A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Dextrins are a group of partially degraded and digestible starches, formed through the hydrolysis of starch by heat, acids, or enzymes, consisting of shorter chain polymers of D-glucose units linked mainly by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.
A phenothiazine derivative that is used as an antipruritic.
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
A measure of relative protection provided by SUNSCREENING AGENTS against burns due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a light source.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.

Properties of a cyclodextrin-specific, unusual porin from Klebsiella oxytoca. (1/76)

The function of CymA, 1 of the 10 gene products involved in cyclodextrin uptake and metabolism by Klebsiella oxytoca, was characterized. CymA is essential for growth on cyclodextrins, but it can also complement the deficiency of a lamB (maltoporin) mutant of Escherichia coli for growth on linear maltodextrins, indicating that both cyclic and linear oligosaccharides are accepted as substrates. CymA was overproduced in E. coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. CymA is a component of the outer membrane, is processed from a signal peptide-containing precursor, and possesses a high content of antiparallel beta-sheet. Incorporation of CymA into lipid bilayers and conductance measurements revealed that it forms ion-permeable channels, which exhibit a substantial current noise. CymA-induced membrane conductance decreased considerably upon addition of alpha-cyclodextrin. Titration experiments allowed the calculation of a half-saturation constant, K(S), of 28 microM for its binding to CymA. CymA assembled in vitro to two-dimensionally crystalline tubular membranes, which, on electron microscopy, are characterized by a p1-related two-sided plane group. The crystallographic unit cell contains four monomeric CymA molecules showing a central pore. The lattice parameters are a = 16.1 nm, b = 3.8 nm, gamma = 93 degrees. CymA does not form trimeric complexes in lipid membranes and shows no tendency to trimerize in solution. CymA thus is an atypical porin with novel properties specialized to transfer cyclodextrins across the outer membrane.  (+info)

Enzymatic synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-cyclodextrin by the reverse reaction of N-acetylhexosaminidase from jack bean. (2/76)

Novel heterobranched cyclodextrins (CDs), N-acetylglucosaminyl-cyclodextrins (GlcNAc-CD), were synthesized from a mixture of GlcNAc and alpha, beta, or gamma CD by the reverse reaction of N-acetylhexosaminidase from jack bean. Optimum pH and temperature for the production of GlcNAc-alpha CD by N-acetylhexosaminidase were pH 4.9 and 50-70 degrees C, respectively. The maximum yield of GlcNAc-alpha CD was 17.5% (mol/mol) at the concentration of 1 M GlcNAc and 0.25 M alpha CD. The reverse reaction product, GlcNAc-alpha CD, was separated into two peaks by HPLC analysis on the ODS column. Their structures were identified as 6-O-beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl-alpha CD and 2-O-beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl-alpha CD by FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopies. N-Acetylhexosaminidase from jack bean also synthesized N-acetylgalactosaminyl-alpha CD from N-acetylgalactosamine and alpha CD.  (+info)

Probing protein-sugar interactions. (3/76)

We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.  (+info)

alpha-cyclodextrin extracts diacylglycerol from insect high density lipoproteins. (4/76)

alpha-Cyclodextrins are water-soluble cyclic hexamers of glucose units with hydrophobic cavities capable of solubilizing lipophiles. Incubating alpha-cyclodextrin with high density lipophorin from Manduca sexta or Bombyx mori resulted in a cloudy, turbid solution. Centrifugation separated a pale yellowish precipitate. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of the lipid extract of the precipitate showed that the major lipid was diacylglycerol, while KBr density gradient analysis of the supernatant demonstrated the presence of a lipid-depleted very high density lipophorin. Transfer of diacylglycerol from lipophorin to cyclodextrin was specific to alpha-cyclodextrin and was not observed with beta- or gamma-cyclodextrins. pH had no effect on diacylglycerol transfer to alpha-cyclodextrin. However, the transfer was strongly dependent on the concentration of alpha-cyclodextrin and temperature. Increasing the concentration of alpha-cyclodextrin in the incubation mixture was associated with the formation of increasingly higher density lipophorins. Thus, at 20, 30, and 40 mm alpha-cyclodextrin, the density of B. mori lipophorin increased from 1.107 g/ml to 1.123, 1. 148, and 1.181 g/ml, respectively. At concentrations greater than 40 mm, alpha-cyclodextrin had no further effect on the density of lipophorin. alpha-Cyclodextrin removed at most 83;-87% of the diacylglycerol present in lipophorin. Temperature played an important role in altering the amount of diacylglycerols transferred to alpha-cyclodextrin. At 30 mm alpha-cyclodextrin, the amount of diacylglycerol transferred at different temperatures was 50% at 4 degrees C, 41% at 15 degrees C, 20% at 28 degrees C, and less than 3% at 37 degrees C. We propose that diacylglycerol transfers to alpha-cyclodextrin via an aqueous diffusion pathway and that the driving force for the transfer is the formation of an insoluble alpha-cyclodextrin-diacylglycerol complex.  (+info)

Cyclodextrin encapsulation to prevent the loss of l-menthol and its retention during drying. (5/76)

The taste and flavor of spray-dried powdered products are the most important quality factors. In the present study, molecular encapsulation in cyclodextrin was applied to prevent the loss of a hydrophobic flavor compound (l-menthol) during the drying of a droplet. beta-Cyclodextrin appeared to be a better encapsulant for menthol than alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrin. The retention of menthol increased with increasing concentration of both cyclodextrin and maltodextrin. A simple mathematical model is proposed for estimating the flavor retention. The theoretical results by this model estimated well the final retention of menthol encapsulated in a blend of beta-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin.  (+info)

Mechanism of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Inhibition of amylose and maltopentaose hydrolysis by alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins. (6/76)

The effects of alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins on the amylose and maltopentaose hydrolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) were investigated. The results of the statistical analysis performed on the kinetic data using the general initial velocity equation of a one-substrate reaction in the presence of one inhibitor indicate that the type of inhibition involved depends on the substrate used: the inhibition of amylose hydrolysis by alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin is of the competitive type, while the inhibition of maltopentaose hydrolysis is of the mixed noncompetitive type. Consistently, the Lineweaver-Burk plots intersect on the vertical axis when amylose is used as the substrate, while in the case of maltopentaose, the intersection occurs at a point located in the second quadrant. The inhibition of the hydrolysis therefore involves only one abortive complex, PPA-cyclodextrin, when amylose is used as the substrate, while two abortive complexes, PPA-cyclodextrin and PPA-maltopentaose-cyclodextrin, are involved with maltopentaose. The mixed noncompetitive inhibition thus shows the existence of one accessory binding site. In any case, only one molecule of inhibitor binds to PPA. In line with these findings, the difference spectra of PPA produced by alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin indicate that binding occurs at a tryptophan and a tyrosine residue. The corresponding dissociation constants and the inhibition constants obtained using the kinetic approach are in the same range (1.2-7 mM). The results obtained here on the inhibition of maltopentaose hydrolysis by cyclodextrin are similar to those previously obtained with acarbose as the inhibitor [Alkazaz, M., Desseaux, V., Marchis-Mouren, G., Prodanov, E. & Santimone, M. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 252, 100-107], but differ from those obtained with amylose as the substrate and acarbose as inhibitor [Alkazaz, M., Desseaux, V., Marchis-Mouren, G., Payan, F., Forest, E. & Santimone, M. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 787-796]. It is concluded that the hydrolysis of both long and short chain substrates requires at least one secondary binding site, including a tryptophan residue.  (+info)

Fluorescence enhancement of coumarin-6-sulfonyl chloride amino acid derivatives in cyclodextrin media. (7/76)

Coumarin-6-sulfonyl (6-CS) amino acid derivatives form inclusion complexes with a- and /-cyclodextrins (CD) in aqueous solution. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complex and the equilibrium constant were investigated. Using a fluorescence technique and alanine-beta-CD as a model, a 1:2 guest-host complex was established, and K = 4.7 x 10(5) mol(-2) l(2) was obtained. Fluorescence enhancement was observed for all derivatives studied, with glycine exhibiting a greater enhancement, and tyrosine showing the least. The stability of the inclusion complex was found to depend on the respective sizes of the guest-host complex and their interaction.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) after rectal administration of hollow-type suppositories containing hCG. (8/76)

To determine the effectiveness of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administered rectally, we studied the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hCG using a hollow-type suppository. HCG was not detected in plasma when only hCG was administered rectally, even at a higher dose (4,000 IU/kg body weight) than intravenous injection, because of its low bioavailability due to high molecular weight or degradation by proteolytic activity. To enhance the rectal absorption of hCG, the effectiveness of its coadministration with alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CyD), an absorption-enhancing agent, was investigated in male rabbits. HCG was detected in plasma following coadministration of hCG and alpha-CyD (10 mg/kg body weight) into the rectum. The plasma hCG concentration increased with increasing dose of alpha-CyD. The AUC(0-48) observed after coadministration of hCG and alpha-CyD at 30 mg/kg body weight was approximately four times higher than that of hCG and alpha-CyD at 10mg/kg body weight. HCG at a high concentration induced a rapid increase in the plasma testosterone concentration (74.2 +/- 3.4 ng/ml) 2 h after intravenous administration. However, the testosterone concentration 24 h after intravenous administration decreased to the physiological level (approximately 20 ng/ml) which had been observed before such administration. On the other hand, the maximum level of testosterone concentration (40.0 +/- 12.6 ng/ml) was observed 24 h after rectal administration of hCG (400 IU/kg body weight) in combination with alpha-CyD (30 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, the plasma testosterone concentration (31.0 +/- 11.4 ng/ml) obtained 72 h after rectal administration tended to be maintained at a higher level than that (14.4 +/- 0.9ng/ml) observed before the administration. These results suggest that the hollow-type suppository as a rectal delivery system of hCG is promising as a new mode of hCG therapy.  (+info)

Cyclodextrins are cyclic, oligosaccharide structures made up of 6-8 glucose units joined together in a ring by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic guest molecules. This property allows cyclodextrins to improve the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of drugs, and they are used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. Additionally, cyclodextrins have applications in food, cosmetic, and chemical industries.

Alpha-cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides made up of 6 glucose units joined together in a ring structure through alpha-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules, including drugs, steroids, and fatty acids. This property can enhance the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of these compounds in pharmaceutical applications. Alpha-cyclodextrins are produced from starch by enzymatic conversion using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.

Beta-cyclodextrins are cyclic, oligosaccharide structures made up of 6-8 glucose units linked by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, making them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions. This property is exploited in pharmaceutical applications to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Additionally, beta-cyclodextrins can be chemically modified to enhance their properties and expand their uses.

Gamma-cyclodextrins (γ-CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides composed of seven α-D-glucopyranose units joined by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a cone-like structure with a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity that can form inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules, making them useful as drug delivery agents or in the removal of toxic substances from the body.

Compared to other cyclodextrins such as α-CDs and β-CDs, γ-CDs have a larger cavity size and can form more stable complexes with larger guest molecules. However, they are less commonly used due to their lower water solubility and higher production cost.

It is important to note that the medical use of cyclodextrins, including γ-CDs, may require approval from regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific indications and formulations.

Dextrins are a group of carbohydrates that are produced by the hydrolysis of starches. They are made up of shorter chains of glucose molecules than the original starch, and their molecular weight and physical properties can vary depending on the degree of hydrolysis. Dextrins are often used in food products as thickeners, stabilizers, and texturizers, and they also have applications in industry as adhesives and binders. In a medical context, dextrins may be used as a source of calories for patients who have difficulty digesting other types of carbohydrates.

Trimeprazine is an antihistamine medication with sedative and anti-emetic properties. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Trimeprazine is used to treat various conditions such as allergies, motion sickness, and anxiety. It may also be used for its sedative effects to help manage pain or sleep disturbances.

The medical definition of Trimeprazine can be stated as:

A piperidine phenothiazine derivative with antihistamine, sedative, and anti-emetic properties. Trimeprazine is used in the management of various conditions such as allergies, motion sickness, and anxiety. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Its sedative effects may also be utilized for its calming effect or to aid sleep.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "rotaxanes" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Rotaxanes are actually a concept from the field of chemistry, specifically supramolecular chemistry. They refer to mechanically interlocked molecules, consisting of a dumbbell-shaped component with two large rings that thread onto the ends of the dumbbell and cannot come off, much like a macrocycle around an axle.

While rotaxanes have potential applications in various fields, including nanotechnology and materials science, they are not directly related to medical definitions or human health. If you have any questions about medical terminologies or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Micromonosporaceae is a family of actinobacteria that are gram-positive, aerobic, and have high guanine-cytosine content in their DNA. These bacteria are typically found in soil and aquatic environments. They are known for producing a wide range of bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The cells of Micromonosporaceae are usually rod-shaped and may form branching filaments or remain as single cells. Some members of this family can form spores, which are often resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals.

It's worth noting that the medical significance of Micromonosporaceae is not well established, but some species have been found to produce antibiotics and other bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic applications. For example, the genus Micromonospora includes several species that are known to produce various antibiotics, such as micromonosporin, xanthomycin, and gentamicin C1A. However, further research is needed to fully understand the medical relevance of this family of bacteria.

Optical rotation, also known as optical activity, is a property of certain substances to rotate the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it passes through the substance. This ability arises from the presence of optically active molecules, most commonly chiral molecules, which have a non-superimposable mirror image.

The angle and direction of rotation (either clockwise or counterclockwise) are specific to each optically active substance and can be used as a characteristic identification property. The measurement of optical rotation is an important tool in the determination of the enantiomeric purity of chiral compounds, such as drugs and natural products, in chemistry and pharmacology.

The optical rotation of a substance can be influenced by factors such as temperature, concentration, wavelength of light, and solvent used. The magnitude of the optical rotation is often reported as the specific rotation, which is the optical rotation per unit length (usually expressed in degrees) and per unit concentration (often given in grams per deciliter or g/dL).

Sun Protection Factor (SPF) is a measure of how well a sunscreen product protects the skin from ultraviolet B (UVB) rays, which are the primary cause of sunburn and skin damage leading to skin cancer. The number associated with an SPF rating indicates how long it would take for UVB rays to redden protected skin compared to unprotected skin. For example, if you use a sunscreen with an SPF of 30, it would take 30 times longer for your skin to burn than it would without any protection.

It is important to note that even though higher SPF values offer more protection against UVB rays, no sunscreen can block 100% of the sun's harmful rays. Additionally, most sunscreens do not provide adequate protection against ultraviolet A (UVA) rays, which also contribute to skin aging and skin cancer risk. Therefore, it is recommended to use broad-spectrum sunscreens with an SPF of at least 30 and reapply them every two hours or immediately after swimming or sweating heavily.

Alpha-amylases are a type of enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars like maltose, maltotriose, and glucose. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds in these complex carbohydrates, making them more easily digestible.

Alpha-amylases are produced by various organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. In humans, alpha-amylases are primarily produced by the salivary glands and pancreas, and they play an essential role in the digestion of dietary carbohydrates.

Deficiency or malfunction of alpha-amylases can lead to various medical conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and genetic disorders like congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. On the other hand, excessive production of alpha-amylases can contribute to dental caries and other oral health issues.

Myristates are fatty acid molecules that contain fourteen carbon atoms and are therefore referred to as myristic acid in its pure form. They are commonly found in various natural sources, including coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and butterfat. Myristates can be esterified with glycerol to form triglycerides, which are the main constituents of fat in animals and plants.

In a medical context, myristates may be relevant in the study of lipid metabolism, membrane biology, and drug delivery systems. For instance, myristoylation is a post-translational modification where myristic acid is covalently attached to proteins, which can affect their function, localization, and stability. However, it's important to note that direct medical applications or implications of myristates may require further research and context.

Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, also known as amyloglucosidase or glucoamylase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-glycosidic bonds in starch and other oligo- and polysaccharides, breaking them down into individual glucose molecules. This enzyme specifically acts on the alpha (1->4) linkages found in amylose and amylopectin, two major components of starch. It is widely used in various industrial applications, including the production of high fructose corn syrup, alcoholic beverages, and as a digestive aid in some medical supplements.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

Acarbose is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. It is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acarbose works by slowing down the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine, which helps to prevent spikes in blood sugar levels after meals.

By blocking the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, acarbose prevents the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, such as glucose, in the small intestine. This results in a slower and more gradual absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, which helps to prevent postprandial hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels after meals).

Acarbose is typically taken orally three times a day, before meals containing carbohydrates. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea. It is important to note that acarbose should be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and regular exercise to effectively manage blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

In the context of medical terminology, "solutions" refers to a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, in which one substance (the solute) is uniformly distributed within another substance (the solvent). The solvent is typically the greater component of the solution and is capable of dissolving the solute.

Solutions can be classified based on the physical state of the solvent and solute. For instance, a solution in which both the solvent and solute are liquids is called a liquid solution or simply a solution. A solid solution is one where the solvent is a solid and the solute is either a gas, liquid, or solid. Similarly, a gas solution refers to a mixture where the solvent is a gas and the solute can be a gas, liquid, or solid.

In medical applications, solutions are often used as vehicles for administering medications, such as intravenous (IV) fluids, oral rehydration solutions, eye drops, and topical creams or ointments. The composition of these solutions is carefully controlled to ensure the appropriate concentration and delivery of the active ingredients.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT, or α1-antiproteinase, A1AP) is a protein that is primarily produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream. It belongs to a group of proteins called serine protease inhibitors, which help regulate inflammation and protect tissues from damage caused by enzymes involved in the immune response.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin is particularly important for protecting the lungs from damage caused by neutrophil elastase, an enzyme released by white blood cells called neutrophils during inflammation. In the lungs, AAT binds to and inhibits neutrophil elastase, preventing it from degrading the extracellular matrix and damaging lung tissue.

Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease. The most common cause of AAT deficiency is a genetic mutation that results in abnormal folding and accumulation of the protein within liver cells, leading to reduced levels of functional AAT in the bloodstream. This condition is called alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and can be inherited in an autosomal codominant manner. Individuals with severe AATD may require augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of purified human AAT to help prevent lung damage.

Hydrophobic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between non-polar molecules or groups of atoms in an aqueous environment, leading to their association or aggregation. The term "hydrophobic" means "water-fearing" and describes the tendency of non-polar substances to repel water. When non-polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they tend to clump together to minimize contact with the polar water molecules. These interactions are primarily driven by the entropy increase of the system as a whole, rather than energy minimization. Hydrophobic interactions play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as protein folding, membrane formation, and molecular self-assembly.

Hydrophilic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between polar molecules or groups of atoms and water molecules. The term "hydrophilic" means "water-loving" and describes the attraction of polar substances to water. When polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which helps solvate them. Hydrophilic interactions contribute to the stability and functionality of various biological systems, such as protein structure, ion transport across membranes, and enzyme catalysis.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) Mass Spectrometry is a technique used for determining the mass of ions in a sample. In FAB-MS, the sample is mixed with a matrix material and then bombarded with a beam of fast atoms, usually xenon or cesium. This bombardment leads to the formation of ions from the sample which can then be detected and measured using a mass analyzer. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the sample molecules. FAB-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large, thermally labile, or polar molecules that may not ionize well by other methods.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique used to measure the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and a reference as a function of temperature. It is commonly used to study phase transitions, such as melting, crystallization, and glass transition, as well as chemical reactions, in a wide range of materials, including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples.

In DSC, the sample and reference are placed in separate pans and heated at a constant rate. The heat flow required to maintain this heating rate is continuously measured for both the sample and the reference. As the temperature of the sample changes during a phase transition or chemical reaction, the heat flow required to maintain the same heating rate will change relative to the reference. This allows for the measurement of the enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the transition or reaction.

Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful tool in materials science and research as it can provide information about the thermal behavior, stability, and composition of materials. It can also be used to study the kinetics of reactions and phase transitions, making it useful for optimizing processing conditions and developing new materials.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

'Bacillus' is a genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Many species of Bacillus are capable of forming endospores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive for long periods in harsh environments. The most well-known species of Bacillus is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in animals and humans. Other species of Bacillus have industrial or agricultural importance, such as B. subtilis, which is used in the production of enzymes and antibiotics.

... (alpha-cyclodextrin), sometimes abbreviated as α-CD, is a hexasaccharide derived from glucose. It is related to ... All cyclodextrins are white, water-soluble solids with minimal toxicity. Cyclodextrins tend to bind other molecules in their ... Then cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is added for enzymatic conversion. CGTases produce diverse cyclodextrins. The ... β-Cyclodextrin Gatiatulin, Askar (2022), "Determination of Melting Parameters of Cyclodextrins Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry ...
Fukaya, H; Iimura, A; Hoshiko, K; Fuyumuro, T; Noji, S; Nabeshima, T (Aug 2003). "A cyclosporin A/maltosyl-alpha-cyclodextrin ...
The fluorescence of these sulfonamide adducts can be enhanced by adding alpha-cyclodextrin. Dansyl chloride is unstable in ...
GRN 000155, alpha-cyclodextrin;GRAS Notice No. GRN 000074, beta-cyclodextrin;GRAS Notice No. GRN 000046, gamma-cyclodextrin ... alpha)-cyclodextrin: 6 glucose subunits β (beta)-cyclodextrin: 7 glucose subunits γ (gamma)-cyclodextrin: 8 glucose subunits ... Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin are all generally recognized as safe by the U.S. FDA. They have been applied for delivery ... This is very valuable especially for the food industry, as only alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrin can be consumed without a daily ...
... alpha-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, beta- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-(1,4-alpha-D-glucano)-transferase (cyclizing). Other ... "Rational design of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 to increase alpha-cyclodextrin ... cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, gamma-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, cyclomaltodextrin ...
... sometimes abbreviated as β-CD, is a heptasaccharide derived from glucose. The α- (alpha), β- (beta), and γ- ( ... such as 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPbCD), randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), and β-cyclodextrin sulfobutyl ether ... β-Cyclodextrin is the most used natural cyclodextrin in marketed medicines. The reason for this lies in the ease of its ... The exterior surface of cyclodextrins is somewhat hydrophilic whereas the interior core is hydrophobic. β-Cyclodextrin exists ...
... sometimes abbreviated as γ-CD, is an octasaccharide derived from glucose. The α- (alpha), β- (beta), and γ- ( ... γ-Cyclodextrin is well soluble in water and dimethyl sulfoxide, poorly soluble in methanol. γ-Cyclodextrins has the largest ... For this reason, γ-cyclodextrin is most commonly used as a complexing agent. γ-Cyclodextrin is widely used in medicine, ... The exterior surface of cyclodextrins is somewhat hydrophilic whereas the interior core is hydrophobic. γ-Cyclodextrin exists ...
Two maltose molecules also bind in the cleft, one sharing a binding site with alpha-cyclodextrin, and the other sitting more ... The 3D structure of a complex of soybean beta-amylase with an inhibitor (alpha-cyclodextrin) has been determined to 3.0A ... beta alpha)8 fold. The interface of the two domains, together with shorter loops from the (beta alpha)8 core, form a deep cleft ... preliminary chain tracing of the complex with alpha-cyclodextrin". Journal of Biochemistry. 112 (4): 541-6. doi:10.1093/ ...
"Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogels formed by biodegradable PEO-PHB-PEO triblock copolymers and alpha-cyclodextrin for ... By combining ferrocene dimer with β-cyclodextrin dimer, a redox-control supramolecular polymers system has been proposed as a ... Akira Harada was one of the firstwhorecognize the importance of combining polymers and cyclodextrins. Feihe Huang showed an ... cyclodextrins/adamantane derivatives, and pillar arene/imidazolium derivatives [30-33]. When the monomers are "heteroditopic", ...
... and alpha-cyclodextrin. Challenges include reagent cost and the efficiency of gold recovery. Thiourea has been implemented ...
Mono-, Oligo- und Polyrotaxane mit Cucurbituril und gemischte Polyrotaxane mit Cucurbituril und alpha-Cyclodextrin mittels ... U.S. Patent 6,365,734 The complex formation of a, w-dicarboxylic acids and a, w-diols with cucurbituril and a-cyclodextrin. the ... Other common molecular capsules that share a similar molecular shape with cucurbiturils include cyclodextrins, calixarenes, and ...
... as supramolecular or covalent bonding of cyclodextrins to alpha-hemolysin demonstrates. An ion channel can be characterized by ... Other substituted β-cyclodextrins have since been reported, including thiol-modified cyclodextrins, an anion-selective ... Chui, J. K. W.; Fyles, T. M. (May 2010). "Apparent fractal distribution of open durations in cyclodextrin-based ion channels". ... The first synthetic ion channel was constructed by partial substitution on the primary rim of β-cyclodextrin. ...
Water Molecule in Hydrophobic Surroundings: Structure of alpha-Cyclodextrin-Hexahydrate (C6H10O5)6·6H2O, Nature, 1972 Circular ...
... cyclodextrins MeSH D09.698.365.855.400.375.222 - alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D09.698.365.855.400.375.333 - beta-cyclodextrins MeSH ... D09.698.365.855.400.375.444 - gamma-cyclodextrins MeSH D09.698.365.855.500 - hetastarch MeSH D09.698.365.855.750 - inulin MeSH ...
... alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345.103.333 - beta-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345.103.444 - gamma-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345.241.308 ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 - hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 - 17- ... 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 - alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 - ... alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 - medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 - ...
... hydrolysis of m-tert-butylphenyl acetate is accelerated in the presence of 2-benzimidazoleacetic acid and alpha-cyclodextrin, ... developed a catalyst based on a beta-cyclodextrin carrying two imidazole groups. This cyclodextrin catalytic system mimics ... Cyclodextrins have rigid ring structure, hydrophilic surface, and hydrophobic cavity on the inside; therefore, they are capable ... From the early 1970s, cyclodextrins have been extensively studied for its encapsulation properties and used as binding sites in ...
"Selective isolation of gold facilitated by second-sphere coordination with alpha-cyclodextrin" Nature Communications 2013, 4, ... Macrocyclic molecules such as cyclodextrins act often as the second coordination sphere for metal complexes. Coordination ...
... where the readout of electrical signals occurred as nucleotides passed by alpha(α)-hemolysin pores covalently bound with ... cyclodextrin. However the subsequent commercial method, 'strand sequencing', sequenced DNA bases in an intact strand. Two main ...
At the moment, apiegnin and beta-cyclodextrin are thought to alleviate S.aureus pneumonia, whereas the antibodies of anti alpha ... It produces a ring-shaped complex called a staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin pore. In nature, Staphylococcus aureus secretes alpha ... In this case, it has been proven that alpha-hemolysin takes part in inducing necrotic pulmonary injury by the use of the NLRP3 ... This pore consists of seven alpha-hemolysin subunits, which represent the major cytotoxic agent that is freed by this kind of ...
Cyclodextrin The cyclical dextrins are known as cyclodextrins. They are formed by enzymatic degradation of starch by certain ... Alpha) Limit dextrin is a short chained branched amylopectin remnant, produced by hydrolysis of amylopectin with alpha amylase ... that can be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds or debranching amylopectin. Amylodextrin colors ... which cannot hydrolyse the alpha-1,6 bonds at branch points. ( ... Cyclodextrins have toroidal structures formed by 6-8 glucose ...
The maltogenic alpha-amylase is an enzyme which catalyses hydrolysis of (1-4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides so ... which hydrolyses cyclodextrins. Henrissat B, Callebaut I, Fabrega S, Lehn P, Mornon JP, Davies G (July 1995). "Conserved ... as to remove successive alpha-maltose residues from the non-reducing ends of the chains in the conversion of starch to maltose ...
Importantly, oral administration of an alamandine/2-hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) complex produced an antihypertensive ... TNF alpha and CCL2) and pro-fibrotic factors (MMP2 and TGF β1), and increased pro-resolution markers (MRC1 and FIZZ1) Almandine ...
"Complex structures of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase 2 with acarbose and cyclodextrins demonstrate the multiple ... While most alpha-amylase enzymes only cleave alpha-1,4-linkages in their substrates, neopullulanase additionally cleaves alpha- ... 6-alpha-D-glucosylmaltose) The breakdown of the alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glucosidic bonds of intermediates produced in addition ... These intermediates then have their alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glucosidic bonds hydrolyzed to form additional panose along with ...
Johnson, Todd (July 1, 2013). "Illumina - A Deeper Look Into A Genetic Technology Investment". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 12 ... cyclodextrin". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 105 (5): 1390-91. doi:10.1021/ja00343a063. Clarke, Tom (June 18, 2002 ...
CPT is linked to a cyclodextrin-based polymer to form the investigational anti-cancer drug CRLX101. Like all other ... Then this intermediate is converted to indole glycerol phosphate, which interacts with the alpha-subunit of tryptophan (TSA) ... First, chorismate is converted to anthranilate by the alpha-subunit of anthranilate synthase (ASA). Anthranilate reacts with 5- ... and one chiral center at position 20 within the alpha-hydroxy lactone ring with (S) configuration (the E-ring). Its planar ...
Chemically they are similar to the much smaller cyclodextrins, which are typically composed of 6, 7 or 8 glucose units. ... Takaha, T.; Yanase, M.; Okada, S.; Smith, S. M. (1993-01-15). "Disproportionating enzyme (4-alpha-glucanotransferase; EC 2.4. ... While the structures of cyclodextrins are planar circles, the structure of cycloamyloses with 10 to 14 glucose units were ... "Structures of the Common Cyclodextrins and Their Larger AnaloguesBeyond the Doughnut". Chemical Reviews. 98 (5): 1787-1802. doi ...
However, bacterial alpha-amylases from gut microbiome are able to degrade acarbose. Pancreatic alpha-amylase hydrolyzes complex ... Park KH (2006). "Function and Tertiary- and Quaternary-structure of Cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing Enzymes (CDase), a Group of ... October 2007). "The 'pair of sugar tongs' site on the non-catalytic domain C of barley alpha-amylase participates in substrate ... It has been reported that the maltogenic alpha-amylase from Thermus sp. IM6501 (ThMA) and a cyclodextrinase (CDase) from ...
He also showed that cyclodextrin can be used to investigate catalysis of organic reactions within the scope of host-guest ... Philipp, Manfred; Bender, Myron L. (1973). "Is binding the rate-limiting step in acylation of alpha-chymotrypsin by specific ... Bender, Myron L; Kobiyama, M. (1978). Cyclodextrin Chemistry. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3540085775. Northwestern ... and also cyclodextrin chemistry; The series of Myron L. Bender & Muriel S. Bender Distinguished Summer Lectures in Organic ...
... color Alpha-carotene - color Beta-carotene - color Gamma-carotene - color Carrageenan - thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, ... artificial sweetener beta-cyclodextrin - emulsifier Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, C. flexuosus, and other species) - Damiana ... antioxidant Dl-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) - antioxidant Dodecyl gallate - antioxidant Echinacea - EDTA - Antioxidant, ...
Crystal dissolvents have been under research, for example with cyclodextrin in atherosclerosis. Another approach would be to ... Finally, this activates the inflammatory response including the release of pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 alpha, interleukin 1 ... Paraproteins Amyloid beta peptides Amylin Transthyretin Alpha-synuclein Prions Uromodulin ASC speck complex Myoglobin Heme ...
... complex with Alpha CD , Cyclodextrins , Aquaplex® Complexes , AP-Flavors™ , Cyclodex ... Pinene (Beta) complex with Alpha CD. Price: $94.00 per Gram. QTY:. Add to Cart. Add to Wish List Ask about this product ...
Alpha-Cyclodextrin is a naturally occurring sugar derived from starch molecules. It is an odorless, white crystalline solid ... Alpha-Cyclodextrin. What is Alpha-Cyclodextrin?. Alpha-Cyclodextrin is a naturally occurring sugar derived from starch ... Where is Alpha-Cyclodextrin Found?. Alpha-Cyclodextrin can be found in a number of food items. It is commonly used in dairy ... Where is Alpha-Cyclodextrin Generally Used?. Alpha-Cyclodextrin is used in a variety of applications. In the pharmaceutical ...
... alpha php research chemical from alpha php research chemical online Wholesaler of 16891822. ... 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis[3,5-bis(per-O-methyl-alpha-cyclodextrin-6-yloxy)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine. ... 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis 4-(per-O-methyl-alpha-cyclodextrin-6-yloxy)phenyl-21H,23H-porphine. ... 1,1,1-Tris 4-(per-O-methyl-alpha-cyclodextrin-6-yloxy)phenyl ethane. ...
Reaction products of .alpha.-cyclodextrin and methyloxirane. Inventory. EC number:. 451-510-9. EC name:. -. CAS number:. -. ... 2-HYDROXYPROPYL-ALPHA-CYCLODEXTRIN. CAS number:. 128446-33-3. Synonyms. Molecular and structural information. Molecular formula ...
... Abruzzo A.;Saladini B.; ... The influence of two vegetable oils, olive oil or wheat germ oil, in the pres-ence of α-cyclodextrin and different drying ... The influence of two vegetable oils, olive oil or wheat germ oil, in the pres-ence of α-cyclodextrin and different drying ... Methods: Emulsions were prepared by adding olive oil or wheat germ oil to an aqueous solution of α-cyclodextrin and ...
α-Cyclodextrin (alpha-cyclodextrin), sometimes abbreviated as α-CD, is a hexasaccharide derived from glucose. It is related to ... All cyclodextrins are white, water-soluble solids with minimal toxicity. Cyclodextrins tend to bind other molecules in their ... Then cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is added for enzymatic conversion. CGTases produce diverse cyclodextrins. The ... β-Cyclodextrin Gatiatulin, Askar (2022), "Determination of Melting Parameters of Cyclodextrins Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry ...
Reaction of oxiranes with cyclodextrins under high-energy ball-milling conditions ... Process for producing 2-hydroxy-propyl-alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin. Hungarian Patent HU202889, Sept 30, 1991. Return ... Trotta, F. Cyclodextrin Nanosponges and Their Applications. In Cyclodextrins in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and Biomedicine; ... Trotta, F. Cyclodextrin Nanosponges and Their Applications. In Cyclodextrins in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and Biomedicine; ...
Soluble cyclodextrin inclusion compound of Curcumin-Zibo Qianhui Biological Technology Co., Ltd.-Beta cyclodextrin series, ... Alpha Cyclodextrin Series Beta Cyclodextrin Series Gamma Cyclodextrin Series Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compound Series ... Alpha Cyclodextrin Series Beta Cyclodextrin Series Gamma Cyclodextrin Series Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compound Series ... Alpha Cyclodextrin Series Beta Cyclodextrin Series Gamma Cyclodextrin Series Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compound Series ...
... cyclodextrins, but not for alpha cyclodextrin. Binding free energies from the MD simulation for ,i,β,/i,-, ,i,γ,/i ... and HP-beta-cyclodextrins. Thus, MD simulation with MM-PBSA method may be fit to ,i,in silico,/i, screen for cyclodextrin ... However, current cyclodextrin formulation development strongly depends on trial-and-error in the laboratory, which is time- ... The enthalpies of QM simulation for ,i,β,/i,-, ,i,γ,/i,-, and HP-,i,β,/i,-cyclodextrins were −17.22 ...
... alpha cyclodextrin; In water; for 48h; Product distribution; Ambient temperature; presence of β-, and γ-cyclodextrin; kinetic ... With sodium tetrahydroborate; alpha cyclodextrin; In water; for 48h; Title compound not separated from byproducts; Ambient ... With sodium tetrahydroborate; β‐cyclodextrin; In water; for 48h; Product distribution; Ambient temperature; other epoxides, ...
Alpha cyclodextrins may support flushing of rancid/oxidized phospholipids from cell membranes. ... Proprietary blend of (2-Hydroxypropol) ⍺-cyclodextrin, (2-Hydroxypropol) β-cyclodextrin, Vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate), ... Cyclodextrins may support the body in a healthy response to oxysterols and support lysosomes. ... Cyclodextrins may support a healthy response to prions and prion like particles. ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ASPARAGINE 233-REPLACED CYCLODEXTRIN GLUCANOTRANSFERASE FROM ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. 1011 DETERMINED AT ... While the wild-type CGTase from the same bacterium produces a mixture of mainly alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins, ... mutation of histidine-233 to asparagine changed the nature of the enzyme such that it no longer produced alpha-cyclodextrin. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ASPARAGINE 233-REPLACED CYCLODEXTRIN GLUCANOTRANSFERASE FROM ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. 1011 DETERMINED AT ...
While trying to fabricate a porous material, the researchers mixed a starch called alpha-Cyclodextrin with gold salts (charged ... The anti-cancer drug TNF-alpha kills cancer very effectively. Unfortunately, its also incredibly toxic to healthy cells. ... However, clinical trials now underway have found that linking TNF-alpha drugs to gold nanoparticles can successfully treat ...
With alpha-cyclodextrin CAVAMAX® W6 FOOD, WACKER offers manufacturers a possibility to replace emulsifiers with a soluble fibre ... Wacker has more than 20 years of experience in manufacturing and formulating alpha, beta and gamma-cyclodextrins. With research ... WACKER offers molecular encapsulation solutions based on its cyclodextrin technology for odour or taste-masking, to stabilise ... By complexation with WACKERs CAVAMAX® gamma-cyclodextrin, curcumins bioavailability is enhanced considerably. ...
Towards porous silica materials via nanocasting of stable pseudopolyrotaxanes from alpha-cyclodextrin and polyamines. ... Zhou, Y.; Yu, S. H.; Thomas, A.; Han, B. H.: In situ cyclodextrin-based homogeneous incorporation of metal (M = Pd, Pt, Ru) ... Han, B. H.; Polarz, S.; Antonietti, M.: Cyclodextrin-based porous silica materials as in situ chemical "nanoreactors" for the ... Han, B. H.; Antonietti, M.: Cyclodextrin-based pseudopolyrotaxanes as templates for the generation of porous silica materials. ...
It is a soluble dietary fiber made of a polysaccharide is known as Alpha cyclodextrin. This ingredient derived from grain was ...
The rotary movement of a chromophore-modified alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) was studied in a rotaxane structure attached to a ... The motion of the alpha-CD is suspended in the dry state, whereas a fast rotary movement/rotary vibration is observed in the ... The rotary movement of the alpha-CD was demonstrated by defocused wide-field imaging with total internal reflection ...
Compared to other common cyclodextrins - such as alpha-cyclodextrin and beta-cyclodextrin - gamma-cyclodextrin is the largest ... Gamma-cyclodextrins water-soluble, doughnut-shaped structure allows it to trap other molecules and makes it useful in the ... "Gamma-cyclodextrin was already useful to industry, now were making it more accessible for producers of pharmaceuticals, food ... Cyclodextrins are naturally occurring compounds that encapsulate and preserve active ingredients in a product until it is used ...
Wagner EM, Jen KLC, Artiss JD, Remaley AT (2008) Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers LDL-C and alters plasma fatty acid profile ... Pranckuté R, Kaunietis A, Kuisiené N, Citavicius D (2014) Development of synbiotics with inulin, palatinose, α-cyclodextrin and ...
Carboxymethyl-alpha-Cyclodextrin sodium salt, CMACD. Product Name. : Carboxymethyl-α-Cyclodextrin sodium salt. ... Gamma-Cyclodextrin sulfate sodium salt, SGCD. Product Name. : γ-Cyclodextrin sulfate sodium salt. ... Beta-Cyclodextrin sulfate sodium salt, SBCD. Product Name. : β-Cyclodextrin sulfate sodium salt. ... Carboxymethyl-beta-Cyclodextrin sodium salt, CMBCD. Product Name. : Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin sodium salt. ...
The method uses sulfated alpha-cyclodextrin in the presence of Mg+2 , which forms complexes with apoB containing lipoproteins, ... ApoB containing lipoproteins + a-cyclodextrin + Mg+2 + dextran SO4 ---, soluble non-reactive complexes with apoB-containing ...
Posts about alpha-CD written by István Puskás, evafenyvesi, szelevente, and szentecyclolabhu ... Geographical variation of gut microflora shows diversity in catabolizing alpha-cyclodextrin Tags. alpha-CD Biotechnology Cancer ... Oral Xenon/alpha-Cyclodextrin Provides Neuroprotection for Ischemic Stroke. Ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of long- ... Geographical variation of gut microflora shows diversity in catabolizing alpha-cyclodextrin. A recent study published by Bhagat ...
Szente L, Puskás I, Vellai T, Lohmann H (2021) Effects of alpha-cyclodextrin on water transport, cell hydration and longevity. ... Beissner M, Dutertre S, Schemm R, Danker T, Sporning A, Grubmuller H, Nicke A (2012) Efficient Binding of 4/7 alpha-Conotoxins ... Eggert M, Winterer G, Wanischeck M, Hoda JC, Bertrand D, Steinlein O (2015) The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 ... Dimeric alpha-cobratoxin X-ray structure: localization of intermolecular disulfides and possible mode of binding to nicotinic ...
An inclusion complex formation between alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin and four phenylurea analogues, namely metobromuron, ... A parallel study was conducted of the inclusion of alkyl parabens (guests) in the host β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). 1H NMR data ... Inclusion of parabens in beta-cyclodextrin: A solution NMR and X-ray structural investigation *Diana BOGDAN ... Cyclodextrin inclusion of four phenylurea herbicides: determination of complex stoichiometries and stability constants using ...
Ohtani Y, Irie T, Uekama K, Fukunaga K, Pitha J: Differential effects of alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins on human ... Ohtani Y, Irie T, Uekama K, Fukunaga K, Pitha J: Differential effects of alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins on human ... Ko YG, Lee JS, Kang YS, Ahn JH, Seo JS: TNF-alpha−mediated apoptosis is initiated in caveolae-like domains. J Immunol ... Ko YG, Lee JS, Kang YS, Ahn JH, Seo JS: TNF-alpha−mediated apoptosis is initiated in caveolae-like domains. J Immunol ...
Observation of .alpha.-terthiophene excited dimer fluorescence in aqueous solutions of .gamma.-cyclodextrin ... Bimolecular Processes of .alpha.-Terthiophene in a .beta.-Cyclodextrin Environment: An Exploratory Study ... Tuning of the .alpha.-Terthiophene Radical Cation Coupling Reaction by the Use of Mixed Micelles with Varying Charge Density ... alpha.-Terthiophene in Micellar Solutions: Influence of Micellar Size and Charge on the Terthiophene Photophysics and ...
Decision 2008/413/EC: authorising the placing on the market of alpha-cyclodextrin as a novel food ingredient ... Commission Implementing Decision 2012/288/EU: authorising the placing on the market of Gamma-Cyclodextrin as a novel food ...
This mechanism has been used to investigate the spontaneous formation of a PPR that occurs when grinding alpha-Cyclodextrin ( ... Título: Solvent-free formation of cyclodextrin-based pseudopolyrotaxanes of polyethylene glycol: kinetic and structural aspects ... alpha-CD) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the threading stage, the inclusion of the polymer and subsequent release of the ...
I am currently testing this for alpha-cyclodextrin. I have run equilibration (1ns) and dynamics (100ns) on alpha-cyclodextrin ... cyclodextrins in a waterbox with periodic boundary conditions, using the NPT ensemble. ...
is a private SME with a focus on cyclodextrin research and development for over 30 years. We are working in the fields of ... pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry, agrochemical, environmental and analytical applications of cyclodextrins. ... Alpha-cyclodextrin, 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Solubility. (in 100 cm3 solvent, at 25 °C). Water: 30 g. Methanol: , 1 g. ... 2-Carboxyethyl)-alpha-cyclodextrin (DS~3). (CODE: CY-1012.0) Price: € 48.09 / g ...
  • MD simulation indicated that ibuprofen could form the stable complexes with β -, γ -, and HP- β -cyclodextrins, but not for alpha cyclodextrin. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, ibuprofen and cyclodextrin complexes have been studied using different experimental techniques [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One-step synthesis of copper nanoparticles containing mesoporous silica by nanocasting of binuclear copper(II) complexes with cyclodextrins. (mpg.de)
  • The method uses sulfated alpha-cyclodextrin in the presence of Mg +2 , which forms complexes with apoB containing lipoproteins, and polyethylene glycol-coupled cholesteryl esterase and cholesterol oxidase for the HDL-cholesterol measurement. (cdc.gov)
  • It is related to the β- (beta) and γ- (gamma) cyclodextrins, which contain seven and eight glucose units, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the wild-type CGTase from the same bacterium produces a mixture of mainly alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins, catalyzing the conversion of starch into cyclic or linear alpha-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl chains, site-directed mutation of histidine-233 to asparagine changed the nature of the enzyme such that it no longer produced alpha-cyclodextrin. (rcsb.org)
  • All cyclodextrins are white, water-soluble solids with minimal toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclodextrins are widely used for the solubilisation of poorly soluble drugs in the formulations. (hindawi.com)
  • Cyclodextrins (CDs) are natural pharmaceutical ingredients for the solubility-enhancement of poorly soluble drugs for over half century. (hindawi.com)
  • With alpha-cyclodextrin CAVAMAX® W6 FOOD, WACKER offers manufacturers a possibility to replace emulsifiers with a soluble fibre. (foodprocessing-technology.com)
  • It is a soluble dietary fiber made of a polysaccharide is known as Alpha cyclodextrin. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • The research, published in Chem , demonstrates how a hydrazone template can replace energy-intensive distillation to produce and isolate gamma-cyclodextrin - a water-soluble chemical that attracts other molecules and is used to enhance food, pharmaceuticals, and a wide range of consumer products. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Compared to other common cyclodextrins - such as alpha-cyclodextrin and beta-cyclodextrin - gamma-cyclodextrin is the largest and most water soluble. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Finally, more economic substrates, including β-cyclodextrin, soluble starch, corn starch and cassava starch could also be used as glycosyl donors, and 4.9, 3.5, 1.3 and 1.5 g/L of AA-2G were obtained, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This mechanism has been used to investigate the spontaneous formation of a PPR that occurs when grinding alpha-Cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). (unav.edu)
  • The KAIST team's ingenious use of mechanical bonds in slide-ring polyrotaxanes-based on polyethylene glycol threaded with functionalized alpha-cyclodextrin rings-marks a breakthrough in the performance of marketable lithium-ion batteries," said Sir Fraser Stoddart of Northwestern University in the US who received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the mechanical bond. (asianscientist.com)
  • Then cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is added for enzymatic conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five kinds of enzymes could catalyze the AA-2G production, including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, sucrose phosphatase, α-isomaltosyl glucosaccharide-forming enzyme and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.19, CGTase). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is a naturally occurring sugar derived from starch molecules. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is created from the breakdown of starch molecules, specifically from potatoes. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Cyclodextrins tend to bind other molecules in their quasi-cylindrical, lipophilic interiors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results from all three modeling approaches showed similar ranking between ibuprofen and four cyclodextrin molecules as the experimental data. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this research was to compare three modeling approaches (Docking, molecular dynamics (MD), and quantum mechanics (QM)) for cyclodextrin/drug complexation. (hindawi.com)
  • Docking results from AutoDock Vina program showed that the scoring of complexation capability between ibuprofen and cyclodextrins is alpha ( α ), gamma ( γ ), beta ( β ), and HP-beta-cyclodextrins, which indicated similar ranking with the results from phase, solubility diagram experiments. (hindawi.com)
  • From the search of Web of Science, there are over 700 research papers about theoretical calculations on cyclodextrins complexation with various drugs until 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • There are also a few theoretical research papers on the complexation of ibuprofen and cyclodextrins [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By complexation with WACKER's CAVAMAX® gamma-cyclodextrin, curcumin's bioavailability is enhanced considerably. (foodprocessing-technology.com)
  • Proprietary blend of (2-Hydroxypropol) ⍺-cyclodextrin, (2-Hydroxypropol) β-cyclodextrin, Vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate), proline, sodium decanoate, rosemary extract and distilled water. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Towards porous silica materials via nanocasting of stable pseudopolyrotaxanes from alpha-cyclodextrin and polyamines. (mpg.de)
  • Cyclodextrin-based pseudopolyrotaxanes as templates for the generation of porous silica materials. (mpg.de)
  • For drug delivery, this cyclodextrin confers aqueous solubility to hydrophobic drugs and stability to labile drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • I n order to improve the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin (CUR C ), it can be prepared as cyclodextrin inclusion complex, which has many advantages of low raw material cost, high biosafety and simple preparation method etc. (ziboqianhui.com)
  • Cyclodextrins are natural starch-conversion products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-amylase is an essential enzyme in alpha-glucan metabolism, acting to catalyse the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds of glycogen, starch and related polysaccharides. (embl.de)
  • Methods: Emulsions were prepared by adding olive oil or wheat germ oil to an aqueous solution of α-cyclodextrin and subsequently dried through an oven, freeze-dryer or spray-dryer. (unibo.it)
  • Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) can transform L-ascorbic acid (L-AA, vitamin C) to 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), which shows diverse applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rotary movement of a chromophore-modified alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) was studied in a rotaxane structure attached to a glass substrate. (science20.com)
  • In addition, intramolecular transglycosylation reaction includes disproportionation reaction (transfer the donor substrate to acceptor substrate) and coupling reaction (cleave cyclodextrins and transfer the resulting maltooligosaccharide to acceptor substrate) [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our method relies on using hydrazone, which is a photoswitch that can be easily added into the gamma-cyclodextrin cavity," said Aprahamian. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Through the use of a template made from light-sensitive hydrazone, the new process guides gamma-cyclodextrin into its distinctive container-like doughnut shape during its enzymatic production, but can then be removed using a cost-effective and environmentally friendly photoirradiation process. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Reference: "Dynamic enzymatic synthesis of γ-cyclodextrin using a photoremovable hydrazone template" by Sirun Yang, Dennis Larsen, Maria Pellegrini, Sebastian Meier, Dale F. Mierke, Sophie R. Beeren and Ivan Aprahamian, 21 June 2021, Chem . (scitechdaily.com)
  • An inclusion complex formation between alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin and four phenylurea analogues, namely metobromuron, monolinuron, monuron and fenuron, is reported. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Cyclodextrins are naturally occurring compounds that encapsulate and preserve active ingredients in a product until it is used. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In situ cyclodextrin-based homogeneous incorporation of metal (M = Pd, Pt, Ru) nanoparticles into silica with bimodal pore structure. (mpg.de)
  • In α-cyclodextrin, the six glucose subunits are linked end to end via α-1, 4 linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Cyclodextrin Gatiatulin, Askar (2022), "Determination of Melting Parameters of Cyclodextrins Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry", Int. J. Mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical composition of cyclodextrin consists of D-glucopyranoses, which are linked by alpha 1,4-glycosidic bonds to form the macrocyclic ring conformations. (hindawi.com)
  • Cyclodextrin-based porous silica materials as in situ chemical "nanoreactors" for the preparation of variable metal-silica hybrids. (mpg.de)
  • A process using a light-sensitive chemical can drastically reduce cost and energy consumption to produce gamma-cyclodextrin, a compound that is widely used in manufacturing, according to a Dartmouth study. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Alpha cyclodextrins may support flushing of rancid/oxidized phospholipids from cell membranes. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Szente L, Puskás I, Vellai T, Lohmann H ( 2021 ) Effects of alpha-cyclodextrin on water transport, cell hydration and longevity. (multichannelsystems.com)
  • However, it is important to talk to a healthcare professional before taking any dietary supplement, as Alpha-Cyclodextrin may interact with certain medications. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Results: The formation of stable and milky emulsion was assured by cyclodextrin ability to interact with oil components obtaining an inclusion complex with amphiphilic property able to act as a surface-active agent. (unibo.it)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is a naturally occurring sugar, meaning it is not artificially created or derived. (lovetofeel.com)
  • WACKER offers molecular encapsulation solutions based on its cyclodextrin technology for odour or taste-masking, to stabilise food ingredients against heat and oxidation and to increase the bioavailability of functional ingredients, such as curcumin. (foodprocessing-technology.com)
  • However, cyclodextrins are poor across most of the biological membranes due to their high molecular weight and inherent hydrophilicity [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecule modeling method is able to investigate the structure, dynamics, and energetics of cyclodextrin systems. (hindawi.com)
  • My system involves heating, equilibrating and running dynamics on cyclodextrins in a waterbox with periodic boundary conditions, using the NPT ensemble. (uiuc.edu)
  • I have run equilibration (1ns) and dynamics (100ns) on alpha-cyclodextrin using Langevin dynamics for temperature and pressure control, but the temperature and energy fluctuations are high during the simulation (temp. (uiuc.edu)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is generally considered to be safe for consumption. (lovetofeel.com)
  • A recent Japanese study revealed surprising enhanced sports endurance of human volunteers after long-term consumption of α-cyclodextrin. (cyclodextrinnews.com)
  • Gamma-cyclodextrin was already useful to industry, now we're making it more accessible for producers of pharmaceuticals, food and household products. (scitechdaily.com)
  • With cheaper production costs, gamma-cyclodextrin could become more available for use in a wide range of consumer products. (scitechdaily.com)
  • However, MD simulation with entropy calculation had the closest value to experimental data for β and HP-beta-cyclodextrins. (hindawi.com)
  • Auf einem binären chiralen Selektor aus Chirasil-beta-Dex und Octakis(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-gamma-cyclodextrin (Lipodex G) konnte die simultane Enantiomerentrennung von allen C7-C8 chiralen Alkanen, die ein stereogenes Zentrum aufweisen, in einem gaschromatographischen Lauf erreicht werden. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Mit einem weiteren binären chiralen Selektorsystem aus Heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin und Octakis(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-gamma-cyclodextrin (Lipodex G) in Polysiloxan PS 086 wurde die simultane Enantiomerentrennung von allen kleinen chiralen Alkanen mit einem stereogenen Zentrum und von 17 alpha-Aminosäuren als N-(O,S)-Trifluoracetyl-alkyl-estern in einer einzigen gaschromato-graphischen Messung ermöglicht. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Während Chirasil-beta-Dex bereits seit vielen Jahren erfolgreich für die Enantiomerentrennung von verschiedenen Substanzklassen eingesetzt wird, sind die kongeneren Systeme Chirasil-alpha-Dex und Chirasil-gamma-Dex noch nicht auf ihre enantiomere Trennleistung hin untersucht worden. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Zahlreiche Selektanden zeigten deutlich höhere Trennfaktoren und bessere Auflösungen an Chirasil-alpha-Dex als an dem kommerziell verfügbaren Selektor Chirasil-beta-Dex. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • In many cases, statistical (random) substitution results in essential changes in the hydrogen bonding systems of the cyclodextrin hydroxy rims, and is especially useful when the crystalline complex formation with the guest is undesirable. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin has a variety of uses, including in pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, and as a dietary supplement. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin is increasingly used as a dietary supplement to promote improved digestion and gut health. (lovetofeel.com)
  • Cyclodextrins may support many of the same systems as intermittent fasting. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • α-Cyclodextrin is marketed for a range of medical, healthcare, and food and beverage applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influence of two vegetable oils, olive oil or wheat germ oil, in the pres-ence of α-cyclodextrin and different drying techniques on the dry emulsion properties was evaluated. (unibo.it)
  • The simplified preparation and purification of low substitution-degree common (2-hydroxy)propylated β- and γ-cyclodextrins (β/γ-CDs) has been realised. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • In the food and beverage industry, Alpha-Cyclodextrin is commonly used as an emulsifier, thickener, and stabilizer. (lovetofeel.com)
  • According to Aprahamian, the challenge for industry is that gamma-cyclodextrin is also energy-intensive and expensive to prepare and isolate. (scitechdaily.com)
  • There are over 35 commercially available pharmaceutical formulations including various natural or chemically modified cyclodextrins [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cieslikiewicz-Bouet M, Naldi M, Bartolini M, Pérez B, Servent D, Jean L, Aráoz R, Renard P-Y ( 2020 ) Functional characterization of multifunctional ligands targeting acetylcholinesterase and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (multichannelsystems.com)
  • This work presents a proof of concept for a green cyclodextrin derivatisation method that uses low-boiling epoxide reagents in a high-energy ball mill (HEBM). (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Thus, MD simulation with MM-PBSA method may be fit to in silico screen for cyclodextrin formulations. (hindawi.com)
  • α-cyclodextrin was the ideal glycosyl donor for AA-2G production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, current cyclodextrin formulation development strongly depends on trial-and-error in the laboratory, which is time-consuming and high cost. (hindawi.com)
  • Several professional and in-depth studies on the current state of various cyclodextrin industries with a focus on the Chinese market can be purchased from Reports Express. (cyclolab.hu)
  • Alpha-Cyclodextrin can be found in a number of food items. (lovetofeel.com)
  • A parallel study was conducted of the inclusion of alkyl parabens (guests) in the host β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). (ad-astra.ro)