Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Guanine NucleotidesDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GTP-Binding Protein Regulators: Proteins that regulate the signaling activity of GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They are divided into three categories depending upon whether they stimulate GTPase activity (GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS), inhibit release of GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE DISSOCIATION INHIBITORS); or exchange GTP for GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.PhosphoproteinsPromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinases: G-protein-coupled receptor kinases that mediate agonist-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION and desensitization of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Peptide Elongation Factor Tu: A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Mice, Inbred C57BLAffinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.GTP Phosphohydrolase-Linked Elongation Factors: Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Peptide Elongation Factor G: Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
G-alpha-q is the alpha subunit of one of the heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins that mediates stimulation of phospholipase C- ... "Differential distribution of alpha subunits and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins on Golgi membranes of the ... Receptor activation catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP bound to the inactive G protein alpha subunit resulting in a ... Kabouridis PS, Waters ST, Escobar S, Stanners J, Tsoukas CD (1995). "Expression of GTP-binding protein alpha subunits in human ...
1996). "Prenylation of an interferon-gamma-induced GTP-binding protein: the human guanylate binding protein, huGBP1". J. Leukoc ... 1996). "The p21(RAS) farnesyltransferase alpha subunit in TGF-beta and activin signaling". Science. 271 (5252): 1120-2. doi: ... 2000). "Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins". Nature. 403 (6769 ... Protein farnesyltransferase subunit beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FNTB gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
1996). "Prenylation of an interferon-gamma-induced GTP-binding protein: the human guanylate binding protein, huGBP1". J. Leukoc ... Protein farnesyltransferase/geranylgeranyltransferase type-1 subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FNTA ... 2000). "Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins". Nature. 403 (6769 ... Andres DA, Goldstein JL, Ho YK, Brown MS (1993). "Mutational analysis of alpha-subunit of protein farnesyltransferase. Evidence ...
... active GTP-bound alpha subunit and beta-gamma dimer, both of which activate downstream effectors. The response is terminated ... with G protein beta subunits to form novel dimers that prevent G protein gamma subunit binding and G protein alpha subunit ... G protein gamma subunit-like) for binding G protein beta subunits (InterPro: IPR001770 Those RGS proteins that contain GGL ... RGS proteins markedly reduce the lifespan of GTP-bound alpha subunits by stabilising the G protein transition state. Whereas ...
The protein attenuates the signalling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as ... This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "RGS1 is expressed in monocytes and acts as a GTPase-activating protein for G-protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors". J. ...
The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a ... This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS18 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: RGS18 regulator of G-protein signalling 18". Yowe D, Weich N, Prabhudas M, Poisson L, Errada P, Kapeller R, Yu K, ...
The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a ... This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers ... Fischer T, De Vries L, Meerloo T, Farquhar MG (Jul 2003). "Promotion of G alpha i3 subunit down-regulation by GIPN, a putative ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS17 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ...
The gamma and beta sub-units are permanently bound together, producing a single Gβγ sub-unit. Heterotrimeric G proteins act as ... GTP) bind to. They are classified as heterotrimeric, meaning they contain three different sub-units, which include an alpha (α ... a GTP molecule binds to the free nucleotide-binding pocket, and the G protein becomes active. A Gα(GTP) complex is formed, ... The Gβγ sub-unit binds to the intracellular loop between the two trans-membrane helices of the VDCC. When the sub-unit binds to ...
G proteins, are activated by G protein-coupled receptors and are made up of alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ) subunits. "Small ... "Regulator of G protein signalling"). Receptors stimulate GTP binding (turning the G protein on). RGS proteins stimulate GTP ... Small GTPases also bind GTP and GDP and are involved in signal transduction. These proteins are homologous to the alpha (α) ... The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) subunits. In addition, the beta and gamma ...
... and to dissociate into active alpha subunit (GTP-bound) and beta/gamma dimer. The alpha subunit and the beta/gamma dimer go on ... The activated receptor promotes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on the G protein alpha subunit. GTP binding changes the ... alpha; there are also fungal and plant classes of alpha subunits. The alpha subunit consists of two domains: a GTP-binding ... G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. G proteins and ...
This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers ... GTP-bound G alpha subunits. Acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), the protein increases the rate of conversion of the ... This protein contains one RGS domain, two Raf-like Ras-binding domains (RBDs), and one GoLoco motif. The protein attenuates the ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS14 gene. RGS14 is a member of the ...
... the alpha subunit of the G-protein transducer breaks free from the beta and gamma subunits, all parts remaining membrane-bound ... the conformation change exposes a binding site for a G-protein. The G-protein (named for the GDP and GTP molecules that bind to ... is bound to the inner membrane of the cell and consists of three subunits: alpha, beta and gamma. The G-protein is known as the ... The alpha subunit, now free to move along the inner membrane, eventually contacts another membrane-bound protein - the "primary ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAT2 gene. Transducin is ... 1991). "Rhodopsin and the retinal G-protein distinguish among G-protein beta gamma subunit forms". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (19): ... Mazzoni MR, Malinski JA, Hamm HE (1991). "Structural analysis of rod GTP-binding protein, Gt. Limited proteolytic digestion ... 1987). "Myristoylated alpha subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (21 ...
... and bind GTP, then the alpha subunit of transducin dissociates from the beta and gamma subunits, with the GTP still bound to ... GTPase Accelerating Protein (GAP) interacts with the alpha subunit of transducin, and causes it to hydrolyse its bound GTP to ... the alpha subunit. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates phosphodiesterase or PDE. PDE breaks down cGMP to 5'-GMP. This ... This helps in dissociation of G -protein complex. Alpha sub-unit of this complex activates the PLC enzyme (PLC-beta) which ...
eIF2 is composed of three subunits, alpha (α), beta (β, this article), and gamma (γ), with the protein encoded by this gene ... steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA and binding to a 40S ribosomal subunit. ... 1998). "DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45". J. Biol ... The beta subunit catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP, which recycles the eIF2 complex for another round of initiation. Both ...
... alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ, this article), with the protein encoded by this gene representing the gamma subunit. eIF2 ... steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA and binding to a 40S ribosomal subunit. ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 3 (eIF2γ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF2S3 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: EIF2S3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa". Ray MK, Chakraborty A, Datta B, et al ...
Upon binding to rhodopsin, the alpha subunit of the G protein replaces a molecule of GDP with a molecule of GTP and becomes ... This replacement causes the alpha subunit of the G protein to dissociate from the beta and gamma subunits of the G protein. As ... the alpha subunit is now free to bind to the cGMP phosphodiesterase (an effector protein). The alpha subunit interacts with the ... inhibitory PDE gamma subunits and prevents them from blocking catalytic sites on the alpha and beta subunits of PDE, leading to ...
Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1. *GNAI1. *GNAI2. *GNAI3 ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. ... They are active or 'ON' when it is bound to GTP and inactive or 'OFF' when bound to GDP.[1] Activation and deactivation of ...
Miyazaki T, Reed JC (Jun 2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nature ... such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Fas ligand, and gamma interferon. Additionally, DAP3 interacts with the factor IPS-1 to ... The DAP3 gene encodes a 46 kDa protein located in the lower area of the small mitoribosomal subunit. This protein contains a P- ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nat. ...
... also called guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins, consist of three subunits, called alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, or Gα, Gβ ... Logothetis DE, Kurachi Y, Galper J, Neer EJ, Clapham DE (1987). "The beta gamma subunits of GTP-binding proteins activate the ... The G beta-gamma complex (Gβγ) is a tightly bound dimeric protein complex, composed of one Gβ and one Gγ subunit, and is a ... August 1992). "Role of beta gamma subunits of G proteins in targeting the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase to membrane-bound ...
Binding occurs as a ternary complex of methionyl-tRNA, eIF2, and GTP. eIF2 is composed of 3 nonidentical subunits, alpha (α, 36 ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF2S1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha (α) subunit of the ... kD, this article), beta (β, 38 kD), and gamma (γ, 52 kD). The rate of formation of the ternary complex is modulated by the ... 1998). "DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45". J. Biol ...
... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100.200 -- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ... gtp-binding protein beta subunits MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.730 -- gtp-binding protein gamma subunits MeSH D12.776.157.325. ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunit, gi2 MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100.300 -- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 MeSH ... ran gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.475 -- rap gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.475.100 -- rap1 gtp- ...
The inactive form contains the alpha subunit bound to GDP and complexes with the beta and gamma subunit. When the ligand is ... GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which enhance GTP hydrolysis (see PDOC50132), and guanine dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), ... GDP is displaced from G-alpha and GTP is bound. The GTP/G-alpha complex dissociates from the trimer and associates to an ... are coupled to membrane-associated heterotrimers comprising a GTP-hydrolyzing subunit G-alpha and a G-beta/G-gamma dimer. ...
... is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha (also called subunit 1), a beta (subunit 2), and a gamma (subunit 3) subunit. ... The γ-sub-unit comprises three guanine nucleotide-binding sites and is known to be the main docking site for GTP/GDP. It also ... The 43S PIC then binds mRNA that has previously been unwound by the eIF4F complex. The 43S PIC and the eIF4F proteins form a ... sub-unit 1), β (sub-unit 2), and γ (sub-unit 3). The sequences of all three sub-units are highly conserved (pairwise amino acid ...
Each of these subunits are part of the karyopherin family of proteins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in the ... In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates and the small GTP binding protein Ran, the complex moves into the nuclear pore ... Nachury MV, Ryder UW, Lamond AI, Weis K (January 1998). "Cloning and characterization of hSRP1 gamma, a tissue-specific nuclear ... Ran-GTP dissociates the karyopherin alphabeta heterodimer by displacing alpha from an overlapping binding site on beta". Proc. ...
Protein alignment of human hemoglobin proteins, alpha, beta, and delta subunits respectively. The alignments were created using ... Fish use both ATP and GTP. These bind to a phosphate "pocket" on the fish hemoglobin molecule, which stabilizes the tense state ... The gamma chains are gradually replaced by β chains as the infant grows.[43] ... Protons bind at various places on the protein, while carbon dioxide binds at the α-amino group.[63] Carbon dioxide binds to ...
... bound Cdc42 or Rac and the Cool‐2 monomer. The βγ subunit complex of large GTPbinding proteins, by interacting with PAK, ... Directional sensing requires G beta gamma‐mediated PAK1 and PIX alpha‐dependent activation of Cdc42. Cell 114: 215-227. ... binding proteins between their GDP‐bound and GTPbound states (Boguski and McCormick, 1993). Rho family proteins, such as Cdc42 ... This activation event required both the binding of PAK to Cool‐2 and the binding of the G protein βγ subunit complex to PAK. ...
Here, we show that activation of receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins inhibits TRPM3 channels. This inhibition was ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / metabolism * GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / pharmacology ... GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits / pharmacology* * GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits / pharmacology* ... This inhibition was alleviated by co-expression of proteins that bind the βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gβγ). Co- ...
It has been debated whether the potassium channel of the atrium is activated by the alpha subunit or by the beta gamma subunits ... The alpha subunit of the GTP binding protein activates muscarinic potassium channels of the atrium ... The alpha subunit of the GTP binding protein activates muscarinic potassium channels of the atrium ... The alpha subunit of the GTP binding protein activates muscarinic potassium channels of the atrium ...
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits * GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits * GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits / metabolism * GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits / metabolism ... The onset of receptor mobility was correlated to the uncoupling and activation of the Galpha2-protein. A finite-element ... of the cell that controls the gradient-induced translocation of proteins during chemotactic movements is still largely lacking ...
Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... gtp binding protein gamma subunits*platelet aggregation* ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins , gtp binding protein alpha subunits , gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... gtp binding protein alpha subunits*cyclic amp*knockout mice*g12 g13 gtp binding protein alpha subunits*patch clamp techniques* ... gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits. Summary. Summary: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that ...
GTP-binding alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G protein; negatively regulates mating pathway by sequestering G(beta)gamma and ... Protein Product. guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha Feature Type. ORF , Verified Description. Subunit of G ... triggering an adaptive response; activates Vps34p at endosome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication ...
"Activation of phospholipase C beta 2 by the alpha and beta gamma subunits of trimeric GTP-binding protein." Proceedings of the ...
G-alpha-q is the alpha subunit of one of the heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins that mediates stimulation of phospholipase C- ... "Differential distribution of alpha subunits and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins on Golgi membranes of the ... Receptor activation catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP bound to the inactive G protein alpha subunit resulting in a ... Kabouridis PS, Waters ST, Escobar S, Stanners J, Tsoukas CD (1995). "Expression of GTP-binding protein alpha subunits in human ...
Moreover, application of recombinant G beta gamma, but not G alpha i-GTP-gamma S, activates GIRK1 channels. Thus G beta gamma ... activation of these muscarinic potassium channels is mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein ... Activation of the cloned muscarinic potassium channel by G protein beta gamma subunits.. Reuveny E1, Slesinger PA, Inglese J, ... We report here that coexpression of GIRK1 with G beta gamma but not G alpha beta gamma in Xenopus oocytes results in channel ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... and to dissociate into active alpha subunit (GTP-bound) and beta/gamma dimer. The alpha subunit and the beta/gamma dimer go on ... The activated receptor promotes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on the G protein alpha subunit. GTP binding changes the ...
... active GTP-bound alpha subunit and beta-gamma dimer, both of which activate downstream effectors. The response is terminated ... with G protein beta subunits to form novel dimers that prevent G protein gamma subunit binding and G protein alpha subunit ... G protein gamma subunit-like) for binding G protein beta subunits (InterPro: IPR001770 Those RGS proteins that contain GGL ... RGS proteins markedly reduce the lifespan of GTP-bound alpha subunits by stabilising the G protein transition state. Whereas ...
The PH domain in beta-adrenergic receptor kinase may be involved in binding to the beta gamma subunits of a trimeric G-protein ... Its function is not known, but many proteins that contain a PH domain interact with GTP-binding proteins. ... The C terminus is folded into a long alpha-helix, and another helix is present in one of the surface loops. The molecule is ... There is a distant relationship to the peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans-isomerase FKBP in which this pocket is involved in the binding ...
The gamma and beta sub-units are permanently bound together, producing a single Gβγ sub-unit. Heterotrimeric G proteins act as ... GTP) bind to. They are classified as heterotrimeric, meaning they contain three different sub-units, which include an alpha (α ... a GTP molecule binds to the free nucleotide-binding pocket, and the G protein becomes active. A Gα(GTP) complex is formed, ... The Gβγ sub-unit binds to the intracellular loop between the two trans-membrane helices of the VDCC. When the sub-unit binds to ...
Gqa fusion protein is a Baculovirus infected Sf9 Full length protein and validated in FuncS. ... Gq alpha is the alpha subunit of one of the heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins that mediates stimulation of phospholipase C- ... The G protein alpha and beta-gamma subunits are capable of regulating various cellular effectors. Activation is terminated by a ... Receptor activation catalyzes the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to the inactive G protein alpha subunit resulting in a ...
... of inactive heterotrimeric G proteins into active GTP-bound G.alpha. and Venus-G.beta..gamma. subunits. The free Venus-G.beta.. ... nona-2-6 alpha (10 alpha)-diene hydrochloride) (Org 6997), (dl)-(5 alpha,8 alpha,9 alpha)-5,8,9,10-Tetrahydro-5,9- ... protein kinase C.alpha.), and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) (all of which are green) was then revealed by ... For example, among isoforms of the .alpha.1-ARs and .alpha.2-ARs, the human retina expressed .alpha.2C-AR at the highest level ...
GTP binding activates G proteins by dissociating G alpha from G beta gamma subunits, and GTP hydrolysis by G alpha subunits ... Binding / catalysis: protein-binding, G-protein alpha subunit-binding, GTPase activator for G-protein subunits ... with G protein beta subunits to form novel dimers that prevent G protein gamma subunit binding and G protein alpha subunit ... G protein gamma subunit-like) for binding G protein beta subunits (IPR001770). Those RGS proteins that contain GGL domains can ...
... activating protein-1) (PubMed:21212405). GNA12-dependent Rho signaling also regulates protein phosphatese 2A activation causing ... G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems (PubMed:12176367, PubMed: ... 21212405). Activates effector molecule RhoA by binding and activating RhoGEFs (ARHGEF12/LARG) (By similarity). GNA12-dependent ... dephosphorylation of its target proteins (By similarity). Promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis by activating RhoA/ROCK ...
Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the STE4-STE18 G-protein beta gamma subunits. A possible target ... expressed as a fusion protein, binds human and yeast GTP-binding Cdc42p. Cdc42p is required for alpha-factor-induced activation ... Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the small GTP-binding protein Cdc42p and its activator CDC24.. Z S ... Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the small GTP-binding protein Cdc42p and its activator CDC24. ...
... beta/gamma. This causes the exchange of GDP for GTP bound to G protein alpha subunits and the dissociation of the beta/gamma ... The G-protein beta/gamma heterodimers activate PI3K gamma, recruiting noncatalytic p101 subunit and directly stimulating ... P3 is a second messenger that directly binds to PtdIns (3,4,5)P3-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and protein kinase B (AKT). ... SDF-1 stimuli activate receptor and promote interaction between the receptor and the trimeric G-protein alpha (i), ...
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/metabolism. *Interferon-gamma/pharmacology. *Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects ... in a G-protein dependent manner. In addition, retroviral transduction of CD152 cDNA into CD152 negative cells restored Th1 cell ... in a G-protein dependent manner. In addition, retroviral transduction of CD152 cDNA into CD152 negative cells restored Th1 cell ... in a G-protein dependent manner.Importantly, migration of CD152 positive Th1 lymphocytes in in vivo experiments increased more ...
G proteins dissociate into GTP-bound alpha subunits-activating adenylyl cyclase, retinal phosphodiesterase, phospholipase C, ... and ion channels-and a complex of beta and gamma subunits, selectively activating certain forms of adenylate cyclase following ... Adenylate cyclase is intimately linked to the receptor-G protein machinery on the cytoplasmic face of cell membrane, which ... It is activated by the attachment of a hormone or neurotransmitter to a specific membrane-bound receptor. ...
The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal ... Protein binding GO:0005515 Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or ... Calcium-dependent protein binding GO:0048306 Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a ... promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex. ...
... subunit leading to dissociation of the G-protein complex with the free GTP-bound G-protein alpha and the G-protein beta-gamma ... to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha ... G alpha proteins, GNAI1, GNAI2, GNAI3 and GNAO1, and to a lesser extent to pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha proteins GNAZ ... Also couples to adenylate cyclase stimulatory G alpha proteins. The selective temporal coupling to G-proteins and subsequent ...
Protein Coding), RIC8 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Does not interact with G-alpha proteins when they are in complex with subunits beta and gamma. Interacts (via C-terminus) with ... G-alpha proteins. Able to activate GNAI1, GNAO1 and GNAQ, but not GNAS by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. Involved in ... alpha protein, possibly leading to release G(i)-alpha-GTP and NuMA proteins from the NuMA-GPSM2-G(i)-alpha-GDP complex (By ...
guanine nucleotide binding protein G(T) alpha 1 subunit antibody. *Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-1 ... Tr alpha), T beta, and T gamma. Cone transducin is composed of cone transducin alpha (Tc alpha), T beta and T gamma. ... In the active state, rhodopsin activates transducin, a GTP binding protein. Once activated, transducin promotes the hydrolysis ... guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1 antibody ...
  • The presence of these additional modules within the RGS proteins provides for multiple novel regulatory interactions performed by these molecules. (embl.de)
  • Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules). (cathdb.info)
  • G proteins are important signal transducing molecules in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A "binding signal" that was observed in the absence of gTP as an increase in turbidity became saturated when a number of rhodopsin molecules equal to the number of GTP-binding protein molecules present (congruent to 10% in rod outer segments) has been bleached, suggesting that the protein binds to R* in a 1:1 complex. (pnas.org)
  • it is interpreted as reflecting the dissociation of GTP-binding protein-R* complexes after GDP/GTP exchange on the GTP-binding protein, one R* being able to interact sequentially with about 100 GTP-binding protein molecules. (pnas.org)
  • These ligands can be small molecules of sugars, lipids, polypeptides, or biological macromolecules such as proteins. (cusabio.com)
  • In addition, we have derived further detail about CD4 and CD8 coreceptors and their binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of class II and class I, respectively.Recently, we have shown that agonist mAbs footprint to the membrane distal CD3epsilon lobe which they approach diagonally, adjacent to the lever-like Cbeta FG loop that facilitates antigen (pMHC)-triggered activation. (dana-farber.org)
  • A common TCR quaternary change rather than conformational alterations can better facilitate structural signal initiation, given the vast array of TCRs and their specific pMHC ligands.Using computational methods, we have also defined the rules concerning the nature of peptides that bind to individual human MHC molecules, including multiple allelic variants, and developed bioinformatic approaches to create computational vaccinology. (dana-farber.org)
  • The exception to this situation is the so-called electrical synapse, in which ion-conducting pores made from proteins called connexins connect the intracellular compartments of adjacent neurons, allowing direct ion flow from cell to cell (Kandel et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • ecently it has been demonstrated that the 16 carbon fatty acid, palmitic acid, is also present in the N terminal region of the majority of G protein a subunits, as well as several other proteins involved in intracellular signalling, notably Src family members. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Alpha-beta tubulin heterodimer is the basic building block of microtubules, and this intracellular cylindrical filamentous structure is present in almost eukaryotic cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Able to activate GNAI1, GNAO1 and GNAQ, but not GNAS by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. (genecards.org)
  • The reproductive function of G-protein subunit Galphaq (GNAQ), a member of the G protein alpha subunit family, has been extensively studied in humans and rats. (ajas.info)
  • Additionally, GNAQ protein was qualitatively evaluated via western blot, with the results indicating that similarities between GNAQ mRNA levels from sheep was highly conserved with those observed in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa . (ajas.info)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the difference between GNAQ mRNA and Gnαq protein expression levels in the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis and testes of sheep. (ajas.info)
  • Although directional sensing has been observed as spatially restricted responses along the plasma membrane, our understanding of the ;compass' of the cell that controls the gradient-induced translocation of proteins during chemotactic movements is still largely lacking. (nih.gov)
  • G proteins carry lipid modifications on one or more of their subunits to target them to the plasma membrane and to contribute to protein interactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The RGS1 protein is situated on the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane and contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif termed the RGS domain. (prospecbio.com)
  • The Class III protein Arf6 is associated with the plasma membrane and is involved in vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, vesicle recycling and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. (thermofisher.com)
  • The association of the GGA proteins with the TGN and with the plasma membrane is regulated by the Arf. (thermofisher.com)
  • it abolishes basal and attenuates agonist-stimulated G-protein coupling (PubMed:10419536, PubMed:10899953). (rcsb.org)
  • This activation may be constitutional, for instance due to permanent structural modifications, or be physiologically triggered by agonist binding at an external and accessible specific site. (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast, a non-agonist mAb binds to the cleft between CD3epsilon and CD3gamma in a perpendicular mode and is stimulatory only subsequent to an external tangential but not a normal force (~50 pN) applied via optical tweezers. (dana-farber.org)