Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are genetic disorders that result from enzyme deficiencies or transport defects in the metabolic pathways responsible for breaking down and processing carbohydrates, leading to accumulation of toxic intermediates or energy deficits, and typically presenting with multisystem clinical manifestations.
An inborn error of metabolism marked by a defect in the lysosomal isoform of ALPHA-MANNOSIDASE activity that results in lysosomal accumulation of mannose-rich intermediate metabolites. Virtually all patients have psychomotor retardation, facial coarsening, and some degree of dysostosis multiplex. It is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Disaccharidases are a group of enzymes, including maltase, sucrase, lactase, and trehalase, found primarily in the brush border of the small intestine, responsible for breaking down complex disaccharides into simpler monosaccharides for absorption.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.

Targeted disruption of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase gene results in mice resembling a mild form of human alpha-mannosidosis. (1/56)

Alpha-mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase, which is involved in the degradation of asparagine-linked carbohydrate cores of glycoproteins. An alpha-mannosidosis mouse model was generated by targeted disruption of the gene for lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. Homozygous mutant animals exhibit alpha-mannosidase enzyme deficiency and elevated urinary secretion of mannose-containing oligosaccharides. Thin-layer chromatography revealed an accumulation of oligosaccharides in liver, kidney, spleen, testis and brain. The cellular alterations were characterized by multiple membrane-limited cytoplasmic vacuoles as seen for instance in liver, exocrine pancreas, kidney, thyroid gland, smooth muscle cells, osteocytes and in various neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The morphological lesions and their topographical distribution, as well as the biochemical alterations, closely resemble those reported for human alpha-mannosidosis. This mouse model will be a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis of inherited alpha-mannosidosis and may help to evaluate therapeutic approaches for lysosomal storage diseases.  (+info)

Glycoprotein lysosomal storage disorders: alpha- and beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency. (2/56)

Glycoproteinoses belong to the lysosomal storage disorders group. The common feature of these diseases is the deficiency of a lysosomal protein that is part of glycan catabolism. Most of the lysosomal enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of glycoprotein carbohydrate chains are exo-glycosidases, which stepwise remove terminal monosaccharides. Thus, the deficiency of a single enzyme causes the blockage of the entire pathway and induces a storage of incompletely degraded substances inside the lysosome. Different mutations may be observed in a single disease and in all cases account for the nonexpression of lysosomal glycosidase activity. Different clinical phenotypes generally characterize a specific disorder, which rather must be described as a continuum in severity, suggesting that other biochemical or environmental factors influence the course of the disease. This review provides details on clinical features, genotype-phenotype correlations, enzymology and biochemical storage of four human glycoprotein lysosomal storage disorders, respectively alpha- and beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency. Moreover, several animal disorders of glycoprotein metabolism have been found and constitute valuable models for the understanding of their human counterparts.  (+info)

Lysosomal storage disease caused by Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats. (3/56)

A neurologic disease characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, hyperesthesia, and muscle tremors of the head and neck was observed for 2 years in a flock of 28 Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats on a farm with 5 ha of pasture. Six newborns died during the first week of life, and five abortions were recorded. The predominant plant in the pasture was Sida carpinifolia. The disease was reproduced experimentally in two goats by administration of this plant. Three goats with spontaneous disease and the two experimental animals were euthanatized and necropsied. No significant gross lesions were observed. Fragments of several organs, including the central nervous system, were processed for histopathology. Small fragments of the cerebellar cortex, liver, and pancreas of two spontaneously poisoned goats and two experimentally poisoned goats were processed for electron microscopy. Multiple cytoplasm vacuoles in hepatocytes, acinar pancreatic cells, and neurons, especially Purkinje cells, were the most striking microscopic lesions in the five animals. Ultrastructural changes included membrane-bound vacuoles in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, acinar pancreatic cells, Purkinje cells, and the small neurons of the granular cell layer of the cerebellum. Paraffin-embedded sections of the cerebellum and pancreas were submitted for lectin histochemical analysis. The vacuoles in different cerebellar and acinar pancreatic cells reacted strongly to the following lectins: Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris, and succinylated Triticum vulgaris. The pattern of staining, analyzed in Purkinje cells and acinar pancreatic cells coincides with results reported for both swainsonine toxicosis and inherited mannosidosis.  (+info)

Recent progress in lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and its deficiency. (4/56)

Lysosomal alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24) is a major exoglycosidase in the glycoprotein degradation pathway. A deficiency of this enzyme causes the lysosomal storage disease, alpha-mannosidosis, which has been described in humans, cattle, domestic cats and guinea pigs. Recently, great progress has been made in studying the enzyme and its deficiency. This includes cloning of the gene encoding the enzyme, characterization of mutations related to the disease, establishment of valuable animal models, and encouraging results from bone marrow transplantation experiments.  (+info)

alpha-Mannosidosis in the guinea pig: cloning of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase cDNA and identification of a missense mutation causing alpha-mannosidosis. (5/56)

alpha-Mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. We report here the sequencing and expression of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase cDNA from normal and alpha-mannosidosis guinea pigs. The amino acid sequence of the guinea pig enzyme displayed 82-85% identity to the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase in other mammals. The cDNA of the alpha-mannosidosis guinea pig contained a missense mutation, 679C>T, leading to substitution of arginine by tryptophan at amino acid position 227 (R227W). The R227W allele segregated with the alpha-mannosidosis genotype in the guinea pig colony and introduction of R227W into the wild-type sequence eliminated the production of recombinant alpha-mannosidase activity in heterologous expression studies. Furthermore, the guinea pig mutation has been found in human patients. Our results strongly indicate that the 679C>T mutation causes alpha-mannosidosis and suggest that the guinea pig will be an excellent model for investigation of pathogenesis and evaluation of therapeutic strategies for human alpha-mannosidosis.  (+info)

Alpha-mannosidosis and mutational analysis in a Turkish patient. (6/56)

We present a case of alpha-mannosidosis with its mutational analysis. She was referred to our hospital with the provisional diagnosis of mucolipidosis. She was the first child of second-degree relative parents. She had a coarse face with flat and wide nasal bridge, hepatosplenomegaly, umbilical hernia, lumbar gibbus, motor and mental retardation and deafness. On peripheral blood smear, lymphocytes revealed vacuoles and neutrophils contained some granules resembling Reilly bodies seen in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Based on these findings, the diagnosis of alpha-mannosidosis was suspected. Her urine oligosaccharide chromatography showed an abnormal pattern with a heavy trisaccharide band. Enzyme studies on white cells confirmed a deficiency of alpha-mannosidase activity, which was 2.6 micromol/g/hr. Her DNA analysis showed a S453Y mutation.  (+info)

Bovine plasma beta-mannosidase activity and its potential use for beta-mannosidosis carrier detection. (7/56)

Plasma beta-mannosidase activities were determined for Salers cattle from 8 herds as an evaluation of this method for detection of beta-mannosidosis heterozygotes. Several biological factors, such as age, gender, herd, and risk of being a beta-mannosidosis carrier, were considered in this study. The mean enzyme activity for obligate heterozygotes (n = 8) was 55 U/ml (range = 43-65 U/ml), which was 59% of the mean enzyme activity for cattle that were low risk for being a carrier. These data indicate that bovine beta-mannosidosis is characterized by a gene dosage effect. The analytical and biological variation of plasma beta-mannosidase activity that was observed necessitates limiting the test to adult fullblood/purebred Salers cattle within a herd. Plasma beta-mannosidase analysis provides important information for intraherd selection of Salers cattle that are heterozygous for beta-mannosidosis.  (+info)

Intracellular transport of human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and alpha-mannosidosis-related mutants. (8/56)

Human LAMAN (lysosomal a-mannosidase) was synthesized as a 120 kDa precursor in transfected COS cells [African-green-monkey kidney cells], which was partly secreted as a single-chain form and partly sorted to the lysosomes being subsequently cleaved into three peptides of 70, 40 and 15 kDa respectively. Both the secreted and the lysosomal forms contained endo H (endoglucosidase H)-resistant glycans, suggesting a common pathway through the trans-Golgi network. A fraction of LAMAN was retained intracellularly as a single-chain endo H-sensitive form, probably in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The inherited lack of LAMAN causes the autosomal recessive storage disease a-mannosidosis. To understand the biochemical consequences of the disease-causing mutations, 11 missense mutations and two in-frame deletions were introduced into human LAMAN cDNA by in vitro mutagenesis and the resulting proteins were expressed in COS cells. Some selected mutants were also expressed in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. T355P (Thr355Pro), P356R, W714R, R750W and L809P LAMANs as well as both deletion mutants were misfolded and arrested in the ER as inactive single-chain forms. Six of the mutants were transported to the lysosomes, either with less than 5% of normal specific activity (H72L, D196E/N and R220H LAMANs) or with more than 30% of normal specific activity (E402K LAMAN). F320L LAMAN resulted in much lower activity in Chinese-hamster ovary cells when compared with COS cells. Modelling into the three-dimensional structure revealed that the mutants with highly reduced specific activities contained substitutions of amino acids involved in the catalysis, either co-ordinating Zn2+ (His72 and Asp196), stabilizing the active-site nucleophile (Arg220) or positioning the active-site residue Asp319 (Phe320).  (+info)

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down and process carbohydrates, which are sugars and starches that provide energy for the body. These disorders are caused by defects in enzymes or transport proteins that play a critical role in the metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

There are several types of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism, including:

1. Galactosemia: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose, which is found in milk and other dairy products. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.
2. Glycogen storage diseases: These disorders affect the body's ability to store and break down glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a source of energy for the body. There are several types of glycogen storage diseases, each caused by a deficiency in a different enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism.
3. Hereditary fructose intolerance: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar fructose, which is found in fruits and sweeteners. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase B.
4. Pentose phosphate pathway disorders: These disorders affect the body's ability to metabolize certain sugars and generate energy through the pentose phosphate pathway. They are caused by defects in enzymes involved in this pathway.

Symptoms of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and its severity. Treatment typically involves dietary restrictions, supplementation with necessary enzymes or cofactors, and management of complications. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy or even organ transplantation may be considered.

Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-mannosidase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down complex sugar molecules called mannose-rich oligosaccharides, which are found on the surface of many different types of cells in the body.

When the alpha-mannosidase enzyme is deficient or not working properly, these sugar molecules accumulate inside the lysosomes (the recycling centers of the cell) and cause damage to various tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

The severity of the disease can vary widely, depending on the amount of functional alpha-mannosidase enzyme activity present in an individual's cells. Three main types of alpha-mannosidosis have been described: mild, moderate, and severe. The severe form is usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood and is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss, and recurrent respiratory infections.

The moderate form of the disease may not be diagnosed until later in childhood or even adulthood, and it is generally milder than the severe form. Symptoms can include mild to moderate intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss, and speech difficulties. The mild form of alpha-mannosidosis may not cause any noticeable symptoms until much later in life, and some individuals with this form of the disease may never experience any significant health problems.

Currently, there is no cure for alpha-mannosidosis, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms of the disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has shown promise in treating some forms of the disorder, but it is not yet widely available. Bone marrow transplantation has also been used to treat alpha-mannosidosis, with varying degrees of success.

Mannosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of mannose residues from glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, and glycolipids. These enzymes play a crucial role in the processing and degradation of N-linked glycans, which are carbohydrate structures attached to proteins in eukaryotic cells.

There are several types of mannosidases, including alpha-mannosidase and beta-mannosidase, which differ in their specificity for the type of linkage they cleave. Alpha-mannosidases hydrolyze alpha-1,2-, alpha-1,3-, alpha-1,6-mannosidic bonds, while beta-mannosidases hydrolyze beta-1,4-mannosidic bonds.

Deficiencies in mannosidase activity can lead to various genetic disorders, such as alpha-mannosidosis and beta-mannosidosis, which are characterized by the accumulation of unprocessed glycoproteins and subsequent cellular dysfunction.

Disaccharidases are a group of enzymes found in the brush border of the small intestine. They play an essential role in digesting complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream. The three main disaccharidases are:

1. Maltase-glucoamylase: This enzyme breaks down maltose (a disaccharide formed from two glucose molecules) and maltotriose (a trisaccharide formed from three glucose molecules) into individual glucose units.
2. Sucrase: This enzyme is responsible for breaking down sucrose (table sugar, a disaccharide composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule) into its component monosaccharides, glucose and fructose.
3. Lactase: This enzyme breaks down lactose (a disaccharide formed from one glucose and one galactose molecule) into its component monosaccharides, glucose and galactose.

Deficiencies in these disaccharidases can lead to various digestive disorders, such as lactose intolerance (due to lactase deficiency), sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, or congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID). These conditions can cause symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps after consuming foods containing the specific disaccharide.

Mannose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is similar in structure to glucose. It is a hexose, meaning it contains six carbon atoms. Mannose is a stereoisomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement of its atoms.

Mannose is not as commonly found in foods as other simple sugars, but it can be found in some fruits, such as cranberries, blueberries, and peaches, as well as in certain vegetables, like sweet potatoes and turnips. It is also found in some dietary fibers, such as those found in beans and whole grains.

In the body, mannose can be metabolized and used for energy, but it is also an important component of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that play critical roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Mannose has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it can inhibit the attachment of certain bacteria to the cells lining the urinary tract. Additionally, mannose-binding lectins have been investigated for their potential role in the immune response to viral and bacterial infections.

Alpha-Mannosidase is an enzyme that belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 47. It is responsible for cleaving alpha-1,3-, alpha-1,6-mannosidic linkages in N-linked oligosaccharides during the process of glycoprotein degradation. A deficiency or malfunction of this enzyme can lead to a lysosomal storage disorder known as alpha-Mannosidosis.

Swainsonine is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a toxin that can cause a medical condition known as "locoism" in animals. Swainsonine is produced by certain plants, including some species of the genera Swainsona and Astragalus, which are commonly known as locoweeds.

Swainsonine inhibits an enzyme called alpha-mannosidase, leading to abnormal accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in various tissues and organs. This can result in a range of clinical signs, including neurological symptoms such as tremors, ataxia (loss of coordination), and behavioral changes; gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased appetite; and reproductive problems.

Locoism is most commonly seen in grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses that consume large quantities of locoweeds over an extended period. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and prevention through management practices such as rotational grazing and avoiding the introduction of toxic plants into pastures is often the best approach.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, silver-white, lustrous, and brittle metal that is found naturally only in chemically combined form, except for small amounts found in meteorites. Cobalt is used primarily in the production of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys, as well as in the manufacture of batteries, magnets, and pigments.

In a medical context, cobalt is sometimes used in the form of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope, for cancer treatment through radiation therapy. Cobalt-60 emits gamma rays that can be directed at tumors to destroy cancer cells. Additionally, small amounts of cobalt are present in some vitamin B12 supplements and fortified foods, as cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12. However, exposure to high levels of cobalt can be harmful and may cause health effects such as allergic reactions, lung damage, heart problems, and neurological issues.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound with various applications in medicine. EDTA is a synthetic amino acid that acts as a chelating agent, which means it can bind to metallic ions and form stable complexes.

In medicine, EDTA is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury toxicity. It works by binding to the toxic metal ions in the body, forming a stable compound that can be excreted through urine. This helps reduce the levels of harmful metals in the body and alleviate their toxic effects.

EDTA is also used in some diagnostic tests, such as the determination of calcium levels in blood. Additionally, it has been explored as a potential therapy for conditions like atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, although its efficacy in these areas remains controversial and unproven.

It is important to note that EDTA should only be administered under medical supervision due to its potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of its use.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT, or α1-antiproteinase, A1AP) is a protein that is primarily produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream. It belongs to a group of proteins called serine protease inhibitors, which help regulate inflammation and protect tissues from damage caused by enzymes involved in the immune response.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin is particularly important for protecting the lungs from damage caused by neutrophil elastase, an enzyme released by white blood cells called neutrophils during inflammation. In the lungs, AAT binds to and inhibits neutrophil elastase, preventing it from degrading the extracellular matrix and damaging lung tissue.

Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease. The most common cause of AAT deficiency is a genetic mutation that results in abnormal folding and accumulation of the protein within liver cells, leading to reduced levels of functional AAT in the bloodstream. This condition is called alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and can be inherited in an autosomal codominant manner. Individuals with severe AATD may require augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of purified human AAT to help prevent lung damage.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Alpha adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are classified into two main categories: α1-ARs and α2-ARs.

The activation of α1-ARs leads to the activation of phospholipase C, which results in an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of various signaling pathways that mediate diverse physiological responses such as vasoconstriction, smooth muscle contraction, and cell proliferation.

On the other hand, α2-ARs are primarily located on presynaptic nerve terminals where they function to inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine. The activation of α2-ARs also leads to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels, which can mediate various physiological responses such as sedation, analgesia, and hypotension.

Overall, α-ARs play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including cardiovascular function, mood, and cognition, and are also involved in the pathophysiology of several diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the body's response to low oxygen levels, also known as hypoxia. HIF-1 is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: an alpha subunit (HIF-1α) and a beta subunit (HIF-1β).

The alpha subunit, HIF-1α, is the regulatory subunit that is subject to oxygen-dependent degradation. Under normal oxygen conditions (normoxia), HIF-1α is constantly produced in the cell but is rapidly degraded by proteasomes due to hydroxylation of specific proline residues by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs). This hydroxylation reaction requires oxygen as a substrate, and under hypoxic conditions, the activity of PHDs is inhibited, leading to the stabilization and accumulation of HIF-1α.

Once stabilized, HIF-1α translocates to the nucleus, where it heterodimerizes with HIF-1β and binds to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding results in the activation of gene transcription programs that promote cellular adaptation to low oxygen levels. These adaptive responses include increased erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and pH regulation, among others.

Therefore, HIF-1α is a critical regulator of the body's response to hypoxia, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a type of cholinergic receptor found in the nervous system that is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is a ligand-gated ion channel that is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, including in the hippocampus, cortex, thalamus, and autonomic ganglia.

The α7nAChR is composed of five subunits arranged around a central pore, and it has a high permeability to calcium ions (Ca2+). When acetylcholine binds to the receptor, it triggers a conformational change that opens the ion channel, allowing Ca2+ to flow into the cell. This influx of Ca2+ can activate various intracellular signaling pathways and have excitatory or inhibitory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and function of the receptor.

The α7nAChR has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, attention, sensory perception, and motor control. It has also been studied as a potential therapeutic target for various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and pain.

Integrin α3β1 is a type of cell surface receptor that is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial and endothelial cells. It is composed of two subunits, α3 and β1, which form a heterodimeric complex that plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesion and signaling.

Integrin α3β1 binds to several extracellular matrix proteins, such as laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV, and mediates various cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It also participates in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell behavior and tissue homeostasis.

Mutations in the genes encoding integrin α3β1 have been associated with several human diseases, including blistering skin disorders, kidney disease, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of integrin α3β1 is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Integrin α4 (also known as CD49d or ITGA4) is a subunit of integrin proteins, which are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Integrin α4 typically pairs with β1 (CD29 or ITGB1) or β7 (ITGB7) subunits to form integrins α4β1 and α4β7, respectively.

Integrin α4β1, also known as very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), is widely expressed on various hematopoietic cells, including lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. It plays crucial roles in the adhesion, migration, and homing of these cells to secondary lymphoid organs, as well as in the recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory sites. Integrin α4β1 binds to its ligands, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin, via the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif.

Integrin α4β7, on the other hand, is primarily expressed on gut-homing lymphocytes and interacts with mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), a protein mainly found in the high endothelial venules of intestinal Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. This interaction facilitates the trafficking of immune cells to the gastrointestinal tract, where they participate in immune responses against pathogens and maintain gut homeostasis.

In summary, Integrin α4 is a crucial subunit of integrins that mediates cell adhesion, migration, and homing to specific tissues through its interactions with various ligands. Dysregulation of integrin α4 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer metastasis.

Integrin α6 (also known as CD49f) is a type of integrin, which is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrins play crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Integrin α6 is a 130 kDa glycoprotein that pairs with integrin β1, β4 or β5 to form three distinct heterodimeric complexes: α6β1, α6β4, and α6β5. Among these, the α6β4 integrin is the most extensively studied. It specifically binds to laminins in the basement membrane and plays essential roles in maintaining epithelial tissue architecture and function.

The α6β4 integrin has a unique structure with an extended cytoplasmic domain of β4 that can interact with intracellular signaling molecules, cytoskeletal proteins, and other adhesion receptors. This interaction allows the formation of stable adhesion complexes called hemidesmosomes, which anchor epithelial cells to the basement membrane and provide mechanical stability to tissues.

Mutations in integrin α6 or its partners can lead to various human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and mucous membranes that blister and tear easily.

Integrin α5β1, also known as very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) or fibronectin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits: α5 and β1. This integrin is widely expressed in various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

Integrin α5β1 plays a crucial role in mediating cell-matrix adhesion by binding to the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present in the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The interaction between integrin α5β1 and fibronectin is essential for various biological processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, this integrin has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including tumor progression, angiogenesis, and fibrosis.

Integrin α4β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits, α4 and β1. It is involved in various cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, and signaling. This integrin plays a crucial role in the immune system by mediating the interaction between leukocytes (white blood cells) and the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. The activation of Integrin α4β1 allows leukocytes to roll along and then firmly adhere to the endothelium, followed by their migration into surrounding tissues, particularly during inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, Integrin α4β1 also interacts with extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and helps regulate cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation in various cell types.

Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of inflamation and immune responses. IL-1α is primarily produced by activated macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. It is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that binds to the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and activates signaling pathways leading to the expression of genes involved in inflammation, fever, and cellular activation. IL-1α is involved in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, bone remodeling, and response to infection or injury. Dysregulation of IL-1α has been implicated in several pathological conditions including autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Integrin α2β1, also known as very late antigen-2 (VLA-2) or laminin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α2 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α2β1 is widely expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some hematopoietic cells. It functions as a receptor for several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, and V), laminin, and fibronectin. The binding of integrin α2β1 to these ECM components mediates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival, thereby regulating various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor progression.

In addition, integrin α2β1 has been implicated in several diseases, including fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, targeting this integrin with therapeutic strategies may provide potential benefits for treating these conditions.

Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (also known as α1-adrenoreceptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are primarily found in the smooth muscle of various organs, including the vasculature, heart, liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system.

When an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor is activated by a catecholamine, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of phospholipase C, which in turn activates protein kinase C and increases intracellular calcium levels. This ultimately results in smooth muscle contraction, increased heart rate and force of contraction, and vasoconstriction.

Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors are also found in the central nervous system, where they play a role in regulating wakefulness, attention, and anxiety. There are three subtypes of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (α1A, α1B, and α1D), each with distinct physiological roles and pharmacological properties.

In summary, alpha-1 adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines and mediates various physiological responses, including smooth muscle contraction, increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction, and regulation of wakefulness and anxiety.

Integrin α5 (also known as CD49e) is a subunit of the heterodimeric integrin receptor called very late antigen-5 (VLA-5). Integrins are transmembrane adhesion receptors that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The α5β1 integrin, formed by the association of α5 and β1 subunits, specifically recognizes and binds to fibronectin, a major extracellular matrix protein. This binding event is essential for various biological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

In summary, Integrin alpha5 (α5) is an essential subunit of the α5β1 integrin receptor that mediates cell-fibronectin interactions and contributes to several vital cellular functions.

Integrin α1β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-1 (VLA-1) or CD49a/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α1 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α1β1 is primarily expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some immune cells. This integrin binds to several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, IV), laminin, and fibronectin, mediating cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, α1β1 integrin has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, fibrosis, and tumor progression.

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in various organs and tissues throughout the body.

Activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors leads to a variety of physiological responses, including inhibition of neurotransmitter release, vasoconstriction, and reduced heart rate. These receptors play important roles in regulating blood pressure, pain perception, and various cognitive and emotional processes.

There are several subtypes of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, including alpha-2A, alpha-2B, and alpha-2C, which may have distinct physiological functions and be targeted by different drugs. For example, certain medications used to treat hypertension or opioid withdrawal target alpha-2 adrenergic receptors to produce their therapeutic effects.

Integrin α6β1, also known as CD49f/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α6 and β1 subunits. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hematopoietic cells. Integrin α6β1 plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesion, particularly to the laminin component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This receptor is involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, integrin α6β1 has been implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in certain cancers.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Integrin α6β4 is a type of cell surface receptor that is composed of two subunits, α6 and β4. It is also known as CD49f/CD104. This integrin is primarily expressed in epithelial cells and plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, and signal transduction.

Integrin α6β4 specifically binds to laminin-332 (also known as laminin-5), a component of the basement membrane, and forms a stable anchorage complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. This interaction is critical for maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell behavior during processes such as wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Mutations in the genes encoding integrin α6β4 have been associated with various human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering. Additionally, integrin α6β4 has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis, as its expression is often upregulated in tumor cells and contributes to their invasive behavior.

Integrins are a family of cell-surface receptors that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and signaling. Integrin alpha chains are one of the two subunits that make up an integrin heterodimer, with the other subunit being an integrin beta chain.

Integrin alpha chains are transmembrane glycoproteins consisting of a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic tail. The extracellular domain contains several domains that mediate ligand binding, while the cytoplasmic tail interacts with various cytoskeletal proteins and signaling molecules to regulate intracellular signaling pathways.

There are 18 different integrin alpha chains known in humans, each of which can pair with one or more beta chains to form distinct integrin heterodimers. These heterodimers exhibit unique ligand specificities and functions, allowing them to mediate diverse cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions.

In summary, integrin alpha chains are essential subunits of integrin receptors that play crucial roles in regulating cell adhesion, migration, and signaling by mediating interactions between cells and their extracellular environment.

Integrins are a type of cell-adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. They are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits, which form more than 24 distinct integrin heterodimers in humans.

Integrins bind to specific ligands, such as ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin), cell surface molecules, and soluble factors, through their extracellular domains. The intracellular domains of integrins interact with the cytoskeleton and various signaling proteins, allowing them to transduce signals from the ECM into the cell (outside-in signaling) and vice versa (inside-out signaling).

These molecular interactions are essential for numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of integrin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

Integrin α1 (also known as ITGA1 or CD49a) is a subunit of a heterodimeric integrin receptor, specifically the collagen receptor α1β1. Integrins are transmembrane proteins that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The α1β1 integrin binds to various collagen types, such as collagens I, II, III, and V, and mediates cellular responses upon binding to these ECM components.

The gene encoding Integrin α1 is located on chromosome 5 (5q31) in humans. Mutations in the ITGA1 gene can lead to various diseases, including leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II and some forms of epidermolysis bullosa.

Alpha rhythm is a type of brain wave that is typically observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of normal, awake individuals when they have their eyes closed. It is characterized by sinusoidal waves with a frequency range of 8-13 Hz and is most prominent over the occipital region of the head, which is located at the back of the skull above the brain's visual cortex.

Alpha rhythm is typically associated with relaxed wakefulness, and its presence may indicate that an individual is awake but not engaged in any mentally demanding tasks. It can be blocked or suppressed by various stimuli, such as opening one's eyes, hearing a loud noise, or engaging in mental activity.

Disruptions in alpha rhythm have been observed in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the clinical significance of these abnormalities.

Integrin α3 (also known as ITGA3) is a subunit of a type of cell-surface receptor called an integrin. Integrins are involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, and play important roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Integrin α3 combines with the β1 subunit to form the integrin heterodimer α3β1, which is widely expressed in many tissues including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Integrin α3β1 binds to various ECM proteins such as laminin-5, fibronectin, and collagen IV, and mediates cell adhesion and migration on these substrates.

Mutations in the ITGA3 gene have been associated with several human genetic disorders, including epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (EB-PA), a severe form of inherited skin fragility disorder, and Adams-Oliver syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by scalp defects and limb abnormalities.

Alpha 1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic disorder that results from insufficient levels of the protective protein AAT in the blood and lungs. This protein is produced by the liver and helps to protect the lungs from damage caused by inflammation and the action of enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, that are released during the immune response.

In people with AAT deficiency, the lack of adequate AAT levels leads to an uncontrolled increase in neutrophil elastase activity, which can cause damage to lung tissue and result in emphysema, a condition characterized by shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. Additionally, some individuals with AAT deficiency may develop liver disease due to the accumulation of abnormal AAT proteins in liver cells.

There are different variants or genotypes associated with AAT deficiency, with the most common and severe form being the PiZZ genotype. This variant is caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, which encodes for the AAT protein. Individuals who inherit two copies of this mutated gene (one from each parent) will have very low levels of AAT in their blood and are at increased risk of developing emphysema and liver disease.

Diagnosis of AAT deficiency typically involves measuring AAT levels in the blood and performing genetic testing to identify specific variants of the SERPINA1 gene. Treatment may include lifestyle modifications, such as smoking cessation, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids to manage lung symptoms, as well as augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of AAT protein to help slow disease progression in individuals with severe deficiency. Liver transplantation may be considered for those with advanced liver disease.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Nicotinic receptors are a type of ligand-gated ion channel receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the alkaloid nicotine. They are widely distributed throughout the nervous system and play important roles in various physiological processes, including neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Nicotinic receptors are composed of five subunits that form a ion channel pore, which opens to allow the flow of cations (positively charged ions) when the receptor is activated by acetylcholine or nicotine. There are several subtypes of nicotinic receptors, which differ in their subunit composition and functional properties. These receptors have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are a type of medication that binds to and activates adrenergic alpha receptors, which are found in the nervous system and other tissues throughout the body. These receptors are activated naturally by chemicals called catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), that are released in response to stress or excitement.

When adrenergic alpha-agonists bind to these receptors, they mimic the effects of catecholamines and cause various physiological responses, such as vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased heart rate and force of heart contractions, and relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways.

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), glaucoma, nasal congestion, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of adrenergic alpha-agonists include phenylephrine, clonidine, and guanfacine.

It's important to note that adrenergic alpha-agonists can have both beneficial and harmful effects, depending on the specific medication, dosage, and individual patient factors. Therefore, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

PPAR-alpha (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha) is a type of nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor, regulating the expression of specific genes involved in lipid metabolism. It plays a crucial role in the breakdown of fatty acids and the synthesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL or "good" cholesterol) in the liver. PPAR-alpha activation also has anti-inflammatory effects, making it a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.

It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.

Adrenergic alpha-antagonists, also known as alpha-blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline at alpha-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the smooth muscle of blood vessels, the heart, the genitourinary system, and the eyes.

When alpha-blockers bind to these receptors, they prevent the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response. This results in a relaxation of the smooth muscle, leading to vasodilation (widening of blood vessels), decreased blood pressure, and increased blood flow.

Alpha-blockers are used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate), pheochromocytoma (a rare tumor of the adrenal gland), and certain types of glaucoma.

Examples of alpha-blockers include doxazosin, prazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin. Side effects of alpha-blockers may include dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, weakness, and orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing).

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha (HNF1A) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development and function of the liver. It belongs to the family of winged helix transcription factors and is primarily expressed in the hepatocytes, which are the major cell type in the liver.

HNF1A regulates the expression of various genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis, and drug metabolism. Mutations in the HNF1A gene have been associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), a form of diabetes that is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and often diagnosed in early adulthood. These mutations can lead to impaired insulin secretion and decreased glucose tolerance, resulting in the development of diabetes.

In addition to its role in diabetes, HNF1A has also been implicated in liver diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Dysregulation of HNF1A has been shown to contribute to the development and progression of these conditions by altering the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin (ACT), also known as Serpin A1, is a protein found in the blood that belongs to the serine protease inhibitor family. It functions to regulate enzymes that break down other proteins in the body. ACT helps to prevent excessive and potentially harmful proteolytic activity, which can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Deficiency or dysfunction of alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin has been associated with several medical conditions, including:

1. Alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin Deficiency: A rare genetic disorder characterized by low levels of ACT in the blood, which can lead to increased risk of developing lung and liver diseases.
2. Alzheimer's Disease: Increased levels of ACT have been found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder.
3. Cancer: Elevated levels of ACT have been observed in various types of cancer, including lung, breast, and prostate cancers, potentially contributing to tumor growth and metastasis.
4. Inflammatory and immune-mediated disorders: Increased ACT levels are associated with several inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and vasculitis, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of the immune response.
5. Cardiovascular diseases: Elevated ACT levels have been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Understanding the role of alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin in various physiological and pathological processes can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-α) is a type of growth factor, specifically a peptide growth factor, that plays a role in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It belongs to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of growth factors. TGF-α binds to the EGF receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells and activates intracellular signaling pathways that promote cellular growth and division.

TGF-α is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue repair. However, abnormal regulation of TGF-α has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. Overexpression or hyperactivation of TGF-α can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor progression by stimulating the proliferation of cancer cells and inhibiting their differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

TGF-α is produced by various cell types, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. It can be secreted in a membrane-bound form (pro-TGF-α) or as a soluble protein after proteolytic cleavage.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Adrenergic alpha-1 receptor antagonists, also known as alpha-blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine at alpha-1 receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the smooth muscle of blood vessels, the bladder, and the eye.

When norepinephrine binds to alpha-1 receptors, it causes smooth muscle to contract, leading to vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased blood pressure, and other effects. By blocking these receptors, alpha-blockers can cause relaxation of smooth muscle, leading to vasodilation (expansion of blood vessels), decreased blood pressure, and other effects.

Alpha-blockers are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate), and pheochromocytoma (a rare tumor of the adrenal gland). Examples of alpha-blockers include doxazosin, prazosin, and terazosin.

It's important to note that while alpha-blockers can be effective in treating certain medical conditions, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, lightheadedness, and orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure when standing up). As with any medication, it's important to use alpha-blockers under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Alpha karyopherins, also known as importin-α or karyopherin-α, are a family of transport receptors that play a crucial role in the nuclear transport of proteins. They facilitate the entry of specific proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) into the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex (NPC).

In this process, alpha karyopherins first bind to the NLS-containing protein in the cytoplasm. This complex then interacts with beta karyopherins (importin-β or karyopherin-β) and forms a trimeric complex. The trimeric complex is then transported through the NPC into the nucleus, where RanGTP binds to the importin-β component, causing dissociation of the complex. The alpha karyopherins, along with importin-β, are subsequently exported back to the cytoplasm via a separate nuclear export pathway for reuse in subsequent transport cycles.

There are several isoforms of alpha karyopherins, each recognizing specific NLS sequences and playing distinct roles in various cellular processes, such as gene regulation, DNA repair, and signal transduction. Dysregulation of alpha karyopherins has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

**Prazosin** is an antihypertensive drug, which belongs to the class of medications called alpha-blockers. It works by relaxing the muscles in the blood vessels, which helps to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow. Prazosin is primarily used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), but it may also be used for the management of symptoms related to enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia).

In a medical definition context:

Prazosin: A selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. It acts by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the smooth muscle of blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation and decreased peripheral vascular resistance. This leads to a reduction in blood pressure and an improvement in urinary symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate.

GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Alpha-Mannosidosis OMIM entries on Alpha-Mannosidosis Alpha-mannosidosis type 1 at NIH's ... In livestock alpha-mannosidosis is caused by chronic poisoning with swainsonine from locoweed. Alpha-mannosidosis is a lifelong ... "Missense and nonsense mutations in the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase gene (MANB) in severe and mild forms of alpha-mannosidosis ... rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/alpha-mannosidosis/ Guide to understanding mannosidosis. Society for Mucopolysaccharide Diseases ...
... is a deficiency in mannosidase, an enzyme. There are two types: Alpha-mannosidosis and Beta-mannosidosis. ... Swainsonine Mannosidosis at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (All stub articles, ...
GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Alpha-Mannosidosis OMIM entries on Alpha-Mannosidosis alpha-Mannosidase at the U.S. National ... Malm D, Nilssen Ø (2008). "Alpha-mannosidosis". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 3: 21. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-3-21. PMC 2515294. PMID ... A deficiency can lead to α-mannosidosis. "PyMol". Schrodinger. Retrieved 2011-09-14. Suits, MDL; Yanping Zhu; Edward J. Taylor ...
... alpha-mannosidosis, Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Ras pathway disorders, transient neonatal ... ". "Omim - Mannosidosis, Alpha B, Lysosomal; Mansa - Omim - Ncbi". Cawson, R. A.; Odell, E. W. (2002). Cawson's essentials of ...
LMNA Mannosidosis, alpha-, types I and II; 248500; MAN2B1 Mannosidosis, beta; 248510; MANBA Maple syrup urine disease, type Ia ... RAG1 Alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor deficiency; 262850; PLI Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency; 203740; OGDH Alpha- ... NLRP3 Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta; 252500; GNPTAB Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta; 252600; GNPTAB Mucolipidosis III gamma; 252605 ... methylacetoacetic aciduria; 203750; ACAT1 Alpha-thalassemia myelodysplasia syndrome, somatic; 300448; ATRX Alpha-thalassemia ...
... and skeletal abnormalities in children with alpha-mannosidosis. After beginning to provide clinical services for children with ... "Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for alpha-mannosidosis: an analysis of 17 patients". Bone Marrow Transplant. 47 (3): 352-9. doi: ...
"Specificity studies on alpha-mannosidases using oligosaccharides from mannosidosis urine as substrates". Biochimica et ...
"Alpha-mannosidosis in goats caused by the swainsonine-containing plant Ipomoea verbascoidea". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic ... Disruption of Golgi alpha-mannosidase II with swainsonine induces hybrid-type glycans. These glycans have a Man5GlcNAc2 core ... It is a potent inhibitor of Golgi alpha-mannosidase II, an immunomodulator, and a potential chemotherapy drug. As a toxin in ... Castanospermine Mannosidosis "NCATS Inxight: Drugs". drugs.ncats.io. Retrieved 2020-01-22. Stegelmeier BL, Molyneux RJ, Elbein ...
The plant contains the alkaloid swainsonine causing alpha-mannosidosis, a risk to grazing livestock. In 2014, thousands of ...
There are two types: alpha-Mannosidase beta-Mannosidase A deficiency is associated with mannosidosis. A family of mannosidases ...
... to distinguish between alpha-mannosidosis and beta-mannosidosis. There is currently no treatment available; individuals ... Beta-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Affected individuals appear normal at birth, and can have a ... "beta-mannosidosis". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-07-13. Enns, Gregory M.; Steiner, Robert D.; Cowan, Tina M. (2009 ... Beta-mannosidosis, also called lysosomal beta-mannosidase deficiency, is a disorder of oligosaccharide metabolism caused by ...
Alpha-mannosidosis is caused by genetic changes in the MAN2B1 gene, which codes for the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase enzyme. ... Velmanase alfa is indicated for the treatment of the non-central nervous system manifestations of alpha-mannosidosis. Alpha- ... is a medication used for the treatment of alpha-mannosidosis. Velmanase alfa is a recombinant human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase ... Alpha-mannosidosis affects about 1 in every 500,000 people worldwide. The effectiveness of velmanase alfa was evaluated in ...
... and can cleave all known types of alpha-mannosidic linkages. Defects in the gene cause lysosomal alpha-mannosidosis (AM), a ... The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides, ... A domain, which is found in the central region adopts a structure consisting of three alpha helices, in an immunoglobulin/ ... The domain is predominantly found in the enzyme alpha-mannosidase. Henrissat B, Callebaut I, Fabrega S, Lehn P, Mornon JP, ...
... alpha-mannosidosis Neoplastic - basal-cell carcinoma, sebaceous gland tumours Drug sensitivity - Persians are more prone to ...
Wolman disease Oligosaccharide Alpha-mannosidosis Beta-mannosidosis Aspartylglucosaminuria Fucosidosis Lysosomal transport ... gangliosidoses Alpha-galactosidase Fabry disease (alpha-galactosidase A) Schindler disease (alpha-galactosidase B) Beta- ... Mannosidosis Molecular chaperone therapy Platt, Frances M.; d'Azzo, Alessandra; Davidson, Beverly L.; Neufeld, Elizabeth F.; ...
... alpha-mannosidosis MeSH C18.452.648.202.607.750 - beta-mannosidosis MeSH C18.452.648.202.670 - mucolipidoses MeSH C18.452. ... alpha-mannosidosis MeSH C18.452.648.595.577.750 - beta-mannosidosis MeSH C18.452.648.595.600 - mucopolysaccharidoses MeSH ...
... alpha-mannosidosis MeSH C16.320.565.202.607.750 - beta-mannosidosis MeSH C16.320.565.202.670 - mucolipidoses MeSH C16.320. ... alpha-mannosidosis MeSH C16.320.565.580.577.750 - beta-mannosidosis MeSH C16.320.565.580.600 - mucopolysaccharidoses MeSH ... alpha-thalassemia MeSH C16.320.070.875.150 - beta-thalassemia MeSH C16.320.077.090 - anemia, Diamond-Blackfan MeSH C16.320. ... alpha-thalassemia MeSH C16.320.365.826.100.350 - hydrops fetalis MeSH C16.320.365.826.150 - beta-thalassemia MeSH C16.320. ...
... a daemon on Unix-like operating systems Alpha-mannosidosis, a lysosomal storage disorder Aircraft Manufacturing and Design ...
Fucosidosis Aspartylglucosaminuria Alpha-mannosidosis Other Wolman disease (acid lipase deficiency) Immunodeficiencies T-cell ...
Acromegaly Alpha-mannosidosis type II Aspartylglycosaminuria Battaglia Neri syndrome Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome ... alpha B lysosomal) McCune-Albright syndrome Mental retardation (X-linked - epilepsy - progressive joint contractures - typical ... I cell disease Immunodeficiency due to defect in MAPBP-interacting protein Infantile sialic acid storage disorder Mannosidosis ...
... develop a lysosomal storage disease similar to genetic mannosidosis. Swainsonine inhibits a lysosomal enzyme, alpha-mannosidase ... Stegelmeier BL, Ralphs MH, Gardner DR, Molyneux RJ, James LF (October 1994). "Serum alpha-mannosidase activity and the ... As the estimated intake of swainsonine increased, blood serum alpha-mannosidase activity and albumin decreased, and alkaline ... and analyzing blood serum for alpha-mannosidase activity and swainsonine. In mule deer, clinical signs of locoism are similar ...
Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency Alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency Alpha-mannosidosis Alpha-sarcoglycanopathy Alpha- ... thalassemia Alpha thalassemia abnormal morphogenesis Alpha-thalassemia mental retardation syndrome Alport syndrome Alport ... totalis Alopecia universalis Alopecia universalis onychodystrophy vitiligo Alpers disease Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency Alpha- ...
This lysosomal storage disorder is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme alpha-NAGA (alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase), ... International Society for Mannosidosis & Related Diseases, ISMRD). Retrieved 2008-11-13. "Schindler Disease". National ... A deficiency of the alpha-NAGA enzyme leads to an accumulation of glycosphingolipids throughout the body. This accumulation of ... Schindler disease, also known as Kanzaki disease and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency, is a rare disease found in ...
... genetic types Mannosidosis Manouvrier syndrome Mansonelliasis Mantle cell lymphoma Marashi-Gorlin syndrome Marburg fever ... Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5-alpha- ...
Johnson, William G. (2015). "Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation: Sialidosis, Fucosidosis, α-Mannosidosis, β-Mannosidosis, ... If they are present, a skin or blood sample will be taken to test for below-normal amounts of alpha-fucosidase. Fucosidosis is ... The gene encoding the alpha-fucosidase, FUCA 1, was found to be located to the short arm of chromosome 1p36 - p34, by Carrit ... The FUCA1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called alpha-L-fucosidase. The enzyme plays a role in the breakdown ...
GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Alpha-Mannosidosis OMIM entries on Alpha-Mannosidosis Alpha-mannosidosis type 1 at NIHs ... In livestock alpha-mannosidosis is caused by chronic poisoning with swainsonine from locoweed. Alpha-mannosidosis is a lifelong ... "Missense and nonsense mutations in the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase gene (MANB) in severe and mild forms of alpha-mannosidosis ... rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/alpha-mannosidosis/ Guide to understanding mannosidosis. Society for Mucopolysaccharide Diseases ...
Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder that causes problems in many organs and tissues of the body. Explore symptoms, ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/alpha-mannosidosis/ Alpha-mannosidosis. ... Mutations in the MAN2B1 gene cause alpha-mannosidosis. This gene provides instructions for making the enzyme alpha-mannosidase ... Intracellular transport of human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and alpha-mannosidosis-related mutants. Biochem J. 2004 Jul 15;381 ...
Alpha-mannosidosis, a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-mannosidase, results ... and Pain in Alpha Mannosidosis: Long-Term Data of Enzyme Replacement Therapy With Velmanase Alfa (Human Recombinant Alpha ... and Pain in Alpha Mannosidosis: Long-Term Data of Enzyme Replacement Therapy With Velmanase Alfa (Human Recombinant Alpha ... a recombinant human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. Long-term prognoses for most patients with untreated alpha-mannosidosis are ...
It is used to treat some health problems in people with alpha-mannosidosis. ...
Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for alpha-mannosidosis: an analysis of 17 patients.. (Bone marrow transplantation. , 2012-03. ) ... Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease. Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is usually recommended as a therapeutic option ... We conclude that HSCT is a feasible therapeutic option that may promote mental development in alpha-mannosidosis. ...
Disorders of glycoprotein degradation: alpha-mannosidosis, beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis, and sialidosis. The Metabolic & ... Karl S Roth, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American ... Patients with ML I were subsequently found to have an isolated deficiency of alpha-N -acetyl neuraminidase (sialidase) in ... In sialidosis, the deficiency of lysosomal alpha-N -acetyl neuraminidase prevents the normal degradation of glycoproteins ...
Poisoning Mange Mange Sarcoptic Manic Disorder Manic-Depressive Psychosis Manipulation Chiropractic Mannosidosis alpha B ...
"Alpha-mannosidosis presents with a variety of symptoms, including impaired hearing, speech, and mobility, that progress from ... "I have watched first-hand how alpha-mannosidosis can progress and impact daily life with my son, and this approval gives hope ... "We are thrilled to witness this milestone for the alpha-mannosidosis community," said Mark Stark, treasurer at the ... as the first enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of non-central nervous system manifestations of alpha-mannosidosis ( ...
Alpha Mannosidosis. Beta-Glucuronidase Deficiency (MPS-Vll). Gauchers Disease. Hunters Syndrome (MPS-ll). Hurlers Syndrome ( ...
Alpha-mannosidosis Cystinosis Fabrys Disease Farber Disease Gauchers Disease Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD) GM1 ...
First and only enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of non-central nervous system manifestations of alpha-mannosidosis ... "Alpha-mannosidosis presents with a variety of symptoms including impaired hearing, speech and mobility that progress from ... "Todays approval of Lamzede represents a major milestone for people living with alpha-mannosidosis. Lamzede is the first and ... Chiesi Global Rare Diseases Announces FDA Approval of Lamzede® (velmanase alfa-tycv) for Alpha-Mannosidosis. 16 February 2023 ...
Mannosidosis. alpha-Mannosidosis. C17 - SKIN AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES. Scleroderma, Circumscribed. Scleroderma, Localized ...
Mannosidosis. alpha-Mannosidosis. C17 - SKIN AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES. Scleroderma, Circumscribed. Scleroderma, Localized ...
Mannosidosis. alpha-Mannosidosis. C17 - SKIN AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES. Scleroderma, Circumscribed. Scleroderma, Localized ...
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase; Alpha-galactosidase; ... analyte (9): Alpha-L-Iduronidase; Alpha-Mannosidase Enzyme Activity; ... Alpha-glucosidase; ... chromosomal region / mitochondion (1): Whole exome,Mitochondrial genome; Methodology includes Gas ... Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency type 1; ... Testing enzymes (9): Acid lipase; ... Gaucher disease; Alpha mannosidosis type II; Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency type 1; ... ...
Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase. Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three ... Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade. [from GeneReviews]. ...
Alpha-mannosidosis type I. Infantile variety. Alpha-d-mannosidase deficiency.. *Alpha-mannosidosis type II. Juvenile form. ... Alpha-Ketoglutaric aciduria. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid dehydrogenase deficiency.. 3 (Back to top). *3-Hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl- ... Acid maltase deficiency (alpha-glucosidase deficiency). *Glycogenosis type II b. Adult form. Acid maltase deficiency (alpha- ... Alpha-neuraminidase deficiency.. *Sialidosis type II (Mucolipidosis I). Late infantile type, late chronic form. Alpha- ...
Disorders of glycoprotein degradation: alpha-mannosidosis, beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis, and sialidosis. The Metabolic & ... Karl S Roth, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American ... Patients with ML I were subsequently found to have an isolated deficiency of alpha-N -acetyl neuraminidase (sialidase) in ... In sialidosis, the deficiency of lysosomal alpha-N -acetyl neuraminidase prevents the normal degradation of glycoproteins ...
Disorders of glycoprotein degradation: alpha-mannosidosis, beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis, and sialidosis. The Metabolic & ... Karl S Roth, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American ... 3] However, the wide variability of clinical presentation in these patients cannot be fully explained by alpha-N -acetyl ... Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by an isolated deficiency of the enzyme, alpha-N -acetyl neuraminidase ( ...
Pinpointing Alpha-Mannosidosis on the Map: Insights from the diagnostic odyssey of patients. Sponsored by Chiesi Global Rare ...
In utero transplantation of monocytic cells in cats with alpha-mannosidosis. Abkowitz, Janis L; Sabo, Kathleen M; Yang, Zhantao ... in feline alpha-mannosidosis. Heterozygous cats were interbred to produce affected (homozygous) and control (heterozygous and ... albeit at levels below those needed to alter the clinical or pathological progression of the alpha-mannosidosis. CONCLUSIONS: ... tissue alpha-mannosidase levels were assayed, and in many studies, the numbers of alpha-mannosidase-containing cells were ...
... was the first to receive FDA approval for the treatment of alpha mannosidosis, an extremely rare lysosomal storage disease. ...
Alpha-mannosidosis (AM) is an ultra-rare genetic disorder resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-mannosidase, critical ... Swift and accurate diagnosis is crucial for providing individuals with alpha-mannosidosis and their families early access to ... and Alpha-mannosidosis (AM). However, the ambition of the program extends far beyond these diseases. With plans to broaden its ...
After long 18 months, it was discovered that Bodhi inherited a rare recessive disease called Alpha Mannosidosis which results ...
Alpha-Mannosidosis (AMD) * Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome ALPS * Coat variant Sphynx / Devon Rex ...
Alpha-mannosidosis. *Alpha Thalassemia. *Andermann Syndrome. *Argininosuccinic Aciduria. *ARSACS. *Aspartylglycosaminuria. * ...
Alphamannosidosis Alpha‑thalassemia‑intellectual disability syndrome linked to chromosome 16 Alpha‑thalassemia‑X‑linked ... Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor alpha ...
Alpha-mannosidosis. *Alpha Thalassemia. *Andermann Syndrome. *Argininosuccinic Aciduria. *ARSACS. *Aspartylglycosaminuria. * ...
Alpha-Mannosidosis * Aspartylglycosaminuria * Beta-Mannosidosis * Farber disease * Free Sialic Acid Storage Disease ...
  • It is used to treat some health problems in people with alpha-mannosidosis. (mskcc.org)
  • In humans it is known to be caused by an autosomal recessive genetic mutation in the gene MAN2B1, located on chromosome 19, affecting the production of the enzyme alpha-D-mannosidase, resulting in its deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis, a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-mannosidase, results in accumulation of mannose-rich glycoproteins in the tissues and sequelae leading to intellectual disability, ataxia, impaired hearing and speech, recurrent infections, skeletal abnormalities, muscular pain, and weakness. (spot-early-signs.org)
  • Patients with ML I were subsequently found to have an isolated deficiency of alpha- N -acetyl neuraminidase (sialidase) in leukocytes and cultured fibroblasts and, thus, have increased amounts of sialyloligosaccharide in the urine. (medscape.com)
  • In sialidosis, the deficiency of lysosomal alpha- N -acetyl neuraminidase prevents the normal degradation of glycoproteins containing sialic acid residues. (medscape.com)
  • Affecting approximately one in every 500,000 to one in every one million babies born worldwide, AM is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-mannosidase. (pharmaphorum.com)
  • Alpha-ketoglutaric acid dehydrogenase deficiency. (neurometplus.com)
  • Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by an isolated deficiency of the enzyme, alpha- N -acetyl neuraminidase (also called sialidase). (medscape.com)
  • Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum is the cutaneous hallmark of Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited disorder caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. Decreased or absent enzyme activity causes uncleaved glycosphingolipids to accumulate in various cell types, particularly in the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and pericytes, causing ischemia and infarction of tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Deficiency or absence of alpha-galactosidase A (α-GAL A) activity as a result of gene mutations in the GLA gene (Xq21.3-q22) leads to lysosomal accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids, most notably globotriaosylceramide (G3b). (medscape.com)
  • We are thrilled to witness this milestone for the alpha-mannosidosis community," said Mark Stark, treasurer at the International Society for Mannosidosis & Related Disorders (ISMRD) and father of a son living with AM. "I have watched first-hand how alpha-mannosidosis can progress and impact daily life with my son, and this approval gives hope to patients, caregivers, and families impacted by this devastating disease. (pharmaphorum.com)
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for alpha-mannosidosis: an analysis of 17 patients. (duke.edu)
  • Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum is not unique to Fabry disease and has also been documented in several other rare lysosomal storage disorders such as fucosidosis, sialidosis, GM1 gangliosidosis, galactosialidosis, beta-mannosidosis, Kanzaki disease, and aspartylglucosaminuria. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in the MAN2B1 gene cause alpha-mannosidosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the MAN2B1 gene interfere with the ability of the alpha-mannosidase enzyme to perform its role in breaking down mannose-containing oligosaccharides. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The family corresponds to a group of eukaryotic class II alpha-mannosidases (AlphaMII), which contain Golgi alpha-mannosidases II (GMII), the major broad specificity lysosomal alpha-mannosidases (LAM, MAN2B1), the noval core-specific lysosomal alpha 1,6-mannosidases (Epman, MAN2B2), and similar proteins. (unl.edu)
  • This study aimed to investigate disability, pain, and overall health using the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the EuroQol 5 Dimension-5 Level Questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) in patients with alpha-mannosidosis participating in rhLAMAN-10, a phase III open-label, clinical trial of velmanase alfa, a recombinant human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. (spot-early-signs.org)
  • US regulators have approved Chiesi's Lamzede (velmanase alfa-tycv) as the first enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of non-central nervous system manifestations of alpha-mannosidosis (AM) in adult and paediatric patients. (pharmaphorum.com)
  • Lamzede (velmanase alfa-tycv) is a recombinant form of human alpha-mannosidase designed to replace or support the function of the natural enzyme and prevent the build-up of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in various tissues in the body. (pharmaphorum.com)
  • BOSTON, February 16, 2023 - Chiesi Global Rare Diseases, a business unit of Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., an international research-focused healthcare Group (Chiesi Group), announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Lamzede® (velmanase alfa-tycv) for the treatment of non-central nervous system manifestations of alpha-mannosidosis (AM) in adult and pediatric patients. (chiesirarediseases.com)
  • Lamzede® (velmanase alfa-tycv) is indicated for the treatment of non-central nervous system manifestations of alpha-mannosidosis in adult and pediatric patients. (chiesirarediseases.com)
  • Chiesi Farmaceutici's Lamzede (active ingredient: velmanase alfa) was the first to receive FDA approval for the treatment of alpha mannosidosis, an extremely rare lysosomal storage disease. (hits.ai)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. (nih.gov)
  • In livestock alpha-mannosidosis is caused by chronic poisoning with swainsonine from locoweed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside (pNP-alpha-Man), and it is inhibited by swainsonine. (unl.edu)
  • The signs and symptoms of alpha-mannosidosis can range from mild to severe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis is a lifelong multi-systemic progressive disease, with neuromuscular and skeletal deterioration over decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term prognoses for most patients with untreated alpha-mannosidosis are poor due to progressive neuromuscular, skeletal, and intellectual deterioration, leading to increased dependence in mobility and activities of daily living and increased caregiver and health-care burden. (spot-early-signs.org)
  • Today's approval of Lamzede represents a major milestone for people living with alpha-mannosidosis. (chiesirarediseases.com)
  • A diagnosis of alpha-mannosidosis is suspected based upon identification of characteristic findings of a multi-symptomatic presentation, a thorough clinical evaluation, a detailed patient history, and results from the diagnostic tests described below: A. Oligosaccharides in urine A preliminary investigation may be performed to measure mannose-rich oligosaccharide concentrations in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues and organs are damaged by the abnormal accumulation of oligosaccharides and the resulting cell death, leading to the characteristic features of alpha-mannosidosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 3 ] However, the wide variability of clinical presentation in these patients cannot be fully explained by alpha- N -acetyl neuraminidase mutations. (medscape.com)
  • Patients may present to doctors, nurses or health visitors at different stages of progression, and with different ad hoc symptoms, making the link to suspect a diagnosis of alpha-mannosidosis difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other individuals with alpha-mannosidosis experience milder signs and symptoms that appear later and progress more slowly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis presents with a variety of symptoms, including impaired hearing, speech, and mobility, that progress from childhood into adulthood and is often under-recognised, causing some patients to be left undiagnosed or untreated," said Giacomo Chiesi, head of Chiesi Global Rare Diseases. (pharmaphorum.com)
  • Lamzede is a recombinant form of human alpha-mannosidase intended to provide or supplement natural alpha-mannosidase, an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides to prevent their accumulation in various tissues in the body. (chiesirarediseases.com)
  • A defective alpha-mannosidase enzyme, which normally helps to break down complex sugars derived from glycoproteins in the lysosome, causes progressive lysosomal accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in all tissues, resulting in impaired cellular function and apoptosis (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis is a progressive disorder, and its presence should be suspected in patients with cognitive disabilities, skeletal changes (e.g., swollen joints, curved spine), hearing loss and recurrent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without enough alpha-mannosidase, these complex sugars accumulate in the body's cells and tissues, leading to progressive damage and dysfunction. (pharmaphorum.com)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder that causes problems in many organs and tissues of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease. (duke.edu)
  • Lamzede is the first and only enzyme replacement therapy approved for alpha-mannosidosis in the United States, an achievement based on years of clinical development, as well as the dedication of our employees, clinicians, patients and their families," said Giacomo Chiesi, head of Chiesi Global Rare Diseases. (chiesirarediseases.com)
  • Generally, phenotypes of alpha-mannosidosis patients are not clearly distinguishable, which makes a prediction of the clinical course for an individual patient challenging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persons with Fabry disease who have type AB or B blood also accumulate blood group B glycosphingolipids (those with alpha-galactosyl-terminated residues) and can have more severe Fabry disease (related to greater body substrate mass) than patients with blood group A. This is because these blood groups have two additional terminal alpha-galactosyl moieties. (medscape.com)
  • Depending on the severity of the disease, alpha-mannosidosis has been classified into three proposed subtypes, based on severity and age of onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fabry disease gene is now known as the GLA gene, which stands for alpha-galactosidase. (medscape.com)
  • Females are carriers of the disease and have diminished levels of alpha-galactosidase. (medscape.com)
  • GMII has a pH optimum of 5.5-6.0, which is intermediate between those of acidic (lysosomal alpha-mannosidase) and neutral (ER/cytosolic alpha-mannosidase) enzymes. (unl.edu)
  • Individuals with this early-onset form of alpha-mannosidosis often do not survive past childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the terminal both alpha-1,3-linked and alpha-1,6-linked mannoses from the high-mannose oligosaccharide GlcNAc(Man)5(GlcNAc)2 to yield GlcNAc(Man)3(GlcNAc)2(GlcNAc, N-acetylglucosmine), which is the committed step of complex N-glycan synthesis. (unl.edu)
  • Alpha-mannosidosis can impact a patient's quality of life in many ways, including their ability to live independently, socialise or find employment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also found in this subfamily is class II alpha-mannosidase encoded by Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell. (unl.edu)
  • This subfamily also includes human alpha-mannosidase 2x (MX, also known as mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,3- 1,6-alpha mannosidase, EC 3.2.1.114, Man2A2). (unl.edu)
  • In particular, alpha-mannosidase helps break down oligosaccharides containing a sugar molecule called mannose. (medlineplus.gov)