Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides. (1/352)

Positively charged antimicrobial peptides with membrane-damaging activity are produced by animals and humans as components of their innate immunity against bacterial infections and also by many bacteria to inhibit competing microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus xylosus, which tolerate high concentrations of several antimicrobial peptides, were mutagenized to identify genes responsible for this insensitivity. Several mutants with increased sensitivity were obtained, which exhibited an altered structure of teichoic acids, major components of the Gram-positive cell wall. The mutant teichoic acids lacked D-alanine, as a result of which the cells carried an increased negative surface charge. The mutant cells bound fewer anionic, but more positively charged proteins. They were sensitive to human defensin HNP1-3, animal-derived protegrins, tachyplesins, and magainin II, and to the bacteria-derived peptides gallidermin and nisin. The mutated genes shared sequence similarity with the dlt genes involved in the transfer of D-alanine into teichoic acids from other Gram-positive bacteria. Wild-type strains bearing additional copies of the dlt operon produced teichoic acids with higher amounts of D-alanine esters, bound cationic proteins less effectively and were less sensitive to antimicrobial peptides. We propose a role of the D-alanine-esterified teichoic acids which occur in many pathogenic bacteria in the protection against human and animal defense systems.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial activities of platelet microbicidal protein and neutrophil defensin against Staphylococcus aureus are influenced by antibiotics differing in mechanism of action. (2/352)

Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein-1 (tPMP-1) and human neutrophil defensin-1 (HNP-1) are small, cationic antimicrobial peptides. These peptides exert potent in vitro microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Evidence suggests that tPMP-1 and HNP-1 target and disrupt the bacterial membrane. However, it is not yet clear whether membrane disruption itself is sufficient to kill the bacterium or whether subsequent, presumably intracellular, events are also involved in killing. We investigated the staphylocidal activities of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 in the presence or absence of pretreatment with antibiotics that differ in their mechanisms of action. The staphylocidal effects of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 on control cells (no antibiotic pretreatment) were rapid and concentration dependent. Pretreatment of S. aureus with either penicillin or vancomycin (bacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitors) significantly enhanced the anti-S. aureus effects of tPMP-1 compared with the effects against the respective control cells over the entire tPMP-1 concentration range tested (P < 0.05). Similarly, S. aureus cells pretreated with these antibiotics were more susceptible to HNP-1 than control cells, although the difference in the effects against cells that received penicillin pretreatment did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.05 for cells that received vancomycin pretreatment versus effects against control cells). Studies with isogenic pairs of strains with normal or deficient autolytic enzyme activities demonstrated that enhancement of S. aureus killing by cationic peptides and cell wall-active agents could not be ascribed to a predominant role of autolytic enzyme activation. Pretreatment of S. aureus cells with tetracycline, a 30S ribosomal subunit inhibitor, significantly decreased the staphylocidal effect of tPMP-1 over a wide peptide concentration range (0.16 to 1.25 microgram/ml) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, pretreatment with novobiocin (an inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase subunit B) and with azithromycin, quinupristin, or dalfopristin (50S ribosomal subunit protein synthesis inhibitors) essentially blocked the S. aureus killing resulting from exposure to tPMP-1 or HNP-1 at most concentrations compared with the effects against the respective control cells (P < 0.05 for a tPMP-1 concentration range of 0.31 to 1.25 microgram/ml and for an HNP-1 concentration range of 6.25 to 50 microgram/ml). These findings suggest that tPMP-1 and HNP-1 exert anti-S. aureus activities through mechanisms involving both the cell membrane and intracellular targets.  (+info)

Neutrophil defensins induce histamine secretion from mast cells: mechanisms of action. (3/352)

Defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides stored in neutrophil granules. Here we report that a panel of defensins from human, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit neutrophils all have histamine-releasing activity, degranulating rat peritoneal mast cells with EC50 ranging from 70 to 2500 nM, and between 45 and 60% of the total histamine released. The EC50 for defensin-induced histamine secretion correlates with their net basic charge at neutral pH. There is no correlation between histamine release and antimicrobial potency. Degranulation induced by defensins has characteristics similar to those of activation by substance P. The maximum percent histamine release is achieved in <10 s, and it can be markedly inhibited by pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml) and by pretreatment of mast cells with neuraminidase. These properties differ from those for degranulation induced by IgE-dependent Ag stimulation and by the calcium ionophore A23187. GTPase activity, a measure of G protein activation, was induced in a membrane fraction from mast cells following treatment with defensin. Thus, neutrophil defensins are potent mast cell secretagogues that act in a manner similar to substance P and 48/80, through a rapid G protein-dependent response that is mechanistically distinct from Ag/IgE-dependent mast cell activation. Defensins may provide important pathways for communication between neutrophils and mast cells in defenses against microbial agents and in acute inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Isolation, characterization, cDNA cloning, and antimicrobial properties of two distinct subfamilies of alpha-defensins from rhesus macaque leukocytes. (4/352)

Experiments to isolate and characterize rhesus macaque myeloid alpha-defensins (RMADs) were conducted. Seven RMAD peptides were isolated and sequenced, and the cDNAs encoding six of these peptides and one other alpha-defensin from bone marrow were also characterized. Four of the RMADs were found to be highly similar to human neutrophil alpha-defensins HNP-1 to HNP-3, while the remaining four peptides were much more similar to human enteric alpha-defensin HD-5. Two alpha-defensin pairs differed only by the presence or absence of an additional arginine at the amino termini of their mature peptides, indicative of alternate posttranslational processing. The primary translation products of RMAD-1 to -8 are 94- and 96-amino-acid prepropeptides that are highly similar to those of human alpha-defensins. Immunolocalization experiments revealed a granular cytoplasmic pattern in the cytoplasms of neutrophils, indistinguishable from the pattern observed after immunostaining of human myeloid alpha-defensins in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Each of the purified peptides was tested for its in vitro activities against Staphylococcus aureus 502a, Listeria monocytogenes EGD, Escherichia coli ML35, and Cryptococcus neoformans 271A. Several of the peptides were microbicidal for the gram-positive bacteria and C. neoformans at defensin concentrations in the range of 2 to 5 microM. All of the peptides were bacteriostatic against E. coli, but none were bactericidal for this organism. This study is the first to characterize the sequences and activities of alpha-defensins from nonhuman primates, data that should aid in delineating the role of these peptides in rhesus macaque host defense.  (+info)

Protective immunity against Streptococcus mutans infection in mice after intranasal immunization with the glucan-binding region of S. mutans glucosyltransferase. (5/352)

Here we present the construction and characterization of a chimeric vaccine protein combining the glucan-binding domain (GLU) of the gtfB-encoded water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing glucosyltransferase enzyme (GTF-I) from Streptococcus mutans and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, which increases the solubility of coexpressed recombinant proteins and stimulates proliferation of murine T cells. The protective potential of intranasal (i.n.) immunization with this chimeric immunogen was compared to that of the GLU polypeptide alone in a mouse infection model. Both immunogens were able to induce statistically significant mucosal (salivary and vaginal) and serum responses (P < 0.01) which were sustained to the end of the study (experimental day 100). Following infection with S. mutans, sham-immunized mice maintained high levels of this cariogenic organism ( approximately 60% of the total oral streptococci) for at least 5 weeks. In contrast, animals immunized with the thioredoxin-GLU chimeric protein (Thio-GLU) showed significant reduction (>85%) in S. mutans colonization after 3 weeks (P < 0.05). The animals immunized with GLU alone required 5 weeks to demonstrate significant reduction (>50%) of S. mutans infection (P < 0.05). Evaluation of dental caries activity at the end of the study showed that mice immunized with either Thio-GLU or GLU had significantly fewer carious lesions in the buccal enamel or dentinal surfaces than the sham-immunized animals (P < 0.01). The protective effects against S. mutans colonization and caries activity following i.n. immunization with GLU or Thio-GLU are attributed to the induced salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) anti-GLU responses. Although in general Thio-GLU was not significantly better than GLU alone in stimulating salivary IgA responses and in protection against dental caries, the finding that the GLU polypeptide alone, in the absence of any immunoenhancing agents, is protective against disease offers a promising and safe strategy for the development of a vaccine against caries.  (+info)

Imaging of bacterial infections with 99mTc-labeled human neutrophil peptide-1. (6/352)

This study was undertaken to evaluate whether 99mTc-labeled human neutrophil peptide (HNP)-1 can be used as a tracer for rapid visualization of bacterial infections. METHODS: Mice were injected intramuscularly with 1 million Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae organisms and 5 min later were injected intravenously with 0.4 microg (0.8 MBq) 99mTc-HNP-1. At various intervals, detailed information about clearance and accumulation of this tracer at sites of infection and in various organs was obtained by scintigraphy. 99mTc-labeled immunoglobulin G (IgG), an established marker of infection and inflammation, was used for comparison. RESULTS: After injection into S. aureus- or K. pneumoniae-injected mice, 99mTC-HNP-1 was rapidly removed from the circulation, mainly through the kidneys and bladder, with half-lives of 170 and 55 min, respectively. Similar half-lives were observed for 99mTc-IgG in these animals. Visualization of foci with S. aureus or K. pneumoniae, as indicated by a ratio of 1.3 or higher between the targeted thigh muscle (containing bacteria) and the nontargeted (contralateral) thigh muscle (T/NT), was already achieved 5 min after injection of 99mTc-HNP-1. Similar T/NTs for 99mTc-IgG were obtained 4 h after injection of the tracer, indicating that imaging of foci of bacteria with 99mTc-HNP-1 is much faster than with 99mTc-IgG. To obtain insight into factors that contribute to accumulation of 99mTc-HNP-1 at sites of infection, the binding of this tracer to bacteria and leukocytes was assessed using a peritoneal infection model. Binding of 99mTC-HNP-1 to bacteria was approximately 1000 times higher than binding to leukocytes. Although the number of bacteria in the peritoneum was 1000-fold lower than the number of leukocytes, a significant correlation between binding of 99mTc-HNP-1 to bacteria on the one hand and accumulation of tracer on the other was still found, in contrast to 99mTc-IgG. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-HNP-1 allows rapid visualization of bacterial infections. Binding of this tracer to bacteria most likely contributes significantly to the accumulation of 99mTc-HNP-1 at sites of infection.  (+info)

Engineered salt-insensitive alpha-defensins with end-to-end circularized structures. (7/352)

We designed a retro-isomer and seven circularized "beta-tile" peptide analogs of a typical rabbit alpha-defensin, NP-1. The analogs retained defensin-like architecture after the characteristic end-to-end, Cys(3,31) (C I:C VI), alpha-defensin disulfide bond was replaced by a backbone peptide bond. The retro-isomer of NP-1 was as active as the parent compound, suggesting that overall topology and amphipathicity governed its antimicrobial activity. A beta-tile design with or without a single cross-bracing disulfide bond sufficed for antimicrobial activity, and some of the analogs retained activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in NaCl concentrations that rendered NP-1 inactive. The new molecules had clustered positive charges resembling those in protegrins and tachyplesins, but were less cytotoxic. Such simplified alpha-defensin analogs minimize problems encountered during the oxidative folding of three-disulfide defensins. In addition, they are readily accessible to a novel thia zip cyclization procedure applicable to large unprotected peptide precursors of 31 amino acids in aqueous solutions. Collectively, these findings provide new and improved methodology to create salt-insensitive defensin-like peptides for application against bacterial diseases.  (+info)

Role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein site in transcription of human neutrophil peptide-1 and -3 defensin genes. (8/352)

The human neutrophil defensins (human neutrophil peptides (HNPs)), major components of azurophilic granules, contribute to innate and acquired host immunities through their potent antimicrobial activities and ability to activate T cells. Despite being encoded by nearly identical genes, HNP-1 is more abundant in the granules than HNP-3. We investigated the regulation of HNP-1 and HNP-3 expression at the transcriptional level using a promyelocytic HL-60 cell line. Luciferase analysis showed that transcriptional levels of HNP-1 and HNP-3 promoters were equivalent and that an approximately 200-bp region identical between promoters was sufficient for transcriptional activity. Furthermore, overlapping CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and c-Myb sites in the region were found to be required for efficient transcription. Gel mobility shift assay demonstrated that C/EBPalpha predominantly bound to the C/EBP/c-Myb sites using HL-60 nuclear extracts. No specific binding to C/EBP/c-Myb sites was observed in nuclear extracts from mature neutrophils, which expressed neither C/EBPalpha protein nor HNP mRNAs. Taken together, these findings suggest that the difference in the amounts of HNP-1 and HNP-3 peptides in neutrophils is caused by posttranscriptional regulation and that C/EBPalpha plays an important role in the transcription of HNP genes in immature myeloid cells.  (+info)

*DEFB106A

... alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 106 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB106A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB106A defensin, beta 106A". Xin A (Jan 2014). "Soluble fusion expression, characterization and localization of ... Kao CY, Chen Y, Zhao YH, Wu R (2003). "ORFeome-based search of airway epithelial cell-specific novel human [beta]-defensin ...

*Beta defensin

The fact that alpha and theta defensins are absence in older vertebrates, like birds and fishes, indicates that defensins must ... Defensin α-defensin β-defensin θ-defensin Lingual antimicrobial peptide White SH, Wimley WC, Selsted ME (August 1995). " ... Liu L, Zhao C, Heng HH, Ganz T (August 1997). "The human beta-defensin-1 and alpha-defensins are encoded by adjacent genes: two ... The β-defensins found in insects were actually more similar to the origin of defensins compared to α-defensins found in ...

*Alpha defensin

Alpha defensins are a family of mammalian defensin peptides. Defensins are 2-6 kDa, cationic, microbicidal peptides active ... Alpha defensins of the mouse bowel were historically called cryptdins when first discovered. Initially human alpha defensin ... Defensin α-defensin β-defensin θ-defensin Cryptdin Hill CP, Yee J, Selsted ME, Eisenberg D (March 1991). "Crystal structure of ... mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta categories. Alpha-defensins, which have been identified in humans ...

*Defensin, alpha 1

... also known as human alpha defensin 1, human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP-1) or neutrophil defensin 1 is a human ... Human alpha defensin 1 belongs to the alpha defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. Defensins are a family of microbicidal ... Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 1, is found in ... "Entrez Gene: DEFA1 defensin, alpha 1". Valore EV, Ganz T (Mar 15, 1992). "Posttranslational processing of defensins in immature ...

*DEFA4

Defensin, alpha 4 (DEFA4), also known as neutrophil defensin 4 or HNP4, is a human defensin peptide that is encoded by the ... Several human alpha defensin genes including HNP4 are clustered on chromosome 8. DEFA4 differs from other defensin genes by an ... 2007). "Alpha-defensins block the early steps of HIV-1 infection: interference with the binding of gp120 to CD4". Blood. 109 (7 ... 2004). "Synthesis and characterization of human alpha-defensins 4-6". J Pept Res. 64 (3): 118-25. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3011.2004. ...

*DEFA5

Defensin, alpha 5 (DEFA5) also known as human alpha defensin 5 (HD5) is a human protein that is encoded by the DEFA5 gene. ... Several of the human alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, ... 2004). "Synthesis and characterization of human alpha-defensins 4-6". J Pept Res. 64 (3): 118-25. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3011.2004. ... 2006). "Crystal structures of human alpha-defensins HNP4, HD5, and HD6". Protein Sci. 15 (12): 2749-60. doi:10.1110/ps. ...

*DEFA6

Defensin, alpha 6 (DEFA6) also known as human alpha defensin 6 (HD6) is a human protein that is encoded by the DEFA6 gene. ... DEFA6 defensin, alpha 6, Paneth cell-specific (Homo sapiens)". Jones DE, Bevins CL (January 1993). "Defensin-6 mRNA in human ... The alpha defensins are a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides that defend the host against bacteria and viruses. HD6 ... Several alpha defensin genes, including DEFA6, are clustered on chromosome 8. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164822 - ...

*Virtual colony count

Xie C, Zeng P, Ericksen B, Wu Z, Lu WY, Lu W (2005). "Effects of the terminal charges in human neutrophil alpha-defensin 2 on ... Wu Z, Li X, de Leeuw E, Ericksen B, Lu W (2005). "Why is the Arg5-Glu13 salt bridge conserved in mammalian alpha-defensins?". J ... The initial virtual colony count study measured the activity of all six human alpha defensins concurrently on the same 96-well ... Zou G, de Leeuw E, Lubkowski J, Lu W (2008). "Molecular determinants for the interaction of human neutrophil alpha defensin 1 ...

*Cryptdin

"Interactions of mouse Paneth cell alpha-defensins and alpha-defensin precursors with membranes. Prosegment inhibition of ... Defensin α-defensin β-defensin θ-defensin Ouellette AJ (1997). "Paneth cells and innate immunity in the crypt microenvironment ... Cryptdins are mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily that are produced within the mouse small bowel. The word is a ... Like other alpha-defensins, cryptdins are small, 32-36 amino acid long cationic peptides. They possess 6 conserved cysteines ...

*Paneth cell

The principal defense molecules secreted by Paneth cells are alpha-defensins, which are known as cryptdins in mice. These ... Ayabe T, Satchell D, Wilson C, Parks W, Selsted M, Ouellette A (2000). "Secretion of microbicidal alpha-defensins by intestinal ... In addition to defensins, Paneth cells secrete lysozyme, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and phospholipase A2.[citation needed] ... "Regulation of intestinal alpha-defensin activation by the metalloproteinase matrilysin in innate host defense". Science. 286 ( ...

*DEFA1B

Defensin, alpha 1B a human protein that is encoded by the DEFA1B gene. defensin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000240247 - ... Aldred PM, Hollox EJ, Armour JA (2005). "Copy number polymorphism and expression level variation of the human alpha-defensin ... 2009). "Helicobacter pylori induces the release of alpha-defensin by human granulocytes". Inflamm. Res. 58 (5): 241-7. doi: ... Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: defensin". Kocsis AK, Ocsovszky I, Tiszlavicz L, et al. ( ...

*Defensin

The alpha defensin peptides are increased in chronic inflammatory conditions. Alpha defensin are increased in several cancers, ... A reduction of ileal defensins may predispose to Crohn's disease. In one small study, a significant increase in alpha defensin ... The authors suggested that alpha-defensin levels might prove a useful marker for schizophrenia risk. Defensins are found in the ... Theta defensins form a single beta hairpin structure and therefore also represent a distinct group. Only alpha and beta ...

*Theta defensin

θ-defensins are extremely divergent members of the defensin protein superfamily which includes alpha-, beta- and big-defensins ... Defensin α-defensin β-defensin Cyclic peptide Conibear AC, Craik DJ (26 September 2014). "The chemistry and biology of theta ... The θ-defensins appear to have evolved from α-defensin genes around 40 million years ago in Old World monkeys. The genes were ... Theta-defensins (θ-defensins or retrocyclins) are a family of mammalian antimicrobial peptides. They are found in non-human ' ...

*FCGR3B

Tanaka S, Edberg JC, Chatham W, Fassina G, Kimberly RP (Dec 2003). "Fc gamma RIIIb allele-sensitive release of alpha-defensins ...

*Lipid II

... interacts with human alpha defensins, a class of antimicrobial peptides, such as Defensin, alpha 1. The latter has ... including the common food preservative nisin Teixobactin Copsin Human alpha defensins The D-Ala-D-Ala terminus is used by ... 2013). "Turning defense into offense: defensin mimetics as novel antibiotics targeting lipid II". PLoS Pathog. 9 (11): e1003732 ...

*DEFA3

Defensin, alpha 3 (DEFA3) also known as human alpha defensin 3, human neutrophil peptide 3 (HNP-3) or neutrophil defensin 3 is ... Human alpha defensin 3 belongs to the alpha defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. Defensins are a family of microbicidal ... Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 3, is found in ... Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. This gene differs from defensin, alpha 1 by only one amino acid. ...

*Cathelicidin

"The human antimicrobial and chemotactic peptides LL-37 and alpha-defensins are expressed by specific lymphocyte and monocyte ... The AMP family also includes the defensins. Whilst the defensins share common structural features, cathelicidin-related ... "Cathelicidin family of antibacterial peptides CAP18 and CAP11 inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha by blocking the binding of ... "Epithelial cell-derived antibacterial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin: multifunctional activities on mast cells ...

*CCR5

Cutler CW, Jotwani R (2006). "Oral mucosal expression of HIV-1 receptors, co-receptors, and alpha-defensins: tableau of ... Whiteheart SW, Shenbagamurthi P, Chen L, Cotter RJ, Hart GW (Aug 1989). "Murine elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is ... Brands JH, Maassen JA, van Hemert FJ, Amons R, Möller W (Feb 1986). "The primary structure of the alpha subunit of human ... Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...

*DEFB104A

... alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 104 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB104A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... Boniotto M, Ventura M, Eskdale J, Crovella S, Gallagher G (2005). "Evidence for duplication of the human defensin gene DEFB4 in ... Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: ...

*DEFB105A

... alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 105 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB105A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB105A defensin, beta 105A". Patil AA, Cai Y, Sang Y, et al. (2006). "Cross-species analysis of the mammalian ... Semple CA, Rolfe M, Dorin JR (May 2003). "Duplication and selection in the evolution of primate beta-defensin genes". Genome ...

*Defensin, beta 1

Liu L, Zhao C, Heng HH, Ganz T (1997). "The human beta-defensin-1 and alpha-defensins are encoded by adjacent genes: two ... This gene maps in close proximity to defensin family member defensin, alpha 1, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ... Beta-defensin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB1 gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic ... Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 1, an antimicrobial ...

*List of antimicrobial peptides in the female reproductive tract

Defensins alpha-Defensins beta-Defensins theta-defensins Cathelicidins LL-37 Whey acid proteins SLPI Elafin HE-4 Lysozyme S100 ... C-type lectins SP-A SP-D Iron metabolism proteins Lactoferrin Kinocidins CCL20/Mip-3-alpha Defensins Database, Singapore Innate ... Defensins from insects and plants and scorpion toxins Defensins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ... Vertebrate defensins and related sea anemone sodium channel toxins UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/ ...

*Ileum

... are only found at the bottom of the intestinal glands and release antimicrobial substances such as alpha defensins and lysozyme ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D12.644.050.200 --- defensins MeSH D12.644.050.200.050 --- alpha defensins MeSH D12.644.050.200. ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.644.360.375.100.200 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 MeSH D12.644.360.375.100.400 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gs MeSH D12.644 ... alpha-msh MeSH D12.644.400.460.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D12.644.400.460.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D12.644.400.465 --- msh release- ...

*HD5

Human Alpha Defensin 5, the DEFA5 gene product HD5, as a television channel, may refer to HD5 of MediaCorp TV in Singapore HD5 ...

*Anticancer gene

Brevinin-2R is a short anti-microbial peptide of only 25 amino acids, a so-called non-hemolytic defensin, isolated from the ... Mol Cell Biol 22, 41-56 Svensson, M., Hakansson, A., Mossberg, A.K., Linse, S. & Svanborg, C. Conversion of alpha-lactalbumin ...
Human neutrophil peptide-2/AFI99287077 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Researchers: Findings about innate peptide may offer new avenue of research for combating HIV, other viruses. Human defensins, aptly named antimicrobial peptides, are made in immune system cells and epithelial cells (such as skin cells and cells that line the gut). One of these peptides, human neutrophil peptide 1, under certain circumstances hinders HIV infection, but exactly how it works remains unclear.. HIV entry into mature T-helper cells (cells essential to the immune system) proceeds by attachment of the virus to specific targets on T-helper cells, uptake of the virus, fusion of its envelope with the cell membranes, and release of the virus into the cells. In a forthcoming Journal of Biological Chemistry Paper of the Week, Gregory Melikyan at Emory University and colleagues investigated the ability of human neutrophil peptide 1 to impede each step of this process.. Using model cell lines, Melikyans group showed that human neutrophil peptide 1 effectively prevented HIV entry into cells in ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kazunari Ibusuki, Toshio Sakiyama, Shuji Kanmura, Takuro Maeda, Yuji Iwashita, Yuichiro Nasu, Fumisato Sasaki, Hiroki Taguchi, Shinichi Hashimoto, Masatsugu Numata, Hirofumi Uto, Hirohito Tsubouchi, Akio Ido].
A team of researchers led by UC Davis Health System has found that human alpha-defensin 6 (HD6) - a key component of the bodys innate defense system - binds to microbial surfaces and forms nanonets that surround, entangle and disable microbes, preventing bacteria from attaching to or invading intestinal cells.
Background The majority of patients diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the jaw have severe complaints. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis still remains unclear. Human ß-defensins expressed in epithelial and bone tissues as a part of the innate immunity may be involved in disease development. In this study, we hypothesize that expression levels of human ß-defensin-1 and -2 in the acute and secondary chronic osteomyelitis may be altered in comparison with healthy bone and with bisphosphonate-associated necrosis as well as irradiation from a previous study.. Method Bone samples were collected during surgical debridement in a total of eight patients suffering from acute or secondary chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw. Expression levels of hBD-1 and -2 were quantified and related to non-stained cells. Ratios were compared by one-way ANOVA and multiple tests by Holm-Bonferroni.. Results Multiple testing revealed no significant differences for expression levels of human ß-defensin-1 between all groups, ...
Inflammation is a vital physiological process that protects our bodies from harmful foreign organisms and inorganic substances, but in excess, it can lead to many pathological complications. One of its main functions is to provide phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, easy access to the site of infection or injury, ultimately disabling the pathogens ability to invade and establish colonies. It does this by stimulating macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that attract phagocytic cells and initiate their activity. In the article, "Neutrophil-derived alpha defensins control inflammation by inhibiting macrophage mRNA translation" the authors found that HNP1 (Human Neutrophil Peptide 1) released from dying neutrophils actually inhibits translation of proteins within macrophages, in turn reducing the amount of cytokines that they secrete and slowing the process of inflammation. In the study "Defensins and cathelicidins: Neutrophil peptides with roles in inflammation, hyperlipidemia and ...
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inproceedings{393960, author = {Bogaert, Sara and Peeters, Harald and Laukens, Debby and De Vos, Martine}, booktitle = {GASTROENTEROLOGY}, issn = {0016-5085}, language = {eng}, location = {Oostende, Belgium}, pages = {A556--A556}, title = {Disturbed expression of alpha-defensins and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in neutrophils of Crohns disease patients}, volume = {132}, year = {2007 ...
Moreover the human α-Defensin human neutrophil peptide 1 was revealed to show anti-HIV activity. HNP-one inhibits the binding of the virus to its coreceptor , the endocytosis of the virus into the target cell as well as the release of the HIV-genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. Even so HNP-one did not inhibit the endocytosis of Influenza A virus displaying some selectivity of the AMPs in their tropism. These final results evidently demonstrate that defensins not only screen antimicrobial activity but in addition are lively from viruses as nicely.Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein belongs to the class of AMPs. In distinction to the over mentioned defensins BPI owing to the 55 kDa molecular measurement of the protein is structurally significantly a lot more intricate than the peptides, which are in the selection of 3-five kDa. The BPI protein loved ones contains of far more than ten associates but only BPI alone displays a powerful antimicrobial exercise. BPI functions ...
Responding to a test challenge: I clearly stated that "The ciliary epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides like beta-defensins." On page 6 it states that "the Primary granules in neutrophils contain myeloperoxidase enzyme, lysozyme and alpha-defensins." The statement indicating that neutrophils produce alpha-defensins is again reiterated in the same page. I appreciate the fact that you did a literature search and found an article from 1995 demonstrating defensin production from macrophages. This is an outdated report. There are more than 292 research articles reporting the production of alpha-defensins by neutrophils. I have pasted the PubMed link below. The challenge is denied. ...
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Surgery increases the risk of thrombosis but prevention and management of thromboembolic disease in the perioperative period is complicated by the risk of hemor...
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As components of the innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides in the form of human defensins play an important role in host defense by serving as the epithelial layers biochemical barrier against local infections. Recent studies have shown these molecules to have far more additional cellular functions besides their antimicrobial activity. Defensins play a role in cell division, attraction and maturation of immune cells, differentiation and reorganization of epithelial tissues, wound healing and tumor suppression. This multitude of function makes human defensins appear to be excellent tools for therapeutic approaches. These antimicrobial peptides may be used directly as a remedy against bacterial and viral infections. Furthermore, the application of human defensins can be used to promote wound healing and epithelial reorganization. In particular, human β-defensins have a strong impact on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Human β-defensins have already been applied as a vaccination
Antimicrobial polypeptides such as the defensins kill a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and tumor cells. Because of the recent finding that intestinal defensins, also known as cryptdins, are synthesized by the Paneth cells of the small intestinal crypts and released into the lumen, we asked whether defensins and other small cationic antimicrobial peptides could kill the trophozoites of Giardia lamblia, which colonize the small intestine. Four mouse cryptdins, two neutrophil defensins (HNP-1 [human] and NP-2 [rabbit]), and the unique tryptophan-rich bovine neutrophil polypeptide indolicidin each had some antigiardial activity against trophozoites in vitro. Cryptdins 2 and 3, indolicidin, and NP-2 each reduced viability by more than 3 log units in 2 h, and killing by all peptides was dose and time dependent. Exposure of trophozoites to peptides frequently resulted in cell aggregation and dramatic changes in morphology. The mechanism of binding and lysis appeared to ...
A method of diagnosing a urinary tract infection in a subject is described. The method includes obtaining a urine sample from the subject; determining the level of human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and/or human neutrophil peptides (HNP)1-3 in the urine sample and comparing it to a corresponding control value; and diagnosing the subject as having a urinary tract infection if the level of HD5 and/or HNP1-3 is greater than the control value. Kits for diagnosing a urinary tract infection in a subject using antibodies specific for HD5 and HNP1-3 are also described.
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Cole was recently awarded about $4 million of National Institutes of Health grants through 2011 for the HIV-1 research and similar studies. The grants were provided through the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.. Cole started his research into theta-defensins at the University of California, Los Angeles, before he moved to UCF in 2003. Drs. Otto Yang and Robert Lehrer, infectious disease specialists at UCLA, and researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Emory University are collaborating with Cole.. There are three classes of defensin peptides, and most research around the world has focused on alpha and beta defensins, the two types that humans still make. Cole studies theta-defensins called retrocyclins, which are no longer made by humans or advanced primates such as chimpanzees. However, theta-defensins are more active against HIV-1 than the other two types of ...
The epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa separate the underlying tissue from components of the intestinal lumen. Innate immunity mediated by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provides rapid protective functions against microorganisms. Innate immunity also participates in orchestrating adaptive immunity. Key components in innate defence are defensins.. To study the production of defensins and how it is affected by intestinal inflammation IECs were isolated from the small and large intestines of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn´s disease (MbC), celiac disease (CD), and from controls, and analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoflow cytometry. Defensin expressing cells were also studied by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.. Normally, only small intestinal Paneth cells express human α-defensin 5 (HD-5) and HD-6. In UC colon IECs, HD-5, HD-6, and lysozyme mRNAs were expressed at high levels. In Crohn´s colitis colon the levels of HD-5 and ...
Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. The α-defensins are distinguished from the β-defensins by the pairing of their three disulfide bonds. To date, six human β-defensins have been identified; BD-1, BD-2, BD-3, BD-4, BD-5 and BD-6. β-defensins are expressed on some leukocytes and at epithelial surfaces. In addition to their direct antimicrobial activities, they can act as chemoattractants towards immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The β-defensin proteins are expressed as the C-terminal portion of precursors and are released by proteolytic cleavage of a signal sequence and in some cases, a propeptide sequence. β-defensins contain a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant human BD-3 is a 5.1 kDa protein containing 45 amino acid residues. ...
Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. The α-defensins are distinguished from the β-defensins by the pairing of their three disulfide bonds. To date, six human β-defensins have been identified; BD-1, BD-2, BD-3, BD-4, BD-5 and BD-6. β-defensins are expressed on some leukocytes and at epithelial surfaces. In addition to their direct antimicrobial activities, they can act as chemoattractants towards immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The β-defensin proteins are expressed as the C-terminal portion of precursors and are released by proteolytic cleavage of a signal sequence and in some cases, a propeptide sequence. β-defensins contain a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant human BD-1 is a 5.0 kDa protein containing 47 amino acid residues. ...
Background: Human defensins are antimicrobial linear peptides with broad anti-microbial activity, organized into two classes, α- and β-defensins. Human β-Defensin 1 (hBD-1) is encoded by the DEFB1 gene located on chromosome 8p23 and functions as an antimicrobial peptide involved in the innate immune response. It is most often expressed in epithelial cells, including those in the large intestines. Previous experiments have shown that hBD-1 exhibits tumor suppressor functions in urothelial and kidney cancer cells. Previous evaluation of germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of DEFB1 demonstrated CRC stage specific effects of rs1800972 and rs179946 in predicting time-to-tumor recurrence in CRC patients. This study examined the cancer specific expression of hBD-1 in CRC compared to normal cells and further evaluated the cellular mechanism associated with the effects of hBD-1 expression in CRC proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis.. Methods: Twenty-two ...
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Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. The alpha-defensins which include NP-1, NP-2 and NP-3, are distinguished from the beta-defensins by the pairing of their three disulfide bonds. In addition to antimicrobial activity, NP-1 exhibits chemotactic activity on dendritic cells. NP-1 is expressed as the C-terminal portion of an inactive precursor protein, which also contains a 19 amino acid N-terminal signal sequence and a 45 amino acid polypeptide. NP-1 contains a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant human NP-1 is a 3.4 kDa protein containing 30 amino acid residues ...
We have designed and chemically synthesized an artificial β-defensin based on a minimal template derived from the comparative analysis of over 80 naturally occurring sequences. This molecule has the disulfide-bridged β-sheet core structure of natural β-defensins and shows a robust salt-sensitive antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast, as well as a chemotactic activity against immature dendritic cells. An SAR (structure-activity relationship) study using two truncated fragments or a Cys→Ser point-mutated analogue, from which one or two of the three disulfide bridges were absent, indicated that altering the structure resulted in a different type of membrane interaction and a switch to different modes of action towards both microbial and host cells, and that covalent dimerization could favour antimicrobial activity. Comparison of the structural, aggregational and biological activities of the artificial defensin with those of three human β-defensins and their primate orthologues ...
Haldanes hypothesis [48] as formulated in 1932 posits that infectious diseases have been a major threat to human populations and have, therefore, exerted strong selective pressures throughout human history. As a result, a number of human loci are thought to have evolved in response to such pressures. Up to now, most evolutionary studies have focused on adaptive immunity, yet the ancient innate immune system, with the production of antimicrobial peptides, provides a critical line of defense in vertebrates [5]. Following Haldanes idea, it is conceivable, therefore, that innate immunity genes have undergone similar selective pressures as their adaptive counterparts. Indeed, in analogy to immunoglobulins [49] and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules [50], the paradigm whereby gene duplication followed by rapid divergence has been a powerful adaptive strategy in immune response genes has been verified for defensin loci [6, 7, 51]. Recent studies [7] demonstrated that, after gene ...
In the second part of my talk, I will outline my current work on human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5-6), small (2-5 kDa) cysteine-rich host-defense peptides, which are key contributors to innate immunity and provides the first line of defense for detection and response to microbial invasion.6 Paneth cells protect the intestinal epithelium against infection and colonization of pathogenic or opportunistic microbes by secreting a mixture of antimicrobial peptides and proteins that includes HD5 and HD6. Although both peptides exhibit a common tertiary structure, they possess unique functional attributes. HD5 has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity in vitro. In contrast, HD6 provides only negligible antimicrobial activity in vitro but forms nanonets-like higher-order oligomeric structures that entrap bacteria in the intestinal lumen in order to prevent invasion. In the oxidized forms, both defensins contain three conserved and regiospecific intramolecular disulfide bonds. We explored the redox properties ...
Complete information for DEFA7P gene (Pseudogene), Defensin Alpha 7, Pseudogene, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Comentários ao post 004 Descrição das características da supernave Intimidator. Ela é a principal nave militar da Frota e sua função principal é proteger o conjunto formado pelas HNPs e o Planetoide, que não podem separar-se. Isso implica em que a SNHA não pode distanciar-se muito da Frota e as diversas missões distantes são executadas…
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We read with interest the article by Cunliffe et al (Gut 2001;48:176-85) on defensin 5 stored in normal Paneth cells and in metaplastic Paneth cells in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).. In recent years a great deal of interest has centred around Paneth cells as carriers of innate host defence, effective through their content of antimicrobial peptides and proteins.1 In humans, that mechanism seems to be conveyed by a complex system of proteins present in the granules of the Paneth cells: lysozyme, secretory phospholipase A, and probably α defensins (that is, cyptidins, so far recorded in mice).. The lysozyme rich granules in Paneth cells appears to be one of the main sources of antimicrobial peptide in the normal small bowel (where Paneth cells are normally present). Although such cells are not found in the normal colorectal mucosa, Paneth cell metaplasia may be present in the colorectal mucosa of some (but not all) patients with longstanding IBD. Demonstration of human neutrophil defensins ...
Human β-defensin (hBD)-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated A549 cells. IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional
Beta defensins are a family of mammalian defensins. The beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonization. Defensins are 2-6 kDa, cationic, microbicidal peptides active against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses, containing three pairs of intramolecular disulfide bonds. On the basis of their size and pattern of disulfide bonding, mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta categories. Every mammalian species explored thus far has beta-defensins. In cows, as many as 13 beta-defensins exist in neutrophils. However, in other species, beta-defensins are more often produced by epithelial cells lining various organs (e.g. the epidermis, bronchial tree and genitourinary tract. Human, rabbit and guinea-pig beta-defensins, as well as human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), induce the activation and degranulation of mast cells, resulting in the release of histamine and prostaglandin D2. ...
Beta-defensin 106 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB106A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 106, DEFB106A and DEFB106B, in head-to-head orientation. This gene, DEFB106A, represents the more centromeric copy. The purified DEFB106 showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186579 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". Schutte BC, Mitros JP, Bartlett JA, Walters JD, Jia HP, Welsh MJ, Casavant TL, McCray PB Jr (Feb 2002). "Discovery of ...
And Garbe, C. (2001) Dermcidin: a novel human antibiotic peptide secreted by sweat glands. Nature Immunology 2, 1133-1137. , Beuerman, R. and Verma, C. (2007) Defensins knowledgebase: a manually curated database and information source focused on the defensins family of antimicrobial peptides. Nucleic Acids Research 35 (Database issue), D265-D268. W. I. (1985) Primary structures of three human neutrophil defensins. Journal of Clinical Investigation 76, 1436-1439. , Peschel, A. and Schittek, B. (2009) Dermcidin-derived peptides show a different mode of action than the cathelicidin LL-37 against Staphylococcus aureus. Insight into the role of LanC was first provided by Meyer et al. (1995) who, while working on the lantibiotic Pep5, showed that with the removal of the pepC gene, the peptide produced contained dehydrated residues but not Lan or meLan bridges. , 2005). Unlike the type I peptides, which are modified by two separate modification enzymes, type II peptides such as lacticin 481 and ...
As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to
Antimicrobial peptides represent the first-line host defence against microbial pathogens and an essential component of innate immunity. They have received growing interest because of their potential use as therapeutic antibiotics. Due to the fact that most antimicrobial peptides are toxic to prokaryotic host cells, they are currently often produced by chemical synthesis. However, this is too costly for them to be used when large quantities of antimicrobial peptides are required for investigations and clinical trials. Thus, the convenience and cost efficiencies of bacterial production of antimicrobial peptides have become a bottleneck problem.. As an important group of antimicrobial peptides human ß-defensins are cationic peptides with 38-47 amino acid residues showing three strands of anti-parallel β-sheets that provide a compact small structure [1,2]. We describe an optimized strategy for recombinant expression of hBD-1 and its mutants in Escherichia coli, to efficiently produce milligram ...
Davison, Glen, Allgrove, Judith and Gleeson, Michael (2009) Salivary antimicrobial peptides (LL-37 and alpha-defensins HNP1-3), antimicrobial and IgA responses to prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106 (2). pp. 277-284. ISSN 1439-6319 (doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1020-y) ...
INTRODUCTION. Defensins and cathelicidins constitute the two major groups of antimicrobial peptides in most mammalian species. The most abundant group of antimicrobial peptides is comprised by the α-, β- and θ-defensins.[alpha, beta, theta (circle w/horizontal line)] Mammalian defensins are endogenous cysteine-rich peptide antibiotics classically produced either by epithelial cells of the respiratory, urogenital and digestive tracts, or by circulating cells including granulocytes and macrophages. More recently, however, β-defensins have also been identified in the heart of different species. BETA-DEFENSINS. β-defensins are small (3.5-4.5 kDa) highly basic cationic peptides. These peptides are ancient and universal molecules of innate immunity with functions extending far beyond simple antibiotics, including anti-tumor and mitogenic activity, as well as immunomodulation and signal transduction characteristics. The overall effectiveness of an innate immunity based host defense is shown by the ...
Diagnosis of implant-related (periprosthetic joint) infections poses a major challenge to infection disease physicians and orthopaedic surgeons. Conventional diagnostic tests continue to suffer from issues of accuracy and feasibility. Biomarkers are used throughout medicine for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as they are able to objectively determine the presence of a disease or a biological state. There is increasing evidence to support the measurement of specific biomarkers in serum and/or synovial fluid of patients with suspected periprosthetic joint infections. Promising serum biomarkers include interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, procalcitonin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and D-dimer. In addition to c-reactive protein and leucocyte esterase, promising biomarkers that can be measured in synovial fluid include antimicrobial proteins such as human β-defensin (HBD)-2 and human β-defensin (HBD)-3, and cathelicidin LL-37, as well as several
Tongue papillae. Rotating fluorescence light microscopy footage of a cross-section through papillae in tissue from a tongue. Fluorescent dyes have been used to highlight tissues, cellular structures and proteins. Proteins highlighted include actin (green) and alpha defensin (red). - Stock Video Clip K004/6260
We participate in the revolution in fluorescence microscopy of biological systems. It is now possible to measure the spatial distribution of proteins and DNA loci with 30-nm precision in live cells and to track their motion in real time. The result is an unprecedented, high resolution view of biological structure and activity. Areas of current interest include: (1) The motion and spatial distribution of GFP-labeled species in live E. coli cells. Species of interest include RNA polymerase, ribosomes, architectural proteins, and specific DNA loci. The transcription/translation machinery (ribosomes, the nucleoid, and RNAP) all exhibit a remarkable level of spatial organization. (2) The time-resolved attack of antimicrobial agents on single bacterial cell membranes. Examples include LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide, and synthetic random copolymers designed by the Gellman group. Simultaneous two-color imaging of the antimicrobial and cytoplasmic or periplasmic GFP yields unprecedented insight ...
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human DEFA3 peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human DEFA3 is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00001668-K) - Products - Abnova
CORR Insights® : How Reliable Is the Alpha-Defensin Immunoassay Test for Diagnosing Periprosthetic Joint Infection? A Prospective ...
beta Defensin 1兔多克隆抗体(ab14421)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
beta Defensin 3兔多克隆抗体(ab19270)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Although, the human epithelium is constantly challenged by a broad spectrum of microorganisms, invasive infections are rather rare. Recent findings suggest the expression of antimicrobial peptides by
Creative Bioarray produces the worlds most comprehensive list of research-use cells, including tumor cells, primary cells, stem cells AND transformed cells. Creative Bioarray offers ActoFactor™ Recombinant Mouse Defensin beta 2 for your research.
Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 4, an antibiotic peptide which is locally regulated by inflammation ...
Specific conditions of the honeybee life honeybee life require the presence of effective mechanisms of antiinfectious protection whose one of the most important components are defensins-the family of
Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was investigated by comparing urinary peptide levels of UTI patients during and after infection to those of controls, as well as characterizing the fecal flora of participants with respect to susceptibility to LL-37 and in vivo virulence. Forty-seven UTI patients and 50 controls who had never had a UTI were included. Participants were otherwise healthy, premenopausal, adult women. LL-37 MIC levels were compared for fecal E. coli clones from patients and controls and were also compared based on phylotypes (A, B1, B2, and D). In vivo virulence was investigated in the murine UTI model by use of selected fecal isolates from patients and controls. On average, UTI patients had significantly more LL-37 in urine during ...
Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD) constitute the two major inflammatory bowel diseases in man. Both are serious chronic illnesses of the intestine with severe debilitating effects. The etiology of the diseases is unknown, but involvement of both adaptive and innate immune reactions seems to be major factors in the pathogenesis. In this thesis the roles of key molecules of the adaptive immunity, i.e. interleukin-2 (IL-2), and innate immunity, i.e. β-defensins, were studied both in human inflammation of the large intestine and in mouse colitis models.. β-defensins are small endogenous peptides with antimicrobial activity. Previous studies showed that expression of human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2), hBD-3, and hBD-4 is induced in colonic epithelial cells of UC patients. Here we demonstrate that cells expressing these three β-defensins are present also in the colonic lamina propria of UC patients and less frequently in CD patients, and controls. These cells were identified as mature ...
The present invention is directed to golf balls having a layer formed from a low modulus HNP composition and a layer formed from a high modulus HNP composition. Golf balls of the present invention have at least three layers, including an inner core layer, an outer core layer, a cover, and optionally an intermediate core layer. The present invention is not limited by which golf ball layers are formed from an HNP composition, so long as at least one layer is formed from a low modulus HNP composition and at least one layer is formed from a high modulus HNP composition. Low modulus HNP compositions of the present invention comprise a highly neutralized acid copolymer having a modulus of from 1,000 psi to 50,000 psi. High modulus HNP compositions of the present invention comprise a highly neutralized acid copolymer having a modulus of from 25,000 psi to 150,000 psi.
Defensins are cationic, cysteine-rich peptides (Mr = 3500-4000) found in the cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and macrophages. These peptides possess broad antimicrobial activity in vitro against bacteria, fungi, tumor cells, and enveloped viruses, and they are believed to contribute to the "oxygen-independent" antimicrobial defenses of neutrophils and macrophages. Pathophysiologic studies in vitro have pointed to the plasma membrane as a possible target for the cytotoxic action of defensins. We report here that defensins form voltage-dependent, weakly anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes, and we suggest that this channel-forming ability contributes to their antimicrobial properties observed in vitro.. ...
Human β−defensins (HBD) are effector molecules that play an important role in early intestinal innate immune defense by their dual function primarily as antimicrobial factors to defend against pathogens and secondarily as chemotactic factors to recruit cells for adaptive immune responses (3). Thus, the differences observed in the replication capacity between the three T. gondii types could reflect differences to stimulate IEC for the secretion of antimicrobial immune effectors such as β−defensins. To investigate this possibility, we examined the early expression of antimicrobial peptide genes ΗΒD1, 2 and 3 in IEC upon infection by the three T. gondii genotype strains. A clear increase of ΗΒD2 mRNA levels occurred after 3h of infection with Type II and Type III T. gondii strains but not with Type I strains. On the contrary, no significant induction of constitutively expressed HBD1 mRNA levels was observed following infection by each of the three v genotypes. ΗΒD3 gene expression on ...
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of the natural antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3), on the migration of a head and neck cancer cell line in vitro using microfabrication and soft-lithographic techniques. METHODS: TR146 cancer cells were seeded in Petri dishes with microfabricated wells for cell migration assays. Total 54 cell islands were used of various shape and size and experimental media type. Cell migration assays were analyzed in six group media: Dulbeccos modified medium (DMEM); DMEM with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Conditioned media of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 239) expressing hBD-3 via transfected cloned pcDNA3 as CM/hBD-3; CM/hBD-3+ VEGF; conditioned medium from non-transfected HEK 239 (not expressing hBD-3) as control (CM); and the last group was CM + VEGF ...
Citation: Brogden, K.A., Heidari, M., Sacco, R.E., Palmquist, D.E., Guthmiller, J.M., Johnson, G.K., Jia, H.P., Tack, B.F., Mccray, P.B. 2003. Defensin-induced adaptive immunity in mice and its potential in preventing periodontal disease. Oral Microbiology and Immunology. Vol. 18:95-99. Interpretive Summary: Defensins are known to have antimicrobial activity. Recently, however, they have been shown to play other roles in host defense. For example, they have the ability to alter the adaptive immune response. In the present study, we show that defensins induce unique immune responses when co-administered with a protein antigen. The results suggest that it may be possible to modify the host immune response to vaccines by co-administration of specific defensins. It might therefore be possible to skew the immune response in a desirable direction. Technical Abstract: The severity of periodontal disease is dependent on a combination of host, microbial agent and environmental factors. One strong ...
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摘要 旨在研究氨基酸平衡低蛋白质日粮对育肥猪肠道抗菌肽与微生物区系的影响。将20头(60±2.5)kg的育肥猪(杜×长×大)随机分为4个处理:14.0% CP日粮(14.0% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr和Trp的12.5% CP日粮(12.5% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr和Trp的11.0% CP日粮(11.0% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr、Trp和BCAA(Val、Ile、Leu)的11.0% CP日粮(11.0% CP+BCAA)。每个处理5个重复,每个重复1头猪。试验分为5 d预试期和30 d正试期。结果表明:(1)尿液尿素氮和尿酸含量随日粮蛋白质水平降低而显著降低(P,0.05);(2)低蛋白质水平日粮显著降低空肠黏膜、回肠黏膜β-defensin-2水平和ANG1、ANG4 mRNA表达水平(P,0.05);(3)不同蛋白质水平日粮对部分回肠、直肠食糜微生物氨基酸组成有显著影响(P,0.05);(4)与14.0% CP组相比,12.5% CP组Observed species显著提高(P,0.05),11.0% ...
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Defensin-1 was prepared by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. We showed that different types of honey (manuka and honeydew) were able to significantly reduced cell viability of wound pathogens (S. aureus, S. agalactiae and P. aeruginosa) in polymicrobial biofilm. None of the tested honeys showed the ability to eradicate E. faecalis in biofilm. In addition, recombinant defensin-1 successfully reduced the viability of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa cells within established polymicrobial biofilm after 24 and 48 hours of treatment. Interestingly, recombinant defensin-1 did not affect the viability of S. agalactiae cells within the biofilm whereas both natural honeys significantly reduced the viable bacteria. Although E. faecalis was highly resistant to defensin-1, defensin-1 significantly affected biofilm formation of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae after 24 hours of treatment, most likely through the inhibiting its extracellular polymeric substances production ...
To identify the component responsible for inducing MMP-9 production, RJ extract was fractionated using C18 RP-HPLC. In fractions exhibiting stimulatory activity, we immunochemically detected the bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1. Defensin-1 was cloned, and recombinant peptide was produced in a baculoviral expression system. Defensin-1 stimulated MMP-9 secretion from keratinocytes and increased keratinocyte migration and wound closure in vitro. In addition, defensin-1 promoted re-epithelisation and wound closure in uninfected excision wounds ...
Results: As of April 2013, 64 couples were enrolled. At baseline, 84.4% (n=54) of HPPs were taking ART and 76.6% (n=49) had undetectable VL. Overall, 68.8% (n=44) of HNPs reported any UAI with their partners: 59.4% of HNPs reported any insertive UAI, 37.5% reported receptive UAI without ejaculation, and 21.9% reported receptive UAI with ejaculation. Over three-quarters (78.1%) of HNPs believed their HPPs last VL test result to be undetectable. While the most recent VL test may have been several weeks prior, the HNPs perception of his partners VL was mostly in accord with the baseline test results. In the couples with perceived undetectable VL, 78.0% reported UAI in the last three months. In comparison, only 35.7% of couples in which the HPPs VL was perceived to be detectable (n=8) or where the VL result was not known (n=3) reported UAI (OR=0.16, 95%CI=0.04-0.56, p=0.005). Overall, the median number of UAI acts in the last three months was 4 (range=0-183, mean=18.5, SD=34.0). The median ...
Summary Human epithelia are permanently challenged by microorganisms. In the gut, the fraction of strict anaerobic bacteria increases from proximal to distal, reaching 99% of bacterial species in the colon. Moreover, microbial metabolism causes a reduction of the environment to a low redox potential of only -200 mV to -300 mV. Defensins, characterised by three intramolecular disulfide-bridges, are key effector molecules of innate immunity that protect the host from infectious microbes. Human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) is one of the most prominent peptides of its class but comparison with other defensins suggested only minor antibiotic killing activity. We could recently show that hBD-1 becomes a potent antimicrobial peptide against C. albicans and anaerobic, Gram-positive commensals of the human normal flora in a reducing environment (Nature 2011). The effect was attributable to the linear, reduced hBD-1 peptide. Here we aim to investigate the antimicrobial activity of reduced hBD-1 in more detail. ...
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: In many equestrian activities a specific position of head and/or neck is required that is dissimilar to the natural position. There is controversy about the effects of these positions on locomotion pattern, but few quantitative data are available. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of 5 different head and neck positions on thoracolumbar kinematics of the horse. METHODS: Kinematics of 7 high level dressage horses were measured walking and trotting on an instrumented treadmill with the head and neck in the following positions: HNP2 = neck raised, bridge of the nose in front of the vertical; HNP3 = as HNP2 with bridge of the nose behind the vertical; HNP4 = head and neck lowered, nose behind the vertical; HNP5 = head and neck in extreme high position; HNP6 = head and neck forward and downward. HNP1 was a speed-matched control (head and neck unrestrained). RESULTS: The head and neck positions affected only the flexion-extension motion. The positions in which the neck ...
3 defa11p TaqMan 5-nuclease assay chemistry provides a fast and simple way to get single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping results.
Creative Biogene offers challenging job opportunities for people looking for career growth in an entrepreneurial environment that recognizes individual contributions ...
After three years in remission, cancerous Hodgkins disease has reappeared in the body of Sen. Arlen Specter, the Pennsylvania Republican said today. I consider this just another bump on the road... Politics News Summaries. | Newser
Growth factors, comprising diverse protein and peptide families, are involved in a multitude of developmental processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Here we show that peptides derived from HB-EGF, amphiregulin, hepatocyte growth factor, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, as well as various FGFs are antimicrobial, demonstrating a previously unknown activity of growth factor-derived peptides. The peptides killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Several peptides were also active against the Gram-positive S. aureus. Electron microscopy analysis of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the "classical" human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Furthermore, HB-EGF was antibacterial per se, and its epitope GKRKKKGKGLGKKRDPCLRKYK retained ...
Buy, download and read Ferroelectric Dielectrics Integrated on Silicon ebook online in EPUB or PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Emmanuel Defaÿ. ISBN: 9781118602805. Publisher: Wiley. This book describes up-to-date technology applied to high-K materials for More Than Moore applications, i.e. microsystems applied to microelectronics core technologies. After detailing the basic therm
Nitya Venkataraman from the University of Central Florida has managed to reawaken a guardian gene that has been lying dormant in our genomes for 7 million years. These genes, known as retrocyclins, protect monkeys from HIV-like viruses. The hope is that by rousing them from their slumber, they could do the same for us. The technique is several safety tests and clinical trials away from actual use, but its promising nonetheless.. Retrocyclins are the only circular proteins in our bodies, and are formed from a ring of 18 amino acids. They belong to a group of proteins called defensinsthat, as their name suggests, defend the body against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other foreign invaders. There are three types: alpha-, beta- and theta-defensins. The last group is the one that retrocyclins belong to. They were the last to be discovered, and have only been found in the white blood cells of macaques, baboons and orang-utans.. In previous experiments, Venkataramans group, led by Alexander Cole, ...
Nitya Venkataraman from the University of Central Florida has managed to reawaken a guardian gene that has been lying dormant in our genomes for 7 million years. These genes, known as retrocyclins, protect monkeys from HIV-like viruses. The hope is that by rousing them from their slumber, they could do the same for us. The technique is several safety tests and clinical trials away from actual use, but its promising nonetheless.. Retrocyclins are the only circular proteins in our bodies, and are formed from a ring of 18 amino acids. They belong to a group of proteins called defensinsthat, as their name suggests, defend the body against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other foreign invaders. There are three types: alpha-, beta- and theta-defensins. The last group is the one that retrocyclins belong to. They were the last to be discovered, and have only been found in the white blood cells of macaques, baboons and orang-utans.. In previous experiments, Venkataramans group, led by Alexander Cole, ...
This is a simple, non-invasive and low cost test. Calprotectin is an abundant neutrophil protein found in both plasma and stool that is markedly elevated in infectious and inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease. Faecal calprotectin may also be useful in determining whether clinical symptoms in patients with known IBD are caused by disease flares or non-inflammatory complications/underlying irritable bowel syndrome and in providing objective evidence of response to treatment. ...
Community based programs Description. PHC - the start. http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf. But very soon …. Possibly, just possibly …. Broad PHC (a la Alma Ata). Selective PHC. Vertical programs REACH* etc. Community-based HNPs. Improve PH services IMCI etc....
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Defensin of King penguin. Has antifungal activity and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Involved in the process of food preservation in the stomach during the incubation fast. May also be present during infection ...
Mouse monoclonal beta Defensin 1 antibody [M11-14b-D10] validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen corresponding…
Quantitative measurement of regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (REG3α), an anti-inflammatory/anti-bacterial protein expressed in Paneth cells within the epithelium of the small intestine. REG3α has been shown to be elevated in medical conditions where imm
The objective of this study was to provide a new insight into the origin and lineage development of mucus-producing cells in the small intestinal crypt. For this, new experimental data were obtained from both crypt sections and whole mounts. Model simulation studies were undertaken to investigate which rules are most likely to govern the dynamic cellular development and goblet cell pedigree. We have measured the frequency of mucus-secreting goblet cells (using alcian blue and periodic acid Schiffs stains) at each cell position in the ileal murine crypt. These measurements, made on sections, overestimate the number of goblet cells because of the size and centripetal position of the stained cytoplasm. The correction factor for this overscoring has been measured to be 0.25 by two independent methods. The data suggest that there are about 12 functional goblet cells per crypt many of which retain an ability to divide. We have also determined the labelling index of the crypt goblet cells at each cell ...
We identified a 26-amino acid truncated form of the 34-amino acid cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in the islets of Langerhans of the murine pancreas. This peptide, P318, shares 67% identity with the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. As LL-37 displays antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, we tested antifungal and antibiofilm activity of P318 against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. P318 shows biofilm-specific activity as it inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.15 µM without affecting planktonic survival at these concentrations. Next, we tested the C. albicans biofilm inhibitory activity of a series of truncated and alanine-substituted derivatives of P318. Based on the biofilm inhibitory activity of these derivatives and the length of the peptides, we decided to synthesize the shortened alanine-substituted peptide at position 10 (AS10, KLKKIAQKIKNFFQKLVP). AS10 inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.22 µM, and acted synergistically with amphotericin B and ...
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 1 Charge- Low-molecular-weight Wax controlling polystyrene Polyester Addition resin Surface treatment agent Addition Addition amount Addition Treatment amount amount Melting (parts amount amount (parts by (parts by point by (parts by (parts by Mw Mn mass) mass) Name*1 (° C.) mass) mass) Name*2 mass) Toner 1 3000 1050 15 7.5 HNP-51 77 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 2 3000 1050 15 10.0 HNP-51 77 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 3 3000 1050 10 7.5 HNP-51 77 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 4 3000 1050 10 10.0 HNP-51 77 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 5 3000 1050 15 7.5 HNP-51 77 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.5 Toner 6 3000 1050 15 7.5 HNP-51 77 10 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 7 3000 1050 15 7.5 PE-16 69 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 8 3000 1050 20 7.5 PE-16 69 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 9 3000 1050 20 7.5 HNP-51 77 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.5 Toner 10 4200 1650 15 7.5 C105 105 10 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 11 4200 1650 15 7.5 C105 105 7 1.5 POE(10)laurate 0.2 Toner 12 3000 1050 20 7.5 ...
62) patients aged 4 to 18 were recruited prior to routine endoscopic biopsy. Ileal mucosal samples were analyzed for Paneth cell phenotypes, mucosal microbiome composition, and RNA transcriptome.. RESULTS. The prevalence of abnormal Paneth cells was higher in pediatric versus adult CD cohorts. For pediatric CD patients, those with abnormal Paneth cells showed significant changes in their ileal mucosal microbiome, highlighted by reduced protective microbes and enriched proinflammatory microbes. Ileal transcriptome profiles showed reduced transcripts for genes that control oxidative phosphorylation in CD patients with abnormal Paneth cells. These transcriptional changes in turn were correlated with specific microbiome alterations. In non-IBD patients, a subset contained abnormal Paneth cells. However, this subset was not associated with alterations in the microbiome or host transcriptome.. CONCLUSION. Paneth cell abnormalities in human subjects are associated with mucosal dysbiosis in the context ...
1BNB: Solution structure of bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12: the peptide fold of the beta-defensins is identical to that of the classical defensins.
High throughput (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) assays often utilize cell sources, which are not amenable to large-scale screening and can require extensive cell culture and processing prior to imaging. To overcome this hurdle, Hera and a commercial partner ArunA Biomedical, engineered human neural progenitors derived from stem cells with a non-viral vector encoding a GFP reporter gene using a selectable piggyBac™ gene editing system to produce hNP1 GFP+ cells. hNP1 reporter cells exhibit detectable dose dependent response to toxins tested, (cytotoxicity and cell migration) providing a sensitive, high throughput and high content amenable, cell based human neurotox assay platform.. ...
The Lens serves nearly all of the patent documents in the world as open, annotatable digital public goods that are integrated with scholarly and technical literature along with regulatory and business data.
요추 추간판 탈출증에 대한 내시경적 추간판 제거술과 미세현미경적 추간판 제거술간의 VAS, MacNab , 합병증 발생 수 비교 : 메타분석. 특성화 7 조 김다현 , 김영문 , 김인겸 , 이동렬 , 이준원 , 임창진 , 정상훈. 연구 배경. 왜 HNP 인가. 전체 인구의 80% 가 일생 중 한번 이상 허리통증을 경험 국민건강보험공단의 2009 년 주요수술통계에 따르면 주요수술 진료비용 중 일반척추수술이 4,465 억원으로 전체 수술 중 1 위 Slideshow 3230196 by wenda
Context: Daptomycin is the only antibiotic available with in vitro bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Its increased use has resulted in cases of decreased daptomycin efficacy. Recent in vitro studies have shown effective use of beta (beta)-lactam and daptomycin antibiotics, as a combination therapy, in the treatment of VRE. We describe a case of effective treatment in a patient with VRE infection using dual ampicillin and daptomycin therapy that shows bench-to-bedside application of the abovementioned finding. Case Report: A 76-year-old gentleman with a history of bilateral arthroplasty was admitted with a swollen left knee. Blood cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecium. Left knee joint aspiration showed leukocytosis and alpha defensins. Extensive imaging did not show any other source of infection. Culture sensitivity results showed multidrug-resistant enterococci sensitive to daptomycin. The patient was started on intravenous (IV) daptomycin. His left ...
Rossi , D C , Munoz , J E , Carvalho , D D , Belmonte , R , Faintuch , B , Borelli , P , Miranda , A , Taborda , C P & Daffre , S 2012 , Therapeutic use of a cationic antimicrobial peptide from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana in the control of experimental candidiasis BioMed Central Microbiology , vol 12 , 28 . DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12- ...
Burrill Crohn et al in 1932 stated that "medical therapy is purely palliative and supportive . . ... but in general the proper approach to complete cure is by surgical resection . . ..". However, by 1987 Bryan Brooke, a committed and creative inflammatory bowel disease surgeon, recognised that "the surgical stance is now one of reluctance . . . operation is withheld as a last resort when all else has failed to achieve palliation or support". Thus over half a century the surgical view radically changed from reckless enthusiasm to one of extreme conservatism. However, there has always been a fascination with the idea that early resection of localised ileal disease might result in long lasting remission and avoid unwanted complications that would inevitably lead to surgery.. ...
In article ,01HNP6F12GKI00PF24 at Post-Office.UH.EDU, CPedemonte at UH.EDU (carlos h. pedemonte) writes: , Path: news.uh.edu!swrinde!sgiblab!sgigate.sgi.com!olivea!biosci!UH.EDU!CPedemonte , From: CPedemonte at UH.EDU (carlos h. pedemonte) , Newsgroups: bionet.molbio.methds-reagnts , Subject: Is it Taq or the primer responsible for the mistake? , Date: 3 Mar 1995 10:22:41 -0800 , Organization: BIOSCI International Newsgroups for Molecular Biology , Lines: 44 , Sender: daemon at net.bio.net , Distribution: world , Message-ID: ,01HNP6F12GKI00PF24 at Post-Office.UH.EDU, , NNTP-Posting-Host: net.bio.net , , , , We have sequenced part of a plasmid and found a missing base. Since we , have used PCR with Taq polymerase to produce this part of the plasmid, we , want to identify what have caused this deletion. We think that the problem , is in the custom-made primer. But we would like to hear your opinion, to , be sure that our conclusion is correct. , , We used a custom-made primer to produce a fragment ...
1KJ6: The solution structures of the human beta-defensins lead to a better understanding of the potent bactericidal activity of HBD3 against Staphylococcus aureus.
In the results presented here, we find that an oral infection with wild-type Salmonella serovar Typhimurium results in a significant decrease in innate host defense effector molecules of the small intestine. The decreases in cryptdin and lysozyme expression are the first evidence that Paneth cell antimicrobial expression can be altered by bacterial infection with an intestinal pathogen in vivo. Salmonella-induced decrease of Paneth cell antimicrobial peptide mRNA and protein levels may be one of its survival mechanisms in the intestinal lumen and required for subsequent invasion.. The ability of intestinal pathogens to downregulate host antimicrobials is not restricted to Salmonella. Shigella flexneri infection is able to decrease the expression of human α-defensin-1 and LL-37 in colonic epithelial cell lines and human colonic biopsy specimens (19). These findings suggest that this regulation requires the Shigella virulence plasmid DNA alone, even in the absence of live bacteria (19). S. ...

Immune system weaves cobweb-like nanonets to snag Salmonella, other intestinal microbesImmune system weaves cobweb-like nanonets to snag Salmonella, other intestinal microbes

A team of researchers led by UC Davis Health System has found that human alpha-defensin 6 (HD6) - a key component of the bodys ... A team of researchers led by UC Davis Health System has found that human alpha-defensin 6 (HD6) -- a key component of the ... Future studies on Crohns disease by this team aim to better understand exactly why alpha-defensin-expression is reduced in ... Humans make six different alpha-defensins. Two of these, HD5 and HD6, are secreted by Paneth cells, specialized secretory cells ...
more infohttp://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/publish/news/cvc/6696

Pharmaceuticals  | Free Full-Text | Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications | HTMLPharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications | HTML

Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a ... Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. ... Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin ... Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1424-8247/7/3/220/htm

A Molecular Brake for Macrophage-Driven InflammationA "Molecular Brake" for Macrophage-Driven Inflammation

The paper talks about one way the body slow down the inflammation, by the releasing of alpha defensin HNP1 from dead ... HNP1, the abundant alpha defensins release by neutrophils, can prevent further inflammation by inhibiting protein translation ... 2016). "Neutrophil-derived alpha defensins control inflammation by inhibiting macrophage mRNA translation." Proceedings of the ... The dying neutrophils release large amounts of alpha defensins, a type of antimicrobial peptides. The dead neutrophils are then ...
more infohttp://immunitytales.com/a-molecular-brake-for-macrophage-driven-inflammation/

In Lieu of Lecture: Stuff Teachers SayIn Lieu of Lecture: Stuff Teachers Say

... lysozyme and alpha-defensins." The statement indicating that neutrophils produce alpha-defensins is again reiterated in the ... There are more than 292 research articles reporting the production of alpha-defensins by neutrophils. I have pasted the PubMed ... I appreciate the fact that you did a literature search and found an article from 1995 demonstrating defensin production from ... "The ciliary epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides like beta-defensins." On page 6 it states that "the Primary ...
more infohttp://inlieuoflecture.blogspot.com/2013/01/stuff-teachers-say.html

Defense Peptide Found In Primates May Block Some Human HIV Transmissions | EmaxHealthDefense Peptide Found In Primates May Block Some Human HIV Transmissions | EmaxHealth

There are three classes of defensin peptides, and most research around the world has focused on alpha and beta defensins, the ... However, theta-defensins are more active against HIV-1 than the other two types of defensins and can be developed in ... Cole studies theta-defensins called retrocyclins, which are no longer made by humans or advanced primates such as chimpanzees. ... Cole started his research into theta-defensins at the University of California, Los Angeles, before he moved to UCF in 2003. ...
more infohttps://www.emaxhealth.com/55/6953.html

Cardiac Defensins--Natural Antibiotics of the Heart - WSAVA2005 - VINCardiac Defensins--Natural Antibiotics of the Heart - WSAVA2005 - VIN

The most abundant group of antimicrobial peptides is comprised by the α-, β- and θ-defensins.[alpha, beta, theta (circle w/ ... porcine beta-defensin-1, pBD1), and horse (equine beta-defensin-1, eBD1). Human beta-defensin-3 (HBD-3) has been detected in ... BETA-DEFENSINS. β-defensins are small (3.5-4.5 kDa) highly basic cationic peptides. These peptides are ancient and universal ... β-defensin-1 mRNA expression has been identified in the heart of mice (murine beta-defensin-1, mBD1), pig ( ...
more infohttp://www.vin.com/apputil/content/defaultadv1.aspx?pId=11196&meta=Generic&catId=30743&id=3854159&ind=176&objTypeID=17

Alpha defensin - WikipediaAlpha defensin - Wikipedia

Alpha defensins are a family of mammalian defensin peptides. Defensins are 2-6 kDa, cationic, microbicidal peptides active ... Alpha defensins of the mouse bowel were historically called cryptdins when first discovered. Initially human alpha defensin ... Defensin α-defensin β-defensin θ-defensin Cryptdin Hill CP, Yee J, Selsted ME, Eisenberg D (March 1991). "Crystal structure of ... mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta categories. Alpha-defensins, which have been identified in humans ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_defensin

Functional analysis of the alpha-defensin disulfide array in mouse cryptdin-4.  - PubMed - NCBIFunctional analysis of the alpha-defensin disulfide array in mouse cryptdin-4. - PubMed - NCBI

Functional analysis of the alpha-defensin disulfide array in mouse cryptdin-4.. Maemoto A1, Qu X, Rosengren KJ, Tanabe H, ... The alpha-defensin antimicrobial peptide family is defined by a unique tridisulfide array. To test whether this invariant ... Mouse Paneth cell alpha-defensins require the proteolytic activation of precursors by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), ... Thus, rather than determining alpha-defensin bactericidal activity, the Crp4 disulfide arrangement confers essential protection ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15297466

Defensin alpha 5 Lysates: Novus BiologicalsDefensin alpha 5 Lysates: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Defensin alpha 5 Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Defensin alpha 5 lysate, DEFA5 lysate, DEF5defensin, alpha 5, preproprotein lysate, defensin 5 lysate, Defensin, alpha 5 lysate ... Our Defensin alpha 5 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. Use the list below to choose the Defensin alpha 5 ... Defensin alpha 5 Lysates. We offer Defensin alpha 5 Lysates for use in common research applications: SDS-Page, Western Blot. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/lysates/defensin-alpha-5

Defensin alpha 5 Research Products: Novus BiologicalsDefensin alpha 5 Research Products: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Defensin alpha 5 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Diseases related to Defensin alpha 5. Discover more about diseases related to Defensin alpha 5.. Crohn Disease. Ulcer. Colitis ... Bioinformatics Tool for Defensin alpha 5. Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Defensin alpha 5. Need help? Read ... Pathways for Defensin alpha 5. View related products by pathway and learn more about each of the pathways below.. Pathogenesis ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/common-name/defensin-alpha-5

Alpha-defensin elisa and antibodyAlpha-defensin elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Alpha-defensin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alpha-defensin PhD-4. Alpha-defensin PhD-4 ELISA Kit. Alpha-defensin PhD-4 Recombinant. Alpha-defensin PhD-4 Antibody ... Alpha-defensin 6/12. Alpha-defensin 6/12 ELISA Kit. Alpha-defensin 6/12 Recombinant. Alpha-defensin 6/12 Antibody ... Alpha-defensin 1. Alpha-defensin 1 ELISA Kit. Alpha-defensin 1 Recombinant. Alpha-defensin 1 Antibody ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/proteins-family/alpha-defensin

Expression and purification of recombinant human alpha-defensins in Escherichia coli. - Semantic ScholarExpression and purification of recombinant human alpha-defensins in Escherichia coli. - Semantic Scholar

Here we report an effective method of biosynthesis of human alpha-defensins (hNP-1 to hNP-3 and hD-5 and hD-6) in the ... With the exception of hD-6, all recombinant alpha-defensins exhibit expected anti-E. coli activity, as measured by the colony ... The method described in this report is a low-cost, efficient way of generating alpha-defensins in quantities ranging from ... Up to now, all efforts to obtain larger quantities of active recombinant human alpha-defensins have been only moderately ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Expression-and-purification-of-recombinant-human-in-Pazgier-Lubkowski/32c48ac21951806dcfbe5712e4cbe0dcf67151c6

Defensin alpha 5 antibody | acris-antibodies.comDefensin alpha 5 antibody | acris-antibodies.com

Alternative names for Defensin alpha 5 antibody. DEFA5, DEF5, Defensin-5, HD-5 ... Background of Defensin alpha 5 antibody. Kit Component:. - KN210219G1, DEFA5 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector. - KN210219G2, ... Immunohistochemistry: Defensin alpha 5 Antibody (8C8) - Human skeletal muscle myocytes showing moderate nuclear and faint ... Defensin alpha 5 antibody. Not available. Mouse Monoclonal Defensin alpha 5 Antibody (8C8). ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/defensin-alpha-5-antibody.htm?ab_applications=WB

Defensin alpha 4 antibody | acris-antibodies.comDefensin alpha 4 antibody | acris-antibodies.com

Alternative names for Defensin alpha 4 antibody. Neutrophil defensin 4, HNP-4, HP-4, DEFA4, DEF4 ... Background of Defensin alpha 4 antibody. Kit Component:. - KN213236G1, DEFA4 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector. - KN213236G2, ... Lenti ORF particles, DEFA4 (mGFP-tagged)-Human defensin, alpha 4, corticostatin (DEFA4), 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/mL. Not available. ... Lenti ORF particles, Defa4 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse defensin, alpha, 4 (Defa4), 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/mL. Not available. ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/defensin-alpha-4-antibody.htm

Dermatan sulphate is released by proteinases of common pathogenic bacteria and inactivates antibacterial alpha-defensinDermatan sulphate is released by proteinases of common pathogenic bacteria and inactivates antibacterial alpha-defensin

... ... Dermatan sulphate was found to bind to neutrophil-derived alpha-defensin, and this binding completely neutralized its ... Dermatan sulphate was found to bind to neutrophil-derived alpha-defensin, and this binding completely neutralized its ... Dermatan sulphate is released by proteinases of common pathogenic bacteria and inactivates antibacterial alpha-defensin}, url ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1121015

Defensin, alpha 1 - WikipediaDefensin, alpha 1 - Wikipedia

Defensin, alpha 1 also known as human alpha defensin 1, human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP-1) or neutrophil defensin 1 is a human ... Human alpha defensin 1 belongs to the alpha defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. Defensins are a family of microbicidal ... Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 1, is found in ... "Entrez Gene: DEFA1 defensin, alpha 1". Valore EV, Ganz T (Mar 15, 1992). "Posttranslational processing of defensins in immature ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defensin,_alpha_1

Anti-DEFA1B / Defensin Alpha 1B Antibody | Rabbit anti-Human Biotin | LSBioAnti-DEFA1B / Defensin Alpha 1B Antibody | Rabbit anti-Human Biotin | LSBio

Defensin Alpha 1B antibody LS-C688246 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Defensin Alpha 1B (DEFA1B ). ... DEFA1B / Defensin Alpha 1B Antibody (aa20‑94, Biotin) LS‑C688246 DEFA1B / Defensin Alpha 1B Antibody (aa20‑94, Biotin) LS‑ ... Defensin Alpha 1B antibody LS-C688246 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Defensin Alpha 1B (DEFA1B ). ... Human DEFA1B / Defensin Alpha 1B Protein (Recombinant His + GST) (aa20-94) - LS-G25421 ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/defa1b-antibody-defensin-alpha-1b-antibody-aa20-94-biotin-wb-western-ls-c688246/713674

The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases -...The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases -...

The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases. The ... The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases. ... The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases. ... the investigators demonstrated a highly significant correlation between the expression level of Defensin-alpha 4 (DEFA4) mRNA ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01703013

The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases - Full...The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases - Full...

The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases. The ... Defensins. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of ... The Significance of Defensin Alpha 4 in the Pathophysiology of the Adrenal Insufficiency in Inflammatory Lung Diseases. ... the investigators demonstrated a highly significant correlation between the expression level of Defensin-alpha 4 (DEFA4) mRNA ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01703013

Current Recommendations for the Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic PJI for Hip and Knee-Cell Counts, Alpha-Defensin, Leukocyte...Current Recommendations for the Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic PJI for Hip and Knee-Cell Counts, Alpha-Defensin, Leukocyte...

The alpha-defensin test for periprosthetic joint infection responds to a wide spectrum of organisms. Clin Orthop. 2015;473:2229 ... The alpha-defensin test for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection in the setting of an adverse local tissue reaction ... The alpha-defensin immunoassay and leukocyte esterase colorimetric strip test for the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection: a ... The alpha-defensin test for periprosthetic joint infections is not affected by prior antibiotic administration. Clin Orthop. ...
more infohttps://www.springermedizin.de/current-recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-and-chronic-p/15991678

Immunohistochemical study on expression of alpha-defensin and...Immunohistochemical study on expression of alpha-defensin and...

Immunohistochemical study on expression of alpha-defensin and beta-defensin-2 in human buccal epithelia with candidiasis.: ... Immunohistochemical study on expression of alpha-defensin and beta-defensin-2 in human buccal epithelia with candidiasis.. ... There might be a dual protection manner by defensins against fungal inflammation in infected buccal epithelia locally. ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/immunohistochemical-study-expression-alpha-defensin-beta-defensin-2-human-buccal-epithelia-candidiasis-2dec9595

Alpha-Defensins in perioperative thrombosis - Abd HigaziAlpha-Defensins in perioperative thrombosis - Abd Higazi

Alpha-Defensins in perioperative thrombosis Higazi, Abd Alroof Weisel, John W. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, ... We have shown that alpha-defensins, peptides released from neutrophils, are prothrombotic and anti-fibrinolytic and that these ... We have previously observed that alpha-defensins (?-def), antimicrobial peptides that constitute 5% of total human PMN protein ... This project will examine the mechanisms by which alpha-defensins promote thrombosis, determine if plasma levels identify ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R56-HL123912-01

alpha Defensin 6 (human) peptidealpha Defensin 6 (human) peptide

alpha Defensin 6 (human) antibody. Please inquire for pricing and availability. Related peptides. Name. Sequence. ... beta Defensin 1 (human). DHYNCVSSGGQCLYSACPIFTKIQGTCYRGKAKCCK. beta Defensin 2 (human). ... beta Defensin 3 (human). GIINTLQKYYCRVRGGRCAVLSCLPKEEQIGKCSTRGRKCCRRKK. beta Defensin 4 (human). ... alpha Defensin 1 (human). ACYCRIPACIAGERRYGTCIYQGRLWAFCC. alpha Defensin 2 (human). CYCRIPACIAGERRYGTCIYQGRLWAFCC. alpha ...
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Alpha-Defensin-5 (Human) › PeptaNovaAlpha-Defensin-5 (Human) › PeptaNova

... α-Defensin-5 , HD-5 4415-s 0.1 mg , 210.00 EUR Synthetic Product (disulfide bonds between Cys3-Cys31, ... ... Alpha-Defensin-4 (Human) Alpha-Defensin-6 (Human) Home / Biologically active Peptides / Antimicrobial Peptides / Alpha-Defensin ... Chem., 267, 23216 (1992) (Original; human alpha-Defensin-5) *E.M. Porter, M.A. Poles, J.S. Lee, J. Naitoh, C.L. Bevins and T. ... Alpha-Defensin-5 (HD-5) is expressed in Paneth cells in intestinal epithelium, thus, falls into a distinct subclass of human ...
more infohttp://www.peptanova.de/product/alpha-defensin-5-human/

DEFA1B recombinant protein | DEFENSIN ALPHA 1 Recombinant Protein-NP 001035965.1DEFA1B recombinant protein | DEFENSIN ALPHA 1 Recombinant Protein-NP 001035965.1

DEFENSIN ALPHA 1 Recombinant Protein-NP_001035965.1 (MBS232451) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins. ... Alpha-defensins Pathway antibodies. Alpha-defensins Pathway Diagram. Cellular Roles Of Anthrax Toxin Pathway antibodies. ... Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. This gene differs from defensin, alpha 3 by only one amino acid. ... defensin, alpha 1: Defensin 1 and defensin 2 have antibacterial, fungicide and antiviral activities. Has antimicrobial activity ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Recombinant-Protein/DEFENSIN-ALPHA-1/DEFA1B/datasheet.php?products_id=232451
  • In a prior exploratory study investigating patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the investigators demonstrated a highly significant correlation between the expression level of Defensin-alpha 4 (DEFA4) mRNA in blood and the adrenal function assessed via low-dose ACTH tests. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although Chu and Bevins anticipated HD6 activity would be very similar to other alpha-defensins, which kill pathogens by poking holes in the microbial membrane, their early research studies repeatedly showed that HD6 did not kill bacteria. (ucdavis.edu)
  • There might be a dual protection manner by defensins against fungal inflammation in infected buccal epithelia locally. (mysciencework.com)
  • Efficient production of a correctly folded mouse α-defensin, cryptdin-4, by refolding during inclusion body solubilization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This project will examine the mechanisms by which alpha-defensins promote thrombosis, determine if plasma levels identify patients at risk for venous thromboembolism and help identify a novel approach to anti-thrombotic therapy without bleeding risk. (grantome.com)
  • However, monocytes from these patients are lacking this defensin-inducing capability, which seems to be based on compromised expression of Wnt ligands. (pnas.org)
  • The mechanism(s) by which microorganisms are killed and/or inactivated by defensins is not understood completely. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research describes an entirely new mechanism of action for defensins, an important group of molecules known to bolster the defenses of circulating white blood cells, protect cellular borders from invasive pathogens and regulate which "friendly" microbes can colonize body surfaces. (ucdavis.edu)