Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Proteins: Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind to CALCIUM. They undergo allosteric changes when bound to CALCIUM that affects their interaction with other signal-transducing molecules. They differ from CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS which sense extracellular calcium levels.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectCryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhosphoproteinsPromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nerve Tissue ProteinsFungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hedera: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
Dalal, S; Balasubramanian, S; Regan, L (1997). "Transmuting alpha helices and beta sheets". Fold Des. 2 (5): R71-9. doi:10.1016 ... changing beta-sheet into alpha-helix". Nat Struct Biol. 4 (7): 548-52. doi:10.1038/nsb0797-548. PMID 9228947. Peng, Jian; Jinbo ... Both methods can be used for any subset of atoms in the structure, but are often applied to only the alpha carbon or protein ... Selection of the template for each segment is based on sequence similarity, comparisons of alpha carbon coordinates, and ...
71.6% alpha helix. 8.9% turns It is predicted to have two transmembrane helices, of 23 amino acids in length each. The average ... It is known to be a type IV multi-pass membrane because it spans the membrane twice in alpha-helical configuration, with its N- ...
It is composed of four alpha helices. It binds to areas of chromatin that are rich in adenine (A) and thymine (T). These A/T ...
The eight, mostly antiparallel beta-strands form around C-terminal alpha-helix. There are four alpha helices in total. Ling SH ...
Four alpha helices connect successive beta strands. Residues 9 - 24 are termed "Met20" or "loop 1" and, along with other loops ...
The crystal structure of the GoLoco motif in complex with G-alpha(i) has been solved. It consists of three small alpha helices ... When the ligand is associated to the receptor, GDP is displaced from G-alpha and GTP is bound. The GTP/G-alpha complex ... Reassociation of GDP-bound G-alpha with G-beta/G-gamma dimer terminates the signal. Several mechanisms regulate the signal ... The inactive form contains the alpha subunit bound to GDP and complexes with the beta and gamma subunit. ...
In all, histones make five types of interactions with DNA: Helix-dipoles form alpha-helixes in H2B, H3, and H4 cause a net ... helix turn helix turn helix' motif (DNA-binding protein motif that recognize specific DNA sequence). They also share the ... The core histones all exist as dimers, which are similar in that they all possess the histone fold domain; three alpha helices ... Despite the differences in their topology, these three folds share a homologous helix-strand-helix (HSH) motif. Using an ...
Each domain contains 6 membrane spanning alpha helices. One of these helices, S4, is the voltage sensing helix. The S4 segment ... The S1-4 alpha helices are generally thought to serve this role. In potassium and sodium channels, voltage-sensing S4 helices ... The membrane-spanning segments, designated S1-S6, all take the form of alpha helices with specialized functions. The fifth and ... In its resting state, half of each S4 helix is in contact with the cell cytosol. Upon depolarization, the positively-charged ...
Both subunits are primarily composed of alpha helices. The α subunit is made of a double layer of paired alpha helices stacked ... The alpha helices of the β subunit form a barrel. The active site is formed by the center of the β subunit flanked by part of ... Farnesyltransferase has two subunits: a 48kDa alpha subunit and a 46kDa beta subunit. ...
Dohlam, JG; Lupas, A; Carson, M (1993). "Long charge-rich alpha-helices in systemic autoantigens". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. ... Eyre, H; Akkari, PA; Wilton, SD; Callen, DC; Baker, E; Laing, NG (1995). "Assignment of the human skeletal muscle alpha- ... Lees-Miller, JP; Goodwin, LO; Helfman, DM (1990). "Three novel brain tropomyosin isoforms are expressed from the rat alpha- ... Mor, F; Weinberger, A; Cohen, IR (2002). "Identification of alpha-tropomyosin as a target self-antigen in Behcet's syndrome". ...
... does not have a signal peptide Fam83H is primarily composed of alpha helices and random coils. Alpha helices comprise ...
They are composed of seven transmembrane alpha helices. The loops connecting the alpha helices form extracellular and ... linked by a single transmembrane alpha helix. The insulin receptor is an example. Type 4: Nuclear receptors - While they are ... extracellular domain whereas the binding site for smaller non-peptide ligands is often located between the seven alpha helices ... domain and a transmembrane domain where the transmembrane domain in turn includes four transmembrane alpha helices. The ligand- ...
... is predicted to only have alpha helices. In total, there are 17 alpha helices predicted, the longest of which contains ... From this, only 8 alpha helices are located within conserved regions of FAM76A (see conceptual translation). FAM76A contains a ...
Both subunits are composed primarily of alpha helices. Geranylgeranyltransferase coordinates a zinc cation on its β subunit at ...
... counts the peptide groups along the α-helix spine, the index α = 1 , 2 , 3 {\displaystyle \alpha =1,2,3} counts each α-helix ... alpha }\left({\hat {A}}_{n,\alpha }^{\dagger }{\hat {A}}_{n+1,\alpha }+{\hat {A}}_{n,\alpha }^{\dagger }{\hat {A}}_{n-1,\alpha ... alpha }\left[({\hat {u}}_{n+1,\alpha }-{\hat {u}}_{n,\alpha }){\hat {A}}_{n,\alpha }^{\dagger }{\hat {A}}_{n,\alpha }\right]} ... alpha }\left[w({\hat {u}}_{n+1,\alpha }-{\hat {u}}_{n,\alpha })^{2}+{\frac {{\hat {p}}_{n,\alpha }^{2}}{M}}\right]} where u ^ n ...
Most MCPs contain: (a) an N-terminal signal peptide that is a transmembrane alpha-helix in the mature protein; (b) a poorly- ... a transmembrane alpha-helix; (d) generally one or more HAMP domains and (e) a highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain ... Ferris, H. U.; Zeth, K.; Hulko, M.; Dunin-Horkawicz, S.; Lupas, A. N. (2014). "Axial helix rotation as a mechanism for signal ...
The secondary structure is characterized by a helix-turn-helix motif: two alpha helices connected by a beta turn. The two alpha ... The two alpha helices, however, have markedly different characteristics. The N-terminal alpha helix is apolar, containing a ... The C-terminal alpha helix is amphipathic with one side displaying polar and charged residues, and the other displaying non- ... Furthermore, the structure of the peptide shifts from a random coil to the structured helix-turn-helix when introduced to a ...
... occur at the C-terminus of an alpha-helix such that residues i, i+1, i+2 and i+3 are part of the helix. Over a quarter of ... Its relationship with alpha-helices and beta-bulge loops". Journal of Molecular Biology. 199 (3): 503-511. doi:10.1016/0022- ... Aurora, R; Srinivasan, R; Rose, G D (1994). "Rules for alpha-helix termination by glycine" (PDF). Science. New York. 264 (5162 ... Leader, DP; Milner-White, EJ (2011). "The structure of the ends of alpha-helices in globular proteins". Proteins. 79 (3): 1010- ...
... focused on identifying likely alpha helices and were based mainly on helix-coil transition models. Significantly more accurate ... tend to form an α helix. Proline destabilizes or breaks an α helix but can be present in longer helices, forming a bend. β ... The α helix is the most abundant type of secondary structure in proteins. The α helix has 3.6 amino acids per turn with an H ... For proteins, a prediction consists of assigning regions of the amino acid sequence as likely alpha helices, beta strands ( ...
GOR4 indicated that SOGA2 is dominated by alpha-helices; it predicted a mere 5.61% of residues in an extended strand (parallel ... alpha helix and 46.6% random coils. SOGA2 shares sequence features in its highly conserved N-terminal region. This homology ... and SOSUICoil is that the secondary structure of SOGA2 is dominated by alpha helices with interspersed regions of random coil. ...
This structure has both alpha helices and beta strands. Moréra S, Larivière L, Kurzeck J, Aschke-Sonnenborn U, Freemont PS, ... It is analogous to the enzyme DNA alpha-glucosyltransferase. This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, ...
There are 28 alpha helices total (15 in the alpha subunit and 13 in the beta subunit) and 15 very short (no more than 4 ... RabGGTase's secondary structure is largely composed of alpha helices; the alpha subunit is 74% helical with no beta sheets, ... RabGGTase is a heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits that are encoded by the RABGGTA and RABGGTB genes, respectively ...
Domain I comprises eight alpha helices and eight beta sheet and is covalently bound to FAD. Domain II comprises five alpha ... Alpha helices are cyan and beta sheets are magenta. FAD (in green) is covalently bound to histidine 114 and cysteine 176 (in ... helices surrounded by eight beta sheets. Enzymes that share similar amino acid sequences include the flavoproteins berberine ...
a. All alpha proteins [46456] (284) Domains consisting of α-helices b. All beta proteins [48724] (174) Domains consisting of β- ... sheets c. Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349] (147) Mainly parallel beta sheets (beta-alpha-beta units) d. Alpha and beta ... Lineage: 1. Root: scop 2. Class: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349] Mainly parallel beta sheets (beta-alpha-beta units) 3. ... long alpha-hairpin (2 helices; antiparallel hairpin, left-handed twist) and Type I dockerin domains (tandem repeat of two ...
"Solvent-induced distortions and the curvature of alpha-helices". Nature. 306 (5940): 281-3. doi:10.1038/306281a0. PMID 6646210 ... Pearl, Frances Mary Genevieve (1998). Protein structural analysis : helices and their interactions (PhD thesis). University ...
Like all serine protease inhibitors, A1AT has a characteristic secondary structure of beta sheets and alpha helices. Mutations ... Alpha-1 antitrypsin is the main protein of the alpha-globulin 1 region. Another name used is alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (α1- ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin Alpha-1 antitrypsin at Lab Tests Online Alpha-1 Disease Management Program at AlphaNet Frequently Asked ... Recombinant alpha-1 antitrypsin is not yet available for use as a drug but is under investigation as a therapy for alpha-1 ...
Alpha Helix is also called a classic Pauling-Corey-Branson α-helix. The name 3.613-helix is also used for this type of helix, ... The Alpha Helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e ... The pitch of the alpha-helix (the vertical distance between consecutive turns of the helix) is 5.4 Å (0.54 nm), which is the ... The helix net is not suitable for studying helix-helix packing interactions, but it has become the dominant means of ...
A dimerization motif for transmembrane alpha-helices.. Lemmon MA1, Treutlein HR, Adams PD, Brünger AT, Engelman DM. ... Specific helix-helix interactions inside lipid bilayers guide the folding and assembly of many integral membrane proteins and ... Dimerization is driven by interactions that are specific, dominated by the helix-helix interface, and involve no potentially ... which when introduced into several hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices promotes their specific dimerization. ...
The alpha helix is also called a classic Pauling-Corey-Branson α-helix. The name 3.613-helix is also used for this type of ... The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a right hand-helix conformation in ... Similar structures include the 310 helix (i + 3 → i hydrogen bonding) and the π-helix (i + 5 → i hydrogen bonding). The α-helix ... The pitch of the alpha-helix (the vertical distance between consecutive turns of the helix) is 5.4 Å (0.54 nm), which is the ...
QUESTIONS: alpha-helix signals in proteins. Simon Brocklehurst Bioc smb18 at mole.bio.cam.ac.uk Wed Jul 6 06:17:46 EST 1994 * ... For example, you will find many references in the literature saying that alanine residues are strongly helix forming. This ...
helix-favoring residues, while proline is rarely found in helices because its backbone nitrogen is not available for the ... How would you titrate the carboxyl group of an alpha amino acid? 2 15. Why isoelectric point of Arginine is greater than that ... hydrogen bonding required for helix formation. The interior of a protein is generally a densely packed core of hydrophobic ...
... Nerelius C., Sandegren A., Sargsyan H., Raunak R., Leijonmarck H. ... We conclude that stabilization of the central Abeta alpha-helix counteracts polymerization into toxic assemblies and provides a ... we report on an alternative approach whereby ligands are designed to bind and stabilize the 13-26 region of Abeta in an alpha- ...
The alpha helix consists of 3.6 residues per turn. All hydrogen bonds face in the same direction. If two or more alpha helices ... An alpha helix (α-helix) is a twisted part of a protein. It is one of the two most common parts of the secondary structure, or ... Five alpha helices arranged into a barrel shape) This short article about chemistry can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia ... An alpha helix is created by alternating groups of atoms. There is a carbonyl group, created by a carbon atom double bonded to ...
Gap junction alpha-1 protein (Cx43), alpha helix domain superfamily (IPR035091). Short name: Alpha_helix_dom_sf ... The alpha-helical domains has two hypothetical roles. The first one is to allow the formation of a higher order structure ... Gap junction alpha-1 protein (also called connexin43, or Cx43) is a connexin of 381 amino acid residues (human isoform) that is ... The connexin43 carboxyl-terminal domain (Cx43CT) exists primarily as an elongated random coil, with two regions of alpha- ...
A search for highly amphiphilic alpha-helices has been made in a data base of protein sequences, using the helical hydrophobic ... For the segments whose structures are known, they are in fact alpha-helices. Two of the segments having very large hydrophobic ... The most highly amphiphilic alpha-helices include two amino acid segments in human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein 41.. ...
Amino acid preferences for specific locations at the ends of alpha helices ... Amino acid preferences for specific locations at the ends of alpha helices ... Amino acid preferences for specific locations at the ends of alpha helices ... Amino acid preferences for specific locations at the ends of alpha helices ...
About Alpha Helix. Founded in 2011, Alpha Helix is a true innovator in the sports performance industry. In 2012, the Las Vegas- ... Alpha Helix Announces Big News with Jay Cutler!. The four-time Mr. Olympia is now the companys co-owner and board member. by M ... "Alpha Helix is here for the long run and so am I," said Cutler. "Ive worked for years in the industry and am excited to help ... The Alpha Helix line was developed by a team of fitness industry veterans that includes EAS co-founder Anthony Almada, MSc, ...
Transmembrane alpha-helices in phospholipid bilayers. R.J. Webb, A.G. Lee, R.P. Sharma, J.M. East ... Transmembrane alpha-helices in phospholipid bilayers Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ...
Alpha-helix explanation free. What is Alpha-helix? Meaning of Alpha-helix medical term. What does Alpha-helix mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alpha-helix in the Medical Dictionary? ... alpha helix. (redirected from Alpha-helix). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to Alpha-helix: Beta- ... Alpha-helix , definition of Alpha-helix by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alpha-helix ...
What is alpha helix conformation? Meaning of alpha helix conformation medical term. What does alpha helix conformation mean? ... Looking for online definition of alpha helix conformation in the Medical Dictionary? alpha helix conformation explanation free ... alpha helix conformation. alpha helix conformation. most commonly occurring helical type of ordered molecular structure ... Alpha helix conformation , definition of alpha helix conformation by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
... easily constructed model of the right-handed alpha-helix, consisting of cardboard, plastic tubing and a wooden support. (MLH) ... Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed model of the right-handed alpha-helix, consisting of cardboard, plastic tubing and ...
Self-association of transmembrane alpha-helices in model membranes: Importance of helix orientation and role of hydrophobic ... Helix-helix association was also found to depend on the lipid environment. In bilayers of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, in which ... We have investigated helix-helix interactions in lipid bilayers with synthetic tryptophan-flanked peptides that mimic the ... These results indicate that helix-helix association in membrane proteins can be promoted by unfavorable protein-lipid ...
ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CHARGED SIDE CHAINS AND THE ALPHA-HELIX DIPOLE USING DESIGNED THERMOSTABLE MUTANTS OF PHAGE ... Replacements of Pro86 in Phage T4 Lysozyme Extend an Alpha-Helix But Do not Alter Protein Stability. Alber, T.,Bell, J.A.,Dao- ... It was shown previously that the introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus of an alpha-helix could ... It was shown previously that the introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus of an alpha-helix could ...
ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CHARGED SIDE CHAINS AND THE ALPHA-HELIX DIPOLE USING DESIGNED THERMOSTABLE MUTANTS OF PHAGE ... Replacements of Pro86 in Phage T4 Lysozyme Extend an Alpha-Helix But Do not Alter Protein Stability. Alber, T.,Bell, J.A.,Dao- ... In the case of G113A there are backbone conformational changes of 0.5-1.0 A in the short alpha-helix, 108-113, that includes ... Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis of the Packing of Two Alpha-Helices in Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme. Daopin, S.,Alber, T., ...
Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)Imported. ,p>Information which has been ... tr,A0JND0,A0JND0_BOVIN Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) OS=Bos taurus GN ... Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). ... IPR001321. HIF-1_alpha. IPR014887. HIF-1_TAD_C. IPR021537. HIF_alpha_subunit. IPR036638. HLH_DNA-bd_sf. IPR001610. PAC. ...
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Bax-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria depends on alpha-helices-5 and -6. Gerd HEIMLICH, Alastair D. McKINNON, ... Bax-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria depends on alpha-helices-5 and -6 ... Bax-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria depends on alpha-helices-5 and -6 ... Bax-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria depends on alpha-helices-5 and -6 ...
Base contacts are also made by residues of symmetry-related alpha helices, the "hinge" helices, which bind deeply in the minor ... Crystal structure of LacI member, PurR, bound to DNA: minor groove binding by alpha helices ... Crystal structure of LacI member, PurR, bound to DNA: minor groove binding by alpha helices ... Crystal structure of LacI member, PurR, bound to DNA: minor groove binding by alpha helices ...
decides wheter its secundary structure is alpha helix or beta pleated sheet? Thank You, Edher ... Beta pleated sheet vs alpha helix. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory ... decides wheter its secundary structure is alpha helix or beta pleated sheet? Thank You, Edher ... biostudent84 means carboxyl and amino groups (not nitrate). But that doesnt answer the question why a helix rather than a ...
This video describes how alpha helix is formed in proteins. Edited by Ashraf ... The most commons secondary structure of protein is the alpha helix. ... Alpha helix in proteins The most commons secondary structure of protein is the alpha helix. This video describes how alpha ... Tags: alpha helix secondary structure protein molecular biology garland science garlandscience Uploaded by: anja ( Send Message ...
Fundamental Studies of Foldameric Helix Bundles. ... of beta-Amino Acid Preorganization in a Self-Assembling alpha/ ... Structural Consequences of beta-Amino Acid Preorganization in a Self-Assembling alpha/beta-Peptide: Fundamental Studies of ...
  • Here we define a conserved and functionally essential N-terminal domain in TFE, the archaeal homolog of the large TFIIE subunit alpha. (mpg.de)
  • Our results support a model in which talin IBS2 binds to the same face of the beta3 subunit cytoplasmic helix as the integrin alphaIIb cytoplasmic tail helix, suggesting that IBS2 can only interact with the beta3 subunit following integrin activation. (uni.lu)
  • The connexin43 carboxyl-terminal domain (Cx43CT) exists primarily as an elongated random coil, with two regions of alpha-helical structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • For example, coil between beta strand and alpha helix (BCH) is enriched by Ser and Thr, while coil between alpha helix and beta strand (HCB) is enriched by Arg and Lys. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 39813.1 39853.2 6612.6 6582.5 pI of Domain 7.76 7.77 5.55 5.55 Half-Life 1.9 hrs 1.9 hrs 30 hrs 30 hrs Instability index 76.06 76.18 44.10 38.14 Hydropathicity -0.466 -0.471 -0.077 -0.120 Alpha helix 12.87% 16.09% 1.64% 0.00% Extended strand 7.77% 7.77% 42.62% 42.62% Beta turn 0.27% 0.27% 4.92% 4.92% Random coil 79.09% 75.87% 50.82% 52.46% Stability Stable unstable unstable stable Features Neogenin_C N M Mol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Helix-coil transition models are formalized techniques in statistical mechanics developed to describe conformations of linear polymers in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing of laminin B chain cDNAs reveals C-terminal regions of coiled-coil alpha-helix. (duke.edu)
  • Man unterscheidet dabei zwischen folgenden Strukturtypen: α-Helix, β-Faltblatt, β-Schleifen und ungeordnete, so genannte Random-Coil-Strukturen. (prezi.com)
  • Applying a sigmoidal fit to the process, we found that the characteristic velocity of the C-terminus, as it moved to its anchor site, scaled with θu −4/3, where θu is the fraction of the original helix that was lost during a helix to coil transition. (trinity.edu)
  • Both show the pH-dependent increase in thermal stability expected for the interaction of an aspartic acid with an alpha-helix dipole. (rcsb.org)
  • This confirms that it is the electrostatic interaction between Asp 38 and the helix dipole, rather than a change in hydrogen-bonding geometry, that gives enhanced stability. (rcsb.org)
  • In the case of mutant N116D, there was concern that the enhanced stability might be due to a favorable salt-bridge interaction between the introduced aspartate and Arg 119, rather than an interaction with the alpha-helix dipole. (rcsb.org)
  • This decreased the stability of the protein in the manner expected for the loss of a favorable helix dipole interaction. (rcsb.org)
  • As measured by the pH dependence of stability, the strength of the electrostatic interaction between the charged groups studied here and the helix dipole ranges from 0.6 to 1.3 kcal/mol in 150 mM KCl. (rcsb.org)
  • To address this issue, we synthesized probes using a novel linker ( Fig. 1A ) to simultaneously label and stabilize an alpha helix to improve protease stability while maintaining in vitro and in vivo binding affinity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The application of a 2D correlation 'moving' window has also disclosed two distinct phases during helix unfolding in the alpha-helix-to-disordered transition, occurring at approximately pH 4.9 and approximately pH 5.2, possibly a result of the difference in helical stability between the end and central regions of the alpha-helix. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Apart from that, the stability of alpha helix depends on the dipole moment of the entire helix, which is caused due to individual dipoles of C=O groups involved in hydrogen bonding. (clickspay.ru)
  • We conclude that stabilization of the central Abeta alpha-helix counteracts polymerization into toxic assemblies and provides a strategy for development of specific inhibitors of Abeta polymerization. (uniprot.org)
  • This was compared with two non-fluorescent stabilizing linkers ( Fig. 1B ) to separate the impact of the fluorophore from helix stabilization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The compounds in this class, which emerged from screening an α-helix mimetic library, stimulate the immune response, act by a well-defined mechanism (mouse TLR4 agonist), are easy to produce and structurally manipulate, exhibit exquisite SARs, are nontoxic, and elicit improved and qualitatively different responses compared to lipopolysaccharide, even though they share the same receptor. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Using a helix mimetic based on an oligoamide scaffold, we have exploited the power of a modular synthesis to access compounds that can readily be used to understand the noncovalent determinants of hDM2 recognition by this series of cell-active p53/hDM2 inhibitors. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We synthesized stapled Axin mimetic analogues and demonstrated increased alpha helicity upon peptide stapling. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Sub-optimal sequence alignments of Bax and Bcl-x L indicated a sequence similarity between the α5-α6 helices of Bax and Bcl-x L . Alanine substitutions of three residues (T14A-S15A-S16A) in the N-terminus (Bax-Ala3) attenuated regulation by the serine-threonine kinase Akt/PKB but not by Bcl-x L indicative of distinct regulatory mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It consists of a double stranded helix consisting of a five-sided sugar (deoxyribose) without a free hydroxyl group, a phosphate group linking the two nucleotides, and a nitrogenous base. (sparknotes.com)
  • Being bored, he drew a polypeptide chain of roughly correct dimensions on a strip of paper and folded it into a helix, being careful to maintain the planar peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using structural and biochemical approaches, we show that the thermosensitive histidine kinase, DesK, from Bacillus subtilis is cold-activated through specific interhelical rearrangements in its central four-helix bundle domain. (pnas.org)
  • The results highlight the remarkable plasticity of the central four-helix bundle domain as the protein proceeds along the catalytic cycle, and suggest a signal-dependent regulation model that may be operational in a wide range of HKs. (pnas.org)
  • The structural comparison of the different DesK variants indicates that incoming signals can take the form of helix rotations and asymmetric helical bends similar to those reported for other sensing systems, suggesting that a similar switching mechanism could be operational in a wide range of sensor histidine kinases. (pnas.org)
  • Structural basis for recruitment of CBP/p300 by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Blue-Light-Induced Unfolding of the J alpha Helix Allows for the Dimerization of Aureochrome-LOV from the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum", Biochemistry , vol. 52, 2013, pp. 3094-3101. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The loops connecting the alpha helices form extracellular and intracellular domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critical to hinge helix-minor groove binding is the intercalation of the side chains of Leu54 and its symmetry-related mate, Leu54', into the central CpG-base pair step. (sciencemag.org)