alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.OrosomucoidRadioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.QuinolizinesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Mice, Inbred BALB CCollagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.QuinoxalinesRNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13: A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Genes, T-Cell Receptor alpha: DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (1/1911)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Primary yolk sac tumour of the liver in adulthood. (2/1911)

Primary yolk sac tumour of the liver is exceedingly rare. A 28 year old woman presented with a cystic liver mass and a markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration. She underwent a partial hepatectomy for a suspected hepatocellular carcinoma but histological examination of the tumour revealed the classical morphological and immunohistochemical features of a yolk sac tumour. There was no evidence of an extrahepatic primary source. Review of this case, together with the six previously reported adult cases of primary yolk sac tumours of the liver, revealed several features of the tumour that may aid differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma, with potential therapeutic implications.  (+info)

Phase II trial of primary chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation for CNS germ cell tumors. (3/1911)

PURPOSE: A prospective phase II study was initiated to assess the response rate, survival, and late effects of treatment in patients with newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors (GCT), using etoposide plus cisplatin followed by radiation therapy prescribed by extent of disease, histology, and response to chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients aged 8 to 24 years with histologically proven CNS GCT received etoposide (100 mg/m2/d) plus cisplatin (20 mg/m2/d) daily for 5 days every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by radiation therapy. Nine patients had germinomas; eight had mixed GCT. Four patients (three with germinomas and one with mixed GCT) presented with leptomeningeal dissemination. RESULTS: Radiographically, 14 of 17 patients were assessable for response; 11 patients experienced complete regression, and three had major partial regression before radiation. Six of seven assessable patients with elevated CSF levels of alpha-fetoprotein or betahuman chorionic gonadotropin had normalization with chemotherapy alone; all normalized with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. All 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease (median follow-up, 51 months). One patient developed a relapse in the spinal leptomeninges and was rendered free of disease with spinal radiation more than 5 years ago. One patient developed carotid stenosis requiring surgery. Thus far, only minimal long-term deterioration in neurocognitive function has been detected as a consequence of protocol treatment. CONCLUSION: Conventional-dose intravenous chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin can effect tumor regression in a high proportion of patients with CNS GCT, including those with leptomeningeal metastases. Acute and long-term toxicities are acceptable. Progression-free survival and overall survival are excellent.  (+info)

Several new targets of antitumor agents. (4/1911)

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as a hepatoma-promoting factor, has become a new target of anti-hepatoma agents. It is a new approach for the treatment of tumors to inhibit or block oncogene expression. Informational drugs are being developed for gene therapy applications as inhibitors of oncogene expression. The induction of tumor cell differentiation is another new strategy of drug therapy of tumors. Common action mode of many antitumor drugs is to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Suicide genes, as targeting therapy of tumors, improve the present chemotherapy, exhibiting broad application prospects.  (+info)

Complementary adenoviral vectors for oncolysis. (5/1911)

Replication-competent adenoviruses (Ads) were used for oncolytic virotherapy soon after they were discovered. Recently mutated and genetically engineered Ads have been shown to selectively lyse tumor cells. We have split the human Ad type 5 genome into two defective viruses that complement each other only in certain tumor cells. The genome of one of these vectors, GT5610, contains only the minimal viral elements required in cis for replication and packaging and the E1 viral genes with E1A under the control of the human alpha-fetoprotein promoter. This "controlled" vector has a capacity for 30 kilobases of foreign DNA. The supplemental vector, AdHbeta, contains all adenoviral genes except for E1. Both vectors were designed to carry heterologous reporter genes whose expression could be detected throughout the tumor. Coinfection of hepatocarcinoma cells that have the capacity to transcribe genes under the control of the alpha-fetoprotein promoter leads to cell lysis and copropagation. The oncolytic spread of these complementary vectors in vivo was demonstrated by the intratumoral injection of human hepatocarcinomas xenografted in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. This system presents safety and gene capacity features that could yield a therapeutic advantage over oncolysis by a single virus.  (+info)

The effects on fetal development of high alpha-fetoprotein and maternal smoking. (6/1911)

OBJECTIVES: This study determined the risk of impaired fetal growth resulting from the interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and unexplained elevated concentrations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP). METHODS: This observational study involved 123 pregnant smokers with unexplained second-trimester elevated concentrations of MSAFP, 827 smokers with normal levels, and 471 nonsmokers with raised levels. RESULTS: By logistic regression, coincident smoking and elevated MSAFP levels were found to be associated with increases in the low basic risks of prematurity, small-for-gestational-age births, low birthweight, and need for neonatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking has an adverse effect on fetal development in pregnancies with unexplained elevated MSAFP concentrations. Such pregnancies merit close surveillance.  (+info)

Size of lipid microdroplets effects results of hepatic arterial chemotherapy with an anticancer agent in water-in-oil-in-water emulsion to hepatocellular carcinoma. (7/1911)

We have initially prepared a new drug delivery system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using sonication and a detergent, iodinated poppy seed oil (IPSO) can be mixed with an aqueous solution of epirubicin to make a water-in-oil emulsion. The water-in-oil emulsion is further passed through a microporous glass membrane and split into saline to make a long-term inseparable water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (W/O/W) that consists of IPSO microdroplets. To investigate the effect of the size of IPSO microdroplets on the efficacy of injection chemotherapy with W/O/W in patients with HCC, 32 HCC patients were randomly assigned and treated with W/O/W of small IPSO microdroplets (30 micrometers in diameter) containing 60 mg of epirubicin (n = 16, group A) or W/O/W of large IPSO microdroplets (70 micrometers) containing the same amounts of epirubicin (n = 16, group B). Effects were assessed by measuring the percentage of decline of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in a week from the AFP level immediately before the treatment. The decline was significantly larger in group B (50.5 +/- 19.8, mean +/- S.D.) compared with group A (18.9 +/- 33.1; p <.005). The size of IPSO microdroplets injected into the hepatic artery determines the decrease of serum AFP levels of the patients with HCC.  (+info)

The recombinant third domain of human alpha-fetoprotein retains the antiestrotrophic activity found in the full-length molecule. (8/1911)

Previous studies have shown that alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) interferes with estrogen (E2)-stimulated growth, including E2-stimulated breast cancer growth. In an effort to localize the antiestrotrophic portion of the molecule, the C-terminal one-third (200 amino acids) of human AFP, known as Domain III, was produced in a baculovirus expression system as a fusion protein containing an amino terminal histidine tag. The histidine tag was included to facilitate purification by metal ion affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant Domain III fusion protein was functionally similar to full-length natural AFP isolated from human cord sera or from cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) in that they all produced significant and quantitatively similar inhibition of E2-stimulated growth of immature mouse uterus. Furthermore, the dose-response profiles of the recombinant Domain III AFP and natural full-length AFP were similar. Preincubation of either protein in a molar excess of E2 lowered the minimally effective antiestrotrophic dose and produced a difference spectrum consistent with a change in conformation. These findings indicate that the antiestrotrophic activity of AFP is contained within the third domain of the molecule, and they have obvious implications for the production of biologically active peptides derived from this portion of the AFP molecule.  (+info)

*Alpha-fetoprotein

... (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) ... Alpha-fetoprotein". Pucci P, Siciliano R, Malorni A, Marino G, Tecce MF, Ceccarini C, Terrana B (May 1991). "Human alpha- ... Bader D, Riskin A, Vafsi O, Tamir A, Peskin B, Israel N, Merksamer R, Dar H, David M (November 2004). "Alpha-fetoprotein in the ... alpha-Fetoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...

*Elevated alpha-fetoprotein

... refers to a state where alpha-fetoprotein levels are outside of the reference range. There are two ... November 2004). "Alpha-fetoprotein in the early neonatal period--a large study and review of the literature". Clin. Chim. Acta ... Crocoli A, Madafferi S, Jenkner A, Zaccara A, Inserra A (2007). "Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein in Wilms tumor may follow the ... Blohm ME, Vesterling-Hörner D, Calaminus G, Göbel U (1998). "Alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) reference values in infants up to 2 ...

*Prenatal testing

Dashe J.S., Twickler D.M., McIntire D.D., Ramus R.M.; Twickler; Santos-Ramos; McIntire; Ramus (2006). "Alpha-fetoprotein ... Alpha-fetoprotein). Blood tests for select trisomies (Down syndrome in the United States, Down and Edwards syndromes in China) ... can check levels of alpha fetoprotein, β-hCG, inhibin-A, estriol, and h-hCG (hyperglycosolated hCG) in the woman's serum. The ...

*Pregnant Women Support Act

"Alpha-fetoprotein". University of Virginia Health System. 2004. Retrieved 2007-03-25. Kim Curtis (April 23, 2003). "Murder: The ... Provide Accurate Information to Patients Receiving a Positive Result from an Alpha-Fetoprotein Test tests. Pregnant women who ...

*AFPep

... (Alpha Fetoprotein Peptide) is an orally active cyclic peptide with molecular weight of 969 Daltons and is derived from ... Effect of an alpha-fetoprotein-secreting hepatoma". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 64 (5): 1147-52. PMID 6154169. ... Bennett JA, Zhu S, Pagano-Mirarchi A, Kellom TA, Jacobson HI (November 1998). "Alpha-fetoprotein derived from a human hepatoma ... Mesfin FB, Bennett JA, Jacobson HI, Zhu S, Andersen TT (April 2000). "Alpha-fetoprotein-derived antiestrotrophic octapeptide". ...

*Seminoma

A classical or pure seminoma by definition do not cause an elevated serum alpha fetoprotein . Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may ... May-June 1999). "Detection of alpha-fetoprotein mRNA in seminoma". Journal of Andrology. 20 (3): 336-40. doi:10.1002/j.1939- ...

*Ovarian tumor

... and endodermal sinus tumors with alpha-fetoprotein. Mixed tumors, containing elements of more than one of the above classes of ...

*Ataxia-telangiectasia

These abnormalities include: Elevated and slowly increasing alpha-fetoprotein levels in serum after 2 years of age ... elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels, increased chromosomal breakage or cell death of white blood cells after exposure to X-rays, ... "Alpha fetoprotein is increasing with age in ataxia-telangiectasia". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 11 (6): 375-80. ... a normal alpha fetalprotein, and the frequent presence of scoliosis, absent tendon reflexes, and abnormal features on the EKG. ...

*Teratoma

Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, or MSAFP, is a useful screening test for other fetal conditions, including Down syndrome, ... Of special concern is the secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); under some circumstances AFP can be used as a diagnostic marker ... Some teratomas contain yolk sac elements, which secrete alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Detection of AFP may help to confirm the ...

*Neural tube defect

Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) and amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase (AFAChE) tests are also used to confirming if ... doi:10.1016/s1701-2163(15)30444-8. Milunsky A, Alpert E (1984). "Results and benefits of a maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ... 689-96, May 2008 Norem et.al Routine Ultrasonography Compared With Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein for Neural Tube Defect ... metabolism Tests for neural tube defects include ultrasound examination and measurement of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ( ...

*Triploid syndrome

Triploidy may be suggested by dramatically elevated levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein. On obstetric ultrasonography, ...

*Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling

"Effect of diagnostic and therapeutic cordocentesis on maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 161 ...

*Human chorionic gonadotropin

Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors.[citation needed] ... Gregory JJ, Finlay JL (April 1999). "Alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: their clinical significance as ... The α (alpha) subunit is 92 amino acids long. The β-subunit of hCG gonadotropin (beta-hCG) contains 145 amino acids, encoded by ... "Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain precursor - Homo sapiens (Human)". UniProt accession number P01215. UniProt Consortium. ...

*Organizational-Activational Hypothesis

Rats have alpha-fetoprotein that binds to the estrogen before it can reach the brain. The estrogen is eventually metabolized in ... Therefore, testosterone can reach the brain without being taken up by alpha-fetoprotein. Due to fact that males have different ...

*Vitamin D-binding protein

Cooke NE, David EV (December 1985). "Serum vitamin D-binding protein is a third member of the albumin and alpha fetoprotein ... albumin and alpha-fetoprotein". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (22): 8007-17. doi:10.1093/nar/13.22.8007. PMC 322106 . PMID 2415926 ... evidence of a three-fold internal homology as in serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 871 (2): ... together with human serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein. It is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, ...

*Thymidine kinase

... alpha fetoprotein). The genes for these tumor markers may be used as promoter genes for thymidine kinase. Thymidine kinase can ... "Gene therapy for alpha-fetoprotein-producing human hepatoma cells by adenovirus-mediated transfer of the herpes simplex virus ... using a retrovirus vector carrying herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene under the control of human alpha-fetoprotein gene ... Mar EC, Chiou JF, Cheng YC, Huang ES (1985). "Inhibition of cellular DNA polymerase alpha and human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA ...

*Abdominal pregnancy

Elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels are another clue of the presence of an abdominal pregnancy. Most cases can be diagnosed by ...

*Hepatoblastoma

The most common method of testing for hepatoblastoma is a blood test checking the alpha-fetoprotein level. Alpha-fetoprotein ( ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are commonly elevated, but when AFP is not elevated at diagnosis the prognosis is poor. Patients ... "Hepatoblastoma with a low serum alpha-fetoprotein level at diagnosis: The SIOPEL group experience". Eur J Cancer. 44 (4): 545- ...

*Ovarian cancer

Blood tests for alpha-fetoprotein, karyotype, human chorionic gonadotropin, and liver function are used to diagnose germ cell ... Serum alpha-fetoprotein, neuron-specific enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase can be measured in young girls and adolescents with ... They occur in younger people, with an average age at diagnosis of 14, and secrete both alpha-fetoprotein (in 75% of cases) and ... Yolk sac tumors commonly secrete alpha-fetoprotein and can be immunohistochemically stained for its presence; the level of ...

*AFP-L3

In oncology, AFP-L3 is an isoform of Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a substance typically used in the triple test during pregnancy ... A clinical study of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein as an early indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma in the follow-up of ... A clinical study of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein as an early indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma in the follow-up of ... Early recognition of hepatocellular carcinoma based on altered profiles of alpha-fetoprotein. Sato, Y., et al., N. Engl. J. Med ...

*ATBF1

2004). "Alteration of the AT motif binding factor-1 expression in alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric cancer: is it an event ... "A human alpha-fetoprotein enhancer-binding protein, ATBF1, contains four homeodomains and seventeen zinc fingers". Mol Cell ...

*Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

August 2003). "Serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for hepatoblastoma in children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or isolated ... ultrasound every 3 months until at least eight years of age is recommended and a blood test to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ...

*Albumin

Alpha-fetoprotein (alpha-fetoglobulin) is a fetal plasma protein that binds various cations, fatty acids and bilirubin. Vitamin ... A number of blood transport proteins are evolutionarily related, including serum albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding ... alpha-fetoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein gene family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (27): 18149-54. PMID ... alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein multigene family". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 29 (4): 344-354. doi:10.1007/ ...

*Scrotal ultrasound

Alpha-fetoprotein is normally elevated in greater than 90% of patients with yolk sac tumor (Woodward et al, 2002, as cited in ... Tumor markers such as serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-feto protein are negative. The ultrasound patterns of ...

*Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome

Patni, N; Cervantes, L. F.; Diaz, A (2012). "Elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels in Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome: A case report and ... enlarged pituitary gland and elevated prolactin and alpha-fetoprotein levels. Diagnosis is made by imaging/sonography and ...

*FETA

... an identifier for alpha-fetoprotein a molecule produced in the developing embryo and fetus Feta (font), a font used for ...
The amino acid sequence of human alpha-fetoprotein, a 67-kDa protein present in mammalian embryonic serum, was verified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric (FAB/MS) analyses of three different enzymatic digests of the protein. Human alpha-fetoprotein obtained from a large-scale cell culture was digested with trypsin and V-8 protease either separately on two different samples or combined on the same one. The V-8 protease digest of the protein was partially fractionated by HPLC; the other samples were directly analyzed by FAB/MS without previous purification steps. About 90% of the alpha-fetoprotein amino acid sequence was verified by mass spectrometric analysis; this also confirmed that the cell-derived protein is identical with the hepatoma-derived protein. FAB analysis revealed that the N terminus of the mature protein is arginine rather than threonine, with the threonine occupying the second position. Therefore, the processing site of the alpha-fetoprotein signal peptide during maturation of
The fucosylated fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) is a specific marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, conventional AFP-L3% (c-AFP-L3%) has not always been reliable in cases with low serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of a newly developed assay, highly sensitive AFP-L3% (hs-AFP-L3%). Subjects included 74 patients with benign liver disease (BLD), including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, and 94 with HCC. Serum hs-AFP-L3% was significantly higher than c-AFP-L3% in patients with early-stage HCC (solitary or ...
Alpha fetoprotein normal range - When did alpha fetoprotein testing start? 1980s. The Alpha fetoprotein test was around when I was a resident physician. The test has progressed through the y ears such that there are four levels measured in the pregnant womans blood looking for the risk of downs syndrome (trisomy 21), trisomy 18 & neural tube defects like spina bifida. This is called the quadruple screen best measured between 16 & weeks of pregnancy.
To the Editor:. Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and fetal liver1 that is routinely used as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma in subjects with chronic liver diseases.2,3 Elevations of AFP levels may be often observed in acute and chronic viral hepatitis also4,5 and are usually associated with hepatic cirrhosis.5,6 These elevations have been correlated to hepatic damage per se with selective transcriptional activation of the AFP gene.7 Recently, it has been demonstrated that elevated AFP levels correlate with a low probability of sustained virologic response (SVR) to chronic hepatitis C treatment, at least in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4.8 To date, no study has evaluated the association between serum AFP levels and early virologic response (EVR) to anti-HCV treatment in the HIV-positive population.. In this study we evaluated 33 consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects followed up at our clinic who initiated an anti-HCV treatment, ...
To the editor: During the recent years several investigators (1-5), using radioimmunoassay, have shown the presence of alphafetoprotein (AFP), not only in the fetal period or in the patients with primary liver cancer, but in the serums of pregnant women or of patients with various nonneoplastic liver diseases.. In acute hepatitis we have observed (Figure 1) that the serum alpha-fetoprotein level rose several days later than the serum transaminase level and that even when the serum transaminase level was back to normal the alpha-fetoprotein level still remained significantly high.. We believe, in agreement with Seppälä and Ruoslahti (4), that alpha-fetoprotein ...
alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, and isoelectric focusing. A major and a minor component with isoelectric points of 4.7 and 5.3, respectively, have been isola
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
Also Known as Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP) MSAFP is often part of the triple screen test that assesses whether further diagnostic testing may be needed.
I have a long history of ovarian cysts that usually go away,but also a family history of cancer. They came across a larger than usual one on my left side and started to watch it, as of now it has conti...
Background: The utility of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is controversial. We aimed to identify factors associated with elevated AFP and define the patients for whom AFP is effective for surveillance. Methods: Data from the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network Phase 2 HCC biomarker study (233 early stage HCC and 412 cirrhotic patients) were analyzed. We analyzed 110 early stage HCC and 362 cirrhotic HCV patients for external validation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for HCC were calculated. Results: HCV etiology, Non-White race, and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) predicted elevated AFP in cirrhotics. Non-White race and ALT predicted elevated AFP in HCC patients. Higher AUC of AFP for HCC was noted in patients with HBV (0.85) and alcohol (0.84) while it was lower in patients with HCV (0.80) and Non-viral/Alcohol etiology (0.76). The AUC was higher in HCV patients with serum ALT≤40 U/L than patients ...
Synonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP. 1 synonym for fetoprotein: foetoprotein. What are synonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP?
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Tracer (HRP Labeled), Clone AFP-Y2Collection: AntibodySub Category: Matched Antibody
Buy AFP purified protein, ALPHA FETOPROTEIN Purified Protein-NP_001125.1 (MBS230298) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Purified Proteins. Application: Immunoassay (IY)
Alpha fetoprotein or AFP is a medical test that determines the level of proteins present in our body. This test is also conducted on pregnant women to determine the health of the baby.
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood. Its level is elevated in a pregnant womans blood when there are problems with her unborn chi...
α-Fetoprotein (AFP) measurements have clinical implications in fetal medicine and, in infants and older children, in detection, differential diagnosis and monitoring of malignant disease. Maternal serum AFP levels constitute part of a multiple-marker test used in early second-trimester screening to predict risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Those individuals with increased risk are offered further definitive diagnostic investigation. Second-trimester screening is now increasingly being superseded by first-trimester screening with other serum markers and ultrasound. As AFP is only produced physiologically during fetal development, elevated serum levels after the first two post-natal years usually indicate the presence of a malignant disease process. Before this time, levels may be purely physiological and therefore serial values should be plotted on a logarithmic chart to ensure that they are falling appropriately, with a typical half-life of ∼5-6 days. If not, further investigation ...
Parity in women is associated with reduced lifetime risk of breast cancer, and hormones of pregnancy (estrogen E, progesterone P, human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG) are implicated. Parity also reduces mammary cancer risk in carcinogen-exposed rats, and administering pregnancy hormones to these animals is similarly effective. Because pregnancy hormones are also able to stimulate cancer growth, we proposed to resolve this dichotomy by determining whether administered pregnancy hormones elicit the cancer-inhibiting agent α-fetoprotein (AFP) from the liver, which would implicate AFP as a proximal effector of hormonal anticancer activity. Accordingly, we treated groups of nitrosomethylurea-exposed rats with saline, E3, E2 + P, E3 + P, hCG, or allowed them to experience pregnancy, then monitored mammary cancer incidence and serum levels of AFP over time. Each hormone treatment reduced mammary cancer incidence and elevated serum AFP levels. To challenge human tissues, human HepG2 liver cells in ...
A 64-year-old male from Bangladesh, identified to have elevated levels of serum AFP in 2010 by electrochemiluminescense immunoassay (ECLIA), presented with consistently elevated AFP levels (,1,100 ng/mL), with the most recent evaluation showing 1,830 ng/mL. Physical examination revealed no abnormality or swelling anywhere in the body. There was no loss of appetite, sudden weight loss, history suggestive of liver disease, or family history of malignancy. He underwent cholecystectomy in 2003 for gallstone disease and complained of asthma and sinusitis. He had also recently been diagnosed for type 2 diabetes mellitus. His liver function tests were normal except for a slight elevation of alanine aminotransferase (41 IU/L), and he tested negative for all other viral infections suggestive of hepatitis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and examination of the upper gastrointestinal series and colon were all normal. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed hepatomegaly with a grade III fatty liver.. Given ...
AlphaLISA no-wash immunoassay kit for detection and quantitation of human alpha-fetoprotein in serum, culture media, or buffered solution.
Tumor response evaluation using CT or MRI after systemic chemotherapy or loco-regional treatment is widely used to decide whether to treat further or change treatment strategies. However, high cost, radiation hazard, and associated cancer risks are drawbacks to these response evaluation modalities, [34] whereas tumor marker evaluation after anti-cancer treatment is rapid, easier to estimate, and less expensive. Thus, the clinical implications of tumor response evaluation using tumor markers have been continuously investigated [35-38].. This study also showed that AFP response can be an independent predictor of OS in patients undergoing TACE as the first treatment modality, whereas radiologic response was not significant in predicting PFS and OS. Several previous studies have also proposed the clinical usefulness of AFP response. Riaz et al. [27] proposed AFP response after loco-regional therapy as an ancillary method of assessing tumor response and survival, as well as an early objective ...
Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35. The symptomatology caused by this tumor varies according to the site of metastasis. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who arrived to the emergency department with hematemesis. He had no previous medical history. On arrival, we noted enlargement of the left scrotal sac. There was also a mass in the left scrotum which provoked displacement of the penis and right testis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 17,090 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase was 1480 U/L, and human chorionic gonadotropin was 287 ...
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. The AFP gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 4 (4q25). AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. It is thought to be the fetal form of serum albumin. AFP binds to copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin and is found in monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms. AFP is a glycoprotein of 591 amino acids and a carbohydrate moiety. AFP is the most abundant plasma protein found in the human fetus. Plasma levels decrease rapidly after birth but begin decreasing prenatally starting at the end of the first trimester. Normal adult levels are usually achieved by the age of 8 to 12 months. The function of AFP in adult humans is unknown; however, in rodents it binds estradiol to prevent the transport of this hormone across the placenta to the fetus. The main function of ...
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis (HCV-C). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been proposed as a biomarker of HCC risk. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is a food supplement that has an excellent safety profile. The use of SAMe as a chemopreventive is based on abnormalities in methionine cycle (with decreased SAMe levels) in patients with cirrhosis, increased risk of HCC in experimental animals deprived of SAMe, and the prevention of liver cancer by SAMe administration in animal models of chemically-induced HCC.. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIb trial to determine if SAMe (up to 2.4 grams/day) for 24 weeks reduced serum AFP levels in patients with HCV-C. Inclusion criteria: lab evidence of HCV-C (platelet count ,150,000/mm3), AFP 15-100 ng/mL (normal less than 9 ng/mL). Exclusion criteria: non-HCV liver diseases, decompensated HCV-C (MELD,15), or history of, or mass suspicious for ...
A 35-year-old Chinese man presented with dull pain in the right hypochondrial region for the previous 2 months. Laboratory examination revealed that his serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 1890 microg/L (reference range, 0-20 microg/L), and computed tomographic scan showed a hypodense lesion in the left liver lobe. At laparotomy, a dark ...
Information about the open-access article Hepatocellular carcinoma: microstructure and expression features of hepatocyte marker, alphafetoprotein, cytokeratins 7 and 20 in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals.
Well-diagnosed consecutive patients with cirrhosis were enrolled through a designed questionnaire to obtain basic information about gender, age, etiology of cirrhosis, conventional liver function tests, serum AFP level, education level, substance use including smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing, history of familial HCC, etc. Then the patients was followed by periodic abdominal sonography examination and determination of AFP and liver function. If AFP elevated or liver nodule appears, effort to diagnose HCC will be performed.If HCC was performed, the survival will be followed-up. As anti-viral therapy was found to decrease risk for HCC, patients with those therapy will be excluded ...
Uotila, M; Engvall, E; and Ruoslahti, E, "Monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay of alphafetoprotein. Abstr." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2317 ...
HBx proteins play important roles in the development of HBV-related HCC through the activation of growth signal pathways and the inactivation of tumor suppressive pathways, such as transcripted activity of p53 [9,27]. In this study, we found that overexpression of AFP, AFPR and Src in cirrhosis and HBV-related HCC tissue samples, and showed that expression of AFPR and AFP prior to expression of Src during the progress of HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. These results implied that HBx is involved in AFPR and AFP overexpression during HBV infection. HBx inactivation transcripted activity of p53 to alleviate p53 mediated repression of AFP expression [9], HBx also stimulated expression of Src via activating PI3K signal pathway [28], whereas, in this study, we despite found that HBx upregulated expression of AFPR, but the role played of HBx in regulating expression of AFPR is still unclear. Recently, we found that HBx promoted AFPR expression maybe involve in activating PI3K/AKT signal [22]. These ...
The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light
Objective: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development which could lead to weak reproducible antitumor immunity, and may act as a target for cancer therapy. Therefore, it is imperative to enhance its immunogenicity and develop therapeutic vaccines to eliminate AFP-expressing tumors. The study is...
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) tends to remit during pregnancy, with more patients achieving remission in the third trimester, coinciding with an increase in levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP). In vitro and animal studies have shown that AFP has immunomodulatory properties. MM-093 is a non-glycosylated, recombinant version of human AFP.. Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability and clinical effects of MM-093 during a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.. Methods: 12 patients with RA, who had active disease and were on stable doses of methotrexate, received weekly subcutaneous injections of placebo or 21 mg of MM-093. Assessments were carried out at baseline and weekly thereafter.. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. There was one dropout in the placebo group, due to flare of disease. Treatment with MM-093 was well tolerated. No serious adverse event was observed. By day 85, MM-093 produced a significant mean improvement from baseline in ...
DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma OR Elevation of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (greater than 400 ng/mL) in the presence of a space occupying lesion in the liver with known chronic liver disease Lesion must be easily biopsied Unresectable disease Bidimensionally measurable disease by radiography OR Evaluable disease with elevated AFP Okuda stage I disease Tumor size less than 50% of liver No ascites Albumin greater than 3 g/dL Bilirubin less than 2 mg/dL OR Okuda stage II disease Bilirubin as in stage I If ascites present, albumin must be greater than 3 g/dL. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 18 and over Performance status: ECOG 0-2 Life expectancy: At least 12 weeks Hematopoietic: Hemoglobin at least 9.0 g/dL Neutrophil count at least 1,500/mm3 Platelet count at least 80,000/mm3 Hepatic: See Disease Characteristics SGOT/SGPT no greater than 4 times upper limit of normal Any cause of underlying liver disease including hepatitis B or C allowed Renal: Creatinine no ...
fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography. In evaluating such tests, it is important to note that the performance characteristics of a test that is used for diagnosis may differ when used for screening/surveillance. Thus, reports of the performance characteristics of AFP and ultrasonography, when applied to screening/surveillance, must be interpreted cautiously.. AFP. This was the marker used in the first reported surveillance studies of HCC. 29,44,45 The sensitivity of AFP for detecting HCC varies widely in both HBV-positive and predominantly HBV-negative populations, 22,25,27,28,44,46,47 possibly because of the confusion between diagnosis and screening. If the level of AFP triggering investigation for HCC is increased, e.g., from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L,25 the sensitivity of the AFP test falls from 39% to 13%, while the specificity increases. AFP, however, is not specific for HCC. Titers also rise with flares of active hepatitis.46 Of 44 HBV carriers with elevated AFP levels detected during ...
The ultrasound technician squeezed a blob of warm gel on my belly, and then rotated the paddle in the sticky goo. Within seconds, an image appeared on the screen in front of her. I tilted my head to catch a glimpse of the life growing inside me. She took careful measurements of the babys head, legs and arms. (Shorter limbs may be an indicator of Down syndrome.) Unlike a regular ultrasound with its gray and white images, this one featured color -- bands of blue and red exploding on the screen as she pointed out the umbilical cord, spine and heart chambers. My husband, a wildlife biologist with expertise in GPS and digital mapping, admired the acuteness of the enhanced ultrasound. Minutes before, we sat in a dim room exploring our options with a genetics counselor. While we didnt have a history of birth defects in our families, my maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening test came back with abnormal levels, and my age (mid-30s) also put the pregnancy into a higher risk category for ...
We firstly and specifically investigated the diagnostic value of autoantibodies in α-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively evaluated the prevalence and diagnostic value of autoantibodies to nucleophosmin (NPM)1, 14-3-3zeta and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) proteins and their different combinations in 56 AFP-negative HCC patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of three tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in AFP-negative HCC. Our study demonstrated that autoantibodies to NPM1, 14-3-3zeta and MDM2 may be useful biomarkers for immunodiagnosis of AFP-negative HCC ...
BACKGROUND. Studies in animals indicate that natural forms of vitamin A are teratogenic. Synthetic retinoids chemically similar to vitamin A cause birth defects in humans; as in animals, the defects appear to affect tissues derived from the cranial neural crest. METHODS. Between October 1984 and June 1987, we identified 22,748 pregnant women when they underwent screening either by measurement of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein or by amniocentesis. Nurse interviewers obtained information on the womens diet, medications, and illnesses during the first trimester of pregnancy, as well as information on their family and medical history and exposure to environmental agents. We obtained information on the outcomes of pregnancy from the obstetricians who delivered the babies or from the women themselves. Of the 22,748 women, 339 had babies with birth defects; 121 of these babies had defects occurring in sites that originated in the cranial neural crest. RESULTS. For defects associated with ...
Alphafetoprotein (AFP) is a large globular protein secreted by the fetus, and is one of the first globular proteins to appear in human serum. The protein is comprised of 590 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 70 kDa. While a woman is pregnant, the AFP crosses the placenta and enters the maternal circulation. Although maternal levels of AFP are much lower than in the fetus, the levels continue to rise until week thirty-two of gestation, after which the AFP gene is repressed and serum levels fall to a negligible level. The AFP is critical to the development of the fetus, acting as a carrier for unsaturated fatty acids. Levels of AFP in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum have also been used to screen for defects in the fetus; AFP can also be a tumor marker since some cancers produce AFP.. In the 1980s Jacobson reported a correlation between women who had had multiple births, especially before age 30, and reduced risk for breast cancer. He suggested that the increased levels of AFP in these ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
The normal values in males or nonpregnant females is generally less than 40 micrograms/liter.. The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.. ...
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A double-antibody procedure has been developed for the isolation of α1-fetoprotein (AFP)-synthesizing polysomes from Morris hepatoma 7777. The polyadenylic acid-containing RNA, subsequently purified by differential sedimentation on sucrose gradient and oligodeoxythymidylic acid-cellulose chromatography, migrates as a single 21S component in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; in a cell-free translation system, it yields a peptide product immunoprecipitable by anti-rat AFP antiserum, but not by anti-rat albumin, and which migrates slightly faster than serum AFP on sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea-polyacrylamide gels. This messenger RNA fraction was used for the synthesis of a radioactive complementary DNA. In hybridization assays, the complementary DNA reassociated with its purified template at a Cr0t1/2 [product of RNA concentration (mol of nucleotides per liter) × half-time (sec)] of 1.5 × 10-2. By reference to this value, hybridizable sequences were found to constitute 3, 2, and ,0.01% of total ...
The authors of the study conclude that "A pooled analysis of two phase 3 trials assessing ramucirumab as second-line treatment in patients with HCC following first-line sorafenib (REACH-2 and REACH) demonstrates a significant and clinically meaningful benefit with a favorable safety profile in HCC patients with baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL.". See the webcast from this presentation. ...
Learn about the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, a widely used biochemical blood test used to screen for liver, testicular, and ovarian cancer.
The Biopanda AFP Rapid test qualitatively detects for the presence of Alpha-Fetoprotein in human whole blood, serum, or plasma samples.
What is an AFP Blood test? AFP blood test, otherwise, also known as Alpha Fetoprotein Test is a type of blood test that measures the level of AFP present in the blood. This test is basically a part of Triple Screening or Quad screening test that is performed during the second trimester of pregnancy. The…
Mouse monoclonal alpha 1 Fetoprotein antibody [6E6] validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
Chicken polyclonal alpha 1 Fetoprotein antibody validated for ELISA, ICC/IF and tested in Human. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to full…
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In men, nonpregnant women, and children, AFP in the blood may mean certain types of cancer, especially cancer of the testicles, stomach, ovaries, pancreas, or liver are present. High levels of AFP may also be found in Hodgkins disease, brain tumo
AFP : The follow-up management of patients undergoing cancer therapy, especially for testicular and ovarian tumors and for hepatocellular carcinoma Often used in conjunction with human chorionic gonadotropin(2)
The more research I do and am able to put the pieces together, the more I realize that my obgyn really really screwed up big time-he completely neglected my care. I was showing elevated AFP and slightly low amniotc fluid much earlier when he would have had the chance to at least make some kind of recommendations to at least try to help my Mia. I wish someone would have at least said the word "preeclampsia" to me instead of letting me think that everything as ok. They did absolutely nothing (the Dr and even the MFM dept. for the exception of an ultrasound every 2 weeks). If caught early, a lot of women are put in a dark room without any stimuli and ae closely monitored and it seems to help. Even baby asprin or other meds tends to help eventhough its not proven. But anything that wouldve been tried wouldve been better than the outcome that I have to live with everyday for the rest of my life....these Drs had a chance but they treated me and my baby like some number and even drs who treat patients ...
The more research I do and am able to put the pieces together, the more I realize that my obgyn really really screwed up big time-he completely neglected my care. I was showing elevated AFP and slightly low amniotc fluid much earlier when he would have had the chance to at least make some kind of recommendations to at least try to help my Mia. I wish someone would have at least said the word "preeclampsia" to me instead of letting me think that everything as ok. They did absolutely nothing (the Dr and even the MFM dept. for the exception of an ultrasound every 2 weeks). If caught early, a lot of women are put in a dark room without any stimuli and ae closely monitored and it seems to help. Even baby asprin or other meds tends to help eventhough its not proven. But anything that wouldve been tried wouldve been better than the outcome that I have to live with everyday for the rest of my life....these Drs had a chance but they treated me and my baby like some number and even drs who treat patients ...
I just wondered if any of you had any insight on my case. My AFP has never reached the magic 25 number (thank God), but before chemo I believe my AFP value was like 5 or less (it was normal). After the first round or two of chemo it went up to 12 and a couple weeks after it was up to 19. I was freaking out,
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WASHINGTON, DC - December 9, 2014 - More than half of corporate treasurers and CFOs believe business conditions will improve in 2015, the largest percentage predicting improvement since 2005, according to a survey of 856 executives released today by the Association for Financial Professionals (AFP), a global professional society.. The AFP Business Outlook Survey, which has tracked business predictions of CFOs, corporate treasurers and other financial executives for the last 11 years, found that 44 percent of finance executives expect the U.S. economy to grow between 2.0 and 2.9 percent, while 31 percent are even more optimistic and expect it to grow between 3.0 and 3.9 percent.. Finance executives expect growth to occur in the second half of 2015, creating another 1.9 million nonfarm jobs. Among those surveyed, 49 percent say their companies anticipate hiring workers in 2015.. EXPECTATIONS FOR 2015:. ...
Hi Im new to this site and am not sure exactly how it works. I have a few questions that I have been wanting to ask and I am hoping to find someone with a similar situation to what we are going through. My son was diagnosed with a non-semonoma germ cell tumor at 9 months old. After a l/o we found out it was
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a tumor marker to help detect and diagnose cancers of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. An AFP test may be ordered, along with imaging studies, to try to detect liver cancer when it is in its earliest and most treatable stages.
J:30022 Trojan J, Naval X, Johnson T, Lafarge-Frayssinet C, Hajeri-Germond M, Farges O, Pan Y, Uriel J, Abramasky O, Ilan J, Expression of serum albumin and of alphafetoprotein in murine normal and neoplastic primitive embryonic structures. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995 Dec;42(4):369-78 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A star pathologist hired by Oscar Pistorius told AFP on Thursday he will not testify at the athlete s murder trial, another blow for his defence after a week of savage cross-examination
J:19934 Law SW, Dugaiczyk A, Homology between the primary structure of alpha-fetoprotein, deduced from a complete cDNA sequence, and serum albumin. Nature. 1981 May 21;291(5812):201-5 ...
Understand how the test is done and the pros and cons, then decide if maternal serum screening is the right choice for you and baby.
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Looking for online definition of alpha (alpha)-amino acid in the Medical Dictionary? alpha (alpha)-amino acid explanation free. What is alpha (alpha)-amino acid? Meaning of alpha (alpha)-amino acid medical term. What does alpha (alpha)-amino acid mean?
MAFP : Analytes: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal protein that is initially produced in the fetal yolk sac and liver. A small amount also is produced by the gastrointestinal tract. By the end of the first trimester, nearly all of the AFP is produced by the fetal liver. The concentration of AFP peaks in fetal serum between 10 to 13 weeks. Fetal AFP diffuses across the placental barrier into the maternal circulation. A small amount also is transported from the amniotic cavity. The AFP concentration in maternal serum rises throughout pregnancy, from the nonpregnancy level of 0.20 ng/mL to about 250 ng/mL at 32 weeks gestation. If the fetus has an open neural tube defect (NTD), AFP is thought to leak directly into the amniotic fluid causing unexpectedly high concentrations of AFP. Subsequently, the AFP reaches the maternal circulation; thus producing elevated serum levels. Other fetal abnormalities such as omphalocele, gastroschisis, congenital renal disease, esophageal atresia, and other fetal
Results which are less than 2.5 multiples of the median (MoM) are considered to be normal when evaluating fetuses for neural tube defects (NTD). Normal serum AFP values exclude 95% of cases of anencephaly and around 80% of cases of spina bifida. Closed dysraphic states and small defects may yield normal results. Unexplained elevations of MSAFP have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature rupture of the membranes, fetal demise, abruptio placenta, pregnancy - induced hypertension, preterm labor and neonatal death. However, the effectiveness of monitoring or intervention based upon such information is not known. Maternal serum AFP tests are not diagnostic and AFP alone has limited application for screening purposes. This panel should only be used to screen for Neural Tube Defects. AFP Quad Screen (test code #3092) is preferred when screening for fetal anomalies ...
ReportsnReports.com adds report 2014 Strategies for the Global AFP Testing Market to its store. The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the worldwide cancer testing market is promising to be an exciting, dynamic and rapidly expanding field. Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining genetic predisposition, detecting specific tumors, and monitoring biological response to cancer therapy. The rise in geriatric population will further compound the growing demand for malignancy assays and the rapid market expansion worldwide.. Complete report is available at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/274290-2014-strategies-for-the-global-afp-testing-market.html. This report presents a detailed analysis of the Alpha-fetoprotein ...
Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein normally produced by a fetus. Levels of AFP are usually undetectable in the blood of healthy adult men or women (who are not pregnant). An elevated level of AFP may indicate certain diseases, including liver cancer.. Tags: A, Cancer Dictionary, Uncategorized. ...
Note: Seminoma and Choriocarcinoma do not secrete AFP.. Since Dysgerminoma is female counterpart of Seminoma it also does not secrete AFP.. ...
Secreted phosphoprotein 24 (spp24) is a member of the cystatin superfamily, which was first identified in cattle as a minor component of cortical bone and subsequently has been identified as a component of the fetuin-mineral complex. We have localized the human SPP2 gene, which encodes spp24 to chromosome 2q37.1, determined its structure and mapped the start of transcription in liver. There is no CAAT or TATA box in the promoter region but potential transcription factor (TF)-binding sites have been identified. The gene comprises eight exons spread over a region of approximately 27 kb with the cystatin-like region of spp24 encoded by four exons, rather than the three-exon structure typical of the genes encoding the archetypal cystatins. A rare single amino acid polymorphism (p.S38F) has been identified within the mature protein and its significance has been assessed by comparing the sequence of human spp24 with that of eight other species ...
|p|An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test is a blood test that can show whether your fetus has signs of some birth defects, in particular, spina bifida (a type of neural tube defect).|/p|
What is an AFP Blood test?. AFP blood test, otherwise, also known as Alpha Fetoprotein Test is a type of blood test that measures the level of AFP present in the blood. This test is basically a part of Triple Screening or Quad screening test that is performed during the second trimester of pregnancy. The test is also performed or useful for those patients who are not pregnant.. Primarily, AFP is produced by the yolk sac, GI tract, and liver of an unborn baby or fetus. The substance circulates around the fetal and in the maternal blood.. Why is the test ordered?. In general, AFP blood test comes under a routine screening test that is to be performed by the expectant mother during the second trimester of the pregnancy. The test helps the doctor to know the exact date of the pregnancy. The test is a part of the quad screening test and is ordered to examine the level of - Human chthonic Gonadoprotein (HCG) and Estriol and Inhini, types of hormones produced by the placenta.. AFP blood test is ...
AFP (Human) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of human AFP in plasma, serum, and cell culture supernatants. (KA1024) - Products - Abnova
The editors of JAMA and the Archives Journals prefer the use of Greek letters rather than spelled-out words, unless usage dictates otherwise. Consult Dorlands and Stedmans medical dictionaries for general terms. These sources may differ in the representation of terms, ie, α-fetoprotein (symbol) (Stedmans) and alpha fetoprotein (Dorlands). If the Greek letter, rather than the word, is found in either of these sources for the item in question, use the letter in preference to the word. ▪ For chemical terms, the use of Greek letters is almost always preferred.β-pinene ▪ For electroencephalographic terms, use the word (see , Nomenclature, Neurology,
Canadian pharmaceutical company Alpha Cancer Technologies Inc. is developing a way to deliver chemotherapy more effectively and with lower doses so the treatment does not cause toxicity in patients. If successful, the companys drug products, which use a recombinant human alpha fetoprotein (AFP) with unique immuno-oncology properties, could revolutionize chemotherapy by targeting cancer cells instead of healthy cells and eliminate toxic effects of treatment. As part of a larger financing, one of the largest U.S. biotechnology companies recently purchased 15 per cent equity in the company for US$ 7.5 million, providing substantial resources for future development. The company says its drug products have the potential to greatly improve cancer outcomes for the majority of suffering patients because its targeted treatment method will be more effective and safer than current therapies.. The Canadian Business Journal spoke with founder and CEO Dr. Igor Sherman and chairman Richard Potts about its ...
If there are many large tumor nodules ranging from 1 to 4 inches (2-10 cm) in diameter then enlargement and deformation of the liver may occur. This is called a "massive type" may be rapidly progressive and presents a real treatment challenge. The multifocal type contains many adenomas up to 2 inches (4-5 cms) in diameter but the liver shape is not deformed or enlarged. These patients are unlikely to have many symptoms and appear to have a less aggressive clinical course.. Patients should be entered into a follow up program that includes yearly CAT or MRI scanning, and frequent serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement. AFP is a protein that is a marker for liver cancer and rising levels must be taken seriously. These tests are done to detect progression of disease (increased lesion size) and/or transformation into liver cancer.. All female patients should be advised to stop hormone medication (e.g. oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy), and also ensure that they prevent further ...
T cell responses play an important role in the outcome of HBV and HCV infection, e.g. viral elimination versus persistence. However, multiple mechanisms can lead to the failure of the virus-specific T cell response. These mechanisms include primary T cell failure, T cell exhaustion, the emergence of viral escape mutants, as well as T cell dysfunction. Furthermore, genetic factors such as the individual HLA allele background play an important role in the outcome of infection. Once viral persistence has been established, HBV or HCV infection can progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis with an enhanced risk for HCC. Tumor-specific T cells (e.g. AFP-specific T cells) are thought to contribute to cancer control.. The focus of our group is the identification and characterization of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during acute and chronic HBV and HCV infection with a special focus on intrahepatic T cell responses as well as the mechanisms of viral persistence (e.g., viral escape, T cell ...
Clinical History A 31-year-old man presented with chest pain and was found to have a 10-cm anterior mediastinal mass. Serum beta hCG and alpha-fetoprotein level...
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Looking for online definition of alpha-2HS glycoprotein in the Medical Dictionary? alpha-2HS glycoprotein explanation free. What is alpha-2HS glycoprotein? Meaning of alpha-2HS glycoprotein medical term. What does alpha-2HS glycoprotein mean?
AFPep (Alpha Fetoprotein Peptide) is an orally active cyclic peptide with molecular weight of 969 Daltons and is derived from the anti-oncogenic active site (residues 472-479) of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). Using the standard amino acid abbreviations, AFPep has the sequence cyclo-(EKTOVNOGN), where O is hydroxyproline. This peptide has been shown in experimental animal models to be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of ER+ breast cancer. Multiple births by a woman are strongly associated with a lower risk of developing breast cancer later in her life. One of the contributing factors for this association appears to be α-fetoprotein (AFP) produced by the fetal liver which crosses the placenta and enters into the maternal circulation. Pregnancy-associated protection from breast cancer is directly proportional to exposure level to AFP. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that tumor growth can be inhibited by AFP in animal models of breast cancer. It is speculated that AFP may induce ...
Between 1976 and 2006, 84 pts were registered. Data on AFP were available to calculate AFP early decline for 57 pts. Median post-operative AFP was 1040 (2 - 116 539) ng/mL. Most of the pts (48/57) have undergone fertility-sparing surgery. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was given 56/57 pts and 42/57 pts received bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) regimen. Overall 5-year and event-free survival rates were 82% and 81%, respectively. The disease stage, presence of ascites at presentation, BEP regimen, serum AFP half-life and early AFP decline were significantly predictive factors. Overall survival in pts with favorable AFP decline was 96% whereas it was 49% in pts with unfavorable decline (p < 0.001). In the multivariate model only the absence of ascites at initial diagnosis and serum AFP decline were significantly associated with a better overall survival. ...
See Article on [Related article:] 239. Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very important because the 5-year survival rate of early stage HCC (about 40% to 70%) is better than that of advanced stage HCC (less than 5%) [1]. In some countries, high-risk patients undergo a hepatocarcinoma surveillance program using ultrasound and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels.. However, there are several drawbacks of surveillance program using ultrasonography. For high chance of receiving curative treatment, the stage of HCC should be low, such as very early (BCLC 0) or early (BCLC A) stage. However, detection of small lesions by ultrasound is not easy. According to a meta-analysis [2], the sensitivity of ultrasonography was 65% to 80%. Although accompanying with measurement of serum AFP, the sensitivity to detect early HCC was not increased [3]. Therefore, it seems not to be enough to perform ultrasonography as the only imaging method for surveillance of HCC. According to a retrospective ...
It has been estimated that 70% to 90% of patients with hepatocellular carcinomas have an established background of chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, the major causes of which are HBV or HCV infection (26, 27). More than 50% (340,000 cases) of all hepatocellular carcinomas worldwide are associated with HBV infection and near 30% (195,000 cases) are HCV infection-related (28, 29). Once cirrhosis is established, the annual risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma is estimated to be as high as 3% to 4% (30). Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma using serum AFP or combined with ultrasonography in these high-risk populations is still the essential way for detection and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas at an earlier stage, when curative therapies are likely to be more successful (31, 32).. On the basis of the specific screening requirements for hepatocellular carcinomas in the context of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis and the general criteria for an adequate screening test to detect ...
This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed patient consent was not required. Between January 2008 and December 2014, 8,155 patients at high risk for HCC underwent surveillance US more than once at an academic tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, Korea. Liver US and serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) assay are routinely used in conjunction for HCC surveillance at our institution. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is occasionally performed for the purpose of surveillance at the discretion of the clinician. Upon reviewing the medical records and imaging data of the 8,155 patients, 512 patients who were suspected for HCC during surveillance were identified. Of the 512 patients, 337 were excluded for the following reasons: suspected HCC was initially identified upon CT or MRI instead of US (n=128); the time interval between surveillance US and subsequent CT/MRI was longer than 1 month (n=198); images could not be retrieved (n=5); US image quality was ...
A focal liver lesion is usually first identified by ultrasound and further evaluation is required in order to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours. Clinical examination and liver function tests are simple first-line bases. Alkaline phosphatase in particular may be raised, but this offers little diagnostic significance alone. Alpha-fetoprotein is produced by over 80% of HCCs and may be of value if markedly elevated and combined with a low β-human chorionic gonadotropin (α-fetoprotein levels may also be raised in testicular teratoma, benign liver disease, normal pregnancy and obstetric abnormalities). Carcinoembryonic antigen levels are less often elevated and less specific; they are usually raised with colorectal liver metastases. Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin, a prothrombin precursor resulting from failure to carboxylate glutamic acid residues, may be detected in the serum of 75-90% of HCC patients.8 Tumour markers such as α-fetoprotein are, however, particularly helpful in ...
Polyspecific antiserum against total rat serum proteins was used to develop specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays for fetuin and bikunin, two minor protein components of rat plasma. The radioimmunoassays proved to be highly useful to trace bikunin and fetuin in the course of developing isolation procedures, since neither specific functional assays nor monospecific antisera were available. The two examples demonstrate that, in general, it will be possible to develop a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay with antiserum raised against a crude antigen preparation, such as a body fluid or a tissue extract, provided that a minute amount of pure antigen is available for preparing the radioiodinated antigen. ...
AFP, a glycoprotein structurally related to albumin but reciprocally regulated, is expressed in pregnancy by yolk sac and fetal liver from 6 weeks of gestation; in this context, AFP has been linked to "fetal graft" tolerance (16). Consistent with this immunomodulatory hypothesis, transplacental passage of fetal AFP is associated with clinical remission of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis; conversely, a hazard of AFP functional blockade in viral liver disease is that of immune reconstitution hepatitis (17). The AFP gene is reactivated in adult liver following wounding, peaking 1 to 4 days after transaminase elevation. This time course parallels hepatic regeneration, as illustrated by correlation of high AFP levels with recovery from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity (18).. Although AFP has long been used by oncologists as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma or yolk sac tumors, this so-called oncofetal antigen remains a neglected drug target despite many observations implicating it ...
Background: Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recommended in patients with cirrhosis. As a-fetoprotein (AFP) is considered a poor surveillance test, we tested the performance of its changes over time. Methods: Eighty patients were diagnosed with HCC (cases) during semiannual surveillance with ultrasonography and AFP measurement were recruited and matched for age, gender, etiology and Child-Pugh class with 160 contemporary cancer-free controls undergoing the same surveillance training group (TG). As a validation group (VG) we considered 36 subsequent patients diagnosed with HCC, matched 1 : 3 with contemporary cancer-free controls. alpha-Fetoprotein values at the time of HCC diagnosis (T0) and its changes over the 12 (Delta 12) and 6 months (Delta 6) before cancer detection were considered. Results: In both TG and VG, , 80% of HCCs were found at an early stage. In TG, AFP significantly increased over time only in cases. T0 AFP and a positive Delta 6 were independently associated ...
BACKGROUND: The identification of new therapies for high-risk (HR) hepatoblastoma is challenging. Childrens Oncology Group study AHEP0731 included a HR stratum to explore the efficacy of novel agents. Herein, the authors report the response rate to the combination of vincristine (V) and irinotecan (I) and the outcome of patients with high-risk hepatoblastoma. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed metastatic hepatoblastoma or those with a serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level /mL were eligible. Patients received 2 cycles of V at a dose of 1.5 mg/m2 /day intravenously on days 1 and 8 and I at a dose of 50 mg/m2 /day intravenously on days 1 to 5. Patients were defined as responders if they had either a 30% decrease in tumor burden according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or a 90% ( | 1 log10 ) decline in their AFP level. Responders were to receive 2 additional cycles of VI intermixed with 6 cycles of the combination of cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine (C5VD)
This study investigated the impact of baseline performance status (PS0 and PS1) on the overall survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients who are treated
Dot-plots of serum levels of nucleosomes, alkaline phosphatase (AP), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) with respective medians of pat
The level of hCG in the blood is often used as part of a screening for birth defects in a maternal serum triple or quadruple screening test. Generally done between 15 and 20 weeks, these tests check the levels of three or four substances in a pregnant womans blood. The triple screen checks alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and a type of estrogen (unconjugated estriol, or uE3). The quad screen checks these substances and the level of the hormone inhibin A. The levels of these substances, along with a womans age and other factors, help the doctor estimate the chance that the baby may have certain problems or birth defects ...
Rauth, Günther; Pöschke, Oliver; Fink, Edwin; Eulitz, Manfred; Tippmer, Stefanie; Kellerer, Monika; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Nawratil, Peter; Haasemann, Martina; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi und Müller-Esterl, Werner (1992): The nucleotide and partial amino acid sequences of rat fetuin. Identity with the natural tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the rat insulin receptor. In: European Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. 204, Nr. 2: S. 523-529 [PDF, 872kB] ...
Synonyms for CD antigen in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for CD antigen. 15 words related to antigen: substance, immunizing agent, immunogen, immunology, agglutinogen, fetoprotein, foetoprotein, anatoxin, toxoid.... What are synonyms for CD antigen?
Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels have been measured sequentially by a radio-immunoassay method in 64 patients with fulminant hepatic failure. In 15 of the 64 patients (23%) AFP levels were raised but in only two did they exceed 500 ng/ml. Of the 23 survivors 11 (48%) had raised AFP levels compared with four of the 41 (9-8%) fatal cases (P less than 0-005). This rise in AFP levels was found early after the development of grade IV coma and constitutes an encouraging prognostic sign at a time when the liver function tests and EEG are unhelpful. A radioimmunoassay must be used if these small but significant rises in plasma concentration are to be detected. Twelve patients survived without showing a rise in plasma AFP at anytime during the illness. The four fatal cases who had raised AFP levels all had serious complications of fulminant hepatic failure. Charcoal haemoperfusion did not seem to increase the survival of AFP negative patients.. ...
The quadruple screen (Quad screen) involves analyzing levels of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP), total hCG, unconjugated estriol, and inhibin A between 15 and 21 weeks gestation to calculate the risk for trisomies 18 and 21. In addition, it provides a risk assessment for open neural tube defects. For patients who present after 13 6/7 weeks or choose not to undergo first-trimester screening, the Quad screen is an option. In a pregnancy affected by Down syndrome, both MSAFP and unconjugated estriol are low and hCG and inhibin A are elevated. The Quad screen has a detection rate of 81% for Down syndrome at a 5% false-positive rate. Like first-trimester screening, the Quad screen requires an invasive test to confirm the diagnosis of a chromosomal abnormality (ie, amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling [CVS]). For those patients who chose to undergo first-trimester screening and/or CVS, neural tube defect screening in the form of a second-trimester MSAFP level should be offered. The ...
AIM Serum Golgi protein 73 (sGP73) is a novel biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are few reports on the pattern of GP73 expression in the progression of benign liver diseases to precancerous lesions and HCC. This study aimed to investigate GP73 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS Tissue GP73 (tGP73) levels were detected in specimens of group A (n = 186) including HCC, peritumoral tissue (PTL), high/low-grade hepatic atypical hyperplasia (AH), chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and normal controls (NC) by immunohistochemistry, and GP73 expression in group B (n = 159) and group C (n = 16) were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. sGP73 levels were detected in subjects of group D (n = 287) by enzyme-linked immunoassay. RESULTS GP73 expression increased gradually from NC, CHB, PTL to high-grade AH and HCC at both protein and mRNA levels (P | 0.05), while sGP73 in the HCC group was lower than
Background A precise predictive survival model of liver transplantation (LT) with antiviral prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis has not been established. The aim of our study was to identify predictors of outcome after LT in these patients based on tumor staging systems, antitumor therapy pre-LT, and antiviral prophylaxis in patients considered to be unfit by Milan or UCSF criteria. Methods From 2002 to 2008, 917 LTs with antiviral prophylaxis were performed on patients with HBV-cirrhosis, and 313 had concurrent HCC. Results Stratified univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that independent predictors for poor survival were tumor size |7.5 cm (P = 0.001), tumor number |1 (P = 0.005), vascular invasion (P = 0.001), pre-LT serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level ≥1000 ng/ml (P = 0.009), and pre-LT aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level ≥120 IU/L (P = 0.044). Pre-LT therapy for HCC was an independent predictor of better survival (P
Background To compare the RapidArc plan for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans using dosimetric analysis.
By Collen, Jacob Carmichael, Mark; Wroblewski, Tanya ABSTRACT Primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs). Malignant transformation of teratomatous components of GCT to a somatic malignancy is rare. We present a case of primary mediastinal NSGCT with malignant transformation of a teratoma in an active duty airman who presented with a 12-cm anterior mediastinal mass and vertebral body lesion. Pathology confirmed NSGCT with yolk sac and teratomatous components. Chemotherapy for GCT normalized serum tumor markers with little effect on the mediastinal mass. Incomplete resection of the residual tumor revealed high-grade mixed sarcoma. Serum tumor markers rose 3 months following resection with metastatic disease to bone and liver. Chemotherapy targeting sarcoma induced a partial response, but the patient developed acute myeloid leukemia refractory to chemotherapy. We discuss our approach to management of this complicated ...
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) after incomplete transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The study enrolled 178 HCC patients initially treated with TACE between 2006 and 2011. Patients were included if they had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, ≤3 nodules with a total sum of longest diameter ≤10 cm, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of ≤7, no major vessel invasion, and no extra-hepatic metastases. Twenty-four patients achieved a complete response to TACE (group 1). Among those with incomplete response, 47 patients received other curative treatments (group 2), 37 received SABR (group 3), and 70 received non-curative treatments (group 4). The 2-year overall survival (OS) rates for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 88 %, 81 %, 73 %, and 54 %, respectively. The corresponding 5-year OS rates were 50 %, 58 %, 53 %, and 28 %, respectively. Patients treated with SABR after incomplete TACE had similar

alpha fetoprotein - Everything2.comalpha fetoprotein - Everything2.com

Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood. Its level is elevated in a pregnant womans blood when there are ... Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood. Its level is elevated in a pregnant womans blood when there are ...
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Alpha-fetoprotein - WikipediaAlpha-fetoprotein - Wikipedia

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) ... Alpha-fetoprotein". Pucci P, Siciliano R, Malorni A, Marino G, Tecce MF, Ceccarini C, Terrana B (May 1991). "Human alpha- ... Bader D, Riskin A, Vafsi O, Tamir A, Peskin B, Israel N, Merksamer R, Dar H, David M (November 2004). "Alpha-fetoprotein in the ... alpha-Fetoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-fetoprotein

Elevated alpha-fetoprotein - WikipediaElevated alpha-fetoprotein - Wikipedia

Elevated alpha-fetoprotein refers to a state where alpha-fetoprotein levels are outside of the reference range. There are two ... November 2004). "Alpha-fetoprotein in the early neonatal period--a large study and review of the literature". Clin. Chim. Acta ... Crocoli A, Madafferi S, Jenkner A, Zaccara A, Inserra A (2007). "Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein in Wilms tumor may follow the ... Blohm ME, Vesterling-Hörner D, Calaminus G, Göbel U (1998). "Alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) reference values in infants up to 2 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elevated_alpha-fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein and Congenital Disorders - Google BooksAlpha-fetoprotein and Congenital Disorders - Google Books

AChE/PChE ratio acid affinity AFP and albumin AFP gene AFP mRNA AFP screening AFP values Alpha-fetoprotein ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN ... Alpha-fetoprotein and Congenital Disorders. Issue 14 of Birth Defects Institute symposia. Studies in Urban Economics. ... fetoprotein_and_Congenital_Disorde.html?id=V7hsAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAlpha-fetoprotein and Congenital Disorders. ... protease protein rat AFP rates receptors reported screening serum AFP concentration serum AFP levels Serum Alpha-fetoprotein ...
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Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein ScreeningMaternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening

Also Known as Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP) MSAFP is often part of the triple screen test that assesses whether further ... Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP) Home / Prenatal Testing / Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP) ... Also Known as Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP). MSAFP is a screening test that examines the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the ... The AFP test is measuring high and low levels of alpha-fetoprotein. The results are combined with the mothers age and ...
more infohttp://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/maternal-serum-alpha-fetoprotein-screening/

Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test Center by MedicineNet.comAlpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test Center by MedicineNet.com

Learn about the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, a widely used biochemical blood test used to screen for liver, testicular, ... Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test - Experience Please describe your experience with the alpha-fetoprotein blood test. ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test is the most widely used biochemical blood tests. High levels of AFP in the blood are seen in ... home , cancer center , cancer a-z list , alpha-fetoprotein blood test center ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/alpha-fetoprotein_blood_test/index.htm

Alpha-fetoprotein - What You Need to KnowAlpha-fetoprotein - What You Need to Know

Care guide for Alpha-fetoprotein. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care ... Alpha-fetoprotein (al-fa-FETO-pro-teen) can be found with a blood test and is also called AFP. AFP is an important fetal (FEE- ...
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Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test: Normal Range of AFP LevelsAlpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test: Normal Range of AFP Levels

Learn about the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, a widely used biochemical blood test used to screen for liver, testicular, ... home/cancer health center/cancer a-z list/alpha-fetoprotein blood test center /alpha-fetoprotein blood test article ... Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Blood Test. *What is the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test? ... Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test - Experience Please describe your experience with the alpha-fetoprotein blood test. ...
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Meaning of elevated Alpha-Fetoprotein levels - Ovarian Cancer - MedHelpMeaning of elevated Alpha-Fetoprotein levels - Ovarian Cancer - MedHelp

My question is they tested my Alpha-Fetoprotein levels and they are elevated, is this common with ovarian cysts or does this ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Ovarian-Cancer/Meaning-of-elevated-Alpha-Fetoprotein-levels/show/2987164

Alpha Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid) with Reflex to AcetylcholinesteraseAlpha Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid) with Reflex to Acetylcholinesterase

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and ... Alpha prime. 2. Prosound Alpha-5. 3. Coat-A-Count AFP IRMA (Alpha Fetoprotein). 4. Remote Alpha Dock system. 5. AlphaForce ... ProSound™ Alpha 5 Ultrasound Console. 9. Alpha+ Fiber Optic Otoscope. 10. AlphaCor™ Artificial Cornea. 11. Alpha Fetoprotein ( ... Alpha Daily Routine Urodynamics System. 7. Alpha I® with Lock-out™ Valve Reservoir. 8. ...
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Mouse Anti-Human Alpha FetoproteinMouse Anti-Human Alpha Fetoprotein

... Back to search result Supplier. Bio-Rad. Productcode. MCA5861G. Product department. ...
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Alpha fetoprotein is increasing with age in ataxia-telangiectasia.  - PubMed - NCBIAlpha fetoprotein is increasing with age in ataxia-telangiectasia. - PubMed - NCBI

Alpha fetoprotein is increasing with age in ataxia-telangiectasia.. Stray-Pedersen A1, Borresen-Dale AL, Paus E, Lindman CR, ... The elevated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) concentration in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients has been known for decades, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17540590?dopt=Abstract

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tests in pregnancy - myDr.com.auAlpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tests in pregnancy - myDr.com.au

An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test is a blood test that can show whether your fetus has signs of some birth defects, in particular ... One of these substances is alpha-fetoprotein. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is produced by the fetus and can be detected in a blood ...
more infohttps://www.mydr.com.au/tests-investigations/alpha-fetoprotein-afp-tests-in-pregnancy

Alpha-Fetoprotein - UNM Comprehensive Cancer CenterAlpha-Fetoprotein - UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center

Alpha-Fetoprotein. By Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein normally produced by a fetus. Levels of AFP are usually undetectable in ...
more infohttp://cancer.unm.edu/2015/03/30/alpha-fetoprotein/

Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) in Blood - Adventist HealthCareAlpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) in Blood - Adventist HealthCare

Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) in Blood. Test Overview. An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant ... Alpha-fetoprotein in blood. Men and nonpregnant women:. 0-40 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or micrograms per liter (mcg/L) ... An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant womans blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver ... In a nonpregnant adult, alpha-fetoprotein is not normally present.. AFP test results can be abnormal, even when nothing is ...
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alpha-fetoprotein | Tabers Medical Dictionaryalpha-fetoprotein | Taber's Medical Dictionary

alpha-fetoprotein answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... alpha-fetoprotein is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Alpha-fetoprotein." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline ... Tabers-Dictionary/731393/all/alpha_fetoprotein. Alpha-fetoprotein. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. ...
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Spina Bifida Workup: Approach Considerations, Urine Studies, Alpha-Fetoprotein and AcetylcholinesteraseSpina Bifida Workup: Approach Considerations, Urine Studies, Alpha-Fetoprotein and Acetylcholinesterase

Alpha-Fetoprotein and Acetylcholinesterase. Estimation of maternal serum AFP has been used since the late 1970s. Blood samples ... The fetal presence of an open neural tube defect is marked by an elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in the amniotic fluid. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/311113-workup

The presence of fatty acids in human alpha-fetoprotein.The presence of fatty acids in human alpha-fetoprotein.

alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, ... alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, ... The possible role of the fatty acids in alpha-fetoprotein on the inhibition of various lymphocyte functions is projected.. ... Removal of fatty acids by treatment with charcoal converted alpha-fetoprotein into material with an isoelectric point of pH 5.3 ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/presence-fatty-acids-in-human/75886.html

How do you read an abnormal alpha-fetoprotein number chart? | Reference.comHow do you read an abnormal alpha-fetoprotein number chart? | Reference.com

A chart of alpha-fetoprotein test results shows the probability that an abnormal finding indicates the fetus has trisomy 21 or ... What is the normal range for an alpha-fetoprotein test?. A: Alpha-fetoprotein levels should be less than 6 nanograms per ... A chart of alpha-fetoprotein test results shows the probability that an abnormal finding indicates the fetus has trisomy 21 or ... The alpha-fetoprotein test results are converted into a measure called the multiple of the median, which takes into account the ...
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Alpha-Fetoprotein Test facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Alpha-Fetoprotein TestAlpha-Fetoprotein Test facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Alpha-Fetoprotein Test

Make research projects and school reports about Alpha-Fetoprotein Test easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Alpha-Fetoprotein Test at Encyclopedia.com. ... Alpha-fetoprotein test. Definition. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP ... Alpha-Fetoprotein Test. Definition. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test is a blood test that is performed during pregnancy. This ... Alpha-fetoprotein is a substance produced by the liver of a fetus, by tumors of the liver, by testes and ovaries, and by ...
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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of MassachusettsAlpha-fetoprotein (AFP) - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of AFP in the mothers blood. Abnormal levels may indicate ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). What is an alpha-fetoprotein screening (AFP)?. Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that checks ... How is an alpha-fetoprotein test done?. In most cases, an alpha-fetoprotein test is done this way:. * Blood is usually taken ... the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers blood during pregnancy. AFP is a protein normally made by the babys liver. It ...
more infohttp://www.ahealthyme.com/Library/DiseasesConditions/Adult/Digestive/90,P02426

anti-Alpha fetoprotein / AFP antibody  | GeneTexanti-Alpha fetoprotein / AFP antibody | GeneTex

... alpha-fetoprotein) for IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Anti-Alpha fetoprotein / AFP pAb (GTX29372) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance ... alpha-fetoprotein. Background. Alpha 1 Fetoprotein is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during ... Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha- ... The level of alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid is used to measure renal loss of protein to screen for spina bifida and ...
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NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). What is an alpha-fetoprotein screening (AFP)?. Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that ... How is an alpha-fetoprotein test performed?. Although the specific details of each procedure vary slightly, generally, an alpha ... What are the risks and benefits of alpha-fetoprotein screening?. Risks. Benefits. ... measures the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers blood during pregnancy. AFP is a protein normally produced by the fetal ...
more infohttp://www.nyhq.org/diw/Content.asp?PageID=DIW002426

Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid) - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of MassachusettsAlpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid) - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid). Does this test have other names?. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein, AFAFP test ... When a developing baby has open neural tube defect, it often causes a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). ...
more infohttp://www.ahealthyme.com/Library/DiseasesConditions/Adult/NervousSystem/167,alpha_fetoprotein_amniotic_fluid

Diagnostic values of alpha-fetoprotein, dickkopf-1, and osteopontin for hepatocellular carcinoma.  - PubMed - NCBIDiagnostic values of alpha-fetoprotein, dickkopf-1, and osteopontin for hepatocellular carcinoma. - PubMed - NCBI

Diagnostic values of alpha-fetoprotein, dickkopf-1, and osteopontin for hepatocellular carcinoma.. Ge T1, Shen Q, Wang N, Zhang ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker for diagnosis of HCC, but the low sensitivity and specificity limits ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25652109?access_num=25652109&link_type=MED&dopt=Abstract
  • An equation (y = 38.734x4 - 18.467x3 + 7.8647x2 + 78.551x) was derived from the standard curve and used to calculate Alpha-fetoprotein concentrations shown in Table 1. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • An elevation of the Alpha fetoprotein test should alert your doctor that there may be an increased risk of genetic abnormalities such as down's syndrome in the baby. (healthtap.com)