Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).N-Terminal Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Protein PrecursorsRadioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.

Application of ELISA for assessment of antiserum immunoreactivity in endocrine immunocytochemical studies. (1/6)

An indirect method of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described to assess the reactivity of antisera used for the identification of peptide hormone producing cells by immunocytochemistry. Compared with radioimmunoassay and immunodiffusion, the ELISA method has the advantages of simplicity and sensitivity and represents with the hormone adsorbed to a matrix a situation more or less comparable to that in tissue sections. It is concluded that specificity testing of antisera applied in endocrine immunocytochemical studies can best be achieved by application of the ELISA method in combination with appropriate tissue controls.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of alpha-endorphin and gamma-endorphin from single human pituitary glands. (2/6)

alpha-Endorphin and gamma-endorphin, two closely related peptides of the pro-opiomelanocortin family with characteristic biological activities, were purified to homogeneity from single human pituitary glands and chemically identified. Isolation of the peptides was based on size fractionation by Sephadex G-75 chromatography followed by two HPLC steps using reverse-phase and paired-ion reverse-phase systems and was monitored by radioimmunoassay. During the isolation procedure alpha- and gamma-endorphin-sized material behaved chromatographically and immunologically indistinguishably from synthetic alpha- and gamma-endorphin. The amino acid composition and NH2-terminus of isolated peptides demonstrated their identity as authentic alpha-endorphin and gamma-endorphin. Acetylated forms were absent. In addition, evidence is provided that large forms with alpha- and gamma-endorphin immunoreactivity detected during gel filtration are human lipotropin-(1-74) and -(1-75), respectively. The data substantiate that alpha-endorphin and gamma-endorphin exist as endogenous peptides in the human pituitary gland.  (+info)

Enhancement of murine bone marrow macrophage differentiation by beta-endorphin. (3/6)

The present study was performed to investigate the effect of beta-endorphin on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced differentiation of macrophages from bone marrow cells in a semisolid culture system. beta-endorphin increased the number of macrophage colonies when bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of M-CSF plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This was not the case with LPS-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mouse bone marrow cells. alpha-endorphin and gamma-endorphin were as effective as beta-endorphin in enhancing the colony formation. Exogenous interleukin-1 (IL-1), but neither IL-6 nor tumor necrosis factor (TNF), collaborated with beta-endorphin even in the absence of LPS, suggesting that IL-1 is a primary mediator of the effect of LPS. Indeed, anti-IL-1 antibody abolished the collaborative effect of beta-endorphin with LPS. Moreover, IL-1 was effective even for C3H/HeJ mouse bone marrow cells. Naloxone, an antagonist of endorphins for opioid-receptors, completely abrogated the effect of beta-endorphin. In a single-cell culture system, the collaboration between beta-endorphin and IL-1 was revealed by the increase in number and size of macrophage colonies, but collaboration between beta-endorphin and LPS did not occur. These results indicate that, in mixed cell culture, beta-endorphin acts in concert with paracrinal IL-1 induced by LPS to enhance M-CSF-dependent macrophage differentiation from immature precursor cells.  (+info)

Mimics of the binding sites of opioid receptors obtained by molecular imprinting of enkephalin and morphine. (4/6)

Molecular imprinting of morphine and the endogenous neuropeptide [Leu5]enkephalin (Leu-enkephalin) in methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymers is described. Such molecular imprints possess the capacity to mimic the binding activity of opioid receptors. The recognition properties of the resultant imprints were analyzed by radioactive ligand binding analysis. We demonstrate that imprinted polymers also show high binding affinity and selectivity in aqueous buffers. This is a major breakthrough for molecular imprinting technology, since the binding reaction occurs under conditions relevant to biological systems. The antimorphine imprints showed high binding affinity for morphine, with Kd values as low as 10(-7) M, and levels of selectivity similar to those of antibodies. Preparation of imprints against Leu-enkephalin was greatly facilitated by the use of the anilide derivative rather than the free peptide as the print molecule, due to improved solubility in the polymerization mixture. Free Leu-enkephalin was efficiently recognized by this polymer (Kd values as low as 10(-7) M were observed). Four tetra- and pentapeptides, with unrelated amino acid sequences, were not bound. The imprints showed only weak affinity for two D-amino acid-containing analogues of Leu-enkephalin. Enantioselective recognition of the L-enantiomer of phenylalanylglycine anilide, a truncated analogue of the N-terminal end of enkephalin, was observed.  (+info)

High-efficiency synthesis of human alpha-endorphin and magainin in the erythrocytes of transgenic mice: a production system for therapeutic peptides. (5/6)

Chemical synthesis of peptides, though feasible, is hindered by considerations of cost, purity, and efficiency of synthesizing longer chains. Here we describe a transgenic system for producing peptides of therapeutic interest as fusion proteins at low cost and high purity. Transgenic hemoglobin expression technology using the locus control region was employed to produce fusion hemoglobins in the erythrocytes of mice. The fusion hemoglobin contains the desired peptides as an extension at the C end of human alpha-globin. A protein cleavage site is inserted between the C end of the alpha-globin chain and the N-terminal residue of the desired peptide. The peptide is recovered after cleavage of the fusion protein with enzymes that recognize this cleavage signal as their substrate. Due to the selective compartmentalization of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes, purification of the fusion hemoglobin is easy and efficient. Because of its compact and highly ordered structure, the internal sites of hemoglobin are resistant to protease digestion and the desired peptide is efficiently released and recovered. The applicability of this approach was established by producing a 16-mer alpha-endorphin peptide and a 26-mer magainin peptide in transgenic mice. Transgenic animals and their progeny expressing these fusion proteins remain health, even when the fusion protein is expressed at > 25% of the total hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. Additional applications and potential improvements of this methodology are discussed.  (+info)

Specific cleavage of amino side chains of serine and threonine in peptides and proteins with S-ethyltrifluorothioacetate vapor. (6/6)

A vapor of S-ethyltrifluorothioacetate was found to specifically cleave the amino side of serine and threonine peptide bonds. The cleavage reactions were carried out at 50 degrees C for 6 h-24 h or at 30 degrees C for 24 h. When vapors were generated in a solution containing several conventional organic solvents, the cleavage reactions were reduced or stopped, or modification took place. When the reagent vapor was made in an aqueous solution, the cleavage reaction at glycine residues was enhanced. This reagent did not oxidize any amino acid residues, such as methionine, cysteine and tryptophan. The cleavage was also effective on proteins on membranes blotted or electroblotted from polyacrylamide gels. This method therefore may be used for the peptide mass fingerprinting [Patterson, S. D. (1995) Electrophoresis 16, 1104-1114] after two-dimensional electrophoresis.  (+info)

*Proopiomelanocortin

... β-Endorphin [Met]Enkephalin Although the N-terminal 5 amino acids of β-endorphin are identical to the sequence of [Met] ... "Entrez Gene: POMC proopiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotropin/ beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta- ... β-Endorphin and [Met]enkephalin are endogenous opioid peptides with widespread actions in the brain. The POMC gene is located ... These include several distinct melanotropins, lipotropins, and endorphins that are contained within the adrenocorticotrophin ...

*Alpha-Endorphin

Endorphin E Hazum; KJ Chang; P Cuatrecasas (1979-09-07). "Specific nonopiate receptors for beta-endorphin". Science. 205 (4410 ... α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide with a length of 16 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence: Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met- ...

*Opioid peptide

... and synthesis of alpha-endorphin and gamma-endorphin, two peptides of hypothalamic-hypophysial origin with morphinomimetic ... The POMC gene codes for endogenous opioids such as β-endorphin and γ-endorphin. The human gene for the enkephalins was isolated ... Such peptides may be produced by the body itself, for example endorphins. The effects of these peptides vary, but they all ... Comments: β-Endorphin is the highest potency endogenous ligand ... Morphine occurs endogenously [117].. ... Principal ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.641)

... endorphins MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.241.030 -- alpha-endorphin MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.241.080 -- beta-endorphin MeSH D12.776. ... alpha-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.460.075 -- beta-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.460.115 -- gamma-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.180 -- ... 641.650.575.241.360 -- gamma-endorphin MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.281 -- enkephalins MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.281.075 -- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... alpha-endorphin MeSH D12.644.400.575.241.080 --- beta-endorphin MeSH D12.644.400.575.241.360 --- gamma-endorphin MeSH D12.644. ... alpha-endorphin MeSH D12.644.468.241.080 --- beta-endorphin MeSH D12.644.468.241.360 --- gamma-endorphin MeSH D12.644.468.281 ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.644.360.375.100.200 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 MeSH D12.644.360.375.100.400 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gs MeSH D12.644 ...

*Enteroendocrine cell

... alpha and gamma-endorphin. Pancreatic enteroendocrine cells are located in the islets of Langerhans and produce most ... Zverkov, IV; Vinogradov, VA; Smagin, VG (October 1983). "Endorphin-containing cells in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ...

*Peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase

... activity in bovine and rat intermediate pituitaries responsible for the acetylation of beta-endorphin and alpha-melanotropin". ... In enzymology, a peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.88) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA ... O'Donohue TL (1983). "Identification of endorphin acetyltransferase in rat brain and pituitary gland". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (4): ... Other names in common use include beta-endorphin acetyltransferase, peptide acetyltransferase, protein N-terminal ...

*Gene doping

... endorphin, enkephalin and alpha-actinin-3. The risks of gene doping would be similar to those of gene therapy: immune reaction ... Alpha-actinin-3 is found only in skeletal muscle in humans, and has been identified in several genetic studies as having a ... for example pain perception depends on endorphins and enkephalins, response to stress depends on BDNF, and an increase in ...

*Insulin-degrading enzyme

TGF alpha, and β-endorphin. Considerable interest in IDE has been stimulated due to the discovery that IDE can degrade amyloid ...

*Alpha-Neoendorphin

Neoendorphin Kangawa K.; Minamino N.; Chino N (1981). "The complete amino acid sequence of α-neo-endorphin". Biochemical and ...

*Derek George Smyth

... isolation of alpha-N-acetyl peptides. Nature, 272, 252-254. 30. Zakarian, S. and Smyth, D.G. (1982) β-endorphin is processed ... Smyth, D.G., Smith, C.C.F. and Zakarian, S. (1981) Isolation and identification of two new peptides related to β-endorphin. In ... Smyth, D.G., Massey, D.E., Zakarian, S. and Finnie, M.D. (1979) Endorphins are stored in biologically active and inactive forms ... Van Ree, J.M., Smyth, D.G. and Colpaert, F.C. (1979) Dependence creating properties of lipotropin C-Fragment (β-endorphin): ...

*Beta-Endorphin

... producing a 31 amino acid-long neuropeptide with an alpha-helical secondary structure. However, POMC also gives rise to other ... It is one of three endorphins that are produced in humans, the others of which include α-endorphin and γ-endorphin. The amino ... CID 16132316 from PubChem - β-endorphin CID 3081525 from PubChem - β-endorphin (1-9) CID 133304 from PubChem - β-endorphin (2-9 ... β-Endorphin was discovered in camel pituitary extracts by C.H. Li and David Chung. The primary structure of β-endorphin was ...

*Fool Moon (The Dresden Files)

The Alphas: A gang of college-age men and women who have werewolf abilities. Billy Borden: One of the Alphas. Georgia: One of ... spun with a Hollywood sensibility for maximum endorphin rush. No, it isn't great literature. It's great escapism, a pure roller ... Susan evacuates the Alphas, and the Chicago police arrest Marcone on general principle, though Dresden predicts that no charges ... the Alphas. The Streetwolves: A Chicago biker gang of lycanthropes. Detective Rudolph: A new officer at SI. Thomas Wagner, on ...

*Μ-opioid receptor

The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low ... It is an inhibitory G-protein coupled receptor that activates the Gi alpha subunit, inhibiting adenylate cyclase activity, ...

*Cranial electrotherapy stimulation

CES has shown to induce changes in the electroencephalogram, increasing alpha relative power and decreasing relative power in ... substantial increases in beta endorphins, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and serotonin; moderate increases in melatonin and ...

*Pre-Bötzinger complex

They are found within the pre-BötC and act via alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-noradrenergic mechanisms.NE induces ICAN-dependent ... These include norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, substance P, ATP, TRH, somatostatin, dopamine, endorphins, and ...

*List of distinct cell types in the adult human body

Alpha cells (secreting glucagon) Beta cells (secreting insulin and amylin) Delta cells (secreting somatostatin) PP cells (gamma ... cells nonsecreting oxytocin secreting vasopressin Gut and respiratory tract cells secreting serotonin secreting endorphin ...

*Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Alpha-helical CRH-(9-41) acts as a CRH antagonist. CRH is also synthesized by the placenta and seems to determine the duration ... β-endorphin). ACTH stimulates the synthesis of cortisol, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and DHEA. In the short term, CRH ... "Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and beta-endorphin". ...

*Psychoneuroimmunology

... and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) can affect brain growth as well as neuronal function. Circulating immune cells such ... Endorphins from pituitary and adrenal medulla act on immune system. Activity of the immune system is correlated with ... Hafner Mateja, Ihan Alojz (2014). AWAKENING: Psyche in search of the lost Eros - psychoneuroimmunology, Alpha Center d.o.o., ... as well as TNF-alpha and IL-6 through a psychoneuroimmunological process. Antidepressants have also been shown to suppress TH1 ...

*Phencyclidine

Studies on rats indicate that PCP interacts indirectly with opioid receptors (endorphin and enkephalin) to produce analgesia. A ... increased delta decreased alpha) and in the hippocampus (increase theta bursts) that were similar to those in schizophrenia. ...

*The Wire (Star Trek: Deep Space Nine)

Bashir turns the implant off and, robbed of the endorphins it produced, Garak becomes extremely agitated. He explains that Elim ... at TV.com The Wire at Memory Alpha (a Star Trek wiki) The Wire at StarTrek.com. ...

*ARIA Music Awards of 1998

Leyenda Sydney Alpha Ensemble - Elena Kats-Chernin Clocks Best Children's Album The Wiggles - Toot, Toot! The Flower Pot Gang ... White Treble Black Bass Endorphin - Embrace Friendly - Hello Bellybutton Frontside - "Dammerung" / "Mind Distortion" Pee Wee ...

*Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

A number of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha can activate the HPA axis, although IL-1 is the most potent. The ... E/NE will positively feedback to the pituitary and increase the breakdown of POMCs into ACTH and β-endorphins. Release of CRH ... TNF alpha, and IFN gamma) and increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) in immune ... into ACTH and β-endorphins. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (E/NE) are produced by the adrenal medulla through sympathetic ...

*List of opioids

... α-Endorphin β-Endorphin γ-Endorphin α-Neoendorphin β-Neoendorphin Structures DADLE DAMGO Dermenkephalin [56] Met-enkephalin Leu ... 9 alpha-diethyl-2-hydroxybenzomorphan (5,9-DEHB) [28] 8-Carboxamidocyclazocine (8-CAC) Alazocine Anazocine [29] Bremazocine ...

*Luteinizing hormone

In contrast to the alpha gene activity, beta LH subunit gene activity is restricted to the pituitary gonadotropic cells. It is ... Part of the inhibitory action of endorphins on GnRH-1 release is through inhibition of these GABA neurons. Rupture of the ... Each monomeric unit is a glycoprotein molecule; one alpha and one beta subunit make the full, functional protein. Its structure ... The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids in human but 96 amino acids in almost all ...

*Nitrous oxide

Administration of antibodies that bind and block the activity of some endogenous opioids (not β-endorphin) also block the ... alpha]2B adrenoceptors". J. Neurosci. 20 (24): 9242-51. PMID 11125002. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Maze M, ...
An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 16-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from GAMMA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-17 ...
α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide with a length of 16 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence: Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Thr-Ser-Glu-Lys-Ser-Gln-Thr-Pro-Leu-Val-Thr. Endorphin E Hazum; KJ Chang; P Cuatrecasas (1979-09-07). "Specific nonopiate receptors for beta-endorphin". Science. 205 (4410): 1033-1035. doi:10.1126/science.224457 ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Endorphins, alpha-endorphin, beta-endorphin, and gamma-endorphin, are endogenous morphine-like substances with a similar chemical structure and analgesic function as morphine (endorphin is a short term for endogenous morphine). Endorphin is the basis of a diverse system (opioid system) associated with physiological function and pathological disorders. As components of an intrinsic pain suppression system, endorphins are involved in regulating the pathogenesis of pain. Activation of the endorphin system triggers an endogenous analgesia cascade by modulating nociceptive signals within the local circuits, such as in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (the gate control theory of pain), resulting in reducing or inhibiting nociceptive messages forwarded to the somatosensory system. Endorphins, similar to other endogenous opioid peptides, is sensitive to different stress factors. Activation of the opioid system is one of the most effective ways to ...
A sensing interface for specific protein capture was fabricated using a novel molecular imprinting (MIP) process. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) were imprinted on a quartz substrate with modified alkyl groups, and target protein capture was detected using a deep-UV fluorescence image microscope (UVFLIM). The imprinted protein was immobilized to silica beads (diameter: 15 μm) using a phospholipid polymer containing both active ester groups and silane coupling groups, which were used as protein stamps to prepare the imprinting surface. Protein recognition sites were constructed by integrating sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the ligand, which was immobilized with a biocompatible photoreactive phospholipid polymer. When BSA solution was added to the BSA-based MIP substrate, strong fluorescence was observed from the tryptophan residue of BSA. In contrast, for the OVA-based MIP substrate and non-MIP substrate, no fluorescence was observed. The surface showed good selectivity of BSA ...
Influenza virus H5N1, which caused the recent outbreak of avian flu, may have a new enemy. Researchers at the University of Marylands A. James Clark School of Engineering have created a "virus sponge" that could filter a patients blood in a process similar to kidney dialysis, removing the virus from the patients body. The concept could also be used to make vaccine production more efficient and in a pill to reduce glucose levels in diabetics, among other applications. The virus sponge is based on a technology called molecular imprinting. In molecular imprinting, researchers stamp a molecules shape into a substance (in this case, a hydrogel-a material that looks like a powder when dry; and like Jell-O when wet). When the specific molecule filters through the hydrogel, it fits in the imprint hole and is trapped. The research group of Peter Kofinas, a professor in the Clark Schools Fischell Department of Bioengineering, is the first to apply molecular imprinting to the capture of viruses, and ...
γ-Endorphin | Gamma-Endorphinbeta-Lipotropin (61 - 77)4089-v 0.5 mg | 90.00 EURTyr - Gly - Gly - Phe - Met - Thr - Ser - Glu - Lys - ...
The aim of this work is to serve as a guideline for the initial selection of monomer and solvent for the synthesis of the nitrocompound - based molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs. Reported data includes evaluation of six systems with ability to for
Principal Investigator:TAKAGI Makoto, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:一般, Research Field:工業分析化学
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
The turning point of modern immunological theory was the advent of the clonal selection theory (Burnet, Talmage - 1957). A useful heuristic in the classification of theoretical models was the contrast of instructive with selective models of the acquisition of information by biological systems. The neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1940s had consolidated biologists model of evolution based on prior random variation and natural selection, viz. differential fecundity. While evolution in the large was by then pretty well settled, controversy remained about examples of cellular adaptation to chemical challenges, like induced drug-resistance, enzyme formation and the antibody response. While instructive theories have been on the decline, some clear cut examples can be found of molecular imprinting in the abiotic world, leading, e.g. to the production of specific sorbents. Template-driven assembly, as in DNA synthesis, has remained a paradigm of instructive specification. Nevertheless, the ...
The molecular imprinting is a process by which selected functional monomers that self-assemble around a master molecule and polymerize in the presence of a crosslinking agent.
γ-Endorphin is an opioid peptide that is characterized by the presence of 17 amino acids. The first 16 amino acids are identical to α-endorphin with Leucine added at the end. Similar to other endorphins, research focusing upon γ-endorphin has been ongoing since its discovery in the 1970s. Yet, most of the information about the substances exact role within the body is speculation that has yet to be proven. Some studies have indicated, however, that the polypeptide has antipsychotic effects on a certain category of patients suffering from schizophrenia, while others suggest that gamma-endorphin may act to help regulate blood pressure. Further research is needed, but if γ-endorphin does indeed possess such characteristics, the substance could eventually be utilized as a useful means of medical treatment. "Molecular Expressions: Images from the Microscope". Micro.magnet.fsu.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-25 ...
Molecular imprinting is a promising technique for the preparation of synthetic polymers of predetermined specificity. Function monomers are copolymerized with crosslinkers in the desired molecule, the imprinted molecule. Molecular imprinted polymers have been applied in an increasing number of fields including Separation, antibody and ceptor binding mimics, catalysis and artificial enzymes, biosensor-like devices. Besides, some problems and future research topics of this technique are discussed.
Novel analyte-responsive inverse-opal hydrogels (IOHs) based on molecular imprinting technology were fabricated to generate a highly selective and sensitive device for the colorimetric detection of tetracycline (TC). The TC-responsive IOHs were constructed by packing periodic silica-air arrays and then photo
Abstract: Molecular imprinting is an important tool for generating synthetic receptors with specific recognition sites. The resulting artificial receptor has been extensively used in areas that require molecular recognition. Nevertheless, various imprinted materials synthesized using conventional imprinting protocols have low binding capacities and slow binding kinetics because of difficulty in extracting the original templates and high resistance to mass transfer. The combination of molecular imprinting and nanostructured materials is expected to overcome such difficulties. In this work, template molecules were attached onto the electrospun fibers and by using electrospun nanofibers and attached molecules as sacrificial templates, surface molecularly imprinted membranes with bi-, tri- or tetramodal pore structures were fabricated in the absence or presence of SiO2 nanoparticles in the molecular imprinting precursor. As a demonstration, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hemoglobin from bovine blood ...
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen that is an important cell surface marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This protein is present on leukemic cells of pre-B phenotype, which represent 85% of cases of ALL. This protein is not restricted to leukemic cells, however, and is found on a variety of normal tissues. It is a glycoprotein that is particularly abundant in kidney, where it is present on the brush border of proximal tubules and on glomerular epithelium. The protein is a neutral endopeptidase that cleaves peptides at the amino side of hydrophobic residues and inactivates several peptide hormones including glucagon, enkephalins, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, and bradykinin. This gene, which encodes a 100-kD type II transmembrane glycoprotein, exists in a single copy of greater than 45 kb. The 5' untranslated region of this gene is ...
article{7ad62f97-b07f-4eb0-a3bf-db956a1e18d1, abstract = {The technique of molecular imprinting allows the formation of specific recognition sites in synthetic polymers through the use of templates or imprint molecules. These recognition sites mimic the binding sites of antibodies and other biological receptor molecules. Molecularly imprinted polymers can therefore be used in applications relying on specific molecular binding events. The stability, ease of preparation and low cost of these materials make them particularly attractive. This review focuses on recent developments and advances in the field of molecularly imprinted materials, with special emphasis on applications in immunoassays and sensors recently developed by our group and by others.}, author = {Haupt, Karsten Olaf}, issn = {1364-548X}, language = {eng}, number = {2}, pages = {171--178}, publisher = {Royal Society of Chemistry}, series = {Chemical Communications}, title = {Imprinted polymers - Tailor-made mimics of antibodies and ...
The molecular imprinting techniques have been extensively studied for molecular recognition and their potential applications to separation and catalysis. The traditional imprinting method uses the crosslinking polymerization in the presence of a substrate molecule followed by grinding the bulk system to microparticles with an irregular shape. In addition, the imprinting is restricted to a hydrophobic substrate because the polymerization reaction is usually done in the organic solvent using hydrophobic monomers. In this case, the irregular shape and microparticle size might be a concern for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) application as a biosensor. In this study, we investigated a well-defined nanosphere with a core-shell structure for molecular imprinting. The hydrophilic substrates including D-glucose (D-Glu) or L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) were imprinted on the surface (shell) of nanosphere and their binding behavior were investigated. Their enantiomer (L-Glu or D-Phe) binding behavior to the ...
Receptors generated by natural evolution in living organisms show an astonishing capacity for specifically recognizing target molecules. If applied as recognition units of biosensors, these receptors provide very high selectivity. However, they suffer from instability under measurement conditions, and low durability. Devising alternative robust artificial receptors circumvents these deficiencies. For instance, an antibody can be successfully replaced by a corresponding molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), sometimes called a plastic antibody. Therefore, MIPs used as recognition units in chemical sensors are gaining increasing interest. In this review, we survey selected examples of MIPs used for determining target bioanalytes by mimicking natural recognition. For scientists working with biosensors, MIPs might be considered as alternatives to natural receptors, such as antibodies, enzymes, or histones.
Cooperative binding is commonly observed in biological receptor systems. This study investigates whether it is possible to prepare nano-sized molecularly imprinted polymers (nanoMIPs) that show cooperative binding. NanoMIPs which exhibit cooperative binding would have increased affinity for immobilised template molecules making them useful for advanced applications in diagnostics and sensors. The use of a templatederivatised solid support provides a facile route to prepare nanoMIPs with surface imprints, and the method is ideally suited to study this topic. Although not observed during the course of this study, positive interbinding site cooperativity was hypothesised by way of an increase in the number of binding sites imprinted on the nanoMIPs, by increasing template density on the solid support surface. After synthesis, the affinity of nanoMIPs was analysed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Under the conditions investigated, a ten fold increase in binding affinity was measured ...
Molecular imprinting is a technique used for the construction of synthetic polymers containing binding sites which have a high and selective affinity for a target molecule. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be used in sensors, to bind an analyte and then generate a signal, or in competitive binding assays, where an analyte and a probe molecule compete for .binding to a limited number of binding sites. (MIPs) are often termed antibody mimics, although clear advantages of MIPs are apparent when they are used in place of antibodies. MIPs are more stable and robust, inexpensive to produce and can be stored dry at room temperature for substantial periods of time. The development of MIP technologies is also desirable because their production does not require the sacrifice of animals, which is necessary for the generation of antibodies. Methods which could be employed to assess the binding of an analyte to a MIP directly in solution without needing to separate the polymer from solution have ...
An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such
The monomers trifluoromethacrylic acid (TFMAA), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and itaconic acid (IA) have been compared for the molecular imprinting of (−)-ephedrine. Data from NMR titrations were fitted using the program HypNMR to obtain association constants for monomer-template (M-T) complexes of diff
A technique for the removal of sphenoid blocks from cadavers and for selective injection of the hypophyseal arteries of these specimens is described. Results of such injections are presented, with emphasis on the role of the inferior hypophyseal arte
LVV-hemorphin 6: from human pituitary gland; opioid active peptide fragment of hemoglobin which corresponds to the sequence position 32-40 of the beta chain of human hemoglobin
A new series of phosphonyl derivatives has been prepared and tested for inhibition of serine (classes A and C) beta-lactamases. The results were compared with those previously acquired with aryl phosphonate monoesters and with alkaline hydrolysis rates. A methyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate monoanion was markedly poorer as an inhibitor of the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 than a comparable p-nitrophenyl phosphonate. Phosphonyl fluorides, thiophenyl esters, N-phenylphosphonamidates and a p-nitrophenyl thionophosphonate were, in general, comparable with p-nitrophenyl phosphonates in inhibitory power. The incorporation of a specific amino side chain led to an increase in the rates of inhibition of around 10(4)-fold. Apparently unresponsive to the addition of the side chain to the enzyme was N-phenyl methylphosphonamidate, where binding of the side chain may interfere with access of the leaving group to a proton which is necessary to active-site phosphonylation and inhibition. ...
With great sadness, we inform our colleagues and the scientific community of the decease of Prof. Dr. Denise P. Barlow. Denise died on October 21, 2017 at the age of 67 after severe illness in the company of friends. Denise Barlow was one of the most accomplished geneticists ever to operate in Austria and one of the most inspiring epigeneticists in Europe. Denise Barlow is one of the few researchers who could claim not only to have discovered a fundamental regulatory principle of eukaryotic gene expression, molecular imprinting, but to actually have elucidated the underlying mechanism.. In 1991, the Barlow group discovered the first mammalian imprinted gene (Igf2r) and since then, has worked relentlessly to uncover many fascinating details of the imprinting mechanism. As a result, imprinting of the Igf2r gene has acted as a model of epigenetic regulation in mammals. Her laboratory has shown that an unusual and very long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a macro ncRNA, induces imprinted gene expression. ...
Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting technology, are robust molecular recognition elements able to mimic natural recognition entities, such as antibodies and biological receptors, useful to separate and analyze complicated samples such as biological fluids and environmental samples. The scope of this review is to provide a general overview on MIPs field discussing first general aspects in MIP preparation and then dealing with various application aspects. This review aims to outline the molecularly imprinted process and present a summary of principal application fields of molecularly imprinted polymers, focusing on chemical sensing, separation science, drug delivery and catalysis. Some significant aspects about preparation and
During the period of 19th May till 21st June, M.Sc. Marcin D browski visited the Institute of Molecular Sciences of the University of Bordeaux 1. His five-week research secondment to the Research Group of Analytical Nanosystems, headed by professor Alexander Kuhn, of this Institute was supported by the Work Package 3, Chemo- and biosensors - molecular imprinting, within twinning agreement between the University of Bordeaux 1 and the Institute of Physical Chemistry PAS. The research interest of the Research Group of Analytical Nanosystems involves, i.a., preparation and characterization of electrodes of controlled porosity. Within our collaboration, we combine successful results of both groups to devise and fabricate improved chemosensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers. A broad knowledge and research experience in preparation of porous materials of the French partner with experimental approach developed in the Laboratory of Molecular Films of IPC PAS were exploited. The main goal of the ...
Abstract: A highly selective imprinted sorbent was prepared by a surface molecular imprinting technique, and used for solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC) to determine trace norfloxacin (NOF) in complicated samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was obtained by using NOF as the template, β-cyclodextrin-methyl methacrylate (β-CD-MMA) and acrylamide (AM) as functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linking agent and toluene as the porogen. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the polymer have been evaluated to optimize the selective preconcentration of the NOF from fish samples. The NOF from fish samples, selectively extracted by MIP, was detected by RP-HPLC. The MISPE-HPLC method showed high selectivity and good recoveries (>85.7%). It was demonstrated that this MISPE-HPLC method could be applied for direct preconcentration and determination of quinolones in real ...
Human pituitary gland releases HGH each 3 to 5 hours at a rate of 1 to 25ng/ml. Highest HGH production levels, though, happen an hour after we fall asleep.
Definition of LIA in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is LIA? Meaning of LIA as a legal term. What does LIA mean in law?
Purpose: : Molecular imprinting has been used to prolong drug release in drug delivery applications. Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been shown to decrease lysozyme sorption and improve wettability in model contact lenses when used as an internal wetting agent. It was of interest to investigate the release of imprinted HA to determine if imprinting prolonged HA release and if this released HA decreased lysozyme sorption. Methods: : Model conventional (pHEMA) and silicone (pHEMA/TRIS) hydrogels were synthesized. HA was added to the reaction mixture prior to UV polymerization. The release of HA into PBS was measured using UV Spectroscopy at 280 nm. Throughout the release, hydrogels were removed from PBS, dried and then incubated with radiolabeled lysozyme for 2 hrs (pHEMA) and 24 hrs (pHEMA/TRIS) to determine if the released HA could decrease sorption. Results: : HA (35 and 910 kDa) was released from pHEMA hydrogels for 14 days. The lysozyme sorption ranged from 5.26 ± 0.32 to 13.49 ± 0.77 µg for 35 ...
In chapter 3, "The Sense of Sensibility," author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
Somatropin is a polypeptide hormone consisting of 191 amino acid residues and its structure is identical to that of growth hormone extracted from human pituitary glands.The clinical efficacy of SEROSTIM (somatropin for injection) was assessed in a short term metabolic study and two placebo-controlled Phase III clinical trials.Patients completing 12 weeks of treatment were eligible to receive open-label SEROSTIM therapy.

Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary...Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary...

Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) ... Opioid beta-endorphin differentially modulated the actions of CRH, as NAc beta-end, but not alpha-MSH, release was inhibited. ... Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary ... and this correlates with the variability in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end responses in vivo. Relative rates of alpha-MSH and NAc ...
more infohttp://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/32849

endorphins - Biology-Onlineendorphins - Biology-Online

If you are referring to things like alpha- or beta-endorphin, that has little to do with the structure of the endorphins. These ... The endorphins or enkephalins are small peptides. I wouldnt expect much secondary or tertiary structure to be present. The one ... There once was the thought that an amphipathic helix was required for a particular endorphin to be active, but I havent heard ... im doing a project on endorphins and have had a lot of trouble finding specific information on the levels of molecular ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?p=103043

Beta-endorphin financial definition of beta-endorphinBeta-endorphin financial definition of beta-endorphin

What is beta-endorphin? Meaning of beta-endorphin as a finance term. What does beta-endorphin mean in finance? ... Definition of beta-endorphin in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... See also alpha, capital-asset pricing model, characteristic line, portfolio beta.. Beta.. Beta is a measure of an investments ... As beta-endorphin levels rose, so did the mices ability to withstand pain.. Sunbathing may boost endorphins in the body and ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/beta-endorphin

Antinociceptive Response to Nitrous Oxide Is Mediated by Supraspinal Opiate and Spinal α2Adrenergic Receptors in the Rat |...Antinociceptive Response to Nitrous Oxide Is Mediated by Supraspinal Opiate and Spinal α2Adrenergic Receptors in the Rat |...

... nor the endorphin [5,6] findings could be corroborated. Subsequent studies revealed that N2O increased beta-endorphin ... The alpha2adrenoceptors in this spinal site are strategically placed to act as a final common pathway in the antinociceptive ... However, other investigators could not corroborate the findings in [Met5]enkephalin [4] or in the endorphins. [5,6] "Cross- ... In the current study, we investigated the role of opiate and alpha2adrenoceptors, at both spinal and supraspinal sites, in the ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1948522

DopamineDopamine

Endorphins: Endorphins can make you feel good, reduce your anxiety and your sensitivity to pain. Endorphins are released by ... In addition, abnormal clumps called Lewy bodies, which contain the protein alpha-synuclein, are found in many brain cells of ... Posted in Health Care, Medical Advice, Medical News, Medical Video , Tagged childbirth, Dopamine, endorphins, ENDORPHINS: ... Scientists believe that endorphins and pain are connected because the body releases endorphins to help combat the effects of ...
more infohttp://www.mdadvice.com/blog/tag/dopamine/

Alpha-Endorphin - WikipediaAlpha-Endorphin - Wikipedia

Endorphin E Hazum; KJ Chang; P Cuatrecasas (1979-09-07). "Specific nonopiate receptors for beta-endorphin". Science. 205 (4410 ... α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide with a length of 16 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence: Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-Endorphin

Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Endorphins - alpha-EndorphinMolecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Endorphins - alpha-Endorphin

Researchers have been investigating alpha-endorphin since the 1970s, but are still not sure exactly how the polypeptide works ... alpha-Endorphin. Researchers have been investigating alpha-endorphin since the 1970s, but are still not sure exactly how the ... It is known, however, that alpha-endorphin contains 16 amino acids, only one less than gamma-endorphin, from which it may be ... Studies have yet to reveal the exact nature of these changes, but some scientists have suggested that alpha-endorphin may ...
more infohttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/endorphin/endorph1.html

alpha-Endorphin | CTDalpha-Endorphin | CTD

alpha-Endorphin 4.. Chemicals ← Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ← Peptides ← Neuropeptides ← Opioid Peptides ← Endorphins ... alpha-Endorphin 6.. Chemicals ← Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ← Peptides ← Peptide Hormones ← Pituitary Hormones ← ... alpha-Endorphin 5.. Chemicals ← Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ← Peptides ← Peptide Hormones ← Hypothalamic Hormones ← Pro ... alpha-Endorphin 3.. Chemicals ← Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ← Peptides ← Neuropeptides ← Hypothalamic Hormones ← Pro- ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D018822

Gentaur Molecular :Assaypro \ alpha Endorphin antibody Species  Human Format  IgG Host  Rabbit Polyclonal antibody \ 10741-05011Gentaur Molecular :Assaypro \ alpha Endorphin antibody Species Human Format IgG Host Rabbit Polyclonal antibody \ 10741-05011

... alpha_Endorphin antibody Species Human Format IgG Host Rabbit Polyclonal antibody \ 10741-05011 for more molecular products ... Protein kinase B alpha) (PKB alpha) (Proto-oncogene c-Akt) (RAC-PK-alpha). [Thra C-erba-alpha Nr1a1] Thyroid hormone receptor ... Endorphin antibody Species Human Format IgG Host Rabbit Polyclonal antibody. Related products : alpha_Endorphin antibody ... Endorphin antibody Species Human Format IgG Host Rabbit Polyclonal antibody / Product Detail : 10741-05011 alpha_Endorphin ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=1056298&supplier=search&name=alpha_Endorphin%20antibody%20Species%20%20Human%20Format%20%20IgG%20Host%20%20Rabbit%20Polyclonal%20antibody

Neuroactive Amino Acids | SCBT - Santa Cruz BiotechnologyNeuroactive Amino Acids | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology

alpha-Endorphin. An endogenous opioid peptide. 59004-96-5. sc-391797. sc-391797A. 1 mg. 5 mg. $74.00. $169.00. 0. ...
more infohttps://www.scbt.com/pt/browse/Neuroactive-Amino-Acids/_/N-112mc5s

Amphipathic glycopeptides - The Arizona Board of Regents on Behalf of the University of ArizonaAmphipathic glycopeptides - The Arizona Board of Regents on Behalf of the University of Arizona

Alpha-Helical Glycopeptide Analgesics: Beta-Endorphin Mimics with Good in vivo Potency. Peptides: The Wave of the Future. ... It was shown some time ago that the C-terminal region of β-endorphin has an amphipathic α-helical structure that plays a role ... beta-Endorphin. Y-G-G-F-M-T-S-Q-T-P-L-V-T-T-L- ... beta-neo-Endorphin. Y-G-G-F-L-R-K-Y-P. ... In another embodiment, the glycopeptide is a glycosylated endorphin.. The glycopeptide may have the N-terminal sequence Y-a-G-F ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/7803764.html

Opioid peptide - WikipediaOpioid peptide - Wikipedia

... and synthesis of alpha-endorphin and gamma-endorphin, two peptides of hypothalamic-hypophysial origin with morphinomimetic ... The POMC gene codes for endogenous opioids such as β-endorphin and γ-endorphin. The human gene for the enkephalins was isolated ... Such peptides may be produced by the body itself, for example endorphins. The effects of these peptides vary, but they all ... Comments: β-Endorphin is the highest potency endogenous ligand ... Morphine occurs endogenously [117].. ... Principal ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opioid_peptide

Opioid peptide - WikipediaOpioid peptide - Wikipedia

... and synthesis of alpha-endorphin and gamma-endorphin, two peptides of hypothalamic-hypophysial origin with morphinomimetic ... β-Endorphin. YGGFMTSEKSQTPLVTLFKNAIIKNAYKKGE. μ-opioid receptor†‡, δ-opioid receptor†. [8][9][10][7]. ... α-Endorphin. YGGFMTSEKSQTPLVT. μ-opioid receptor, unknown affinity for other opioid receptors. [8]. ... γ-Endorphin. YGGFMTSEKSQTPLVTL. μ-opioid receptor, unknown affinity for other opioid receptors. [8]. ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opioid_peptide

Anti-gamma Endorphin antibody (Biotin) | AbcamAnti-gamma Endorphin antibody (Biotin) | Abcam

Anti-gamma Endorphin antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for IP, ELISA, RIA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... only one more than alpha-endorphin. Similar to other endorphins, research focusing upon gamma-endorphin has been ongoing since ... Gamma-endorphin is a polypeptide that is characterized by the presence of 17 amino acids, ... while others suggest that gamma-endorphin may act to help regulate blood pressure. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/gamma-endorphin-antibody-biotin-ab48250.html

The Medical Benefits of Taraweeh PrayersThe Medical Benefits of Taraweeh Prayers

Endorphins are categorised as alpha-endorphin, beta-endorphin, and gamma-endorphin which produce pharmacologic effects similar ... Beta-endorphin found in the brain and GI(gastro-intestinal) tract is the most potent of the endorphins and is a powerful ... For example during childbirth many women release endorphins reducing a womans sensation of pain. The release of endorphins is ... Endorphins are any one of the neuropeptides composed of many amino acids, elaborated by the pituitary gland and acting on the ...
more infohttp://irfi.org/articles/articles_1_50/medical_benefits_of_taraweeh_prayers.htm

SIRP alpha Antibody | AbbiotecSIRP alpha Antibody | Abbiotec

Acetyl Alpha-Endorphin Peptide 350458 $83.00 Lysate Products. Product Name Applications SKU Price ... SIRP alpha ; SHPS-1; SIRPa; Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type substrate 1; SHP substrate 1; Brain Ig-like molecule ... KLH-conjugated synthetic peptide encompassing a sequence within the C-term region of human SIRP alpha. ... 253304 binds to SIRP alpha 1, 2 and 3. E: 1:500-1:1,000; WB: 1:100-1:500; ICC: 1:100-1:500 ...
more infohttp://abbiotec.com/antibodies/sirp-alpha-antibody

TAG: Anatomology | Buy Telephoto ShopTAG: Anatomology | Buy Telephoto Shop

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N-Acetyl-α-Endorphin | Peptide | MedChemExpressN-Acetyl-α-Endorphin | Peptide | MedChemExpress

α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol. ... N-Acetyl-α-Endorphin is an acetylated α-Endorphin at N-terminal. ... N-Acetyl-α-Endorphin is an acetylated α-Endorphin at N-terminal. α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide. ... N-Acetyl-α-Endorphin is an acetylated α-Endorphin at N-terminal. α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide. ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/n-acetyl-alpha-endorphin.html

Publication : USDA ARSPublication : USDA ARS

Technical Abstract: Endorphins, alpha-endorphin, beta-endorphin, and gamma-endorphin, are endogenous morphine-like substances ... In addition, endogenous endorphins act within the brain to mediate reproductive function. Endorphins inhibit the release of ... Activation of the endorphin system triggers an endogenous analgesia cascade by modulating nociceptive signals within the local ... Endorphins, similar to other endogenous opioid peptides, is sensitive to different stress factors. Activation of the opioid ...
more infohttps://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=165521

Stomach Histology Week 1 Flashcards by Diana Padilla | BrainscapeStomach Histology Week 1 Flashcards by Diana Padilla | Brainscape

alpha and gamma endorphin 47 What do the ELCs D cells secrete? G cells?. What are the actions of these substances? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/stomach-histology-week-1-5654041/packs/8571607

Endorphins - Doctor answersEndorphins - Doctor answers

What are endorphins? Endorphins. Endorphins are among the brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters, which function to ... At least 20 types of endorphins have been demonstrated in humans. Endorphins can be found in the pituitary gland, in other ... Α, β, γ, σ endorphin: Alpha endorphins * beta endorphins * gamma endorphins * sigma endorphins * are created in the human body ... Endorphins (Overview) Endorphins are endogenous opioid peptides that function as neurotransmitters. They are produced by the ...
more infohttps://www.healthtap.com/topics/endorphins

Peptides | AbbiotecPeptides | Abbiotec

Alpha-Endorphin Peptide Hormones 1 mg $75.00 350458 Acetyl Alpha-Endorphin Peptide Hormones 1 mg $83.00 ...
more infohttps://www.abbiotec.com/peptides?populate=Endorphin&field_protein_family_tid=All

Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics & You - Olympus MIC-D: Polarized Light Gallery - Gamma-EndorphinMolecular Expressions: Science, Optics & You - Olympus MIC-D: Polarized Light Gallery - Gamma-Endorphin

... alpha-endorphin, a polypeptide with 16 residues or amino acids; beta-endorphin, a polypeptide with 31 residues; gamma-endorphin ... a polypeptide with 17 residues; and sigma-endorphin, a polypeptide with 27 residues. The name endorphin, coined by Choh Li of ... View a second image of a gamma-endorphin.. Early in the 1970s, several small peptides were isolated that appeared to possess ... but exacerbation of the shock condition when beta-endorphin is injected. Endorphin research suggests a link between the ...
more infohttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/olympusmicd/galleries/polarized/gammaendorphin2.html

Plus itPlus it

1987) Pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides (ACTH/beta-endorphin/alpha-MSH) in brainstem baroreceptor areas of the rat. Brain ... 1992) Evidence that beta-endorphin is synthesized in cells in the nucleus tractus solitarius: detection of POMC mRNA. Brain Res ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/19/4957
  • hello, i'm doing a project on endorphins and have had a lot of trouble finding specific information on the levels of molecular structure (primary, secondary etc..) even when i've narrowed down my searches to specific alpha-,beta-,gamma- queries, i've been unable to find anything. (biology-online.org)
  • Melanotropes were in a high or low responsive state to CRH in vitro, which was especially evident when tissue was tested from fish kept at higher ambient water temperatures, and this correlates with the variability in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end responses in vivo. (ru.nl)
  • Relative rates of alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end release following stimulation with CRH in vitro match plasma level changes in vivo, and this indicates that the CRH pathway does act in vivo. (ru.nl)
  • Endorphins, a class of neurohormones, act by modifying the way in which nerve cells respond to transmitters and are associated with feelings of pain and pleasure. (fsu.edu)
  • Specifically, getting a "runner's high" or a "second wind" or the blissful feelings one gets after sex are related to increased endorphin production. (whatscookingamerica.net)
  • As components of an intrinsic pain suppression system, endorphins are involved in regulating the pathogenesis of pain. (usda.gov)
  • Activation of the endorphin system triggers an endogenous analgesia cascade by modulating nociceptive signals within the local circuits, such as in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (the gate control theory of pain), resulting in reducing or inhibiting nociceptive messages forwarded to the somatosensory system. (usda.gov)
  • Endorphins are released with any pain irrespective of severity. (healthtap.com)
  • From Real Women Eat Chiles, "The overall benefit of endorphin production is its reduction of the ravaging effects of stress, pain, suppression of hunger, increased memory, and a sense of well-being. (whatscookingamerica.net)
  • Is it possible to create endorphins and then give them to humans or animals, either for medical or research purposes? (healthtap.com)
  • Endorphin research suggests a link between the emotional state of well-being and the immune system's health. (fsu.edu)
  • What releases endorphins in the body? (healthtap.com)
  • The placebo effect is also attributed to endorphin and enkephalin releases, explaining the emotional component of receiving a sugar pill. (fsu.edu)
  • Since eating chiles is one of the consumable ways of producing endorphin reactions, why not find your very own way to unfold this pleasure source? (whatscookingamerica.net)