Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Lens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).KynurenineDeamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Eye ProteinsProto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Lens Cortex, Crystalline: The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.DucksImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

Alpha-crystallin binds to the aggregation-prone molten-globule state of alkaline protease: implications for preventing irreversible thermal denaturation. (1/156)

Alpha-crystallin, the major eye-lens protein with sequence homology with heat-shock proteins (HSPs), acts like a molecular chaperone by suppressing the aggregation of damaged crystallins and proteins. To gain more insight into its chaperoning ability, we used a protease as the model system that is known to require a propeptide (intramolecular chaperone) for its proper folding. The protease ("N" state) from Conidiobolus macrosporus (NCIM 1298) unfolds at pH 2.0 ("U" state) through a partially unfolded "I" state at pH 3.5 that undergoes transition to a molten globule-(MG) like "I(A)" state in the presence of 0.5 M sodium sulfate. The thermally-stressed I(A) state showed complete loss of structure and was prone to aggregation. Alpha-crystallin was able to bind to this state and suppress its aggregation, thereby preventing irreversible denaturation of the enzyme. The alpha-crystallin-bound I(A) state exhibited native-like secondary and tertiary structure showing the interaction of alpha-crystallin with the MG state of the protease. 8-Anilinonaphthalene sulphonate (ANS) binding studies revealed the involvement of hydrophobic interactions in the formation of the complex of alpha-crystallin and protease. Refolding of acid-denatured protease by dilution to pH 7.5 resulted in aggregation of the protein. Unfolding of the protease in the presence of alpha-crystallin and its subsequent refolding resulted in the generation of a near-native intermediate with partial secondary and tertiary structure. Our studies represent the first report of involvement of a molecular chaperone-like alpha-crystallin in the unfolding and refolding of a protease. Alpha-crystallin blocks the unfavorable pathways that lead to irreversible denaturation of the alkaline protease and keeps it in a near-native, folding-competent intermediate state.  (+info)

Mass measurements of C-terminally truncated alpha-crystallins from two-dimensional gels identify Lp82 as a major endopeptidase in rat lens. (2/156)

Molecular chaperone activity of lens alpha-crystallins is reduced by loss of the C terminus. The purpose of this experiment was to 1) determine the cleavage sites produced in vitro by ubiquitous m-calpain and lens-specific Lp82 on alpha-crystallins, 2) identify alpha-crystallin cleavage sites produced in vivo during maturation and cataract formation in rat lens, and 3) estimate the relative activities of Lp82 and m-calpain by appearance of protease-specific cleavage products in vivo. Total soluble protein from young rat lens was incubated with recombinant m-calpain or Lp82 and 2 mM Ca2+. Resulting fragmented alpha-crystallins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Eluted alpha-crystallin spots were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Cleavage sites on insoluble alpha-crystallins were determined similarly in mature rat lens nucleus and in cataractous rat lens nucleus induced by selenite. In vitro proteolysis of alphaA-crystallin by Lp82 and m-calpain produced unique cleavage sites by removing 5 and 11 residues, respectively, from the C terminus. In vivo, the protease-specific truncations removing 5 and 11 residues from alphaA were both found in maturing lens, whereas only the truncation removing 5 residues was found in cataractous lens. Other truncation sites, common to both calpain isoforms, resulted from the removal of 8, 10, 16, 17, and 22 residues from the C terminus of alphaA. Using uniquely truncated alphaA-crystallins as in vivo markers, Lp82 and m-calpain were both found to be active during normal maturation of rat lens, whereas Lp82 seemed especially active during selenite cataract formation. These C-terminal truncations decrease chaperone activity of alpha-crystallins, possibly leading to the observed increases in insoluble proteins during aging and cataract. The methodology that allowed accurate mass measurements of proteins eluted from 2D gels should be useful to examine rapidly other post-translational modifications.  (+info)

Subunit exchange, conformational stability, and chaperone-like function of the small heat shock protein 16.5 from Methanococcus jannaschii. (3/156)

Hsp16.5, isolated from the hyperthermophilic Archaea Methanococcus jannaschii, is a member of the small heat-shock protein family. Small Hsps have 12- to 42-kDa subunit sizes and have sequences that are conserved among all organisms. The recently determined crystal structure of Hsp16.5 indicates that it consists discretely of 24 identical subunits. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we show that at temperatures above 60 degrees C, the subunits of MjHsp16.5 freely and reversibly exchange with a rate constant of exchange at 68 degrees C of 0.067 min(-1). The subunit exchange reactions were strongly temperature-dependent, similar to the exchange reactions of the alpha-crystallins. The exchange reaction was specific to MjHsp16.5 subunits, as other sHsps such as alpha-crystallin were not structurally compatible and could not integrate into the MjHsp16.5 oligomer. In addition, we demonstrate that at temperatures as high as 70 degrees C, MjHsp16.5 retains its multimeric structure and subunit organization. Using insulin and alpha-lactalbumin as model target proteins, we also show that MjHsp16.5 at 37 degrees C is a markedly inefficient chaperone compared with other sHsps with these substrates. The results of this study support the hypothesis that MjHsp16.5 has a dynamic quaternary structure at temperatures that are physiologically relevant to M. jannaschii.  (+info)

Molecular adaptations of neuromuscular disease-associated proteins in response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. (4/156)

The molecular events by which eccentric muscle contractions induce muscle damage and remodelling remain largely unknown. We assessed whether eccentric exercise modulates the expression of proteinases (calpains 1, 2 and 3, proteasome, cathepsin B+L), muscle structural proteins (alpha-sarcoglycan and desmin), and the expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp27 and alphaB-crystallin. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from twelve healthy male volunteers were obtained before, immediately after, and 1 and 14 days after a 30 min downhill treadmill running exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage as evidenced by the analysis of muscle pain and weakness, creatine kinase serum activity, myoglobinaemia and ultrastructural analysis of muscle biopsies. The calpain 3 mRNA level was decreased immediately after exercise whereas calpain 2 mRNA level was increased at day 1. Both mRNA levels returned to control values by day 14. By contrast, cathepsin B+L and proteasome enzyme activities were increased at day 14. The alpha-sarcoglycan protein level was decreased immediately after exercise and at day 1, whereas the desmin level peaked at day 14. alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 protein levels were increased at days 1 and 14. Our results suggest that the differential expression of calpain 2 and 3 mRNA levels may be important in the process of exercise-induced muscle damage, whereas expression of alpha-sarcoglycan, desmin, alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 may be essentially involved in the subsequent remodelling of myofibrillar structure. This remodelling response may limit the extent of muscle damage upon a subsequent mechanical stress.  (+info)

Enzyme activity after resealing within ghost erythrocyte cells, and protection by alpha-crystallin against fructose-induced inactivation. (5/156)

The role of alpha-crystallin as a molecular chaperone has been shown in many in vitro studies. In the present paper, we report on the chaperone function of alpha-crystallin within resealed erythrocyte ghosts. Eight enzymes were individually resealed within erythrocyte ghosts and assayed at zero time and at 24 h. The ghost cell suspension was separated into soluble and membrane fractions. Five of the enzymes had significantly greater enzyme activity after 24 h than the control within the soluble fractions. Fructation caused a decrease in enzyme activity (relative to the control). Resealing of alpha-crystallin within the ghost cell alongside the enzymes protected against inactivation by fructose within the soluble fraction.  (+info)

Role of the C-terminal extensions of alpha-crystallins. Swapping the C-terminal extension of alpha-crystallin to alphaB-crystallin results in enhanced chaperone activity. (6/156)

Several small heat shock proteins contain a well conserved alpha-crystallin domain, flanked by an N-terminal domain and a C-terminal extension, both of which vary in length and sequence. The structural and functional role of the C-terminal extension of small heat shock proteins, particularly of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins, is not well understood. We have swapped the C-terminal extensions between alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins and generated two novel chimeric proteins, alphaABc and alphaBAc. We have investigated the domain-swapped chimeras for structural and functional alterations. We have used thermal and non-thermal models of protein aggregation and found that the chimeric alphaB with the C-terminal extension of alphaA-crystallin, alphaBAc, exhibits dramatically enhanced chaperone-like activity. Interestingly, however, the chimeric alphaA with the C-terminal extension of alphaB-crystallin, alphaABc, has almost lost its activity. Pyrene solubilization and bis-1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate binding studies show that alphaBAc exhibits more solvent-exposed hydrophobic pockets than alphaA, alphaB, or alphaABc. Significant tertiary structural changes are revealed by tryptophan fluorescence and near-UV CD studies upon swapping the C-terminal extensions. The far-UV CD spectrum of alphaBAc differs from that of alphaB-crystallin whereas that of alphaABc overlaps with that of alphaA-crystallin. Gel filtration chromatography shows alteration in the size of the proteins upon swapping the C-terminal extensions. Our study demonstrates that the unstructured C-terminal extensions play a crucial role in the structure and chaperone activity, in addition to generally believed electrostatic "solubilizer" function.  (+info)

Enhanced C-terminal truncation of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in diabetic lenses. (7/156)

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of diabetes on the cleavage of C-terminal amino acid residues of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in human and rat lenses. METHODS: The human lenses were diabetic or age-matched control lenses from donors 57, 59, 69, and 72 years of age. Lenses were also obtained from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Individual lens crystallins in water-soluble fractions were separated by gel-permeation chromatography. The high (alphaH)- and low (alphaL)-molecular-weight fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A typical mass spectrum of alphaA-crystallin from human lenses showed intact unmodified alphaA-crystallin, truncated alphaA(1-172), and monophosphorylated alphaA-crystallin. Diabetic lenses showed nearly twofold higher levels of alphaA(1-172) than did the control lenses. Also, the alphaH fraction consistently showed significantly higher levels of alphaA(1-172) than the alphaL fraction. Human alphaB-crystallin showed no evidence of C-terminal truncation. Rat alphaA-crystallin had five C-terminal-truncated components, most of which showed substantial increases in diabetes. Truncated alphaA(1-162) appeared only in the diabetic rat lenses, suggesting specific activation of m-calpain in diabetes. alphaB-crystallin had only one C-terminal-truncated component, alphaB(1-170), which also showed increased levels in diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that diabetic stress causes either enzymatic or nonenzymatic cleavage of peptide bonds between specific C-terminal amino acid residues. Such truncated alpha-crystallins appear to contribute to an increased level of the alphaH fraction generally present in diabetic lenses. Loss of alphaA-crystallin chaperone activity seems to be related to truncation of the C-terminal amino acid residues.  (+info)

Small heat-shock proteins regulate membrane lipid polymorphism. (8/156)

Thermal stress in living cells produces multiple changes that ultimately affect membrane structure and function. We report that two members of the family of small heat-shock proteins (sHsp) (alpha-crystallin and Synechocystis HSP17) have stabilizing effects on model membranes formed of synthetic and cyanobacterial lipids. In anionic membranes of dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine, both HSP17 and alpha-crystallin strongly stabilize the liquid-crystalline state. Evidence from infrared spectroscopy indicates that lipid/sHsp interactions are mediated by the polar headgroup region and that the proteins strongly affect the hydrophobic core. In membranes composed of the nonbilayer lipid dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, both HSP17 and alpha-crystallin inhibit the formation of inverted hexagonal structure and stabilize the bilayer liquid-crystalline state, suggesting that sHsps can modulate membrane lipid polymorphism. In membranes composed of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol (both enriched with unsaturated fatty acids) isolated from Synechocystis thylakoids, HSP17 and alpha-crystallin increase the molecular order in the fluid-like state. The data show that the nature of sHsp/membrane interactions depends on the lipid composition and extent of lipid unsaturation, and that sHsps can regulate membrane fluidity. We infer from these results that the association between sHsps and membranes may constitute a general mechanism that preserves membrane integrity during thermal fluctuations.  (+info)

  • HspB5 also precipitated Ig heavy and L chains from sera from patients with MS. These results establish that small Hsps bind Igs with high affinity and refute much of the serological data used to assign α B-crystallin as an autoantigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • Golenhofen N , Bartelt-Kirbach B. (2015) HspB5/alpha-B-crystallin in the brain. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Dieterich LC, Huang H, Massena S, Golenhofen N , Phillipson M, Dimberg A (2013) B-crystallin/HspB5 regulates endothelial-leukocyte interactions by enhancing NF-kB-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Two other functions are an autokinase activity and participation in the intracellular architecture, and it has also been proven that both alpha-A and B prevent apoptosis by inhibiting caspases (8). (biovendor.com)
  • Both alpha A and alpha B crystallin prevent apoptosis by inhibiting caspases. (qedbio.com)
  • Altogether, these data suggest that crystallin sequence evolution and expression defects may contribute to the loss of eyes in CF. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence differences in the a-crystallin domains between metazoans and nonmetazoans are critical to the different mechanism of dimerization, suggesting that some structural features seen for Tsp36 may be generalized to other metazoan sHsps. (core.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, accumulation of α B-crystallin is an important mechanism for the prevention of cellular damage associated with heat shock and oxidative stress conditions in the trabecular meshwork [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The outcome of PolyPhen-2 and SIFT analysis predicted that this W151C mutation would probably damage to the structure and function of βB2-crystallin. (plos.org)
  • In vitro proteolysis of alphaA-crystallin by Lp82 and m-calpain produced unique cleavage sites by removing 5 and 11 residues, respectively, from the C terminus. (elsevier.com)
  • Immobilization was achieved via a plasma-deposited thin polymeric interlayer containing aldehyde surface groups and reductive amination, leading to the covalent binding of αB-crystallin lysine residues to the surface aldehyde groups via Schiff-base linkages. (edu.au)
  • Immobilized αB-crystallin was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and quartz crystal microgravimetry, which showed that ∼300 ng cm -2 (dry mass) of oligomeric αB-crystallin was bound to the surface. (edu.au)
  • The main function of crystallins at least in the lens of the eye is probably to increase the refractive index while not obstructing light. (wikipedia.org)
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