Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.
Large (>160 kDa) glycoproteins with electrophoretic mobility of ALPHA-GLOBULINS, found in high concentration in the plasma of pregnant women but also in a number of species including mouse, rat, and others (ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS). In humans, they are always present in the circulation and are nonspecific inhibitors of PROTEINASES, similar to COMPLEMENT PROTEINS (C3; C4; C5).
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
Neuraminic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars (sialic acids) that are commonly found as terminal residues on glycoproteins and gangliosides in animal tissues, playing crucial roles in various biological processes including cell recognition, inflammation, and bacterial/viral infectivity.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.

Structural details of proteinase entrapment by human alpha2-macroglobulin emerge from three-dimensional reconstructions of Fab labeled native, half-transformed, and transformed molecules. (1/1037)

Three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstructions of native, half-transformed, and transformed alpha2-macroglobulins (alpha2Ms) labeled with a monoclonal Fab Fab offer new insight into the mechanism of its proteinase entrapment. Each alpha2M binds four Fabs, two at either end of its dimeric protomers approximately 145 A apart. In the native structure, the epitopes are near the base of its two chisel-like features, laterally separated by 120 A, whereas in the methylamine-transformed alpha2M, the epitopes are at the base of its four arms, laterally separated by 160 A. Upon thiol ester cleavage, the chisels on the native alpha2M appear to split with a separation and rotation to give the four arm-like extensions on transformed alpha2M. Thus, the receptor binding domains previously enclosed within the chisels are exposed. The labeled structures further indicate that the two protomeric strands that constitute the native and transformed molecules are related and reside one on each side of the major axes of these structures. The half-transformed structure shows that the two Fabs at one end of the molecule have an arrangement similar to those on the native alpha2M, whereas on its transformed end, they have rotated. The rotation is associated with a partial untwisting of the strands and an enlargement of the openings to the cavity. We propose that the enlarged openings permit the entrance of the proteinase. Then cleavage of the remaining bait domains by a second proteinase occurs with its entrance into the cavity. This is followed by a retwisting of the strands to encapsulate the proteinases and expose the receptor binding domains associated with the transformed alpha2M.  (+info)

Heme and acute inflammation role in vivo of heme in the hepatic expression of positive acute-phase reactants in rats. (2/1037)

Acute-phase protein synthesis in the liver during inflammation is regulated via cytokines and glucocorticoids. Using quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis and immunoassay, we explored, in the rat, the response of the acute-phase protein, alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M), after systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or localized inflammation induced by turpentine oil (TO). The results indicate that synthesis of A2M is higher following TO-induced inflammation than LPS-induced inflammation and is not correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 or glucocorticoid levels. We studied the putative role of heme in this differential A2M expression following localized vs. systemic inflammation; addition of heme during LPS-induced inflammation can boost the expression of A2M, whereas blocking heme synthesis (by succinyl acetone) or enhancing its consumption in parallel biosynthetic pathways (cytochrome P450 induction by phenobarbital) decreases A2M expression. This decrease was abolished by exogenous heme supplementation. Finally, we demonstrate that heme supplementation is also able to increase the A2M response in female rats to a level similar to that in male rats providing a new insight into the puzzling sexual dimorphism observed previously during localized inflammation. We propose that heme should be considered a new regulatory element in controlling liver A2M expression during inflammation.  (+info)

Pig kidney legumain: an asparaginyl endopeptidase with restricted specificity. (3/1037)

Legumain was recently discovered as a lysosomal endopeptidase in mammals [Chen, Dando, Rawlings, Brown, Young, Stevens, Hewitt, Watts and Barrett (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8090-8098], having been known previously only from plants and invertebrates. It has been shown to play a key role in processing of the C fragment of tetanus toxin for presentation by the MHC class-II system [Manoury, Hewitt, Morrice, Dando, Barrett and Watts (1998) Nature (London) 396, 695-699]. We examine here the specificity of the enzyme from pig kidney by use of protein, oligopeptide and synthetic arylamide substrates, all determinations being made at pH 5.8. In proteins, only about one in ten of the asparaginyl bonds were hydrolysed, and these were mostly predicted to be located at turns on the protein surface. Bonds that were not cleaved in tetanus toxin were cleaved when presented in oligopeptides, sometimes faster than an equivalent oligopeptide based on a bond that was cleaved in the protein. Legumain cleaved the bait region of rat alpha1-macroglobulin and was 'trapped' by the macroglobulin, as most other endopeptidases are, but did not interact with human alpha2-macroglobulin, which contains no asparagine residue in its bait region. Glycosylation of asparagine totally prevented hydrolysis by legumain. Specificity for arylamide substrates was evaluated with reference to benzyloxycarbonyl-Ala-Ala-Asn-aminomethylcoumarin, and the preference for the P3-position amino acid was Ala>Tyr(tertiary butyl)>Val>Pro>Phe=Tyr>Leu=Gly. There was no hydrolysis of substrate analogues containing mono- or di-N-methylasparagines, l-2-amino-3-ureidopropionic acid or citrulline in the P1 position. We conclude that mammalian legumain appears to be totally restricted to the hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds in substrates of all kinds. There seem to be no strong preferences for particular amino acids in other subsites, and yet there are still unidentified factors that prevent hydrolysis of many asparaginyl bonds in proteins.  (+info)

Alpha2-macroglobulin and eosinophil cationic protein in the allergic airway mucosa in seasonal allergic rhinitis. (4/1037)

As previously demonstrated in seasonal allergic rhinitis, increased microvascular permeability and eosinophil activation are key features of allergic airway inflammation. In the present study, the hypothesis that exudation of alpha2-macroglobulin may cause the appearance of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the airway lumen was explored. Nasal lavages were carried out using the nasal pool device before and during the pollen season both at baseline and after histamine challenge in 10 children with allergic rhinitis. Nasal lavage fluid levels of alpha2-macroglobulin and ECP were determined. All patients experienced nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis during the pollen season (p<0.01-0.05). Baseline nasal lavage fluid levels of alpha2-macroglobulin and ECP were increased during the season (p<0.01-0.05) and were found to be well correlated (p<0.0001). Histamine produced concentration-dependent plasma exudation before and during the pollen season, but it was only during the pollen season that this caused an increase in the lavage fluid levels of ECP (p<0.05). These data suggest that exudation of plasma and increased tissue levels and output of eosinophil cationic protein characterize nasal mucosal inflammation in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The plasma exudation process in part may account for lumenal entry of eosinophil cationic protein molecules that have been released in mucosal tissue compartments. A combination of induced exudation and nasal lavage may improve the yield of important markers of inflammation in studies of nasal diseases.  (+info)

NMR solution structure of complement-like repeat CR8 from the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. (5/1037)

The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family and contains clusters of cysteine-rich complement-like repeats of about 42 residues that are present in all members of this family of receptors. These clusters are thought to be the principal binding sites for protein ligands. We have expressed one complement-like repeat, CR8, from the cluster in lipoprotein receptor-related protein that binds certain proteinase inhibitor-proteinase complexes and used three-dimensional NMR on the 13C/15N-labeled protein to determine the structure in solution of the calcium-bound form. The structure is very similar in overall fold to repeat 5 from the low density lipoprotein receptor (LB5), with backbone root mean square deviation of 1.5 A. The calcium-binding site also appears to be homologous, with four carboxyl and two backbone carbonyl ligands. However, differences in primary structure are such that equivalent surfaces that might represent the binding interfaces are very different from one another, indicating that different domains will have very different ligand specificities.  (+info)

Abnormality in urinary protein excretion in Japanese men with impaired glucose tolerance. (6/1037)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for more than 2 years have any abnormality in the kidney. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured urinary excretion rate and clearance of various plasma proteins with different molecular radii and different isoelectric points in 22 Japanese men with IGT (IGT group) and 37 age-matched healthy control subjects (control group). RESULTS: Clearance of ceruloplasmin (molecular radius approximately 45 A; isoelectric point 4.4), IgG4 (molecular radius 55 A; isoelectric point 5.4), and IgG (molecular radius 55 A; isoelectric point 7.4) was significantly higher in the IGT group than in the control group, whereas there were no significant differences in urinary excretion rate of albumin (molecular radius 36 A; isoelectric points 4.8-5.2) and clearance of alpha 2-macroglobulin (molecular radius 88 A; isoelectric point 5.4) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found that clearance of neutral-charged IgG, negatively charged IgG4, and ceruloplasmin with molecular radii of approximately 45-55 A was selectively increased in IGT subjects. This finding does not seem to be explained by impairment of charge and pore-size selectivity in the glomerulus. Therefore, considering the present result together with our recent finding that enhanced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after acute protein loading in healthy subjects induced a selective increase in clearance of IgG, IgG4, and ceruloplasmin, we suggest that increased intraglomerular hydraulic pressure, although enhanced GFR was not demonstrated, may be at work in these mildly hyperglycemic subjects.  (+info)

Protein GRAB of streptococcus pyogenes regulates proteolysis at the bacterial surface by binding alpha2-macroglobulin. (7/1037)

In the molecular interplay between pathogenic microorganisms and their host, proteolytic mechanisms are believed to play a crucial role. Here we find that the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) expresses a surface protein with high affinity (Ka = 2.0 x 10(8) M-1) for alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), the dominating proteinase inhibitor of human plasma. The immunoglobulin-binding protein G of group C and G streptococci also contains an alpha2M-binding domain and a gene encoding protein GRAB (protein G-related alpha2M-binding protein) was identified in the S. pyogenes Genome Sequencing data base. The grab gene is present in most S. pyogenes strains and is well conserved. Protein GRAB has typical features of a surface-attached protein of Gram-positive bacteria. It also contains a region homologous to parts of the alpha2M-binding domain of protein G and a variable number of a unique 28-amino acid-long repeat. Using Escherichia coli-produced protein GRAB and synthetic GRAB peptides, the alpha2M-binding region was mapped to the NH2-terminal part of protein GRAB, which is the region with homology to protein G. An isogenic S. pyogenes mutant lacking surface-associated protein GRAB showed no alpha2M binding activity and was attenuated in virulence when injected intraperitoneally in mice. Finally, alpha2M bound to the bacterial surface via protein GRAB was found to entrap and inhibit the activity of both S. pyogenes and host proteinases, thereby protecting important virulence determinants from proteolytic degradation. This regulation of proteolytic activity at the bacterial surface should affect the host-microbe relation during S. pyogenes infections.  (+info)

Destruction of articular cartilage by alpha 2 macroglobulin elastase complexes: role in rheumatoid arthritis. (8/1037)

OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil elastase accounts for the ability of some fresh rheumatoid synovial fluids to degrade cartilage matrix in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine if enzyme activity could result from depletion of synovial fluid inhibitors or protection of the enzyme from inhibition. METHODS: The ability of synovial fluids to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase was investigated together with chemical pretreatments capable of inactivating alpha 1 protease inhibitor (alpha 1PI) or preventing formation of alpha 2 macroglobulin (alpha 2M) elastase complexes. Subsequently, complexes of human neutrophil elastase with alpha 2M were prepared and applied to frozen sections of cartilage. Proteoglycan loss was quantified by alcian blue staining and scanning and integrating microdensitometry. Parallel studies were carried out using a low molecular weight chromogenic elastase substrate. The effects of alpha 1PI and SF on these systems were investigated. Finally, synovial fluids were subjected to gel filtration and the fractions assayed for elastase activity. High molecular weight fractions were pooled, concentrated, and tested for their ability to degrade cartilage sections. RESULTS: All synovial fluids reduced the activity of porcine pancreatic elastase, the inhibition mainly being attributable to alpha 1PI, whereas remaining activity resulted from complexes of elastase with alpha 2M. Complexes of human neutrophil elastase with alpha 2M were shown to cause proteoglycan degradation in frozen sections of human articular cartilage. Alpha 1PI prevented alpha 2M elastase complexes from degrading cartilage but not the chromogenic substrate. The data suggested that alpha 1PI does not inhibit elastase bound to alpha 2M but sterically hinders the complex. However, only one of five synovial fluids was able to completely block the actions of alpha 2M elastase complexes against cartilage. Gel filtration of rheumatoid synovial fluids showed elastase and cartilage degrading activity to be associated with fractions that contained alpha 2M, and not with fractions expected to contain free enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that synovial fluid alpha 2M elastase complexes can degrade cartilage matrix in rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Macroglobulins are high molecular weight immunoglobulins, specifically, IgM antibodies. They are called "macro" because of their large size, which is approximately 10 times larger than other types of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgD). Macroglobulins are normally present in low concentrations in the blood, but their levels can increase in certain medical conditions such as macroglobulinemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

Elevated levels of macroglobulins can cause various symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, bleeding, and neurological problems due to the increased viscosity of the blood. Macroglobulins can also interfere with laboratory tests, leading to false positive results for certain conditions. Treatment for elevated macroglobulins depends on the underlying cause and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other targeted therapies.

Serum globulins are a group of proteins present in the liquid portion of blood, known as serum. They are produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and allergens. Serum globulins include several types of immunoglobulins (antibodies), complement components, and other proteins involved in the immune response.

The serum globulin level is often measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) or a protein electrophoresis test. An elevated serum globulin level may indicate an ongoing infection, inflammation, or an autoimmune disorder. Conversely, a decreased level may suggest a liver or kidney disease, or a malnutrition condition. It is important to note that the interpretation of serum globulin levels should be done in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical findings.

Fusobacteria is a group of obligate anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli that are commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Some species of Fusobacteria have been associated with various human diseases, including periodontal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and bloodstream infections. They can also play a role in the development of bacterial biofilms and are sometimes found in mixed infections with other anaerobic bacteria.

Fusobacteria have a unique morphology, often appearing as elongated, curved or spiral-shaped rods. They are non-motile and do not form spores. Some species of Fusobacteria can produce butyric acid, which can contribute to the foul odor associated with certain infections.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most well-known species of Fusobacteria and has been extensively studied for its role in periodontal disease. It is a common colonizer of dental plaque and has been shown to have a variety of virulence factors that allow it to adhere to and invade host tissues, evade the immune response, and cause tissue damage.

Overall, Fusobacteria are important members of the human microbiome, but under certain circumstances, they can also contribute to the development of various infectious diseases.

Pregnancy-associated alpha 2-macroglobulins (PAMG-1) are proteins that are produced by the placenta during pregnancy. They are a type of alpha-2 macroglobulin, which is a large protein involved in the inhibition of proteinases or enzymes that break down other proteins. PAMG-1 has been found to have immunosuppressive properties and may play a role in protecting the fetus from rejection by the mother's immune system during pregnancy.

PAMG-1 levels are typically low in non-pregnant individuals but increase significantly during pregnancy, peaking around the third trimester. Elevated levels of PAMG-1 have been found in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum of women who are at risk for preterm labor or who have experienced preterm birth. Therefore, PAMG-1 has been studied as a potential biomarker for predicting preterm labor and other pregnancy complications.

It's important to note that while PAMG-1 has shown promise as a biomarker in some studies, more research is needed to fully understand its role in pregnancy and its potential clinical applications.

Alpha-macroglobulins are a type of large protein molecule found in blood plasma, which play a crucial role in the human body's immune system. They are called "macro" globulins because of their large size, and "alpha" refers to their electrophoretic mobility, which is a laboratory technique used to separate proteins based on their electrical charge.

Alpha-macroglobulins function as protease inhibitors, which means they help regulate the activity of enzymes called proteases that can break down other proteins in the body. By inhibiting these proteases, alpha-macroglobulins help protect tissues and organs from excessive protein degradation and also help maintain the balance of various biological processes.

One of the most well-known alpha-macroglobulins is alpha-1-antitrypsin, which helps protect the lungs from damage caused by inflammation and protease activity. Deficiencies in this protein have been linked to lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Overall, alpha-macroglobulins are an essential component of the human immune system and play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and preventing excessive tissue damage.

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a type of rare cancer called a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of malignant white blood cells, specifically B lymphocytes or plasma cells, in the bone marrow and sometimes in other organs. These abnormal cells produce an excessive amount of a protein called macroglobulin, which can lead to the thickening of the blood and various symptoms associated with this condition.

The signs and symptoms of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia may include fatigue, weakness, bruising or bleeding, frequent infections, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, visual disturbances, and confusion or difficulty thinking. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, imaging studies, and sometimes genetic testing to confirm the presence of the disease and determine its extent.

Treatment options for Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia depend on the severity of the symptoms and the stage of the disease. They may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and adjust treatment plans as needed.

Neuraminic acids, also known as sialic acids, are a family of nine-carbon sugars that are commonly found on the outermost layer of many cell surfaces in animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as cell recognition, immune response, and viral and bacterial infection. Neuraminic acids can exist in several forms, with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) being the most common one in mammals. They are often found attached to other sugars to form complex carbohydrates called glycoconjugates, which are involved in many cellular functions and interactions.

Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood serum, specifically a class of immunoglobulins (antibodies) known as IgG. They are the most abundant type of antibody and provide long-term defense against bacterial and viral infections. Gamma-globulins can also be referred to as "gamma globulin" or "gamma immune globulins."

These proteins are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response). IgG gamma-globulins have the ability to cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to the fetus. They can be measured through various medical tests such as serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) or immunoelectrophoresis, which are used to diagnose and monitor conditions related to immune system disorders, such as multiple myeloma or primary immunodeficiency diseases.

In addition, gamma-globulins can be administered therapeutically in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to provide passive immunity for patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases.

Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of clinical pathology and immunology. It is a method for separating and identifying proteins, particularly immunoglobulins or antibodies, in a sample. This technique combines the principles of electrophoresis, which separates proteins based on their electric charge and size, with immunological reactions, which detect specific proteins using antigen-antibody interactions.

In IEP, a protein sample is first separated by electrophoresis in an agarose or agar gel matrix on a glass slide or in a test tube. After separation, an antibody specific to the protein of interest is layered on top of the gel and allowed to diffuse towards the separated proteins. This creates a reaction between the antigen (protein) and the antibody, forming a visible precipitate at the point where they meet. The precipitate line's position and intensity can then be analyzed to identify and quantify the protein of interest.

Immunoelectrophoresis is particularly useful in diagnosing various medical conditions, such as immunodeficiency disorders, monoclonal gammopathies (like multiple myeloma), and other plasma cell dyscrasias. It can help detect abnormal protein patterns, quantify specific immunoglobulins, and identify the presence of M-proteins or Bence Jones proteins, which are indicative of monoclonal gammopathies.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

"A conserved region in alpha-macroglobulins participates in binding to the mammalian alpha-macroglobulin receptor". Biochemistry ... α2-Macroglobulin (α2M) or alpha-2-macroglobulin is a large (720 KDa) plasma protein found in the blood. It is mainly produced ... Stevenson, FT; Greene, S; Kaysen, GA (January 1998). "Serum alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 concentrations are ... "Proteinase binding and inhibition by the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin rat alpha 1-inhibitor-3". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (19): 11428 ...
Alpha-2 macroglobulin is studied the most. Alpha-2 macroglobulin is a notable plasma component with a molecular mass of 820 kDa ... There's four primary main types of macroglobulins, alpha-2 macroglobulin, beta-2 macroglobulin, pregnancy-associated plasma ... Two macroglobulins with identical qualities first occur in fish whose alpha-2 macroglobulin are represented by tetramer forms, ... particularly interesting because the alpha-2 macroglobulin that predominates in rats differs from human alpha-2 macroglobulin ...
Alpha-2-macroglobulin-like 1 abbreviated as α2ML1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the A2ML1 gene. α2ML1 is a large, ... "Entrez Gene: Alpha-2-macroglobulin-like 1". Galliano MF, Toulza E, Gallinaro H, Jonca N, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Serre G, Guerrin M ... This gene encodes a member of the alpha-macroglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein acts as an inhibitor for several ... "The protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin-like-1 is the p170 antigen recognized by paraneoplastic pemphigus autoantibodies ...
... for proteinuria evaluates the levels of various serum proteins in the urine, e.g. Albumin, Alpha-2-macroglobulin and ...
It is a glycoprotein that binds to the alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor, as well as to other members of the low density ... Jou YS, Goold RD, Myers RM (Nov 1994). "Localization of the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein 1 gene (LRPAP1) ... coding for the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein and structural comparison with the murine gene coding for the ... "Primary structure of alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein. Human homologue of a Heymann nephritis antigen". The ...
Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction". Eur. J. Biochem. 221 (2): 687-93. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994. ...
Alpha 2-macroglobulin and coagulation factors affect coagulation, mainly stimulating it. This pro-coagulant effect may limit ... December 1993). "Alpha-2-macroglobulin functions as an inhibitor of fibrinolytic, clotting, and neutrophilic proteinases in ...
alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M): is also a major inhibitor of thrombin. It is present in 2-3 fold higher concentration during ... the functional role of alpha-2-macroglobulin and influence of Developmental Haemostasis. British Journal of Haematology, 138(3 ...
"Gene expression of the high molecular weight proteinase inhibitor alpha 2-macroglobulin". Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 373 (7): ... Kluck PM, Wiegant J, Jansen RP, Bolk MW, Raap AK, Willemze R, Landegent JE (1993). "The human interleukin-6 receptor alpha ... The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
ApoER2 splice variants can act as a receptor for alpha-2-macroglobulin which can have a role in clearance of alpha-2- ... which is controlled by proteolytic inhibitors such as alpha-2-macroglobulin. Studies have shown that a high presence of alpha-2 ... Isolation of cDNA encoding proteins associated with Aβ was used to discover alpha-2-macroglobulin. These discoveries may link ... alpha-2-macroglobulin and its receptors, one of them being ApoER2, to Alzheimer's disease. ApoER2 interaction with reelin and ...
Stouffer, G. A.; LaMarre, J.; Gonias, S. L.; Owens, G. K. (August 25, 1993). "Activated alpha 2-macroglobulin and transforming ... Stouffer attended the University of Maryland School of Medicine and was inducted into the Alpha Omega Alpha honor society. He ...
... synergy with GR for full transcriptional increase of the alpha 2-macroglobulin gene". Genes & Development. 17 (20): 2564-2577. ... The role of alpha and beta isoforms of the glucocorticoid receptor]". Archivos de Bronconeumologia. 38 (9): 436-440. doi: ... Heck S, Bender K, Kullmann M, Göttlicher M, Herrlich P, Cato AC (August 1997). "I kappaB alpha-independent downregulation of NF ...
... synergy with GR for full transcriptional increase of the alpha 2-macroglobulin gene". Genes & Development. 17 (20): 2564-77. ... Kawasaki A, Matsumura I, Kataoka Y, Takigawa E, Nakajima K, Kanakura Y (May 2003). "Opposing effects of PML and PML/RAR alpha ... "Involvement of tyrosine phosphatase PTP1D in the inhibition of interleukin-6-induced Stat3 signaling by alpha-thrombin". ...
Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), also known as alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor (A2MR), apolipoprotein ... "The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor binds and mediates catabolism of bovine ... The extracellular domain of LRP1 is the alpha-chain, which comprises four ligand-binding domains (numbered I-IV) containing two ... LRP1 has been shown to interact with: A2-Macroglobulin, β-amyloid precursor protein, APBB1, APOE, Aprotinin, C1S/C1q inhibitor ...
"The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor binds and mediates catabolism of bovine ... domain of lipoprotein lipase binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP ...
... elafin and alpha-2-Macroglobulin-like 1. Both Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions are also able to inhibit KLK7. KLK7 is a chymotrypsin-like ... "A novel protease inhibitor of the alpha2-macroglobulin family expressed in the human epidermis". The Journal of Biological ...
... such as alpha-2 macroglobulin and lipoproteins. An increase in the latter can cause the hyperlipidemia associated with this ...
2002). "Cell surface antigen CD109 is a novel member of the alpha(2) macroglobulin/C3, C4, C5 family of thioester-containing ... 2004). "CD109 represents a novel branch of the alpha2-macroglobulin/complement gene family". Gene. 327 (2): 171-83. doi:10.1016 ...
... and alpha-2-macroglobulin. This data is based on affinity capture- mass spectrometry. POTEB expression is low or completely ... However, there is unpublished data suggesting an interaction between POTEB and alpha-1-B glycoproteins, APOBEC1 complementation ...
Zhang Y, Wei X, Browning S, Scuderi G, Hanna LS, Wei L (July 2017). "Targeted designed variants of alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) ... "Reduction of Pro-Inflammatory Synovial Fluid Biomarkers in Osteoarthritis of the Knee With Alpha-2 Macroglobulin" at ...
Alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin are human serum protease inhibitors that completely inhibit the general ...
... alpha 2-macroglobulin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, transferrin and plasminogen.[citation needed] They have been grown successfully in ...
Placental alpha macroglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) has been the subject of over 20 clinical investigations, the majority of which have ... Placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) is a human protein that was first isolated in 1975 from amniotic fluid. PAMG-1 is an ... Lee, S. E.; Park, J. S.; Norwitz, E. R.; Kim, K. W.; Park, H. S.; Jun, J. K. (2007). "Measurement of placental alpha- ... PAMG-1 was originally referred to as specific alpha-1 globulin of placenta. PAMG-1 is present in blood and the amniotic fluid ...
... alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.085 - alpha 1-antitrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.100 - alpha-macroglobulins ... alpha-macroglobulins See List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395). MeSH D12.776.402.150.100.200 - chimerin 1 MeSH D12.776.402.150. ... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 ...
... alpha-macroglobulins MeSH D12.776.124.790.720.100.500 - pregnancy-associated alpha 2-macroglobulins The list continues at List ... alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.085 - alpha 1-antitrypsin MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.100 - alpha-macroglobulins ... immunoglobulin alpha-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.251 - immunoglobulin d MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.251.500 - ... immunoglobulin alpha-chains MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.619.251 - immunoglobulin d MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.619.251.500 - ...
... alpha-1 antitrypsin and alpha-2-Macroglobulin, which inhibit the naturally occurring fibrinolytic agent, plasmin. 2) The blood ...
... also known as alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor or type V TGFβ receptor and the transmembrane protein TMEM219. Both are believed ... "Direct functional interactions between insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and retinoid X receptor-alpha regulate ...
... alpha 2-macroglobulin (A2M), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP), and activates MMP9 by cleavage. The ... The encoded protein degrades type IV collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen, casein, vitronectin, alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT), ...
... so it may be that whale barnacles use the alpha-2-macroglobulin, a plasma protein of the blood common in vertebrates. After ...
Alpha-2-macroglobulin, Haptoglobin, Apolipoprotein A1, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), Total bilirubin, and Alanine ... FibroSure uses quantitative results of five serum biochemical markers, α2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, ...
"A conserved region in alpha-macroglobulins participates in binding to the mammalian alpha-macroglobulin receptor". Biochemistry ... α2-Macroglobulin (α2M) or alpha-2-macroglobulin is a large (720 KDa) plasma protein found in the blood. It is mainly produced ... Stevenson, FT; Greene, S; Kaysen, GA (January 1998). "Serum alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 concentrations are ... "Proteinase binding and inhibition by the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin rat alpha 1-inhibitor-3". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (19): 11428 ...
Moreover, in humans alphamacroglobulins such as pregnancy zone protein (PZP) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) also serve as ... Alpha-macroglobulins, which are physiological proteinase inhibitors have been shown to bind to viral proteins and enhance viral ... Previous reports from our laboratory have shown the up-regulation of alpha-macroglobulins in wild type (WT) mice after a lethal ... Overall, the data from this study demonstrates the significant impact that alpha-macroglobulins have in the pathogenesis of ...
Comprehensive supplier list for Rat Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Reference Serum,Rat Alpha 2-Macroglobulin ELISA Kit ... Rat Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Reference Serum (2 suppliers). Rat Alpha 2-Macroglobulin ELISA Kit (3 suppliers). Rat Alpha-1 Acidic- ... Rat Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein EIA (2 suppliers). Rat Anatomy Texts (2 suppliers). Rat and Mouse Non-Invasive Blood Pressure ... Rat Anti Human TNF Alpha Monoclonal Antibody (2 suppliers). Rat Anti Mouse B220 (2 suppliers). Rat Anti Mouse B220 Monoclonal ...
... contribution of alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in BAL fluid. JB Martinot, B Wallaert, PY Hatron, C Francis, C Voisin, Y Sibille ... Clinical and subclinical alveolitis in collagen vascular diseases: contribution of alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in BAL fluid ... Clinical and subclinical alveolitis in collagen vascular diseases: contribution of alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in BAL fluid ... Clinical and subclinical alveolitis in collagen vascular diseases: contribution of alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in BAL fluid ...
Alpha-2 macroglobulin gene and Alzheimer disease. Rudrasingham V., Wavrant-De Vrièze F., Lambert JC., Chakraverty S., Kehoe P ...
Alpha 2 Macroglobulin. VEI is now offering the newest therapy available for equine arthritis: alpha 2 macroglobulin (A2M). A2M ... Alpha 2 Macroglobulin. - Ultrasonographic Evaluation. - Mesotherapy. - Acupuncture. - Nuclear Scintigraphy. - Laser Therapy. - ...
Alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in normal human and keratoconus corneas. S Sawaguchi; S S Twining; B Y Yue; S H Chang; X Zhou; G ... S Sawaguchi, S S Twining, B Y Yue, S H Chang, X Zhou, G Loushin, J Sugar, R S Feder; Alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in normal ... Alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in normal human and keratoconus corneas. You will receive an email whenever this article is ... RESULTS: alpha 2-Macroglobulin was demonstrated immunohistochemically in the epithelium, stroma, and endothelium of all corneal ...
... recognizes human alpha-2-macroglobulin, a secreted protease inhibitor known to suppress the function of all four classes of ... strong,Sheep anti Human alpha 2 macroglobulin antibody,/strong, ... Sheep anti Human Alpha 2 Macroglobulin. Alpha 2 Macroglobulin ... Sheep anti Human alpha 2 macroglobulin antibody recognizes human alpha-2-macroglobulin, a secreted protease inhibitor known to ... Human alpha-2 Macroglobulin detected with HRP conjugated Sheep anti alpha-2 Macroglobulin (5850-0004P). ...
What is Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M)?. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin is found the blood and is a major non-nonimmunoglobulin (immune ... Is Alpha-2-Macroglobulin covered by Insurance?. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec eget congue ... Alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) binds to the chemicals produced in the joints that degrade cartilage over time and neutralizes ... Highly concentrated injections of Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M) can impact the progression of the disease and potentially reverse ...
Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M). While A2M is found readily in our blood, it is too large to enter the joint or disc space and is ...
ALPHA-2-MACROGLOBULIN (A2M). Wouldnt It Be Miraculous If Within Your Own Blood Stream You Were Carrying Around A Biologic ... "alpha-2-macroglobulin" (A2M) and is among the largest and heaviest proteins that your body makes. It is a naturally occurring ...
Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, (α2M).. Clone. PSA24. Format. purified monoclonal, lyophilized. Application. IHC; WB; ELISA. Reacts with ...
This highly specific rabbit monoclonal Alpha-2-macroglobulin antibody is suitable for use in western blot and is guaranteed to ... A synthetic peptide specific to human A2M / Alpha 2 Macroglobulin was used as the immunogen for the Alpha-2-macroglobulin ... This Alpha-2-macroglobulin antibody is available for research use only. Review this product on BioCompare and get a $20 Amazon ... Alpha-2-macroglobulin is a protease inhibitor and cytokine transporter. It uses a bait-and-trap mechanism to inhibit a broad ...
Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (a2M) Polyclonal Antibody, Cat#CAU30292. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars ... A2MG; A2mg; CPAMD5; C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 5 ...
alpha$-2 Macroglobulin. *Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli $\alpha$-2 macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism ... Alpha-2 macroglobulin is a plasma protein which acts as an anti-protease. It does so by a "bait mechanism" - the protease ... Putative mechanism of protease entrapment and inhibition by ECAM (Escherichia coli Alpha-2 Macroglobulin). ... Now, lets see how $\alpha$-2-Macroglobulin works, again by Wikipedia (emphasis mine): ...
Our guide covers some of the key benefits of alpha-2-macroglobulin on the body and your overall well-being and health. ... Alpha-2-Macroglobulin is a Fast-Acting Procedure. Alpha-2-macroglobulin is like giving your body a shot of blood, packed with ... How Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Works. Alpha-2-macroglobulin works by promoting the spread of platelets throughout your blood. ... Below we cover the benefits of Alpha-2-Macroglobulin.. Benefits of Alpha-2-Macroglobulin. Today, your OC pain clinic ...
Description: Our Human Alpha 2-Macroglobulin ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA for the detection of human alpha 2-macroglobulin in ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for quantitative measurement of Rat ?2-M (Alpha-2 Macroglobulin) in samples from Serum, ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Alpha 2 macroglobulin P(A2MP) in samples from blood, ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Alpha 2 macroglobulin P(A2MP) in samples from blood, ...
In this review manuscript, we provide an overview of all functions of alpha-2-macroglobulin and place these in the context of ... In addition to its role as a regulator of extracellular proteolysis, alpha-2-macroglobulin also has other functions such as ... By presenting itself as an optimal substrate for endopeptidases of all catalytic types, alpha-2-macroglobulin lures active ... Alpha-2-macroglobulin is an extracellular macromolecule mainly known for its role as a broad-spectrum protease inhibitor. ...
Alpha-2-macroglobulin / Clozapine / Protein-ligand interaction. Source:. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ... In this study, the interaction between clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M), a ... Antipsychotic clozapine binding to alpha-2-macroglobulin protects interacting partners against oxidation and preserves the anti ... and alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M), a multipurpose anti-proteinase, was investigated under simulated (patho) physiological ...
Human alpha-2-macroglobulin is a well-known inhibitor of a broad spectrum of proteases and plays important roles in immunity, ... 2015). The interleukin 1 alpha, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6 and alpha-2-macroglobulin serum levels in patients with early ... Human alpha-2-macroglobulin is a well-known inhibitor of a broad spectrum of proteases and plays important roles in immunity, ... Huang, X., Wang, Y., Yu, C. et al. Cryo-EM structures reveal the dynamic transformation of human alpha-2-macroglobulin working ...
Alpha-2 macroglobulin in Alzheimers disease: a marker of neuronal injury through the RCAN1 pathway.. Publication , Journal ... "Alpha-2 macroglobulin in Alzheimers disease: a marker of neuronal injury through the RCAN1 pathway." Mol Psychiatry 22, no. 1 ... "Alpha-2 macroglobulin in Alzheimers disease: a marker of neuronal injury through the RCAN1 pathway." Mol Psychiatry, vol. 22, ... Alpha-2 macroglobulin in Alzheimers disease: a marker of neuronal injury through the RCAN1 pathway. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 Jan; ...
... alpha 2M) is converted from its native form into electrophoretically ... alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is converted from its native form into electrophoretically "fast" forms by reaction with ... Modulation of mouse peritoneal macrophage Ia and human peritoneal macrophage HLA-DR expression by alpha 2-macroglobulin "fast" ... alpha 2M-trypsin, which had been reacted with aprotinin and alpha 2M-methylamine, both of which lack proteolytic activity, also ...
C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 1. *C3a ...
alpha 2 Macroglobulin (9). * alpha Actinin 4 (16). * alpha Actinin/ACTN1 (7). ... AMPK alpha 1 + AMPK alpha 2 (6). * AMPK alpha 1+AMPK alpha 2 (6). ...
Alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in normal human and keratoconus corneas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Nov. 35(12):4008-14. [ ...
alpha-2-macroglobulin. decreases expression. ISO. Aminocaproic Acid results in decreased expression of A2M protein. CTD. PMID: ...
Name: alpha-2-macroglobulin like 1. Synonyms: Ovos2, BC048546. Type: Gene. Species: Mus musculus (mouse) ...
Alpha 2 Macroglobulin. *Amyloid A. *Anti-Cardiolipins antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM). *Anti-Double Stranded DNA (DsDNA) antibodies ... In an upcoming webinar, Medpace CRO is joined by an emerging biotech to discuss optimal approaches for alpha-RPT clinical ...
Alpha-2-macroglobulin in plasma was measured using an autoanalyzer (DxC 800; Beckman-Coulter, Woerden, The Netherlands) by an ... Lycopene, and alpha-tocopherol in plasma were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence ...
HepaScore, GGT, Total Bilirubin, Hyaluronic Acid, and Alpha-2-Macroglobulin. CPT Codes. 82247, 82977, 83520, 83883 ...
  • In addition to tetrameric forms of α2-macroglobulin, dimeric, and more recently monomeric αM protease inhibitors have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, in humans alphamacroglobulins such as pregnancy zone protein (PZP) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) also serve as immune-modulatory proteins where their normal functions within the body include binding and shuttling of protease inhibitors, growth factors, cytokines, hormones, disease factors, and various small molecule nucleophilic ligands. (hawaii.edu)
  • Sheep anti Human alpha 2 macroglobulin antibody recognizes human alpha-2-macroglobulin, a secreted protease inhibitor known to suppress the function of all four classes of proteinases. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Autologous Platelet Integrated Concentrate (APIC) System is a filtered plasma therapy process that concentrates the master protease inhibitor, Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M). (weisswellnessnyc.com)
  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin is a protease inhibitor and cytokine transporter. (nsjbio.com)
  • Alpha-2 macroglobulin is a plasma protein which acts as an anti-protease. (stackexchange.com)
  • It does so by a "bait mechanism" - the protease cleaves the bait domain, following which a conformational change causes binding of alpha2-macroglobulin with the protease, and consequent irreversible inhibition of the protease. (stackexchange.com)
  • alpha$M protease inhibitors inhibit by steric hindrance . (stackexchange.com)
  • The mechanism involves protease cleavage of the bait region, a segment of the $\alpha$M that is particularly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, which initiates a conformational change such that the $\alpha$M collapses about the protease. (stackexchange.com)
  • In the resulting $\alpha$M-protease complex, the active site of the protease is sterically shielded , thus substantially decreasing access to protein substrates. (stackexchange.com)
  • RBD exposure allows the $\alpha$M protease complex to bind to clearance receptors and be removed from circulation. (stackexchange.com)
  • alpha$M protease inhibitor does not form an irreversible complex with the protease, instead it uses steric hindrance to prevent protease from binding any substrate . (stackexchange.com)
  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin is an extracellular macromolecule mainly known for its role as a broad-spectrum protease inhibitor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These structures exhibit distinct conformations, which reveal the dynamic transformation of alpha-2-macro-globulin that acts as a protease inhibitor. (springer.com)
  • A novel protease inhibitor of the α 2 -macroglobulin family expressed in the human epidermis. (springer.com)
  • If it is, why is not more commonly described as that (I have not come across any description of alpha2-macroglobulin as a suicide inhibitor)? (stackexchange.com)
  • Maternal serum alpha2-macroglobulin and fetal growth retardation. (readabstracts.com)
  • Alpha2-macroglobulin is a glycoprotein associated with certain cells of the immune system (lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and macrophages). (readabstracts.com)
  • The molecule is a carrier for zinc, and changes in levels of alpha2-macroglobulin reflect changes in the levels of zinc in the body. (readabstracts.com)
  • To learn more about the role of zinc in the outcome of pregnancy, alpha2-macroglobulin was measured in 289 pregnant women who were at risk for delivering a low-birth-weight, or growth-retarded, infant. (readabstracts.com)
  • The subjects' blood was analyzed at approximately the 18th and 30th weeks of pregnancy for alpha2-macroglobulin concentrations, and the outcome of pregnancy was noted. (readabstracts.com)
  • Results showed no change in alpha2-macroglobulin levels during pregnancy. (readabstracts.com)
  • The alpha2-macroglobulin levels of the mothers of these infants were compared with levels of the mothers of a control group of 80 matched infants. (readabstracts.com)
  • Alpha2-macroglobulin levels and other factors such as smoking (higher levels among smokers), race (higher levels among whites), and maternal body weight (higher levels in thin women) appeared to be related. (readabstracts.com)
  • While the role of this protein with respect to fetal growth remains to be clarified, measurement of alpha2-macroglobulin during pregnancy may be helpful for predicting fetal growth retardation. (readabstracts.com)
  • The concentration of α2-macroglobulin rises 10-fold or more in the nephrotic syndrome when other lower molecular weight proteins are lost in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • α2-Macroglobulin levels are increased when the serum albumin levels are low, which is most commonly seen in nephrotic syndrome, a condition wherein the kidneys start to leak out some of the smaller blood proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased production of all proteins means α2-macroglobulin concentration increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-macroglobulins, which are physiological proteinase inhibitors have been shown to bind to viral proteins and enhance viral infections in vitro. (hawaii.edu)
  • Sheep anti Human alpha 2 macroglobulin antibody exhibits minimal cross reactivity with related serum proteins. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The protein is called "alpha-2-macroglobulin" (A2M) and is among the largest and heaviest proteins that your body makes. (spinedocs.org)
  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin is like giving your body a shot of blood, packed with all the essential minerals and proteins needed to jumpstart a fast healing process. (ocpain.net)
  • In addition to its role as a regulator of extracellular proteolysis, alpha-2-macroglobulin also has other functions such as switching proteolysis towards small substrates, facilitating cell migration and the binding of cytokines, growth factors and damaged extracellular proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • α2-Macroglobulin (α2M) or alpha-2-macroglobulin is a large (720 KDa) plasma protein found in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • α2-macroglobulin may act as a carrier protein because it also binds to numerous growth factors and cytokines, such as platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, TGF-β, insulin, and IL-1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, α2-macroglobulin is the largest major nonimmunoglobulin protein in human plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-2-Macroglobulin is found the blood and is a major non-nonimmunoglobulin (immune system molecule) protein found in plasma protein. (orthocureclinic.com)
  • Identification of α 2 -macroglobulin as a cytokine binding plasma protein. (springer.com)
  • Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor is an hepatic receptor for tissue-type plasminogen activator. (springer.com)
  • Activated α 2 macroglobulin induces matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 through MAPK-ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation in macrophage-derived cell lines. (springer.com)
  • We first examined whether the acute-phase protein, alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M), a major component of the innate immune system, was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal injury in preclinical AD and risk of incident AD in the predictors of cognitive decline among normal individuals (BIOCARD) cohort. (duke.edu)
  • Human alpha(2)-macroglobulin-proteinase complexes bind to their receptor, the lowdensity lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), through a discrete138-residue C-terminal receptor binding domain (RBD), which also binds to thebeta-amyloid peptide. (embl.de)
  • Antibody: T-3525, Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, (α2M). (bma.ch)
  • Western blot testing of human plasma lysate with Alpha-2-macroglobulin antibody. (nsjbio.com)
  • This Alpha-2-macroglobulin antibody is available for research use only. (nsjbio.com)
  • Optimal dilution of the Alpha-2-macroglobulin antibody should be determined by the researcher. (nsjbio.com)
  • A synthetic peptide specific to human A2M / Alpha 2 Macroglobulin was used as the immunogen for the Alpha-2-macroglobulin antibody. (nsjbio.com)
  • Store the Alpha-2-macroglobulin antibody at -20oC. (nsjbio.com)
  • Dot blot assays showed that the alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in the epithelial and stromal extracts of keratoconus corneas were lower than those found in normal human control counterparts. (arvojournals.org)
  • Each monomer of human α2-macroglobulin is composed of several functional domains, including macroglobulin domains, a thiol ester-containing domain and a receptor-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • NMR solution structure of the receptor binding domain of humanalpha(2)-macroglobulin. (embl.de)
  • PURPOSE: To compare the levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin, one of the major proteinase inhibitors, in corneas with keratoconus to those in normal human corneas and corneas with other diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, the interaction between clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M), a multipurpose anti-proteinase, was investigated under simulated (patho) physiological conditions using multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. (ac.rs)
  • A common variant (29.5%) (polymorphism) of α2-macroglobulin leads to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015). The interleukin 1 alpha, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6 and alpha-2-macroglobulin serum levels in patients with early or late onset Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment or Parkinson's disease. (springer.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Alpha-2 macroglobulin in Alzheimer's disease: a marker of neuronal injury through the RCAN1 pathway. (duke.edu)
  • Alpha-2 macroglobulin gene and Alzheimer disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mutations in this gene are a cause of alpha-2-macroglobulin deficiency. (nsjbio.com)
  • a2m (alpha-2-macroglobulin) gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryo , assayed via in situ hybridization, NF stage 28, lateral view, anterior left , dorsal up. (xenbase.org)
  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) binds to the chemicals produced in the joints that degrade cartilage over time and neutralizes their degenerative effect. (orthocureclinic.com)
  • In biochemistry, suicide inhibition, also known as suicide inactivation or mechanism-based inhibition, is an irreversible form of enzyme inhibition that occurs when an enzyme binds $\alpha$ substrate analogue and forms an irreversible complex with it through a covalent bond during the "normal" catalysis reaction . (stackexchange.com)
  • The electrophoretically "slow" and "fast" forms of the α 2 -macroglobulin molecule. (springer.com)
  • No specific deficiency with associated disease has been recognized, and no disease state is attributed to low concentrations of α2-macroglobulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-2Macroglobulin (A2M) injections can inhibit the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA) by protecting cartilage from breakdown and immune-system mediated destruction. (orthocureclinic.com)
  • Highly concentrated injections of Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M) can impact the progression of the disease and potentially reverse it. (orthocureclinic.com)
  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin injections essentially increase blood flow to areas with increased pain, helping to heal soft tissue and make bones stronger. (ocpain.net)
  • 1998). Alpha-2 macroglobulin is genetically associated with Alzheimer disease. (springer.com)
  • La enfermedad de Alzheimer (AD) es la causa más comun de demencia entre las personas mayores de 65 años.1 Es un problema de salud muy grande en los Estados Unidos por el enorme impacto en individuos, familias, el sistema de salud y la sociedad. (ceufast.com)
  • By presenting itself as an optimal substrate for endopeptidases of all catalytic types, alpha-2-macroglobulin lures active proteases into its molecular cage and subsequently 'flags' their complex for elimination. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results shed light on the molecular mechanism of alpha-2-macroglobulin in entrapping substrates. (springer.com)
  • Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of alpha-2-macroglobulin in cobia, Rachycentron canadum . (springer.com)
  • Modulation of mouse peritoneal macrophage Ia and human peritoneal macrophage HLA-DR expression by alpha 2-macroglobulin fast forms. (aai.org)
  • By inhibiting portease, Alpha-2Macroglobulin (A2M) can ameliorate the progression of osteoarthritis by preventing cartilage from breakdown-which translates to a decrease in pain and improvement in joint function. (orthocureclinic.com)
  • In this review manuscript, we provide an overview of all functions of alpha-2-macroglobulin and place these in the context of inflammation, immunity and infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Human alpha-2-macroglobulin is a well-known inhibitor of a broad spectrum of proteases and plays important roles in immunity, inflammation, and infections. (springer.com)
  • α2-Macroglobulin is known to bind zinc, as well as copper in plasma, even more strongly than albumin, and such it is also known as transcuprein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous reports from our laboratory have shown the up-regulation of alpha-macroglobulins in wild type (WT) mice after a lethal subcutaneous WNV infection. (hawaii.edu)
  • Differential regulation of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family by α 2 -macroglobulin: evidence for selective modulation of FGF-2-induced angiogenesis. (springer.com)
  • alpha 2M "fast" form is an immune modulator of human and murine MP function, probably through a specific receptor-mediated mechanism. (aai.org)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Alpha 2 macroglobulin P(A2MP) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (maracpe.org)
  • Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of human alpha-2-macroglobulin in its native state, induced state transformed by its authentic substrate, human trypsin, and serial intermediate states between the native and fully induced states. (springer.com)
  • alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is converted from its native form into electrophoretically "fast" forms by reaction with proteinases or with methylamine. (aai.org)
  • In contrast, the BAL alpha 2-MA levels were found to be normal in CVD patients without evidence of pulmonary disease as well as in CVD patients with overt lung involvement treated with steroids. (ersjournals.com)
  • This glucose-induced increase in microsomal DAG was attended by increases in immunoreactive PKC alpha, beta, and epsilon. (jci.org)
  • The net result is that α2-macroglobulin reaches serum levels equal to or greater than those of albumin in the nephrotic syndrome, which has the effect of maintaining oncotic pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in normal human and keratoconus corneas. (arvojournals.org)
  • While the above list is not comprehensive, it paints a picture of the importance of a fast-acting treatment like Alpha-2-macroglobulin for patients dealing with severe pain. (ocpain.net)
  • Description: Our Human Alpha 2-Macroglobulin ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA for the detection of human alpha 2-macroglobulin in plasma, serum, lysates, and other biological fluids. (maracpe.org)
  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin, a hypochlorite-regulated chaperone and immune system modulator. (springer.com)
  • 10 to 15% of copper in human plasma is chelated by α2-macroglobulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the data from this study demonstrates the significant impact that alpha-macroglobulins have in the pathogenesis of flavivirus-associated encephalitis in mice. (hawaii.edu)
  • Structural mechanics of the alpha-2-macroglobulin transformation. (springer.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that the alveolitis observed in patients with overt lung involvement is associated with an increase of BAL alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-MA). (ersjournals.com)
  • In the present study, alpha 2M "fast" forms antagonized the increase in MP HLA-DR and Ia expression induced in vitro by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). (aai.org)
  • If you are dealing with pain, stiffness, or bone density loss as a part of your OA diagnosis, you might be a good candidate for an Alpha-2-macroglobulin treatment. (ocpain.net)
  • Today, your OC pain clinic specialists will list some of the unique benefits of Alpha-2-macroglobulin so you can determine whether this is the right treatment for your chronic joint pain. (ocpain.net)
  • Depending on the nature of your injuries and the location of your chronic pain, your doctor may recommend Alpha-2-macroglobulin in tandem with another treatment in order to receive long-lasting relief from pain. (ocpain.net)
  • No matter your history of chronic pain or your current conditions, you can reduce the onslaught of symptoms by reaching out about a proactive treatment like Alpha-2-macroglobulin. (ocpain.net)
  • RESULTS: alpha 2-Macroglobulin was demonstrated immunohistochemically in the epithelium, stroma, and endothelium of all corneal sections. (arvojournals.org)
  • This usually uses a prosthetic group or a coenzyme, forming electrophilic alpha and beta unsaturated carbonyl compounds and imines. (stackexchange.com)
  • Human RBD is a sandwich of two antiparallel beta-sheets,one four-strand and one five-strand, and also contains one alpha-helix of 2.5turns and an additional 1-turn helical region. (embl.de)
  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin works by promoting the spread of platelets throughout your blood. (ocpain.net)
  • This family includes the C-terminal region of the alpha-2-macroglobulin family. (embl.de)
  • We have previously shown that alpha 2M "fast" forms modulate effector functions of murine peritoneal MP. (aai.org)
  • alpha 2M "fast" forms also reduced the ability of MP to serve as accessory cells for lectin-induced lymphocyte proliferation. (aai.org)