Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (1/1911)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Primary yolk sac tumour of the liver in adulthood. (2/1911)

Primary yolk sac tumour of the liver is exceedingly rare. A 28 year old woman presented with a cystic liver mass and a markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration. She underwent a partial hepatectomy for a suspected hepatocellular carcinoma but histological examination of the tumour revealed the classical morphological and immunohistochemical features of a yolk sac tumour. There was no evidence of an extrahepatic primary source. Review of this case, together with the six previously reported adult cases of primary yolk sac tumours of the liver, revealed several features of the tumour that may aid differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma, with potential therapeutic implications.  (+info)

Phase II trial of primary chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation for CNS germ cell tumors. (3/1911)

PURPOSE: A prospective phase II study was initiated to assess the response rate, survival, and late effects of treatment in patients with newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors (GCT), using etoposide plus cisplatin followed by radiation therapy prescribed by extent of disease, histology, and response to chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients aged 8 to 24 years with histologically proven CNS GCT received etoposide (100 mg/m2/d) plus cisplatin (20 mg/m2/d) daily for 5 days every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by radiation therapy. Nine patients had germinomas; eight had mixed GCT. Four patients (three with germinomas and one with mixed GCT) presented with leptomeningeal dissemination. RESULTS: Radiographically, 14 of 17 patients were assessable for response; 11 patients experienced complete regression, and three had major partial regression before radiation. Six of seven assessable patients with elevated CSF levels of alpha-fetoprotein or betahuman chorionic gonadotropin had normalization with chemotherapy alone; all normalized with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. All 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease (median follow-up, 51 months). One patient developed a relapse in the spinal leptomeninges and was rendered free of disease with spinal radiation more than 5 years ago. One patient developed carotid stenosis requiring surgery. Thus far, only minimal long-term deterioration in neurocognitive function has been detected as a consequence of protocol treatment. CONCLUSION: Conventional-dose intravenous chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin can effect tumor regression in a high proportion of patients with CNS GCT, including those with leptomeningeal metastases. Acute and long-term toxicities are acceptable. Progression-free survival and overall survival are excellent.  (+info)

Several new targets of antitumor agents. (4/1911)

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as a hepatoma-promoting factor, has become a new target of anti-hepatoma agents. It is a new approach for the treatment of tumors to inhibit or block oncogene expression. Informational drugs are being developed for gene therapy applications as inhibitors of oncogene expression. The induction of tumor cell differentiation is another new strategy of drug therapy of tumors. Common action mode of many antitumor drugs is to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Suicide genes, as targeting therapy of tumors, improve the present chemotherapy, exhibiting broad application prospects.  (+info)

Complementary adenoviral vectors for oncolysis. (5/1911)

Replication-competent adenoviruses (Ads) were used for oncolytic virotherapy soon after they were discovered. Recently mutated and genetically engineered Ads have been shown to selectively lyse tumor cells. We have split the human Ad type 5 genome into two defective viruses that complement each other only in certain tumor cells. The genome of one of these vectors, GT5610, contains only the minimal viral elements required in cis for replication and packaging and the E1 viral genes with E1A under the control of the human alpha-fetoprotein promoter. This "controlled" vector has a capacity for 30 kilobases of foreign DNA. The supplemental vector, AdHbeta, contains all adenoviral genes except for E1. Both vectors were designed to carry heterologous reporter genes whose expression could be detected throughout the tumor. Coinfection of hepatocarcinoma cells that have the capacity to transcribe genes under the control of the alpha-fetoprotein promoter leads to cell lysis and copropagation. The oncolytic spread of these complementary vectors in vivo was demonstrated by the intratumoral injection of human hepatocarcinomas xenografted in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. This system presents safety and gene capacity features that could yield a therapeutic advantage over oncolysis by a single virus.  (+info)

The effects on fetal development of high alpha-fetoprotein and maternal smoking. (6/1911)

OBJECTIVES: This study determined the risk of impaired fetal growth resulting from the interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and unexplained elevated concentrations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP). METHODS: This observational study involved 123 pregnant smokers with unexplained second-trimester elevated concentrations of MSAFP, 827 smokers with normal levels, and 471 nonsmokers with raised levels. RESULTS: By logistic regression, coincident smoking and elevated MSAFP levels were found to be associated with increases in the low basic risks of prematurity, small-for-gestational-age births, low birthweight, and need for neonatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking has an adverse effect on fetal development in pregnancies with unexplained elevated MSAFP concentrations. Such pregnancies merit close surveillance.  (+info)

Size of lipid microdroplets effects results of hepatic arterial chemotherapy with an anticancer agent in water-in-oil-in-water emulsion to hepatocellular carcinoma. (7/1911)

We have initially prepared a new drug delivery system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using sonication and a detergent, iodinated poppy seed oil (IPSO) can be mixed with an aqueous solution of epirubicin to make a water-in-oil emulsion. The water-in-oil emulsion is further passed through a microporous glass membrane and split into saline to make a long-term inseparable water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (W/O/W) that consists of IPSO microdroplets. To investigate the effect of the size of IPSO microdroplets on the efficacy of injection chemotherapy with W/O/W in patients with HCC, 32 HCC patients were randomly assigned and treated with W/O/W of small IPSO microdroplets (30 micrometers in diameter) containing 60 mg of epirubicin (n = 16, group A) or W/O/W of large IPSO microdroplets (70 micrometers) containing the same amounts of epirubicin (n = 16, group B). Effects were assessed by measuring the percentage of decline of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in a week from the AFP level immediately before the treatment. The decline was significantly larger in group B (50.5 +/- 19.8, mean +/- S.D.) compared with group A (18.9 +/- 33.1; p <.005). The size of IPSO microdroplets injected into the hepatic artery determines the decrease of serum AFP levels of the patients with HCC.  (+info)

The recombinant third domain of human alpha-fetoprotein retains the antiestrotrophic activity found in the full-length molecule. (8/1911)

Previous studies have shown that alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) interferes with estrogen (E2)-stimulated growth, including E2-stimulated breast cancer growth. In an effort to localize the antiestrotrophic portion of the molecule, the C-terminal one-third (200 amino acids) of human AFP, known as Domain III, was produced in a baculovirus expression system as a fusion protein containing an amino terminal histidine tag. The histidine tag was included to facilitate purification by metal ion affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant Domain III fusion protein was functionally similar to full-length natural AFP isolated from human cord sera or from cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) in that they all produced significant and quantitatively similar inhibition of E2-stimulated growth of immature mouse uterus. Furthermore, the dose-response profiles of the recombinant Domain III AFP and natural full-length AFP were similar. Preincubation of either protein in a molar excess of E2 lowered the minimally effective antiestrotrophic dose and produced a difference spectrum consistent with a change in conformation. These findings indicate that the antiestrotrophic activity of AFP is contained within the third domain of the molecule, and they have obvious implications for the production of biologically active peptides derived from this portion of the AFP molecule.  (+info)

The amino acid sequence of human alpha-fetoprotein, a 67-kDa protein present in mammalian embryonic serum, was verified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric (FAB/MS) analyses of three different enzymatic digests of the protein. Human alpha-fetoprotein obtained from a large-scale cell culture was digested with trypsin and V-8 protease either separately on two different samples or combined on the same one. The V-8 protease digest of the protein was partially fractionated by HPLC; the other samples were directly analyzed by FAB/MS without previous purification steps. About 90% of the alpha-fetoprotein amino acid sequence was verified by mass spectrometric analysis; this also confirmed that the cell-derived protein is identical with the hepatoma-derived protein. FAB analysis revealed that the N terminus of the mature protein is arginine rather than threonine, with the threonine occupying the second position. Therefore, the processing site of the alpha-fetoprotein signal peptide during maturation of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of epitopes of mouse monoclonal antibodies against human alpha-fetoprotein. AU - Kang, Y.. AU - Matsuura, E.. AU - Sakamoto, T.. AU - Sakai, M.. AU - Nishi, Shinzo. PY - 2001/7/9. Y1 - 2001/7/9. N2 - Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were analyzed for the location of their epitopes by reacting them with a set of yeast recombinant AFP proteins using ELISA. Recombinant AFP proteins containing either one, two or all three domains, i.e. domain I, domain III, domain I-II, domain II-III and domain I-II-III, were produced and secreted into the culture medium of yeast cells harboring the expression plasmids. Epitopes of 13 MAbs were localized on domain I and 17 others were on domain III. However, the exact location of the epitopes of the remaining 6 MAbs could not be defined. The epitope of an antibody, namely AFY6, which was located in domain I, was successfully mapped on an octapeptide, C175KAENAVE182, using synthesized overlapping ...
The fucosylated fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) is a specific marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, conventional AFP-L3% (c-AFP-L3%) has not always been reliable in cases with low serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of a newly developed assay, highly sensitive AFP-L3% (hs-AFP-L3%). Subjects included 74 patients with benign liver disease (BLD), including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, and 94 with HCC. Serum hs-AFP-L3% was significantly higher than c-AFP-L3% in patients with early-stage HCC (solitary or ...
Alpha fetoprotein normal range - When did alpha fetoprotein testing start? 1980s. The Alpha fetoprotein test was around when I was a resident physician. The test has progressed through the y ears such that there are four levels measured in the pregnant womans blood looking for the risk of downs syndrome (trisomy 21), trisomy 18 & neural tube defects like spina bifida. This is called the quadruple screen best measured between 16 & weeks of pregnancy.
To the Editor:. Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and fetal liver1 that is routinely used as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma in subjects with chronic liver diseases.2,3 Elevations of AFP levels may be often observed in acute and chronic viral hepatitis also4,5 and are usually associated with hepatic cirrhosis.5,6 These elevations have been correlated to hepatic damage per se with selective transcriptional activation of the AFP gene.7 Recently, it has been demonstrated that elevated AFP levels correlate with a low probability of sustained virologic response (SVR) to chronic hepatitis C treatment, at least in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4.8 To date, no study has evaluated the association between serum AFP levels and early virologic response (EVR) to anti-HCV treatment in the HIV-positive population.. In this study we evaluated 33 consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects followed up at our clinic who initiated an anti-HCV treatment, ...
Definition of MSAFP maternal serum alphafetoprotein Dec 12 2018 MSAFP maternal serum alphafetoprotein The presence of AFP a plasma protein normally produced by the fetus in the mothers blood The MSAFP serves as the basis for some valuable tests AFP is manufactured principally in the fetuss liver and also in the fetal gastrointestinal GI tract and the yolk sac a structure temporarily present during embryonic development. Read More ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoic acid mediates down-regulation of the α-fetoprotein gene through decreased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factors. AU - Magee, Thomas R.. AU - Cai, Yan. AU - El-Houseini, Motawa E.. AU - Locker, Joseph. AU - Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne. PY - 1998/11/6. Y1 - 1998/11/6. N2 - α-Fetoprotein (AFP), a protein highly induced during fetal liver development, is down-regulated by retinoids in the human hepatoma cell line Hep3B, in contrast to up-regulation observed in other cell types. Previously, we have documented that such up-regulation involves direct effects through cis-retinoid X receptor-binding sites in the AFP enhancer. In this report, we show a distinctive effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) in Hep3B cells. RA caused a marked decrease in AFP transcripts. Deletion analysis of the upstream regulatory region of the AFP gene revealed that cis-acting sites required for down-regulation resided near the promoter. Gel mobility shift assays for factors binding to key elements in the ...
alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, and isoelectric focusing. A major and a minor component with isoelectric points of 4.7 and 5.3, respectively, have been isola
Yang JD, Dai J, Singal AG et al.. Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Clinic Cancer Center.. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. Mar 2017.. The utility of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is controversial. We aimed to identify factors associated with elevated AFP and define the patients for whom AFP is effective for surveillance.Data from the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network Phase 2 HCC biomarker study (233 early stage HCC and 412 cirrhotic patients) were analyzed. We analyzed 110 early stage HCC and 362 cirrhotic HCV patients for external validation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for HCC were calculated.HCV etiology, Non-White race, and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) predicted elevated AFP in cirrhotics. Non-White ...
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
Alpha Fetoprotein. all hormones produced by the baby and/or the placenta and released into the bloodstream of the mother. The triple screen test excludes the Inhibin A test. The levels of the AFP protein compared with the levels of the other hormones can help determine the birth defect that is most likely, if the test results are abnormal.. Both high and low results can be a sign of a serious birth defect. A very low AFP level result can signify that your baby will be born with Down Syndrome or Edwards Syndrome, while an abnormally high AFP level can uncover a neural tube defect like Spina Bifida. The AFP test acts as an initial screening for potential problems and helps doctors decide if additional tests are required and what types of health issues they are testing for. We recommend asking your physician for specifics on what they consider to be a normal range, as this can vary from doctor to doctor.. It is important to note that high readings on an AFP test can also be caused if you ...
Also Known as Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP) MSAFP is often part of the triple screen test that assesses whether further diagnostic testing may be needed.
I have a long history of ovarian cysts that usually go away,but also a family history of cancer. They came across a larger than usual one on my left side and started to watch it, as of now it has conti...
Background: The utility of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is controversial. We aimed to identify factors associated with elevated AFP and define the patients for whom AFP is effective for surveillance. Methods: Data from the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network Phase 2 HCC biomarker study (233 early stage HCC and 412 cirrhotic patients) were analyzed. We analyzed 110 early stage HCC and 362 cirrhotic HCV patients for external validation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for HCC were calculated. Results: HCV etiology, Non-White race, and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) predicted elevated AFP in cirrhotics. Non-White race and ALT predicted elevated AFP in HCC patients. Higher AUC of AFP for HCC was noted in patients with HBV (0.85) and alcohol (0.84) while it was lower in patients with HCV (0.80) and Non-viral/Alcohol etiology (0.76). The AUC was higher in HCV patients with serum ALT≤40 U/L than patients ...
Synonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP. 1 synonym for fetoprotein: foetoprotein. What are synonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP?
Anti-AFP Antibody. Reactivity Hu, Ms(-) and Rt(-). Tested In FC, IF, IHC. Formats Unconjugated. Isotype Ms IgG2a, κ. From: $329.
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Tracer (HRP Labeled), Clone AFP-Y2Collection: AntibodySub Category: Matched Antibody
Buy AFP purified protein, ALPHA FETOPROTEIN Purified Protein-NP_001125.1 (MBS230298) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Purified Proteins. Application: Immunoassay (IY)
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood. Its level is elevated in a pregnant womans blood when there are problems with her unborn chi...
α-Fetoprotein (AFP) measurements have clinical implications in fetal medicine and, in infants and older children, in detection, differential diagnosis and monitoring of malignant disease. Maternal serum AFP levels constitute part of a multiple-marker test used in early second-trimester screening to predict risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Those individuals with increased risk are offered further definitive diagnostic investigation. Second-trimester screening is now increasingly being superseded by first-trimester screening with other serum markers and ultrasound. As AFP is only produced physiologically during fetal development, elevated serum levels after the first two post-natal years usually indicate the presence of a malignant disease process. Before this time, levels may be purely physiological and therefore serial values should be plotted on a logarithmic chart to ensure that they are falling appropriately, with a typical half-life of ∼5-6 days. If not, further investigation ...
Parity in women is associated with reduced lifetime risk of breast cancer, and hormones of pregnancy (estrogen E, progesterone P, human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG) are implicated. Parity also reduces mammary cancer risk in carcinogen-exposed rats, and administering pregnancy hormones to these animals is similarly effective. Because pregnancy hormones are also able to stimulate cancer growth, we proposed to resolve this dichotomy by determining whether administered pregnancy hormones elicit the cancer-inhibiting agent α-fetoprotein (AFP) from the liver, which would implicate AFP as a proximal effector of hormonal anticancer activity. Accordingly, we treated groups of nitrosomethylurea-exposed rats with saline, E3, E2 + P, E3 + P, hCG, or allowed them to experience pregnancy, then monitored mammary cancer incidence and serum levels of AFP over time. Each hormone treatment reduced mammary cancer incidence and elevated serum AFP levels. To challenge human tissues, human HepG2 liver cells in ...
A 64-year-old male from Bangladesh, identified to have elevated levels of serum AFP in 2010 by electrochemiluminescense immunoassay (ECLIA), presented with consistently elevated AFP levels (,1,100 ng/mL), with the most recent evaluation showing 1,830 ng/mL. Physical examination revealed no abnormality or swelling anywhere in the body. There was no loss of appetite, sudden weight loss, history suggestive of liver disease, or family history of malignancy. He underwent cholecystectomy in 2003 for gallstone disease and complained of asthma and sinusitis. He had also recently been diagnosed for type 2 diabetes mellitus. His liver function tests were normal except for a slight elevation of alanine aminotransferase (41 IU/L), and he tested negative for all other viral infections suggestive of hepatitis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and examination of the upper gastrointestinal series and colon were all normal. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed hepatomegaly with a grade III fatty liver.. Given ...
AlphaLISA no-wash immunoassay kit for detection and quantitation of human alpha-fetoprotein in serum, culture media, or buffered solution.
The median number of MET cycles was two (1-15). The OS values for the MET group and sorafenib group were 158 days (132-184) and 117 days (92-142), respectively (P=0.029). The Cox proportional-hazard model showed that a higher risk of death was correlated with higher serum alpha fetoprotein level (≥400 mg/dL, hazard ratio [HR]=1.680, P=0.014) and Child-Pugh class B (HR=1.856, P=0.008 ...
Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35. The symptomatology caused by this tumor varies according to the site of metastasis. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who arrived to the emergency department with hematemesis. He had no previous medical history. On arrival, we noted enlargement of the left scrotal sac. There was also a mass in the left scrotum which provoked displacement of the penis and right testis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 17,090 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase was 1480 U/L, and human chorionic gonadotropin was 287 ...
Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) greatly improves the survival and prognosisfor patients. In this study weevaluate the diagnostic promise of combining serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression with two potential biomarkers, serum glypican-3 (GPC3) and expression of the micro-RNA miR-122 for hepatitis C virus (HCV) related early-stage HCC. For this study serum samples from 47 patien ...
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. The AFP gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 4 (4q25). AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. It is thought to be the fetal form of serum albumin. AFP binds to copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin and is found in monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms. AFP is a glycoprotein of 591 amino acids and a carbohydrate moiety. AFP is the most abundant plasma protein found in the human fetus. Plasma levels decrease rapidly after birth but begin decreasing prenatally starting at the end of the first trimester. Normal adult levels are usually achieved by the age of 8 to 12 months. The function of AFP in adult humans is unknown; however, in rodents it binds estradiol to prevent the transport of this hormone across the placenta to the fetus. The main function of ...
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis (HCV-C). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been proposed as a biomarker of HCC risk. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is a food supplement that has an excellent safety profile. The use of SAMe as a chemopreventive is based on abnormalities in methionine cycle (with decreased SAMe levels) in patients with cirrhosis, increased risk of HCC in experimental animals deprived of SAMe, and the prevention of liver cancer by SAMe administration in animal models of chemically-induced HCC.. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIb trial to determine if SAMe (up to 2.4 grams/day) for 24 weeks reduced serum AFP levels in patients with HCV-C. Inclusion criteria: lab evidence of HCV-C (platelet count ,150,000/mm3), AFP 15-100 ng/mL (normal less than 9 ng/mL). Exclusion criteria: non-HCV liver diseases, decompensated HCV-C (MELD,15), or history of, or mass suspicious for ...
A 35-year-old Chinese man presented with dull pain in the right hypochondrial region for the previous 2 months. Laboratory examination revealed that his serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 1890 microg/L (reference range, 0-20 microg/L), and computed tomographic scan showed a hypodense lesion in the left liver lobe. At laparotomy, a dark ...
Information about the open-access article Hepatocellular carcinoma: microstructure and expression features of hepatocyte marker, alphafetoprotein, cytokeratins 7 and 20 in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals.
Well-diagnosed consecutive patients with cirrhosis were enrolled through a designed questionnaire to obtain basic information about gender, age, etiology of cirrhosis, conventional liver function tests, serum AFP level, education level, substance use including smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing, history of familial HCC, etc. Then the patients was followed by periodic abdominal sonography examination and determination of AFP and liver function. If AFP elevated or liver nodule appears, effort to diagnose HCC will be performed.If HCC was performed, the survival will be followed-up. As anti-viral therapy was found to decrease risk for HCC, patients with those therapy will be excluded ...
Objective Combination therapy for cancer is more effective than using only standard chemo- or radiotherapy. using AFP-specific CD8+ T-cells combined with JAK2 inhibitor (AG490). Furthermore, an enhanced expression of BAX but no influence on Fas/FasL was buy 870843-42-8 detected from the tumor cells. Conclusion These results indicate a Fas/FasL-independent pathway for cellular apoptosis in cancer therapies with the treatment of AFP-specific CD8+ T-cells combined with JAK2 inhibitor. Keywords: AFP-specific CD8+ T-cells, JAK2 inhibitor, Fas/FasL signal, antitumor, apoptosis Introduction Since the first time bacteria were injected directly into a tumor in 1891, treatment of cancers have been performed using various methods.1 Monoclonal antibodies have been used as vaccines to treat cancer for decades.2C5 Bevacizumab, which was given a trade name Avastin?, was found to be effective and was approved for treating colorectal cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer, and it ...
DYCE GORDON, Elisa; PEDREIRA IPARRAGUIRRE, Ivette y RECIO QUESADA, Esmelinda. Value of the quantization of the serumal alphafetoprotein in gemellary pregnancy. AMC [online]. 2008, vol.12, n.1. ISSN 1025-0255.. With the objective to value if there is relation among the adverse results in gemellary pregnancies, fundamentally preterm delivery, low birth weight and fetal deaths, with the serumal values of the alphafetoprotein during the second trimester of pregnancy, an investigation at «Ana Betancourt de Mora» Gynecobstetric Hospital of Camagüey province, Cuba was conducted. A cross-sectional analytic study with 38 gemellary pregnancies was carried out whose labors were produced during the year 2003, through the review of the labor book of that year and the one of blood samples entrance documentation for the quantization of the alphafetoprotein. The 47% of pregnancies progressed with an increase of the alphafetoprotein. The majority of labors were produced with 37 weeks or more (N=26), ...
Uotila, M; Engvall, E; and Ruoslahti, E, Monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay of alphafetoprotein. Abstr. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2317 ...
An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test can help your doctor rule out some underlying serious condition including some types of cancers.
The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light
Objective: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development which could lead to weak reproducible antitumor immunity, and may act as a target for cancer therapy. Therefore, it is imperative to enhance its immunogenicity and develop therapeutic vaccines to eliminate AFP-expressing tumors. The study is...
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) tends to remit during pregnancy, with more patients achieving remission in the third trimester, coinciding with an increase in levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP). In vitro and animal studies have shown that AFP has immunomodulatory properties. MM-093 is a non-glycosylated, recombinant version of human AFP.. Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability and clinical effects of MM-093 during a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.. Methods: 12 patients with RA, who had active disease and were on stable doses of methotrexate, received weekly subcutaneous injections of placebo or 21 mg of MM-093. Assessments were carried out at baseline and weekly thereafter.. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. There was one dropout in the placebo group, due to flare of disease. Treatment with MM-093 was well tolerated. No serious adverse event was observed. By day 85, MM-093 produced a significant mean improvement from baseline in ...
fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography. In evaluating such tests, it is important to note that the performance characteristics of a test that is used for diagnosis may differ when used for screening/surveillance. Thus, reports of the performance characteristics of AFP and ultrasonography, when applied to screening/surveillance, must be interpreted cautiously.. AFP. This was the marker used in the first reported surveillance studies of HCC. 29,44,45 The sensitivity of AFP for detecting HCC varies widely in both HBV-positive and predominantly HBV-negative populations, 22,25,27,28,44,46,47 possibly because of the confusion between diagnosis and screening. If the level of AFP triggering investigation for HCC is increased, e.g., from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L,25 the sensitivity of the AFP test falls from 39% to 13%, while the specificity increases. AFP, however, is not specific for HCC. Titers also rise with flares of active hepatitis.46 Of 44 HBV carriers with elevated AFP levels detected during ...
The ultrasound technician squeezed a blob of warm gel on my belly, and then rotated the paddle in the sticky goo. Within seconds, an image appeared on the screen in front of her. I tilted my head to catch a glimpse of the life growing inside me. She took careful measurements of the babys head, legs and arms. (Shorter limbs may be an indicator of Down syndrome.) Unlike a regular ultrasound with its gray and white images, this one featured color -- bands of blue and red exploding on the screen as she pointed out the umbilical cord, spine and heart chambers. My husband, a wildlife biologist with expertise in GPS and digital mapping, admired the acuteness of the enhanced ultrasound. Minutes before, we sat in a dim room exploring our options with a genetics counselor. While we didnt have a history of birth defects in our families, my maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening test came back with abnormal levels, and my age (mid-30s) also put the pregnancy into a higher risk category for ...
We firstly and specifically investigated the diagnostic value of autoantibodies in α-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively evaluated the prevalence and diagnostic value of autoantibodies to nucleophosmin (NPM)1, 14-3-3zeta and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) proteins and their different combinations in 56 AFP-negative HCC patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of three tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in AFP-negative HCC. Our study demonstrated that autoantibodies to NPM1, 14-3-3zeta and MDM2 may be useful biomarkers for immunodiagnosis of AFP-negative HCC ...
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Synonyms for AFP in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for AFP. 2 synonyms for AFP: alpha fetoprotein, alpha foetoprotein. What are synonyms for AFP?
The authors of the study conclude that A pooled analysis of two phase 3 trials assessing ramucirumab as second-line treatment in patients with HCC following first-line sorafenib (REACH-2 and REACH) demonstrates a significant and clinically meaningful benefit with a favorable safety profile in HCC patients with baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL.. See the webcast from this presentation. ...
Second-trimester prediction of severe placental complications in women with combined elevations in alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin
Learn about the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, a widely used biochemical blood test used to screen for liver, testicular, and ovarian cancer.
What is an AFP Blood test? AFP blood test, otherwise, also known as Alpha Fetoprotein Test is a type of blood test that measures the level of AFP present in the blood. This test is basically a part of Triple Screening or Quad screening test that is performed during the second trimester of pregnancy. The…
Mouse monoclonal alpha 1 Fetoprotein antibody [6E6] validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
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Alpha fetoprotein: for yolk sac tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma. *CD117 (KIT): for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) ...
Since acarbose and other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors prevent starch and other sugars from being broken down into ... Some forms of this respond to treatment with an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, which slows starch digestion. ...
One system checks the decrease in absorbance at 340 mm when the ammonia reacts with alpha-ketoglutaric acid. The Astra system ...
3 and can quickly turn into it. With carbonic acid as the central intermediate species, bicarbonate - in conjunction with water, hydrogen ions, and carbon dioxide - forms this buffering system, which is maintained at the volatile equilibrium[3] required to provide prompt resistance to pH changes in both the acidic and basic directions. This is especially important for protecting tissues of the central nervous system, where pH changes too far outside of the normal range in either direction could prove disastrous (see acidosis or alkalosis). Bicarbonate also serves much in the digestive system. It raises the internal pH of the stomach, after highly acidic digestive juices have finished in their digestion of food. Bicarbonate also acts to regulate pH in the small intestine. It is released from the pancreas in response to the hormone secretin to neutralize the acidic chyme entering the duodenum from the stomach.[6] ...
Main article: Alpha-amylase. The α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1 ) (CAS 9014-71-5) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase; ... An inhibitor of alpha-amylase, called phaseolamin, has been tested as a potential diet aid.[10] ... Park HS, Kim HY, Suh YJ, Lee SJ, Lee SK, Kim SS, Nahm DH (September 2002). "Alpha amylase is a major allergenic component in ... Like in other mammals, the pancreatic alpha-amylase AMY2 was duplicated multiple times. One event allowed it to evolve salivary ...
... belongs to the globin superfamily of proteins, and as with other globins, consists of eight alpha helices connected ...
Dashe JS, Twickler DM, Santos-Ramos R, McIntire DD, Ramus RM (December 2006). "Alpha-fetoprotein detection of neural tube ... Alpha-fetoprotein). Blood tests for select trisomies (Down syndrome in the United States, Down and Edwards syndromes in China) ... can check levels of alpha fetoprotein, β-hCG, inhibin-A, estriol, and h-hCG (hyperglycosolated hCG) in the woman's serum. The ...
... (alpha fetoprotein peptide) is an orally-active, cyclic, 9-amino acid, peptide with a molecular weight of 969 Daltons and ... Effect of an alpha-fetoprotein-secreting hepatoma". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 64 (5): 1147-52. doi:10.1093/jnci ... One of the contributing factors for this association appears to be the alpha fetoprotein (AFP) produced by the fetal liver, ... Bennett JA, Zhu S, Pagano-Mirarchi A, Kellom TA, Jacobson HI (November 1998). "Alpha-fetoprotein derived from a human hepatoma ...
3). Measured hPG80 levels are relevant in patients for whom alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is below 20 ng/ml, an established threshold ... Carr, Brian I; Pancoska, Petr; Branch, Robert A (2010-02-25). "Low alpha-fetoprotein hepatocellular carcinoma". Journal of ...
A classical or pure seminoma by definition do not cause an elevated serum alpha fetoprotein .[6] Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ... "Detection of alpha-fetoprotein mRNA in seminoma". Journal of Andrology. 20 (3): 336-40. doi:10.1002/j.1939-4640.1999.tb02526.x ...
Epps, AC; Blasini, EJ; Akdamar, K; Sparks, RD (August 1972). "The detection of alpha-1-fetoprotein". The American Journal of ... and alpha-1-fetoprotein. In 1993, Epps was commissioned by the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences to write " ...
Stray-Pedersen A, Borresen-Dale AL, Paus E, Lindman CR, Burgers T, Abrahamsen TG (November 2007). "Alpha fetoprotein is ... These abnormalities include: Elevated and slowly increasing alpha-fetoprotein levels in serum after 2 years of age ... elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels, increased chromosomal breakage or cell death of white blood cells after exposure to X-rays, ... a normal alpha fetalprotein, and the frequent presence of scoliosis, absent tendon reflexes, and abnormal features on the EKG. ...
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein is a useful screening test for other fetal conditions, including Down syndrome, spina bifida, ... Of special concern is the secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); under some circumstances, AFP can be used as a diagnostic ... Some teratomas contain yolk sac elements, which secrete alpha-fetoprotein. Its detection may help to confirm the diagnosis and ...
Measures the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, hCG, and inhibin-A ... α-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, total hCG, and free βhCG detecting about 60-70% of cases.[89] ...
Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) and amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase (AFAChE) tests are also used to confirming if ... Milunsky A, Alpert E (1984). "Results and benefits of a maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening program". JAMA. 252 (11): ... Norem et.al Routine Ultrasonography Compared With Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein for Neural Tube Defect Screening Obstetrics ... metabolism Tests for neural tube defects include ultrasound examination and measurement of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ( ...
Hsieh MY, Lu SN, Wang LY, Liu TY, Su WP, Lin ZY, Chuang WL, Chen SC, Chang WY (November 1992). "Alpha-fetoprotein in patients ... Examples of oncofetal antigens are AFP (α-fetoprotein), produced by hepatocellular carcinoma, or CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen ...
Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors.[citation needed] ... Gregory JJ, Finlay JL (April 1999). "Alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: their clinical significance as ... The α (alpha) subunit is 92 amino acids long.[8]. *The β-subunit of hCG gonadotropin (beta-hCG) contains 145 amino acids, ... "Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain precursor - Homo sapiens (Human)". UniProt accession number P01215. UniProt Consortium. ...
Triploidy may be suggested by dramatically elevated levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein. On obstetric ultrasonography, ... The mother will usually have high levels of specific proteins including maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human ...
"Effect of diagnostic and therapeutic cordocentesis on maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 161 ...
In the 1970s, he showed that fetal neural tube defects could be detected by measuring alpha-fetoprotein in the pregnant woman's ... "Prenatal Diagnosis of Spina Bifida and Anencephaly by Maternal Serum-Alpha-Fetoprotein Measurement". The Lancet. 303 (7861): ...
Rats have alpha-fetoprotein that binds to the estrogen before it can reach the brain. The estrogen is eventually metabolized in ... Therefore, testosterone can reach the brain without being taken up by alpha-fetoprotein. Due to fact that males have different ...
Cooke NE, David EV (December 1985). "Serum vitamin D-binding protein is a third member of the albumin and alpha fetoprotein ... albumin and alpha-fetoprotein". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (22): 8007-17. doi:10.1093/nar/13.22.8007. PMC 322106. PMID 2415926 ... evidence of a three-fold internal homology as in serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... together with human serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein. It is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, ...
June 1996). "Gene therapy for alpha-fetoprotein-producing human hepatoma cells by adenovirus-mediated transfer of the herpes ... alpha fetoprotein). The genes for these tumor markers may be used as promoter genes for thymidine kinase. Thymidine kinase can ... using a retrovirus vector carrying herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene under the control of human alpha-fetoprotein gene ... Mar EC, Chiou JF, Cheng YC, Huang ES (March 1985). "Inhibition of cellular DNA polymerase alpha and human cytomegalovirus- ...
Elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels are another clue of the presence of an abdominal pregnancy. Most cases can be diagnosed by ...
The most common method of testing for hepatoblastoma is a blood test checking the alpha-fetoprotein level. Alpha-fetoprotein ( ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are commonly elevated, but when AFP is not elevated at diagnosis the prognosis is poor. Patients ... "Hepatoblastoma with a low serum alpha-fetoprotein level at diagnosis: The SIOPEL group experience". Eur J Cancer. 44 (4): 545- ...
Blood tests for alpha-fetoprotein, karyotype, human chorionic gonadotropin, and liver function are used to diagnose germ cell ... Serum alpha-fetoprotein, neuron-specific enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase can be measured in young girls and adolescents with ... They occur in younger people, with an average age at diagnosis of 14, and secrete both alpha-fetoprotein (in 75% of cases) and ... Yolk sac tumors commonly secrete alpha-fetoprotein and can be immunohistochemically stained for its presence; the level of ...
"Velamentous umbilical cord insertion may be suspected from maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and hCG". BJOG. 103 (3): 209-213. ... the second trimester may reveal increased levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin and reduced levels of alpha-fetoprotein ...
"T cell responses to HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from human alpha fetoprotein". Journal of Immunology. 166 (8): 5300- ...
In oncology, AFP-L3 is an isoform of Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a substance typically used in the triple test during pregnancy ... A clinical study of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein as an early indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma in the follow-up of ... A clinical study of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein as an early indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma in the follow-up of ... Early recognition of hepatocellular carcinoma based on altered profiles of alpha-fetoprotein. Sato, Y., et al., N. Engl. J. Med ...
Serum alpha fetoprotein measurement should be done every 3 months until 4 years old. Daily caretaker abdominal examination is ...
Interferon alpha (interferon alfa, IFN-α). *Interferon alfa (IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA4, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA7, IFNA8, IFNA10, IFNA13, ... Alpha-fetoprotein/AFP-L3. *CD30. Prostate cancer. *Prostate-specific antigen. *Prostatic acid phosphatase ...
Sepsis (whole body infection) - macrophages activated in the liver and spleen secrete TNF-alpha into the bloodstream resulting ...
Causes of hyperuricemia that are of mixed type have a dual action, both increasing production and decreasing excretion of uric acid. High intake of alcohol (ethanol), a significant cause of hyperuricemia, has a dual action that is compounded by multiple mechanisms. Ethanol increases production of uric acid by increasing production of lactic acid, hence lactic acidosis. Ethanol also increases the plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine via the acceleration of adenine nucleotide degradation, and is a possible weak inhibitor of xanthine dehydrogenase. As a byproduct of its fermentation process, beer additionally contributes purines. Ethanol decreases excretion of uric acid by promoting dehydration and (rarely) clinical ketoacidosis.[5] High dietary intake of fructose contributes significantly to hyperuricemia.[15][16][17] In a large study in the United States, consumption of four or more sugar-sweetened soft drinks per day gave an odds ratio of 1.82 for hyperuricemia.[18] Increased ...
Elevated alpha-fetoprotein. Minerals. *Iron overload disorder. Pathogens/sepsis. *Bacteremia. *Viremia. *Fungemia ...
"Hepatic splenosis mimicking HCC in a patient with hepatitis C liver cirrhosis and mildly raised alpha feto protein; the ...
"Cathepsin D specifically cleaves the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 ... Alpha-fetoprotein/AFP-L3. *CD30. Prostate cancer. *Prostate-specific antigen. *Prostatic acid phosphatase ...
The disorder can be screened during pregnancy by finding elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein on a routine sampling of amniotic ...
Alpha-fetoprotein (alpha-fetoglobulin) is a fetal plasma protein that binds various cations, fatty acids and bilirubin. Vitamin ... A number of blood transport proteins are evolutionarily related, including serum albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding ... alpha-fetoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein gene family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (27): 18149-54. PMID ... alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein multigene family". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 29 (4): 344-354. doi:10.1007/ ...
Gregory JJ, Finlay JL (April 1999). "Alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: their clinical significance as ...
Alpha-fetoprotein (alpha-fetoglobulin) is a fetal plasma protein that binds various cations, fatty acids and bilirubin. Vitamin ... Alpha globulins. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. serpins:. *alpha-1 (Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha 1- ... A number of blood transport proteins are evolutionarily related, including serum albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding ... alpha-fetoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein gene family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (27): 18149-54. PMID ...
Pucci P, Siciliano R, Malorni A, Marino G, Tecce MF, Ceccarini C, Terrana B (May 1991). "Human alpha-fetoprotein primary ... Seregni E, Botti C, Bombardieri E (1995). "Biochemical characteristics and clinical applications of alpha-fetoprotein isoforms ...
Impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) refers to a condition in which the fasting blood glucose or the 3-month average blood glucose (A1C) is elevated above what is considered normal levels but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus. It is considered a pre-diabetic state, associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology, although of lesser risk than impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IFG sometimes progresses to type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a 50% risk over 10 years of progressing to overt diabetes. Many newly identified IFG patients progress to diabetes in less than three years.[4] IFG is also a risk factor for mortality.[5] Fasting blood glucose levels are in a continuum within a given population, with higher fasting glucose levels corresponding to a higher risk for complications caused by the high glucose levels. Impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting glucose that is higher than the upper limit of normal, ...
The liver has transaminases to synthesize and break down amino acids and to convert energy storage molecules. The concentrations of these transaminases in the serum (the non-cellular portion of blood) are normally low. However, if the liver is damaged, the liver cell (hepatocyte) membrane becomes more permeable and some of the enzymes leak out into the blood circulation. The two transaminases commonly measured are alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST).[1] These levels previously were called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). Elevated levels are sensitive for liver injury, meaning that they are likely to be present if there is injury. However, they may also be elevated in other conditions such as thyroid disorders, celiac disease, and muscle disorders.[4] ALT is usually found only in the liver. AST is most commonly found in the liver, but also in significant amounts in heart (cardiac) and skeletal muscle. ...
Randall VA (Apr 1994). "Role of 5 alpha-reductase in health and disease". Baillière's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 8 ... α-fetoprotein, which binds the estrogen so that female brains are not affected.[18] ... von der PB, Sarkola T, Seppa K, Eriksson CJ (Sep 2002). "Testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and cortisol in men with and ... Zuber MX, Simpson ER, Waterman MR (Dec 1986). "Expression of bovine 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 cDNA in ...
... oswa paran an nivo nan alpha-fetoprotein se elve. Of Dermoid ak dysgerminomas yo ki pi komen jèm selil timè pandan gwosès. Jèm ...
Alpha-fetoprotein. *Erythropoietin (EPO). Functions[edit]. Some functions served by glycoproteins[5]:524 Function Glycoproteins ...
This test measures the maternal serum alpha feto protein (a fetal liver protein), estriol (a pregnancy hormone), and human ... This test measures the alpha feto protein, produced by the fetus, and free beta hCG, produced by the placenta. ... This test measures the maternal serum alpha feto protein (a fetal liver protein), estriol (a pregnancy hormone), human ... chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, a pregnancy hormone), and high inhibin-Alpha (INHA).[18] ...
"Linkage of the evolutionarily-related serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein genes within q11-22 of human chromosome 4". American ...
The major uterine and fetal glycoproteins that are associated with the eu-FEDS model in the human include alpha-fetoprotein, ...
... is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.[1] It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the organism and an indication of the degree of an active parasitic infection. Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the follow-up of therapy, particularly in the chronic phase, when cure depends on ascertaining a parasitemia of zero. The methods to be used for quantifying parasitemia depends on the parasitic species and its life cycle. For instance, in malaria, the number of blood-stage parasites can be counted using an optical microscope, on a special thick film (for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR has been used increasingly as a tool to measure parasitemia, especially in patients in the chronic phase of disease. In this technique, blood samples are obtained from the patient, and specific DNA of the ...
... alpha fetoprotein (AFP), OCT4, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)). ...
... a conserved alpha helix rod, a variable non alpha helix head, and a carboxy-terminal tail.[12] Desmin, as all intermediate ... Bennardini F, Wrzosek A, Chiesi M (August 1992). "Alpha B-crystallin in cardiac tissue. Association with actin and desmin ... filaments, shows no polarity when assembled.[12] The rod domain consists of 308 amino acids with parallel alpha helical coiled ... Alpha-fetoprotein/AFP-L3. *CD30. Prostate cancer. *Prostate-specific antigen. *Prostatic acid phosphatase ...
Gregory JJ, Finlay JL (1999). „Alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: their clinical significance as tumour ...
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a developing baby during pregnancy. AFP levels go ... Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a developing baby during pregnancy. AFP levels go ...
AChE/PChE ratio acid affinity AFP and albumin AFP gene AFP mRNA AFP screening AFP values Alpha-fetoprotein ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN ... Alpha-fetoprotein and Congenital Disorders. Issue 14 of Birth Defects Institute symposia. Studies in Urban Economics. ... fetoprotein_and_Congenital_Disorde.html?id=V7hsAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAlpha-fetoprotein and Congenital Disorders. ... protease protein rat AFP rates receptors reported screening serum AFP concentration serum AFP levels Serum Alpha-fetoprotein ...
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) ... Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening is performed at 16 to 18 weeks of gestation. If MSAFP levels indicate an ... Bader D, Riskin A, Vafsi O, Tamir A, Peskin B, Israel N, Merksamer R, Dar H, David M (November 2004). "Alpha-fetoprotein in the ... alpha-Fetoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ...
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood. Its level is elevated in a pregnant womans blood when there are ... Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood. Its level is elevated in a pregnant womans blood when there are ...
Elevated alpha-fetoprotein refers to a state where alpha-fetoprotein levels are outside of the reference range. There are two ... November 2004). "Alpha-fetoprotein in the early neonatal period--a large study and review of the literature". Clin. Chim. Acta ... Crocoli A, Madafferi S, Jenkner A, Zaccara A, Inserra A (2007). "Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein in Wilms tumor may follow the ... Blohm ME, Vesterling-Hörner D, Calaminus G, Göbel U (1998). "Alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) reference values in infants up to 2 ...
The alpha-fetoprotein test is performed on a specimen obtained via a blood draw. ... The alpha-fetoprotein test is performed on a specimen obtained via a blood draw. ... Alpha fetoprotein - series-Procedure. URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100144.htm Alpha fetoprotein - ...
Disclaimer: The information provided on HealthWorld Online is for educational purposes only and IS NOT intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek professional medical advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition ...
Learn about the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, a widely used biochemical blood test used to screen for liver, testicular, ... Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test - Experience Please describe your experience with the alpha-fetoprotein blood test. ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test is the most widely used biochemical blood tests. High levels of AFP in the blood are seen in ... home , cancer center , cancer a-z list , alpha-fetoprotein blood test center ...
Alpha-fetoproteins (AFP, α-fetoproteins) are the first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during development of the ... Mlzejewski GJ et al. (January 1983), "Measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein in early infancy: utilization of dried blood ... Kjerstin FW, Gottvall T (2007), "Routine assessment of amniotic fluid alpha-Fetoprotein in early second-trimester", Acta ... Retrieved from "https://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Alpha-fetoproteins&oldid=100439358" ...
Learn about the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, a widely used biochemical blood test used to screen for liver, testicular, ... home/cancer health center/cancer a-z list/alpha-fetoprotein blood test center /alpha-fetoprotein blood test article ... Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Blood Test. *What is the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test? ... Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test - Experience Please describe your experience with the alpha-fetoprotein blood test. ...
Care guide for Alpha-fetoprotein. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care ... Alpha-fetoprotein (al-fa-FETO-pro-teen) can be found with a blood test and is also called AFP. AFP is an important fetal (FEE- ...
Also Known as Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP) MSAFP is often part of the triple screen test that assesses whether further ... Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP) Home / Prenatal Testing / Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP) ... Also Known as Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP). MSAFP is a screening test that examines the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the ... The AFP test is measuring high and low levels of alpha-fetoprotein. The results are combined with the mothers age and ...
Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker Test. MedlinePlus. Available online at https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/alpha-fetoprotein ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a tumor marker to help detect and diagnose cancers of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced primarily by the liver in a developing baby (fetus). AFP levels are normally ... 2003). Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) with AFP L3%, Serum. Laboratory Corporation of America [On-line test information]. Available ...
Alpha fetoprotein is increasing with age in ataxia-telangiectasia.. Stray-Pedersen A1, Borresen-Dale AL, Paus E, Lindman CR, ... The elevated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) concentration in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients has been known for decades, ...
My question is they tested my Alpha-Fetoprotein levels and they are elevated, is this common with ovarian cysts or does this ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and ... Alpha prime. 2. Prosound Alpha-5. 3. Coat-A-Count AFP IRMA (Alpha Fetoprotein). 4. Remote Alpha Dock system. 5. AlphaForce ... ProSound™ Alpha 5 Ultrasound Console. 9. Alpha+ Fiber Optic Otoscope. 10. AlphaCor™ Artificial Cornea. 11. Alpha Fetoprotein ( ... Alpha Daily Routine Urodynamics System. 7. Alpha I® with Lock-out™ Valve Reservoir. 8. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Alpha-Fetoprotein Test easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Alpha-Fetoprotein Test at Encyclopedia.com. ... Alpha-fetoprotein test. Definition. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP ... Alpha-Fetoprotein Test. Definition. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test is a blood test that is performed during pregnancy. This ... Alpha-fetoprotein is a substance produced by the liver of a fetus, by tumors of the liver, by testes and ovaries, and by ...
Alpha-Fetoprotein and Acetylcholinesterase. Estimation of maternal serum AFP has been used since the late 1970s. Blood samples ... The fetal presence of an open neural tube defect is marked by an elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in the amniotic fluid. ...
An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test is a blood test that can show whether your fetus has signs of some birth defects, in particular ... One of these substances is alpha-fetoprotein. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is produced by the fetus and can be detected in a blood ...
Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of AFP in the mothers blood. Abnormal levels may indicate ... What is an alpha-fetoprotein screening (AFP)?. Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of alpha- ... How is an alpha-fetoprotein test performed?. Although the specific details of each procedure vary slightly, generally, an alpha ... fetoprotein in the mothers blood during pregnancy. AFP is a protein normally produced by the fetal liver and is present in the ...
Mouse monoclonal alpha 1 Fetoprotein antibody [6E6] validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-alpha 1 Fetoprotein antibody [6E6]. See all alpha 1 Fetoprotein primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-alpha 1 Fetoprotein antibody [6E6] (ab91625) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : HepG2 cell lysate. Lane 2 : SMMC-7721 ... Recombinant fragment corresponding to Human alpha 1 Fetoprotein aa 51-184.. Database link: P02771 ...
Diagnostic values of alpha-fetoprotein, dickkopf-1, and osteopontin for hepatocellular carcinoma.. Ge T1, Shen Q, Wang N, Zhang ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker for diagnosis of HCC, but the low sensitivity and specificity limits ...
A chart of alpha-fetoprotein test results shows the probability that an abnormal finding indicates the fetus has trisomy 21 or ... What is the normal range for an alpha-fetoprotein test?. A: Alpha-fetoprotein levels should be less than 6 nanograms per ... A chart of alpha-fetoprotein test results shows the probability that an abnormal finding indicates the fetus has trisomy 21 or ... The alpha-fetoprotein test results are converted into a measure called the multiple of the median, which takes into account the ...
An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant womans blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver ... Alpha-fetoprotein in blood. Men and nonpregnant women:. 0-40 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or micrograms per liter (mcg/L) ... An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant womans blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver ... An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant womans blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver ...
alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, ... alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, ... The possible role of the fatty acids in alpha-fetoprotein on the inhibition of various lymphocyte functions is projected.. ... Removal of fatty acids by treatment with charcoal converted alpha-fetoprotein into material with an isoelectric point of pH 5.3 ...
What is Alpha Fetoprotein?. Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein encoded by the AFP gene and is produced in your babys liver ... Alpha Fetoprotein. Alpha Fetoprotein in Pregnancy. Now that youre transitioning into your second trimester, youre probably ... What do I need to know about Alpha Fetoprotein Screening?. Alpha Fetoprotein is often one part of a triple or quadruple screen ... Alpha Fetoprotein. all hormones produced by the baby and/or the placenta and released into the bloodstream of the mother. The ...
It is a blood test aiming at detecting the levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood. AFP is a protein which is normally ... indicate that somewhere in the body there are metastatic cells that keep secreting the alpha-fetoprotein. ... The normal alpha-protein values for men are 0-7 ng/ml. In testicular cancer, every value over 7ng/ml should be evaluated by the ...
Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) in Blood. Test Overview. An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant ... Alpha-fetoprotein in blood. Men and nonpregnant women:. 0-40 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or micrograms per liter (mcg/L) ... An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant womans blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver ... In a nonpregnant adult, alpha-fetoprotein is not normally present.. AFP test results can be abnormal, even when nothing is ...
Browse our alpha-Fetoprotein/AFP product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... alpha-Fetoprotein/AFP products available through Novus Biologicals. ... Alpha 1 Fetoprotein encodes alpha-fetoprotein, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life ... Diseases related to alpha-Fetoprotein/AFP. Discover more about diseases related to alpha-Fetoprotein/AFP.. Neoplasms. Liver ...
Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of AFP in the mothers blood. Abnormal levels may indicate ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). What is an alpha-fetoprotein screening (AFP)?. Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that checks ... How is an alpha-fetoprotein test done?. In most cases, an alpha-fetoprotein test is done this way:. * Blood is usually taken ... the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers blood during pregnancy. AFP is a protein normally made by the babys liver. It ...
  • Diagnostic values of alpha-fetoprotein, dickkopf-1, and osteopontin for hepatocellular carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • fetoprotein (S-AFP) determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (osti.gov)
  • The secretion by tumor cells of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was observed in 50 to 60% of hepatocellular carcinoma. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Western blot shows lysates of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma parental cell line and alpha ‑Fetoprotein/AFP knockout HepG2 cell line (KO). (novusbio.com)
  • To assess the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alone or in combination, for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of any size and at any stage in people with chronic advanced liver disease, either in a surveillance programme or in a clinical setting. (cochrane.org)
  • Diagnostic value of PIVKA-II and alpha-fetoprotein in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ramucirumab in participants with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and elevated baseline alpha-fetoprotein. (centerwatch.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein changes in the course of chronic hepatitis: relation to bridging hepatic necrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Abdelfattah S, Haseeb A, Tawfik M, Khalil D, Attia D. Soluble CD25 as a predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with alpha-fetoprotein. (termedia.pl)
  • Background: The utility of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is controversial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may vary by geographical region and racial background. (springer.com)
  • Elevated level of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) has proved to be a golden ticket to track down tumors and various cancers such as Hepatocellular Carcinomas (HCC), Gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen over-expressed by many hepatocellular cancers (HCC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surveillance Imaging and Alpha Fetoprotein for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With Cirrhosis: A Meta-analysis. (snfge.org)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein, des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, and lectin-bound alpha-fetoprotein in early hepatocellular carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is widely used as a surveillance test for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
  • Survival results among patients with alpha-fetoprotein-positive, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of three sequential treatments of the RTOG and Johns Hopkins Oncology Center. (rush.edu)
  • alpha-Fetoprotein/AFP Antibody (18. (novusbio.com)
  • One novel electrochemical immunosensor was constructed by immobilizing capture antibody of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP Ab 1 ) on a nafion/nanogold-particle modified glassy carbon electrode. (hindawi.com)
  • This antibody reacts with Alpha-1-Fetoprotein (AFP). (genetex.com)
  • Description: This AFP3 monoclonal antibody reacts with human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). (fishersci.no)
  • Alpha- fetoprotein(AFP) is found in both fetal serum and also amniotic fluid. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • The fetal presence of an open neural tube defect is marked by an elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in the amniotic fluid. (medscape.com)
  • The level of alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid is used to measure renal loss of protein to screen for spina bifida and anencephaly. (novusbio.com)
  • What's alpha-fetoprotein (afp) in amniotic fluid? (healthtap.com)
  • Human Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) measurement during pregnancy has been useful to detect certain abnormalities specifically if high levels of Human alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) are found in amniotic fluid it can indicate a developmental defect in the baby. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Since Seppala and Unnerus [ 1 ] first noted the possible association between elevated amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) levels and fetal hydrocephalus, there have been relatively few reports of AFP levels in such cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a developing baby during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood . (everything2.com)
  • also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most abundant plasma protein found in the human fetus is alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). (medicinenet.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced primarily by the liver in a developing baby (fetus). (labcorp.com)
  • Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein encoded by the AFP gene and is produced in your baby's liver and yolk sac. (pregnancy-calendars.net)
  • The normal alpha-protein values for men are 0-7 ng/ml. (imop.gr)
  • Alpha 1 Fetoprotein encodes alpha-fetoprotein, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. (novusbio.com)
  • The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. (novusbio.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein normally produced by a fetus. (unm.edu)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein or AFP is the major protein in fetal circulation and is closely related to albumin both genetically and structurally. (aacc.org)
  • Full length native protein (purified) corresponding to Human alpha 1 Fetoprotein aa 19-609. (abcam.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a major plasma protein in the fetus, where it is produced by the yolk sac and liver. (ihcworld.com)
  • As the major fetal serum protein, Alpha-fetoprotein is not essential for embryonic development but is required for female fertility. (ihcworld.com)
  • alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP), is albuminoid superfamily protein that is synthesized in the fetus primarily by the liver, yolk sac, and tissues of gastrointestinal origin. (rndsystems.com)
  • Human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) is tumor-associated fetal protein, termed an oncofetal protein, consisting of 609 amino acids (AAs) including a 19 amino acid (AA) signal sequence [ 1 - 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • French) in Alpha-Feto-Protein. (biovendor.com)
  • Purves LR, Purves M. Serum alpha-feto-protein. (biovendor.com)
  • Human Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein that is normally only produced in the fetus during its development. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a major serum protein produced during fetal development. (nih.gov)
  • A human alpha-fetoprotein enhancer-binding protein, ATBF1, contains four homeodomains and seventeen zinc fingers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have isolated a full-length cDNA encoding a protein (ATBF1) that binds to an AT-rich motif in the human alpha-fetoprotein gene enhancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In 2 cases of hydrops fetalis and intrauterine death associated with human parvovirus B19 infection that produced very few symptoms during the second trimester of pregnancy, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were raised, before the ultrasonic detection of hydropic features. (nih.gov)
  • Kew MC, Purves LR, Bersohn I. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in acute viral hepatitis. (biovendor.com)
  • Bayati N, Silverman AL, Gordon S. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol . (springer.com)
  • We wished to determine the distribution of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels associated with fetal hydrocephalus in a population-based screening program in Manitoba, and their potential relationship to additional anomalies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, studies have reported that participants with fatty liver disease have higher serum alpha-fetoprotein levels than those without. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical and anthropometric parameters were collected and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and other clinical and laboratory parameters were measured. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MSAFP is a screening test that examines the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mother's blood during pregnancy. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers' blood during pregnancy. (chop.edu)
  • This is a routine noninvasive blood test that is often performed between the 16th and 18th weeks of pregnancy and tests the level of Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) in your blood and in turn, the blood of your baby. (pregnancy-calendars.net)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that checks the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers' blood during pregnancy. (ahealthyme.com)
  • When a developing baby has open neural tube defect, it often causes a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). (ahealthyme.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The recombinant third domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP3D) is one of the promising vectors for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells. (scirp.org)
  • Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening is performed at 16 to 18 weeks of gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Cuba and in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) a total of 24,412 pregnant women were tested for maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) at the 16th to 20th week of gestation. (springer.com)
  • Although maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a highly sensitive marker for certain congenital malformations such as open neural tube and ventral wall defects, its usefulness as a screening test for fetal hydrocephalus is uncertain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In pregnancy , elevated alpha fetoprotein levels in a woman's serum can indicate fetal abnormalities, like neural tube defects ( spina bifida ) or ventral wall defects like omphalocele . (healthtap.com)
  • A retrospective study of 3 other affected and 11 unaffected cases of B19 infection during pregnancy showed a correlation between raised maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level and poor prognosis for the affected pregnancies, with the subsequent development of hydrops fetalis. (nih.gov)
  • What are alpha-fetoprotein tests in pregnancy for? (healthtap.com)
  • What does an elevated alpha fetoprotein in pregnancy mean? (healthtap.com)
  • Seppala M, Ruoslahti E. Alpha fetoprotein: Physiology and pathology during pregnancy and application to antenatal diagnosis. (biovendor.com)
  • One of the other things that is important to know about during your second trimester is the alpha fetoprotein screening test, which is the focus of this article. (pregnancy-calendars.net)
  • Endo Y, Kanai K, Oda T, Mitamura K, Iino S. Clinical significance of alpha-fetoprotein in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. (biovendor.com)
  • To examine the frequency and significance of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) elevation, radioimmunoassay for AFP was performed every 3-6 months in a prospective follow-up study on 432 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and 105 HBsAg-negative patients with clinicopathologically proven chronic hepatitis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). (mdpi.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a 67 kDa plasma glycoprotein, present in monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms, produced by the yolk sac and the fetal liver during fetal life. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 70 KD. (biovendor.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein is a multi-functional glycoprotein biomarker. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein synthesized by liver, can be used clinically as an important indicator of severity and progression of liver disease [ 8 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a single-stranded glycoprotein primarily produced by the fetal liver and yolk sac. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recombinant fragment corresponding to Human alpha 1 Fetoprotein aa 51-184. (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant human alpha fetoprotein synergistically potentiates the anti-cancer effects of 1'-S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate when used as a complex against. (oncotarget.com)
  • In the present study, all the problems above were addressed using the novel drug complex formulation involving recombinant human alpha fetoprotein (rhAFP) and ACA. (oncotarget.com)
  • Elevated alpha-fetoprotein refers to a state where alpha-fetoprotein levels are outside of the reference range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AFP test is measuring high and low levels of alpha-fetoprotein. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • The elevated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) concentration in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients has been known for decades, but the individual variation of AFP levels over time has not been studied. (nih.gov)
  • My question is they tested my Alpha-Fetoprotein levels and they are elevated, is this common with ovarian cysts or does this mean I need to be concerned with cancer? (medhelp.org)
  • Between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation, pregnant women carrying fetuses affected by trisomy 21 have lower than normal levels of alpha-fetoprotein in their blood, and those carrying fetuses affected by spina bifida have higher than normal levels of alpha-fetoprotein in their blood, says OB-GYN Ultrasound Online. (reference.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein levels should be less than 6 nanograms per milliliter in nonpregrant patients, according to Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • It is a blood test aiming at detecting the levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood. (imop.gr)
  • Persistent high AFP levels after orchiectomy (removal of testis) indicate that somewhere in the body there are metastatic cells that keep secreting the alpha-fetoprotein. (imop.gr)
  • The Quantikine Mouse alpha -Fetoprotein/AFP Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure mouse AFP levels in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. (rndsystems.com)
  • Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels have been measured sequentially by a radio-immunoassay method in 64 patients with fulminant hepatic failure. (bmj.com)
  • It is based upon a Sandwich assay principle and can be used to detect levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein as low as 0.78 nanograms per millilter. (lsbio.com)
  • After treatment, she was followed routinely by radiation oncology with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the differences in levels of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), HBV-DNA and Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) in serum between patients with different clinical types of Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB). (alliedacademies.org)
  • We investigated the association between alpha-fetoprotein levels and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese asymptomatic population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.001) alpha-fetoprotein levels than those without, though all alpha-fetoprotein levels were within the reference interval. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The association between the components of metabolic syndrome (central obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated fasting plasma glucose) and alpha-fetoprotein levels was evaluated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Logistic regression analyses showed an association between alpha-fetoprotein levels and increased risk for metabolic syndrome, the presence of reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated fasting plasma glucose, but not with obesity, elevated blood pressure, or triglycerides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker for diagnosis of HCC, but the low sensitivity and specificity limits its clinical application. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a biomarker for cancer diagnosis. (hindawi.com)
  • A conductometric immunoassay protocol was designed for the sensitive detection of a liver cancer biomarker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), in biological fluids by using enzyme-conjugated nanometer-sized enzyme-doped silica beads. (rsc.org)
  • A chart of alpha-fetoprotein test results shows the probability that an abnormal finding indicates the fetus has trisomy 21 or spina bifida, says OB-GYN Ultrasound Online. (reference.com)
  • Currently, we use a-fetoprotein (AFP) and abdominal ultrasound for screening. (termedia.pl)
  • Albumin and alpha-fetoprotein gene transcription in rat hepatoma cell lines is correlated with specific DNA hypomethylation and altered chromatin structure in the 5' region. (asm.org)
  • We examined DNA methylation and DNase I hypersensitivity of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin gene region in hepatoma cell lines which showed drastic differences in the level of expression of these genes. (asm.org)
  • Materials and Methods: A tumor-specific chimeric promoter for alpha-fetoprotein gene (AFP) was combined with hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer II to investigate radioiodine uptake in vitro and in vivo in hepatoma (HepG2) and nonhepatoma (ARO) cell lines after transfer of hNIS gene. (iiarjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to induce gene expression of hNIS in hepatoma cells by the tumor-specific alpha fetoprotein (AFP) promoter isolated from a human genomic library. (iiarjournals.org)
  • The mother's blood is tested for alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and estriol. (reference.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein is also produced by certain cancers , such as liver or testicular cancer , and is sometimes measured as a tumor marker (see below). (medicinenet.com)
  • Blood tests: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which may be elevated in 70% of patients with liver cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • The blood test for alpha-fetoprotein is a marker or screening test for liver cancer. (healthtap.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) interferes with estrogen (E2)-stimulated growth, including E2-stimulated breast cancer growth. (nih.gov)
  • How is an alpha-fetoprotein test performed? (chop.edu)
  • When Is The Alpha-Fetoprotein Test Performed? (yusrablog.com)
  • Fuhrmann W, Weitzel H (1985) Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects. (springer.com)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in sera and tumor cells of patients with testicular seminoma: a prospective study. (biovendor.com)
  • The biological activities of alpha-fetoprotein involve the uptake of fatty acid and lipoproteins by monocytes, tumor cells and hepatocytes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Please exlain alpha-fetoprotein testing for genetic disorders? (healthtap.com)
  • Bloomer JR, Waldmann TA, McIntire KR, Klatskin G. Alpha-fetoprotein in non-neoplastic hepatic disorders. (springer.com)
  • The alpha-fetoprotein test is performed on a specimen obtained via a blood draw. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test is the most widely used biochemical blood tests. (medicinenet.com)
  • Please describe your experience with the alpha-fetoprotein blood test. (medicinenet.com)
  • What is the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test? (medicinenet.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (al-fa-FETO-pro-teen) can be found with a blood test and is also called AFP. (drugs.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is produced by the fetus and can be detected in a blood sample from you. (mydr.com.au)
  • Normal alpha-fetoprotein test results are less than 40 micrograms per liter of blood in men and non-pregnant women, according to Healthline and WebMD. (reference.com)
  • An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant woman's blood. (healthwise.net)
  • Likewise, Alpha fetoprotein can also be elevated and you would have to see how how the elevation is and how the severe the patient's dehydration was at the time the blood sample was taken. (healthtap.com)
  • Human Alpha FetoProtein was purified from Human Cord Blood. (creativebiomart.net)
  • An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test can help your doctor rule out some underlying serious condition including some types of cancers. (shifa4u.com)
  • To determine the cutoff values and to compare the diagnostic role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Several serological tests including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), the ratio of lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein to total AFP (AFP-L3/AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and glypican-3 (GPC-3) have been widely investigated as diagnostic biomarkers for early-stage HCC in at-risk populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein is a substance produced by the liver of a fetus, by tumors of the liver, by testes and ovaries, and by certain other diseases of the liver. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alpha-Fetoprotein is a substance produced by the fetus in utero. (yusrablog.com)
  • The presence of fatty acids in human alpha-fetoprotein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Removal of fatty acids by treatment with charcoal converted alpha-fetoprotein into material with an isoelectric point of pH 5.3. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The possible role of the fatty acids in alpha-fetoprotein on the inhibition of various lymphocyte functions is projected. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin. (novusbio.com)
  • An elevation of the Alpha fetoprotein test should alert your doctor that there may be an increased risk of genetic abnormalities such as down's syndrome in the baby. (healthtap.com)
  • Elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is seen in approximately 20 % of ICC patients. (springermedizin.de)