of the control rats. Calcineurin protein expression of cyclosporine-treated rats was less than that of the control rats. These results suggest that cyclosporine increased blood pressure via activation of the catecholamine synthetic pathway due to the activation of transcription factor CREB.  (+info)

A simple method to measure baseline occupancy of neostriatal dopamine D2 receptors by dopamine in vivo in healthy subjects. (6/126)

The effect of endogenous dopamine (DA) on measurement of neostriatal DA D(2) receptor binding potential (D(2)RBP) in vivo was evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [11C]raclopride by comparing the D(2)RBP before and after acute DA depletion. DA depletion was achieved by per-oral administration of 4.5 g alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) given in 25 h. Six healthy subjects completed the protocol. The AMPT treatment increased D(2)RBP significantly from 3.11 +/- 0.25 to 3.68 +/- 0.23 and decreased plasma levels of the DA metabolite homovanillic acid by 71 +/- 11% and levels of the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol by 53 +/- 7%. Increase in D(2)RBP correlated with decrease in attentiveness and with increase in errors of commission from Conners' Continuous Performance Test. On AMPT, a significant decrease in subjective happiness scores was observed. The results imply that a noninvasive [11C]raclopride PET protocol coupled with relatively brief administration of a rather low total dose of AMPT resulted in measurable acute DA depletion that might provide estimates of synaptic neostriatal DA concentration.  (+info)

Antidepressant-like behavioral effects in 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(1B) receptor mutant mice. (7/126)

The development of serotonin receptor knockout mice has provided an opportunity to study antidepressant drug effects in animals with targeted genetic deletion of receptors involved in antidepressant responses. In the current study, the effects of two types of antidepressant drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and paroxetine and the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine, were examined in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptor mutant mice using the tail suspension test (TST). Under baseline conditions, the immobility of 5-HT(1A) receptor mutant mice, but not 5-HT(1B) receptor mutant mice, was significantly lower than that of wild-type mice. The decreased baseline immobility in 5-HT(1A) receptor mutant mice was reversed by pretreatment with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, but not by para-chlorophenylalanine, suggesting mediation by enhanced catecholamine function. In wild-type mice, fluoxetine (10.0--20.0 mg/kg i.p.) and desipramine (5.0--20.0 mg/kg i.p.) both significantly decreased immobility in the TST. In 5-HT(1A) receptor mutant mice, desipramine (20.0 mg/kg i.p.) significantly decreased immobility, whereas fluoxetine (20.0 mg/kg i.p.) and paroxetine (20.0 mg/kg i.p.) had no effect. The immobility of 5-HT(1B) receptor mutant mice was decreased similarly by desipramine (5.0--20.0 mg/kg i.p.). However, the effect of low doses of fluoxetine were significantly augmented in the 5-HT(1B) receptor mutant mice (2.5--20.0 mg/kg i.p.) compared with wild-type mice. Administration of selective 5-HT receptor antagonists in wild-type mice partially reproduced the phenotypes of the mutant mice. These results suggest that 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors have different roles in the modulation of the response to antidepressant drugs in the TST.  (+info)

Subjective effects of AMPT-induced dopamine depletion in schizophrenia: correlation between dysphoric responses and striatal D(2) binding ratios on SPECT imaging. (8/126)

Approximately one third of schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptic drugs experience unpleasant subjective responses, that are collectively known as neuroleptic dysphoria. Experimental research in animals indicates that drug induced dopaminergic blockade in mesolimbic circuits, especially the nucleus accumbens, leads to impaired pleasure responsivity and dysphoria. The present study tested this putative mechanism in drug-free schizophrenic patients (n = 12), through inducing dysphoric responses with alphamethyl paratyrosine (AMPT) and simultaneously quantifying their baseline striatal dopmine (D(2)) function with (123)IBZM-SPECT imaging. Results showed a wide variability in the occurrence and severity of dysphoric responses, clearly distinguishing a dysphoric group from non-dysphoric responders. Severity of dysphoric responses, measured by standardized rating scales, correlated inversely with changes in D(2) receptor binding ratios (r = +0.82, p <.01). These results support the notion that striatal dopaminergic activity is not uniformly elevated in all schizophrenic patients, and the sub-group of individuals with lower baseline dopamine function are at an increased risk for dysphoric responses during antipsychotic therapy with dopaminergic blocking drugs.  (+info)

*Metirosine

p-Chlorophenylalanine Green KN, Larsson SK, Beevers DG, Bevan PG, Hayes B (August 1982). "Alpha-methyltyrosine in the ... Metirosine (INN and BAN; α-Methyltyrosine, Metyrosine USAN, AMPT) is an antihypertensive drug. It inhibits the enzyme tyrosine ...

*Deserpidine

Fulton, S. C.; Healy, M. D. (1976). "Comparison of the effectiveness of deserpidine, reserpine, and alpha-methyltyrosine on ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.125)

... alpha-methyltyrosine MeSH D12.125.072.050.875.750 --- phosphotyrosine MeSH D12.125.072.170 --- cycloleucine MeSH D12.125. ...

*AMPT

Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor. Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a non-endogenous ... "Biochemical and pharmacologic effects of α-methyltyrosine in man". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 47 (3): 577-594. doi: ... Elimination Small amounts of metabolites (alpha-methyldopa and alpha-methyldopamine) were found after the administration of ... Ankenman, Ralph; Salvatore, Michael F. (2007). "Low Dose Alpha-Methyl-Para-Tyrosine (AMPT) in the Treatment of Dystonia and ...

*Sympatholytic

Methyltyrosine, for example, inhibits one of the key enzymes in the pathway: tyrosine hydroxylase. For neurotransmitters to be ... They are primarily postsynaptic adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha and beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, or "blockers ... alpha blocker) Beta blockers Non-selective agents Alprenolol Bucindolol Carteolol Carvedilol (has additional α-blocking ...
Metyrosine is used to treat pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal gland). Metyrosine is given before surgery to control pheochromocytoma, and is also given when surgery is not possible. Metyrosine may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Metyrosine (250 mg capsules) were to be used at all dose levels (administered as multiples of that dosing unit). The starting dose was 250 mg/day of metyrosine. Dose escalation was to be carried out weekly for 8 weeks (up to a maximum of 8 capsules/day [2000 mg/day if metyrosine]) with dosage increments of 1 capsule/day per week. Weekly dose escalation was to stop based upon the investigators assessment of safety, but not efficacy (i.e., dose escalation was to be forced to the maximum of 8 capsules/day assuming acceptable safety and tolerability ...
Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor. Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a non-endogenous drug involved in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway. AMPT inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase whose enzymatic activity is regulated through the phosphorylation of different serine residue regulatory domain sites. Catecholamine biosynthesis starts with dietary tyrosine, which is hydroxylated by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. It is hypothesized that AMPT competes with tyrosine at the tyrosine-binding site, causing inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase. It has been used in the treatment of pheochromocytoma. It has been demonstrated to inhibit the production of melanin. AMPT inhibits catecholamine biosynthesis at the first step-the hydroxylation of tyrosine. Reduction in catecholamines and their metabolites (normetanephrine, metanephrine, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid) result from the inhibition of tyrosine using AMPT. AMPT doses of 600 to 4,000 mg per day cause a 20 to ...
Studies were undertaken to examine the role of dopamine in the regulation of cholecystokinin (CCK) release in slices of the rat caudate-putamen (CP), a region where both neuroactive substances are abundant yet not extensively colocalized. It was found that dopamine, acting through a D1 dopamine receptor, is a major factor regulating CCK release in this tissue. Haloperidol and the selective D1 antagonist, SKF 83566, but not the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, inhibited potassium-evoked release from CP slices. Apomorphine enhanced both basal and potassium-evoked release, an effect which was reversed by (+/-)SKF 83566, but not by sulpiride. The D1 agonist, (+)SKF 38393, displayed agonist and antagonist activity in this system, whereas the D2 agonist, quinpirole, had no effect. Depletion of endogenous dopamine by pretreatment of animals with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine decreased potassium-induced release by 45%, and in these animals, haloperidol no longer inhibited release. These dopaminergic agents ...
Also, after you stop taking this medicine, you may have feelings of increased energy or you may have trouble sleeping. However, these effects should last only for two or three days.. Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.. ...
A comparison of the economic and environmental benefits and costs of using corn as a fuel have demonstrated that the plant may be more effectively used as food.
Leading communications industry players are banding together to tackle the energy consumption of the global communications network.
Looking for online definition of metyrosine in the Medical Dictionary? metyrosine explanation free. What is metyrosine? Meaning of metyrosine medical term. What does metyrosine mean?
Definition of Alpha-methyltyrosine with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Dopamine and α-synuclein are a toxic combination for neurons, say Jin Xu, Bruce Yankner (Childrens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts) and colleagues.. Aggregations of α-synuclein are a hallmark of Parkinsons disease (PD), and mutations in its gene are associated with familial forms of the disease. Yankner wanted to know why the protein is so toxic. When he overexpressed either wild-type or mutant forms of α-synuclein in cultured human dopaminergic neurons (DAN cells)-the cells affected in PD-a large number of the cells underwent apoptosis. In contrast, excess α-synuclein seemed to protect the nondopaminergic cortical neurons from apoptosis.. If endogenous synthesis of dopamine was blocked by the addition of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor (THI), overexpression of α-synuclein no longer induced apoptosis. Thus, somehow, it is the combination of α-synuclein and dopamine that causes cell death, rather than overexpression of α-synuclein alone.. Yankner thinks the key to this ...
The porous medium model of Green and Ampt, describing flow in porous media, appeared earlier than the capillary model of Washburn, although both lead to the mathematically identical models. The model of Green and Ampt is related to the Washburn model by an examination of the parameters involved in each. Fries et al. (2008) presented an explicit solution to this model. This explicit solution is identical to the explicit solution of the Green and Ampt model, presented earlier by Barry et al. (1993).. Keywords: Green and Ampt ; Capillary rise ; Porous media ; Lambert W function ; Analytical solution. ...
In the outpatient setting, treatment of pheochromocytoma begins with adequate hydration as although patients may be hypertensive (caveat: most patients are NOT hypertensive) they tend to be intravascularly dry. I also tell them to tank up on salt (one of the 2, well maybe 3 conditions in which an endo might tell you to take MORE salt. Can you guess the other 2?). Alpha blockade is started first (classic medschool exam question) and while there are numerous you can pick from, I start with the shorter acting Phenoxybenzamine. The shorter duration of action allows for better titration of doses. My personal goal is to see a systolic drop of 15 to 20 mm Hg on standing with no reflex tachycardia though you may also pick an absolute BP goal. Once the patient is adequately blocked, a beta blocker is then started. For select patients, we add a 3rd line agent a few days before surgery: Metyrosine, to deplete adrenal catecholamine levels, that is if you can get your hands on it ...
In the present study, we evaluated the involvement of norepinephrine neurons within the AV3V region in the central action of Ang II and found that norepinephrine turnover was increased by intracerebroventricular Ang II in SHR but not in WKY.. The role of norepinephrine neurons of the central nervous system in the development and maintenance of hypertension has been investigated either by measurement of tissue norepinephrine content or the activity of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or by evaluation of norepinephrine turnover of the various nuclei. Norepinephrine content is either increased17 or decreased13 18 in the brain stem or hypothalamus of SHR. On the other hand, the activity of the norepinephrine-forming enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase is decreased in hypothalamic nuclei of SHR. As regards norepinephrine turnover in hypertensive animals, Patel et al19 reported that norepinephrine turnover was decreased in the cortex of young SHR and increased in the hypothalamus of adult SHR. They also ...
The septin gene family of nucleotide binding proteins were originally identified in yeast as cell division regulatory proteins. Septin 5--also known as CDCrel-1, HCDCREL-1, peanut-like 1 (Pnutl1), platelet glycoprotein Ib beta chain--is encoded by the SEPT5 gene in humans. A translocation involving the MLL gene and the SEPT5 gene has been reported in acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in several septin 5 variants. Septin 5 is known to interact with septin 8 and Parkin 8; mutations in the Parkin 8 gene are implicated in dopaminergic cell death and consequent development of an autosomal recessive form of Parkinsons disease.. ...
Agile methods have become increasingly popular because they empower organizations to more quickly address emerging opportunities, to better ensure accurate fulfillment of functional requirements and to significantly enhance team productivity. Attend to learn how to employ agile methods for your organizations safety-critical systems! Event Dates: Tuesday, May 7 & Thursday, May 30 – 11AMPT / 2PM ET
Agile methods have become increasingly popular because they empower organizations to more quickly address emerging opportunities, to better ensure accurate fulfillment of functional requirements and to significantly enhance team productivity. Attend to learn how to employ agile methods for your organizations safety-critical systems! Event Dates: Tuesday, May 7 & Thursday, May 30 – 11AMPT / 2PM ET
1-Naphthylamine, 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Abnormalities, Drug-Induced, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Aconitine, Acoustic Stimulation, Actins, Acute Disease, Acyltransferases, Adaptation, Physiological, Adenylate Cyclase, Adiponectin, Adipose Tissue, Administration, Cutaneous, Administration, Oral, Adolescent, Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists, Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists, Adult, Aerosols, Affect, Age Factors, Age of Onset, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Air Pollutants, Alcohol Deterrents, Alcohol Drinking, Alcoholism, Alkaloids, Allosteric Regulation, alpha-Methyltyrosine, Alzheimer Disease, Amino Acids, Amino Acids, Branched-Chain, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Anabasine, Anal Canal, Analgesics, Analysis of Variance, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Animals, Suckling, Anthelmintics, Anti-Anxiety Agents, Anti-HIV Agents, Anticonvulsants, Antidepressive Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Antioxidants, Antipsychotic Agents, ...
1. A compound of the formula (I) ##STR00139## in which R1 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00140## where * represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, A in each individual occurrence represents C--R4 or N, where at most two ring members A represent N at the same time, and E in each individual occurrence represents C--R5 or N, where at most two ring members E represent N at the same time, R2 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00141## where # represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, G in each individual occurrence represents C--R6 or N, J represents O, S or N--R7, L in each individual occurrence represents C--R8 or N, where at most two ring members L represent N at the same time, and M in each individual occurrence represents C--R9 or N, where in total one or two ring members M represent N, where R4, R6, R8 and R9 are identical or different and in each individual case independently of one another represent hydrogen or a ...
genesis //gaba_count int count, tot_cnt str comp_name foreach comp_name ({el /SPnetwork/SPcell[]/##[TYPE=compartment]}) count = {getmsg {comp_name}/GABA -in -count} count = {count} -1 tot_cnt = {tot_cnt} + {count} end echo GABA messages to SP connections ,, gaba_count.log echo {tot_cnt} ,, gaba_count.log ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Enhanced catecholamine synthesis in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia caused by nerve stimulation: dissociation between ganglionic transmission and catecholamine synthesis. by Mitchell I. Steinberg et al.
Sephadex G-25 fractions of chick embryo extract affect the differentiation of cloned embryonic pigmented epithelial cells (PE) in culture. Both tyrosinase activity and amounts of melanin are markedly affected by the extract fractions. 5-Hydroxyindole decreased melanin accumulation in PE cells while alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine had no apparent effect on the process. Melanin disposal as well as biosynthesis may be important in controlling the accumulation of pigment in PE cells under culture conditions. Triiodothyronine greatly increased visible pigmentation and affected the morphology of cultured PE cells.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Flupirtine Maleate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Flupirtine Maleate is available on the Drugs.com website.
To clarify the role of the renal and hypothalamic noradrenergic systems in the antihypertensive actions of dietary potassium supplementation in salt-loaded spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we measured systolic blood pressure and norepinephrine turnover, which was determined from the rate of decline of tissue norepinephrine concentration after the administration of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, in 5-week-old SHR or age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats eating normal-NaCl (0.66%) or high-NaCl (8%) diet with supplementation of 8% KCl. In WKY rats, neither high-sodium nor high-potassium diets had an effect on blood pressure with no change in renal or hypothalamic norepinephrine turnover. In SHR, however, salt loading accelerated the development of hypertension. Potassium supplementation did not affect blood pressure in normal-sodium SHR but attenuated the rise in blood pressure with salt loads. Correspondingly, renal norepinephrine turnover in SHR was increased compared with that of WKY rats, and ...
Norepinephrine concentration and turnover (measured by the time-dependent loss of tissue [3H]norepinephrine specific activity) were reduced in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of obese Zucker rats but were normal in the heart. After acclimation to a 4 degrees C environment for 7 days, BAT norepinephrine turnover was increased to similar levels in lean and obese rats. After overfeeding with sucrose BAT norepinephrine turnover increased in lean rats but was unaffected in obese rats. Propranolol prevented the normalization of BAT mitochondrial GDP binding that followed adrenalectomy of obese rats. Adrenalectomy of obese rats restored BAT norepinephrine turnover to levels observed in lean rats. However, the increase in BAT GDP binding associated with sucrose overfeeding of adrenalectomized lean and obese rats was neither prevented by propranolol nor associated with a stimulation of norepinephrine turnover. The results suggest that the pituitary-adrenal endocrine axis may influence diet-related BAT ...
Flupirtine is used in the treatment of musculo-skeletal pain,headache,nerve pain,post operative pain,pain during menstruation.get complete information about flupirtine including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with flupirtine at 1mg.com
MS Model, Version 5.0 ********************** //*************************** MScell.p ********************** // Tom Sheehan [email protected] [email protected] 703-538-836 //***************************************************************************** *relative *cartesian *asymmetric *lambda_warn *set_global ELEAK -0.070 //*set_global RA 1.0 //*set_global RM 8.695652 1.8 1.83-0.0295 1.86-0.029 1.96-0.0275 2.16-0.025 *set_global RM 1.8 //1.8-0.03 //*set_global CM 0.010 //change Cm to account for no spines - make 3x higher? 0.03 0.025 *set_global CM 0.03 *set_global EREST_ACT -0.085 *start_cell /library/tert_dend tert_dend none 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend2 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend3 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend4 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend5 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend6 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend7 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend8 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend9 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend10 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 tert_dend11 . 35.927 0 0 0.80 *makeproto /library/tert_dend *start_cell /library/sec_dend sec_dend none ...
... - Pantothenic Acid, or Vitamin B5, is required for the production of cortico-steroid hormones in the adrenal glands. These hormones are the body