Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Fertile Period: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.Core Binding Factor alpha Subunits: A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Alpha-crystallin binds to the aggregation-prone molten-globule state of alkaline protease: implications for preventing irreversible thermal denaturation. (1/156)

Alpha-crystallin, the major eye-lens protein with sequence homology with heat-shock proteins (HSPs), acts like a molecular chaperone by suppressing the aggregation of damaged crystallins and proteins. To gain more insight into its chaperoning ability, we used a protease as the model system that is known to require a propeptide (intramolecular chaperone) for its proper folding. The protease ("N" state) from Conidiobolus macrosporus (NCIM 1298) unfolds at pH 2.0 ("U" state) through a partially unfolded "I" state at pH 3.5 that undergoes transition to a molten globule-(MG) like "I(A)" state in the presence of 0.5 M sodium sulfate. The thermally-stressed I(A) state showed complete loss of structure and was prone to aggregation. Alpha-crystallin was able to bind to this state and suppress its aggregation, thereby preventing irreversible denaturation of the enzyme. The alpha-crystallin-bound I(A) state exhibited native-like secondary and tertiary structure showing the interaction of alpha-crystallin with the MG state of the protease. 8-Anilinonaphthalene sulphonate (ANS) binding studies revealed the involvement of hydrophobic interactions in the formation of the complex of alpha-crystallin and protease. Refolding of acid-denatured protease by dilution to pH 7.5 resulted in aggregation of the protein. Unfolding of the protease in the presence of alpha-crystallin and its subsequent refolding resulted in the generation of a near-native intermediate with partial secondary and tertiary structure. Our studies represent the first report of involvement of a molecular chaperone-like alpha-crystallin in the unfolding and refolding of a protease. Alpha-crystallin blocks the unfavorable pathways that lead to irreversible denaturation of the alkaline protease and keeps it in a near-native, folding-competent intermediate state.  (+info)

Mass measurements of C-terminally truncated alpha-crystallins from two-dimensional gels identify Lp82 as a major endopeptidase in rat lens. (2/156)

Molecular chaperone activity of lens alpha-crystallins is reduced by loss of the C terminus. The purpose of this experiment was to 1) determine the cleavage sites produced in vitro by ubiquitous m-calpain and lens-specific Lp82 on alpha-crystallins, 2) identify alpha-crystallin cleavage sites produced in vivo during maturation and cataract formation in rat lens, and 3) estimate the relative activities of Lp82 and m-calpain by appearance of protease-specific cleavage products in vivo. Total soluble protein from young rat lens was incubated with recombinant m-calpain or Lp82 and 2 mM Ca2+. Resulting fragmented alpha-crystallins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Eluted alpha-crystallin spots were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Cleavage sites on insoluble alpha-crystallins were determined similarly in mature rat lens nucleus and in cataractous rat lens nucleus induced by selenite. In vitro proteolysis of alphaA-crystallin by Lp82 and m-calpain produced unique cleavage sites by removing 5 and 11 residues, respectively, from the C terminus. In vivo, the protease-specific truncations removing 5 and 11 residues from alphaA were both found in maturing lens, whereas only the truncation removing 5 residues was found in cataractous lens. Other truncation sites, common to both calpain isoforms, resulted from the removal of 8, 10, 16, 17, and 22 residues from the C terminus of alphaA. Using uniquely truncated alphaA-crystallins as in vivo markers, Lp82 and m-calpain were both found to be active during normal maturation of rat lens, whereas Lp82 seemed especially active during selenite cataract formation. These C-terminal truncations decrease chaperone activity of alpha-crystallins, possibly leading to the observed increases in insoluble proteins during aging and cataract. The methodology that allowed accurate mass measurements of proteins eluted from 2D gels should be useful to examine rapidly other post-translational modifications.  (+info)

Subunit exchange, conformational stability, and chaperone-like function of the small heat shock protein 16.5 from Methanococcus jannaschii. (3/156)

Hsp16.5, isolated from the hyperthermophilic Archaea Methanococcus jannaschii, is a member of the small heat-shock protein family. Small Hsps have 12- to 42-kDa subunit sizes and have sequences that are conserved among all organisms. The recently determined crystal structure of Hsp16.5 indicates that it consists discretely of 24 identical subunits. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we show that at temperatures above 60 degrees C, the subunits of MjHsp16.5 freely and reversibly exchange with a rate constant of exchange at 68 degrees C of 0.067 min(-1). The subunit exchange reactions were strongly temperature-dependent, similar to the exchange reactions of the alpha-crystallins. The exchange reaction was specific to MjHsp16.5 subunits, as other sHsps such as alpha-crystallin were not structurally compatible and could not integrate into the MjHsp16.5 oligomer. In addition, we demonstrate that at temperatures as high as 70 degrees C, MjHsp16.5 retains its multimeric structure and subunit organization. Using insulin and alpha-lactalbumin as model target proteins, we also show that MjHsp16.5 at 37 degrees C is a markedly inefficient chaperone compared with other sHsps with these substrates. The results of this study support the hypothesis that MjHsp16.5 has a dynamic quaternary structure at temperatures that are physiologically relevant to M. jannaschii.  (+info)

Molecular adaptations of neuromuscular disease-associated proteins in response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. (4/156)

The molecular events by which eccentric muscle contractions induce muscle damage and remodelling remain largely unknown. We assessed whether eccentric exercise modulates the expression of proteinases (calpains 1, 2 and 3, proteasome, cathepsin B+L), muscle structural proteins (alpha-sarcoglycan and desmin), and the expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp27 and alphaB-crystallin. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from twelve healthy male volunteers were obtained before, immediately after, and 1 and 14 days after a 30 min downhill treadmill running exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage as evidenced by the analysis of muscle pain and weakness, creatine kinase serum activity, myoglobinaemia and ultrastructural analysis of muscle biopsies. The calpain 3 mRNA level was decreased immediately after exercise whereas calpain 2 mRNA level was increased at day 1. Both mRNA levels returned to control values by day 14. By contrast, cathepsin B+L and proteasome enzyme activities were increased at day 14. The alpha-sarcoglycan protein level was decreased immediately after exercise and at day 1, whereas the desmin level peaked at day 14. alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 protein levels were increased at days 1 and 14. Our results suggest that the differential expression of calpain 2 and 3 mRNA levels may be important in the process of exercise-induced muscle damage, whereas expression of alpha-sarcoglycan, desmin, alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 may be essentially involved in the subsequent remodelling of myofibrillar structure. This remodelling response may limit the extent of muscle damage upon a subsequent mechanical stress.  (+info)

Enzyme activity after resealing within ghost erythrocyte cells, and protection by alpha-crystallin against fructose-induced inactivation. (5/156)

The role of alpha-crystallin as a molecular chaperone has been shown in many in vitro studies. In the present paper, we report on the chaperone function of alpha-crystallin within resealed erythrocyte ghosts. Eight enzymes were individually resealed within erythrocyte ghosts and assayed at zero time and at 24 h. The ghost cell suspension was separated into soluble and membrane fractions. Five of the enzymes had significantly greater enzyme activity after 24 h than the control within the soluble fractions. Fructation caused a decrease in enzyme activity (relative to the control). Resealing of alpha-crystallin within the ghost cell alongside the enzymes protected against inactivation by fructose within the soluble fraction.  (+info)

Role of the C-terminal extensions of alpha-crystallins. Swapping the C-terminal extension of alpha-crystallin to alphaB-crystallin results in enhanced chaperone activity. (6/156)

Several small heat shock proteins contain a well conserved alpha-crystallin domain, flanked by an N-terminal domain and a C-terminal extension, both of which vary in length and sequence. The structural and functional role of the C-terminal extension of small heat shock proteins, particularly of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins, is not well understood. We have swapped the C-terminal extensions between alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins and generated two novel chimeric proteins, alphaABc and alphaBAc. We have investigated the domain-swapped chimeras for structural and functional alterations. We have used thermal and non-thermal models of protein aggregation and found that the chimeric alphaB with the C-terminal extension of alphaA-crystallin, alphaBAc, exhibits dramatically enhanced chaperone-like activity. Interestingly, however, the chimeric alphaA with the C-terminal extension of alphaB-crystallin, alphaABc, has almost lost its activity. Pyrene solubilization and bis-1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate binding studies show that alphaBAc exhibits more solvent-exposed hydrophobic pockets than alphaA, alphaB, or alphaABc. Significant tertiary structural changes are revealed by tryptophan fluorescence and near-UV CD studies upon swapping the C-terminal extensions. The far-UV CD spectrum of alphaBAc differs from that of alphaB-crystallin whereas that of alphaABc overlaps with that of alphaA-crystallin. Gel filtration chromatography shows alteration in the size of the proteins upon swapping the C-terminal extensions. Our study demonstrates that the unstructured C-terminal extensions play a crucial role in the structure and chaperone activity, in addition to generally believed electrostatic "solubilizer" function.  (+info)

Enhanced C-terminal truncation of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in diabetic lenses. (7/156)

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of diabetes on the cleavage of C-terminal amino acid residues of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in human and rat lenses. METHODS: The human lenses were diabetic or age-matched control lenses from donors 57, 59, 69, and 72 years of age. Lenses were also obtained from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Individual lens crystallins in water-soluble fractions were separated by gel-permeation chromatography. The high (alphaH)- and low (alphaL)-molecular-weight fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A typical mass spectrum of alphaA-crystallin from human lenses showed intact unmodified alphaA-crystallin, truncated alphaA(1-172), and monophosphorylated alphaA-crystallin. Diabetic lenses showed nearly twofold higher levels of alphaA(1-172) than did the control lenses. Also, the alphaH fraction consistently showed significantly higher levels of alphaA(1-172) than the alphaL fraction. Human alphaB-crystallin showed no evidence of C-terminal truncation. Rat alphaA-crystallin had five C-terminal-truncated components, most of which showed substantial increases in diabetes. Truncated alphaA(1-162) appeared only in the diabetic rat lenses, suggesting specific activation of m-calpain in diabetes. alphaB-crystallin had only one C-terminal-truncated component, alphaB(1-170), which also showed increased levels in diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that diabetic stress causes either enzymatic or nonenzymatic cleavage of peptide bonds between specific C-terminal amino acid residues. Such truncated alpha-crystallins appear to contribute to an increased level of the alphaH fraction generally present in diabetic lenses. Loss of alphaA-crystallin chaperone activity seems to be related to truncation of the C-terminal amino acid residues.  (+info)

Small heat-shock proteins regulate membrane lipid polymorphism. (8/156)

Thermal stress in living cells produces multiple changes that ultimately affect membrane structure and function. We report that two members of the family of small heat-shock proteins (sHsp) (alpha-crystallin and Synechocystis HSP17) have stabilizing effects on model membranes formed of synthetic and cyanobacterial lipids. In anionic membranes of dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine, both HSP17 and alpha-crystallin strongly stabilize the liquid-crystalline state. Evidence from infrared spectroscopy indicates that lipid/sHsp interactions are mediated by the polar headgroup region and that the proteins strongly affect the hydrophobic core. In membranes composed of the nonbilayer lipid dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, both HSP17 and alpha-crystallin inhibit the formation of inverted hexagonal structure and stabilize the bilayer liquid-crystalline state, suggesting that sHsps can modulate membrane lipid polymorphism. In membranes composed of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol (both enriched with unsaturated fatty acids) isolated from Synechocystis thylakoids, HSP17 and alpha-crystallin increase the molecular order in the fluid-like state. The data show that the nature of sHsp/membrane interactions depends on the lipid composition and extent of lipid unsaturation, and that sHsps can regulate membrane fluidity. We infer from these results that the association between sHsps and membranes may constitute a general mechanism that preserves membrane integrity during thermal fluctuations.  (+info)

*CRYAB

Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. These ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ...

*MIP (gene)

MP26 and alpha-crystallin are palmitoylated". FEBS Lett. 262 (2): 356-8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)80228-B. PMID 2335219. ... Prabhakaram M, Katz ML, Ortwerth BJ (1997). "Glycation mediated crosslinking between alpha-crystallin and MP26 in intact lens ... 1991). "Lens protein gene expression: alpha-crystallins and MIP". Lens and eye toxicity research. 8 (2-3): 319-44. PMID 1911643 ...

*Hsp20

Structurally, this family is characterised by the presence of a conserved C-terminal domain, alpha-crystallin domain, of about ... Merck KB, de Jong WW, Bloemendal H, Groenen PJ (1994). "Structure and modifications of the junior chaperone alpha-crystallin. ...

*OGT (gene)

"Vertebrate lens alpha-crystallins are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (1): ... "Dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin". Biochemistry. 35 (11): 3578-86. doi:10.1021/ ...

*Amyloid beta

"Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Intra-cellular deposits of tau protein are also seen in the disease, and may also be implicated, as has aggregation of alpha ... "Beta-amyloid exhibits antagonistic effects on alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in orchestrated manner". Journal of ...

*HSPB6

"Entrez Gene: HSPB6 heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6". Kato K, Goto S, Inaguma Y, Hasegawa K, Morishita R, Asano ... "Purification and characterization of a 20-kDa protein that is highly homologous to alpha B crystallin". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (21 ... "The human genome encodes 10 alpha-crystallin-related small heat shock proteins: HspB1-10". Cell Stress Chaperones. 8 (1): 53-61 ... Fontaine JM, Sun X, Benndorf R, Welsh MJ (2005). "Interactions of HSP22 (HSPB8) with HSP20, alphaB-crystallin, and HSPB3". ...

*Jeffrey W. Berger

Characterization of lens alpha-crystallin tryptophan microenvironments by room temperature phosphorescence spectroscopy. ... The anaerobic photolysis of lens alpha-crystallin: evidence for triplet state mediated photodamage. Photochem Photobiol. 1990 ... Phosphorescence measurements of calf gamma-II, III, and IV crystallins at 77 and 293 K. Exp Eye Res. 1989 May;48(5):627-39. 35 ...

*Protein moonlighting

Bhat SP, Nagineni CN (Jan 1989). "alpha B subunit of lens-specific protein alpha-crystallin is present in other ocular and non- ... Wang K, Spector A (May 1994). "The chaperone activity of bovine alpha crystallin. Interaction with other lens crystallins in ... Ubiquitous α -crystallins and bird δ -crystallins are two examples. The α-crystallins, which contributed to the discovery of ... η-crystallin, α-enolase/τ-crystallin, and lactic dehydrogenase/ -crystallin. Also, the anuran corneal epithelium, which can ...

*Afrotheria

DeJong W.W.; Zweers A.; Goodman M. (1981). "Relationship of aardvark to elephants, hyraxes and sea cows from alpha-crystallin ... DeJong, W.W.; J.A.M. Leunissen & G.J. Wistow (1993). "Eye lens crystallins and the phylogeny of placental orders: evidence for ...

*Crystallin

... and iota-crystallins. For example, alpha, beta, and delta crystallins are found in avian and reptilian lenses, and the alpha, ... alpha-crystallin being found in small amounts in tissues outside the lens. Alpha-crystallin has chaperone-like properties ... Crystallins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) alpha-Crystallins at the US National Library ... Crystallins from a vertebrate eye lens are classified into three main types: alpha, beta and gamma crystallins. These ...

*CRYAA

Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an ... Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ...

*Hsp27

Van Montfort R, Slingsby C, Vierling E (2001). "Structure and function of the small heat shock protein/alpha-crystallin family ... "Copurification of small heat shock protein with alpha B crystallin from human skeletal muscle". The Journal of Biological ... This C-terminal tail appears in many mammalian sHsps (e.g. mouse Hsp25, αA-crystallin) and has no homology. It is highly ... The C-terminal part of the sHsps consists of the above mentioned α-crystallin domain, followed by a variable sequence with high ...

*CRYZ

Goenka S, Raman B, Ramakrishna T, Rao CM (2001). "Unfolding and refolding of a quinone oxidoreductase: alpha-crystallin, a ... The former class is also called phylogenetically-restricted crystallins. This gene encodes a taxon-specific crystallin protein ... Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major ... Gonzalez P, Rao PV, Zigler JS (1993). "Molecular cloning and sequencing of zeta-crystallin/quinone reductase cDNA from human ...

*Heat shock protein

Alpha crystallin (α4- crystallin) or hspb4 is involved in the development of lens in Zebrafish as it is expressed in response ... Expression of the hspb4 gene, which codes for alpha crystallin, increases considerably in the lens in response to heat shock. ... Hsp90, hsp84, hsp70, hsp27, hsp20, and alpha B crystallin all have been reported as having roles in the cardiovasculature. ... A conserved protein binding domain of approximately 80 amino-acid alpha crystallins are known as small heat shock proteins ( ...

*BFSP1

... coassembly with alpha-crystallin but not with vimentin". Exp. Eye Res. 60 (2): 181-92. doi:10.1016/S0014-4835(95)80009-3. PMID ...

*Alpha-lactalbumin

... alpha-crystallin, with molten globule states of bovine alpha-lactalbumin". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (44): 27722-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 1995). "Lactation is disrupted by alpha-lactalbumin deficiency and can be restored by human alpha-lactalbumin gene replacement ... Lactalbumin, alpha-, also known as LALBA, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LALBA gene. α-Lactalbumin is a protein ... The structure of alpha-lactalbumin is well known and is composed of 123 amino acids and 4 disulfide bridges. The molecular ...

*Desmin

Bennardini F, Wrzosek A, Chiesi M (August 1992). "Alpha B-crystallin in cardiac tissue. Association with actin and desmin ... There are three major domains to the desmin protein: a conserved alpha helix rod, a variable non alpha helix head, and a ... The rod domain consists of 308 amino acids with parallel alpha helical coiled coil dimers and three linkers to disrupt it. The ... Desmin has been shown to interact with desmoplakin and αB-crystallin. Desmin was first described in 1976, first purified in ...

*MT1E

2003). "Activation of metallothioneins and alpha-crystallin/sHSPs in human lens epithelial cells by specific metals and the ...

*HSPB2

"Identification and characterization of the gene encoding a new member of the alpha-crystallin/small hsp family, closely linked ... "Heat shock protein 27 association with the I kappa B kinase complex regulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced NF-kappa B ... and recruitment of HSP27 and alphaB-crystallin to aggresomes". J. Biochem. 131 (4): 593-603. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem. ... to the alphaB-crystallin gene in a head-to-head manner". Genomics. 45 (2): 386-94. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4956. PMID 9344664. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ... alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.085 - alpha 1-antitrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.100 - alpha-macroglobulins ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 ... Retinoid X receptor alpha MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.625 - Retinoid X receptor beta MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.750 - Retinoid X ...

*Vision restoration therapy

Alpha crystallin, IFN-gamma, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein, beta-hemoglobin, 60s-ribosomal protein, GAP-DH, and ADP ...

*Pathology of multiple sclerosis

Bsibsi M, Holtman IR, Gerritsen WH, Eggen BJ, Boddeke E, van der Valk P, van Noort JM, Amor S (Sep 2013). "Alpha-B-Crystallin ...

*Galactosemic cataract

... microcornea and corneal opacity and novel mutation in the alpha A crystallin gene (CRYAA)". Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 146 (7): 833- ...

*MAPK14

Aggeli IK, Beis I, Gaitanaki C (Jul 2008). "Oxidative stress and calpain inhibition induce alpha B-crystallin phosphorylation ... "A Novel MAPK phosphatase MKP-7 acts preferentially on JNK/SAPK and p38 alpha and beta MAPKs". The Journal of Biological ... "Cardioprotective role of P38 MAPK during myocardial infarction via parallel activation of α-crystallin B and Nrf2". Journal of ... some reports demonstrated that p38 MAPK also involves in anti-apoptotic effect via phosphorylation of αβ-Crystallin or ...

*SAFB

"Nuclear speckle localisation of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin and its inhibition by the R120G cardiomyopathy- ... SAFB has been shown to interact with: Estrogen receptor alpha, HNRPD, SAFB2, and TAF15. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Structure-function analysis of the estrogen receptor alpha corepressor scaffold attachment factor-B1: identification of a ...

*CRYBB3

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallin B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB3 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
Purpose: : In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that alpha-crystallins can negatively regulate stress-induced apoptosis through suppression of the ERK-mediated pathway and activation of the AKT signaling pathway. In the present study, we present evidence to show that alpha-crystallins can regulate the ATR-p53 pathway to prevent UVA-induced apoptosis. Methods: : UVA was used to irradiate human lens epithelial cells stably expressing vector, alphaA, and alphaB. Western blot analysis was used for detection of ATR, CHK1/2 and p53 activation. Reporter gene activity assay was used to explore the transactivity of p53. Hoechst staining was used for apoptosis assay. Results: : Human lens epithelial cells expressing either alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin are substantially resistant to UVA-induced apoptosis. UVA-induces activation of ATR and CHK1/2 kinases to activate p53 in vector-transfected cells. However, in alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin-transfected cells, activation of ATR, CHK1/2 kinases and p53 ...
Human alpha-crystallins were separated from fetal, young, senile nondiabetic and diabetic lenses. The effects of aging and diabetes mellitus were studied by fluorescence measurements, including emission maximum, quantum yield and polarization, using both intrinsic probes (tryptophan and non-tryptophan) and extrinsic probes [4-(N-iodoacetoxy)N-methylamino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD) and 6-(p-toluidinyl)naphthalene-2-sulfonate (TNS)]. Results indicate that diabetic effects (glycation and aggregation) give fluorescence change to a far greater extent than that of aging. This was demonstrated by a large decrease in tryptophan quantum yield and an increase in non-tryptophan quantum yield, and also by a decrease in polarization of non-tryptophan. The sulfhydryl (SH)-specific probe IANBD shows a blue-shift in emission maximum, a decrease in intensity and an increase in polarization. The hydrophobic probe TNS shows a decrease in both intensity and polarization. These results suggest that tryptophan
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The chaperone-like protein alpha-crystallin is a approximately 35 subunit hetero-oligomer consisting of alphaA and alphaB subunits in a 3:1 molar ratio and has the function of maintaining eye lens transparency. We studied the thermal denaturation of alpha-crystallin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a function of pH. Our results show that between pH 7 and 10 the protein undergoes a reversible thermal transition. However, the thermodynamic parameters obtained by DSC are inconsistent with the complete denaturation of an oligomeric protein of the size of alpha-crystallin. Accordingly, the CD data suggest the presence of extensive residual secondary structure above the transition temperature. Within the pH range from 4 to 7 the increased aggregation propensity around the isoelectric point (pI approximately 6) precludes observation of a thermal transition. As pH decreases below 4 the protein undergoes a substantial unfolding. ...
Results. Effect of [alpha]-crystallin on restriction enzyme digestion. To determine whether the partially purified [alpha]-crystallin had inhibitory effects on restriction digestion of DNA, we assayed several commonly used restriction enzymes for activity in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. The commonly used restriction enzymes, Bam HI, Hind III, Nde I, Pst I and Sst I all remained active in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. For this experiment, a 5 fold excess of each enzyme (5 units) was incubated for 1 hour with 1 µg of plasmid DNA using manufacturers supplied buffer. Each reaction also contained 1 µl of the purified [alpha]-crystallin (10 mg/ml), final concentration, 1 mg/ml. Each selected enzyme digested the plasmid to completion indicating that [alpha]-crystallin had no major detrimental effects on restriction enzyme digestion (data not shown).. To assay the ability of [alpha]-crystallin to protect restriction enzymes from heat inactivation, we chose the enzyme Nde I. Unlike the ...
Ample evidence suggests that oxidative stress and other external stressors contribute to retinal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pathology, as implicated in diseases like age-related macular degeneration. Therefore the understanding of cellular protection against these insults is of therapeutic importance. We adapted two approaches for studying the mechanisms of macular and retinal degeneration. In one, the contribution and significance of these pathologic processes was investigated by use of cultured human and mouse RPE. In the in vivo counterpart studies, we assessed the importance of alpha-crystallins in the retina (and RPE) in models using knockout mice and cobalt chloride injections. In addition to alpha-crystallins, we looked at other oxidative stress protectants of the cell and examined the redox regulation and antioxidant functions mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). These studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of the pathways involved in retinal dysfunction and ...
A method for expressing proteins as a fusion chimera with a domain of p26 or alpha crystallin type proteins to improve the protein stability and solubility when over expressed in bacteria such as E. coli is provided. Genes of interest are cloned into the multiple cloning site of the Vector System just downstream of the p26 or alpha crystallin type protein and a thrombin cleavage site. Protein expression is driven by a strong bacterial promoter (TAC). The expression is induced by the addition of 1 mM IPTG that overcomes the lac repression (lac Iq). The soluble recombinant protein is purified using a fusion tag.
Title:In Vitro Holdase Activity of E. coli Small Heat-Shock Proteins IbpA, IbpB and IbpAB: A Biophysical Study with Some Unconventional Techniques. VOLUME: 21 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Sourav Singha Roy, Monobesh Patra, Suman Kumar Nandy, Milon Banik, Rakhi Dasgupta and Tarakdas Basu. Affiliation:Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal, India.. Keywords:Atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, E. coli Small heat shock proteins IbpA & IbpB, holdase activity, lactate dehydrogenase, micro-viscometry.. Abstract:E. coli small heat shock proteins IbpA and IbpB (inclusion body binding proteins A and B) are known to act as holding chaperones on denaturing, aggregate-prone proteins. But, there is no clear understanding about which of the IbpA and IbpB has more holdase activity and how the holdase activity of one was influenced by the presence of the other. This study was conducted to resolve the questions, using some uncommon physical ...
Crystallins are water-soluble proteins that compose about ninety% in the protein inside the lens.[13] The three main crystallin sorts present in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins have a tendency to variety soluble, high-molecular pounds aggregates that pack tightly in lens fibers, Therefore raising the index of refraction of the lens while protecting its transparency. β and γ crystallins are found mostly during the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin happen to be isolated from other areas of the eye and the human body ...
Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions (By similarity).
Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein family and functions as molecular chaperone that primarily binds misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, as well as inhibit apoptosis and contribute to intracellular architecture. Post-translational modifications decrease the ability to chaperone. Defects in this gene/protein have been associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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View mouse Hspb11 Chr4:107253593-107279938 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Complete information for HSPB1P2 gene (Pseudogene), Heat Shock Protein Family B (Small) Member 1 Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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term={_id:"GO:0051082",name:"unfolded protein binding",synonyms:["binding unfolded ER proteins","chaperone activity","fimbrium-specific chaperone activity","glycoprotein-specific chaperone activity","histone-specific chaperone activity","ribosomal chaperone activity","tubulin-specific chaperone activity"],definition:"Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an unfolded ...
A quantitative analysis of cell division and cell elongation was carried out during lens morphogenesis in the rat. At 13 days of development elongating cells in the posterior part of the lens vesicle (presumptive fibre cells) have a lower mitotic activity than cells in the anterior vesicle. By 14 days these elongating cells do not divide. Thus at 14 days of development the lens can be separated into two compartments; a proliferation compartment in the anterior lens and an elongation compartment in the posterior lens.. The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, α-,β- and γ-crystallins, were localized by immunofiuorescence. Alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By 14 days all lens cells contain α-crystallin. Beta- and β-crystallins are detected later at 12½ days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the posterior part of the lens vesicle. At later stages of development these crystallins ...
Lens development is an excellent model for genetic and biochemical studies of embryonic induction, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and signal transduction. Differentiation of lens is characterized by lens-preferred expression and accumulation of water-soluble proteins, crystallins. Crystallins are required for light transparency, refraction and maintenance of lens integrity. Here, we review mechanisms of lens-preferred expression of crystallin genes by employing synergism between developmentally regulated DNA-binding transcription factors: Pax6, c-Maf, MafA/L-Maf, MafB, NRL, Sox2, Sox1, RARbeta/RXRbeta, RORalpha, Prox1, Six3, gammaFBP-B and HSF2. These factors are differentially expressed in lens precursor cells, lens epithelium and primary and secondary lens fibers. They exert their function in combination with ubiquitously expressed factors (e.g. AP-1, CREB, pRb, TFIID and USF) and co-activators/chromatin remodeling proteins (e.g. ASC-2 and CBP/p300). A special function belongs to Pax6
Helianthus annuus hsp17.6 G1 protein: a small heat-shock protein from sunflower; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank Z95153
1A5D: Towards a molecular understanding of phase separation in the lens: a comparison of the X-ray structures of two high Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaE and gammaF, with two low Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaB and gammaD.
Complete information for HSPA2 gene (Protein Coding), Heat Shock Protein Family A (Hsp70) Member 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Chen X, Lin S, Liu Q, Huang J, Zhang W, Lin J, Wang Y, Ke Y, He H. Expression and interaction of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in rice in response to heat stress. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Proteins and Proteomics, 2014, 1844 (4): 818-828. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mi Huang, Duanzhuo Li, Yuwen Huang, Xiukun Cui, Shengjie Liao, Jiuxiang Wang, Fei Liu, Chang Li, Meng Gao, Jiaxiang Chen, Zhaohui Tang, David Wan-Cheng Li, Mugen Liu].
Hsp27, a small heat-shock protein, has important roles in many cellular processes, including cytoskeleton dynamics, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Its expression in normal epidermis correlates with differentiation; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms involved. In this study, we report that Hsp27 undergoes upregulation, phosphorylation, and redistribution to the cytoskeleton during the late phase of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. Our results also show that the expression of the dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK), an upstream activator of the MAP kinase pathways, is sufficient by itself to induce Hsp27 phosphorylation, cell periphery localization, and redistribution to the insoluble protein fraction (cytoskeleton) in poorly differentiated keratinocytes. This redistribution correlates with the insolubilization of cornified envelope-associated proteins such as involucrin. Interestingly, the effects of DLK on Hsp27 were blocked by PD98059, a selective ...
Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none in the acidic group). Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with ...
α-Crystallin, a member of small heat shock protein (sHsp) family, is comprised of αA and αB subunits and acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation. The αA-crystallin homopolymer consists of 30-40 subunits that are undergoing dynamic exchange. α-Crystallin and αA-crystallin are poorer chaperones in the presence of the crowding agent, dextran. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, it is shown that the αAcrystallin subunit exchange rate strongly increased with temperature. Binding of reduced ovotransferrin to αA-crystallin markedly decreases the rate of subunit exchange, as does the presence of dextran. In addition, in the presence of dextran the effect of reduced ovotransferrin on decreasing the rate of subunit exchange of αA-crystallin is stronger than in the absence of dextran. Under the conditions of molecular crowding, the αA-crystallin subunit exchange rate is not temperature-dependent. The exchange rate of αA-crystallin
Evolutionary variation for accumulation of small heat shock protein (sHsp) may contribute to thermal niche differentiation between species. Here we examine temperature and time-course-dependent variation for sHsp accumulation in a recently diverged pair of Encelia raised in a common environment: Encelia farinosa, common in the Mojave desert, and Encelia californica, which is found along the cool coastal bluffs of southern North America. Both species exhibit peak sHsp accumulation at 42oC. Encelia californica accumulated greater levels of sHsp at temperatures below 42oC, while E. farinosa had greater levels above 42oC. Encelia farinosa accumulates sHsp at temperatures up to 45oC, while E. californica does not synthesize sHsp above 44oC. Both species accumulated significant levels of sHsp while maintaining photosynthetic electron transport Fv/Fm, but above the temperatures that elicited peak sHsp expression, levels of sHsp and Fv/Fm declined in parallel to zero. Encelia californica accumulated greater
Molecular biology of small heat shock protein mutations associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth and distal hereditary motor neuropathies ...
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Small heat shock protein which functions as a molecular chaperone probably maintaining denatured proteins in a folding-competent state. Seems to have versatile functions in various biological processes. Plays a role in regulating muscle function such as smooth muscle vasorelaxation and cardiac myocyte contractility. May regulate myocardial angiogenesis implicating KDR. Overexpression mediates cardioprotection and angiogenesis after induced damage. Stabilizes monomeric YWHAZ thereby supporting YWHAZ chaperone-like activity.
Abstract The members of the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family are molecular chaperones that play major roles in development, stress responses, and diseases, and have been envi..
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phdthesis{b8e3240b-679f-4607-910e-2b46d721ef7c, abstract = {Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are found in all organisms and evolved early in the history of life, prior to the divergence of the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya). Their malfunction is connected to several different diseases in humans, such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease. sHsps are especially abundant in plants, where most are highly upregulated as the first line of defence against heat and other types of stress. sHsps are ATP-independent chaperones that contain a conserved α -crystallin domain with a characteristic β-sandwich fold, flanked by a flexible N-terminal region (NTR), which varies in length between different sHsps and a short C-terminal region (CTR), which contains a conserved I/V-X-I/V-motif important for oligomerization. Since sHsps are highly dynamic, only a few high-resolution structures are available. Most structures have either truncated or unresolved NTR. Hsp21, a dodecameric sHsp ...
Purpose: : A previous microarray study from our laboratory demonstrated that in lens epithelial cells treated with quercetin (10 µM), 65% of genes that showed significant increased expression (p≤0.01) were regulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We have, therefore, investigated the effect of quercetin on the HIF-1 signalling pathway in human lens epithelial cells. Methods: : FHL-124 cells were grown to 90% confluency and exposed to quercetin (10 or 30 µM). Protein and mRNA levels were analyzed by Western blot and qRT-PCR respectively. Immunocytochemistry experiments were carried out for visualisation of HIF-1. VEGF was measured in cell medium using ELISA. Results: : Quercetin (30 µM) induced an increase in HIF-1 protein levels after 4 and 24 hr, with a greater than 50-fold increase compared to untreated cells at 4 hr. At 10 µM quercetin, increases were seen after 24 hr. Visualisation of HIF-1 within the cell showed that quercetin caused its translocation to the nucleus and this ...
Crystallins are the domint structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. Defects in CRYBA1 are the cause of congenital zonular cataract with…
Gene target information for Dnajb11 - DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B11 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
article{c39ed0c6-71b3-44bd-ae7d-1c63648fa85e, abstract = {,p,The small heat shock protein (sHsp) chaperones are crucial for cell survival and can prevent aggregation of client proteins that partially unfold under destabilizing conditions. Most investigations on the chaperone activity of sHsps are based on a limited set of thermosensitive model substrate client proteins since the endogenous targets are often not known. There is a high diversity among sHsps with a single conserved β-sandwich fold domain defining the family, the α-crystallin domain, whereas the N-terminal and C-terminal regions are highly variable in length and sequence among various sHsps and conserved only within orthologues. The endogenous targets are probably also varying among various sHsps, cellular compartments, cell type and organism. Here we have investigated Hsp21, a non-metazoan sHsp expressed in the chloroplasts in green plants which experience huge environmental fluctuations not least in temperature. We describe how ...
Human Lens Epithelial Cells (HLEpiC) from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the human lens. HLEpiC are cryopreserved at primary culture and delivered frozen. Each vial contains >5 x 10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. HLEpiC are characterized by immunofluorescent method with antibodies to cytokeratin-18, cytokeratin-19 and fibronectin. HLEpiC are negative for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. HLEpiC are guaranteed to further culture in the conditions provided by Creative Bioarray ...
The eleven students involved learned basic experimental design (with positive and negative controls), troubleshooting, a wide variety of laboratory techniques, and data collection, analysis and presentations skills. In addition, students learned to read and analyze scientific work from other labs since they are given scientific articles to read beginning on their first day in the lab. This project is in collaboration with Ivor Benjamin M.D., Ph.D. at the University of Utah, which allowed these students the unique opportunity of discussing their research with a larger audience once a month. In addition to intellectual enrichment, students learned to function as a team, with those more experienced (graduate students Kelsey Langston and Whitney Hayes) mentoring those who are new in the lab. As students progressed in their understanding of the project and mastery of basic laboratory skills, they become involved in planning our weekly group meeting, preparing figures for presentations/publications, ...
Ultrasonic and cryogenic instrumentation for the removal of unwanted tissue material from an animal, such as a human, and more particularly, adapted for the removal of cataracts, in surgical operations. The ultrasonic and cryogenic instrumentation include hand-held instruments with the cryogenic instrumentation adapted to first freeze the cataract lens and after the cataract lens has unfrozen the ultrasonic instrumentation is adapted by a vibrating tool to reduce the volume of the cataract and thereafter, through the simultaneous introduction of a fluid and creating a flow, the cataract mass exits through the incision around the vibrating tool until all of the unwanted tissue forming the cataract lens is removed.
HSP22, 0.1 mg. Hsp22 (HSPB8) is a 196-amino acid protein that is a member of the small heat shock protein super-family and the human protein is most closely related to Hsp27.
Distal hereditary motor neuronopathies (dHMNs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders in which motor neurons selectively undergo age-dependant degeneration. Mutations in the small heat-shock protein HSPB1 (HSP27) are responsible for one form of dHMN. In this study, we have analysed the effect of expressing a form of mutant HSPB1 in primary neuronal cells in culture. Mutant (P182L) but not wild-type HSPB1 led to the formation of insoluble intracellular aggregates and to the sequestration in the cytoplasm of selective cellular components, including neurofilament middle chain subunit (NF-M) and p150 dynactin. These findings suggest a possible pathogenic mechanism for HSPB1 whereby the mutation may lead to preferential motor neuron loss by disrupting selective components essential for axonal structure and transport.
Small heat shock protein HspB8: its distribution in Alzheimers disease brains s inhibition of amyloid-beta protein aggregation and cerebrovascular d-beta toxicity ...
Current models derived from in vitro studies propose that sHsps prevent irreversible substrate aggregation by binding heat-denatured substrates, and then present substrate to other cellular components for ATP-dependent refolding (Waters et al., 1996; Ehrnsperger et al., 1997;Lee et al., 1997; Veinger et al., 1998). Our data extend this model for sHsp chaperone activity in several important ways. First, we determined that the chaperones required for high levels of refolding of Hsp18.1-bound Luc were Hsp/Hsc70 plus DnaJ homologs. The addition of Hsp90 and Hop gave minimal or no further enhancement of refolding. Despite the eukaryotic origin of Hsp18.1, the highest Luc refolding rates were observed when Hsp18.1-bound Luc was reactivated in the presence of the prokaryotic DnaK system. These findings imply that the mechanism of sHsp action in conjunction with Hsp70 systems is universal among eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and suggest that sHsps may not physically interact with the Hsp70 systems. Also, ...
Abstract We applied different methods (differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and intrinsic fluorescence) to investigate th..
Any of a group of proteins in living cells that assist newly synthesized or denatured proteins to fold into their functional three-dimensional structures. The chaperones bind to the protein and prevent improper interactions within the polypeptide chain, so that it assumes the correct folded orientation. This process may require energy in the form of ATP. Other functions include assisting the translocation of proteins across the membranes of cell organelles and binding denatured proteins under stress conditions or in degenerative disease. There are several unrelated families of chaperones, including five classes of heat-shock proteins - HSP25 (small heat-shock proteins), HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSP100 - chaperonins, calnexin, and calreticulin. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Heat-stress induced alterations in localization of small heat shock proteins in mouse myoblasts: intranuclear lamin A/C speckles as target for ?B-crystallin and hsp ...
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(Not the best Webster 1913 has ever done) Also a class of proteins found in the eye that form the lens. Strangely most of them have roles elsewhere in t...

Alpha-Crystallins and Tumorigenesis | Bentham ScienceAlpha-Crystallins and Tumorigenesis | Bentham Science

Alpha-Crystallins and Tumorigenesis. Author(s): P. Chen, W. Ji, F.-Y. Liu, H.-Z. Tang, S. Fu, X. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Gong, M. ... αA- and αB-crystallins, the major lens structure proteins and members of the small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) family, play ... Abstract:αA- and αB-crystallins, the major lens structure proteins and members of the small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) family ... In addition, recent studies have revealed that the abnormal expressions and functions of both α-crystallins are associated with ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/103420/article

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Alpha-crystallin B chain - P02510 (CRYAB BOVIN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Alpha-crystallin B chain - P02510 (CRYAB BOVIN)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P02510

Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B Antibody by BioLegendPurified anti-Alpha Crystallin B Antibody by BioLegend

Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B - read details of BioLegend antibodies in the SelectScience.net Antibody products and ... Alpha-crystallin B chain, alpha B crystallin, heat shock protein beta-5, rosenthal fiber component, heat-shock 20 kD like- ... Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B. Be the first to review this product ... Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B; Clone: Poly9079; Reactivity: Human, Mouse; Apps: IHC, WB; Size: 200 μl ...
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Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 (HSPB6) ELISA KitsHeat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 (HSPB6) ELISA Kits

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CRYAA - Alpha-crystallin A chain - Cavia porcellus (Guinea pig) - CRYAA gene & proteinCRYAA - Alpha-crystallin A chain - Cavia porcellus (Guinea pig) - CRYAA gene & protein

IPR002068. A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436. Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274. Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090. Alpha-crystallin_ ... IPR002068. A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436. Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274. Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090. Alpha-crystallin_ ... Alpha-crystallin A chainAdd BLAST. 173. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ... sp,P68281,CRYAA_CAVPO Alpha-crystallin A chain OS=Cavia porcellus GN=CRYAA PE=1 SV=1 ...
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Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 (HSPB6) ELISA KitsHeat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 (HSPB6) ELISA Kits

Top referenced Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 ELISA Kits. Show all Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin- ... alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Antibodies (122) and Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Proteins (14) and many more ... alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Interaction Partners. Human Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 (HSPB6) interaction ... Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 (HSPB6) Antigen Profile Antigen Summary ...
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Alpha crystallin B chain | definition of alpha crystallin B chain by Medical dictionaryAlpha crystallin B chain | definition of alpha crystallin B chain by Medical dictionary

What is alpha crystallin B chain? Meaning of alpha crystallin B chain medical term. What does alpha crystallin B chain mean? ... Looking for online definition of alpha crystallin B chain in the Medical Dictionary? alpha crystallin B chain explanation free ... redirected from alpha crystallin B chain) CRYAB. A gene on chromosome 11q22.3-q23.1 that encodes alpha crystallin B, a protein ... Alpha crystallin B chain , definition of alpha crystallin B chain by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
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Alpha-crystallin elisa and antibodyAlpha-crystallin elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Alpha-crystallin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alpha-crystallin. Alpha-crystallin ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin Antibody. Also known as Alpha- ... Alpha-crystallin A chain. Alpha-crystallin A chain ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin A chain Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin A chain ... Alpha-crystallin B chain. Alpha-crystallin B chain ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin B chain Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin B chain ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=alpha-crystallin

hspb6, heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6 - Creative Biogenehspb6, heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6 - Creative Biogene

HSPB6; heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6; Hsp20; FLJ32389; heat shock protein beta-6; heat shock 20 kDa-like ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_hspb6.html

Interaction of human gammaS-crystallin and its cataract-associated G18V mutant with alpha-crystallins | IOVS | ARVO JournalsInteraction of human gammaS-crystallin and its cataract-associated G18V mutant with alpha-crystallins | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Most gamma crystallins bind to alpha crystallins under conditions favoring their unfolding, while some gamma crystallin ... Interaction of human gammaS-crystallin and its cataract-associated G18V mutant with alpha-crystallins ... Interaction of human gammaS-crystallin and its cataract-associated G18V mutant with alpha-crystallins ... The interaction of human gammaS-crystallin with alphaA-crystallin appears to differ from that of alphaB-crystallin. We ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2335642

CRYAA - Crystallin alpha A - Daptrius ater - CRYAA gene & proteinCRYAA - Crystallin alpha A - Daptrius ater - CRYAA gene & protein

IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... Crystallin alpha AImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,B4Z7V1,B4Z7V1_9FALC Crystallin alpha A (Fragment) OS=Daptrius ater OX=56348 GN=CRYAA PE=3 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B4Z7V1

Carrier-free self-built aspirin nanorods as anti-aggregation agents towards alpha-crystallin-derived peptide aggregates:...Carrier-free self-built aspirin nanorods as anti-aggregation agents towards alpha-crystallin-derived peptide aggregates:...

... peptide fragments derived from native α-crystallin were synthesized and explored as a peptide-based crystallin aggregation ... The aggregation of the α-crystallin protein is the pathological hallmark of cataract. In the current work, ... Carrier-free self-built aspirin nanorods as anti-aggregation agents towards alpha-crystallin-derived peptide aggregates: ... Carrier-free self-built aspirin nanorods as anti-aggregation agents towards alpha-crystallin-derived peptide aggregates: ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/tb/c9tb01435g/unauth

The Alpha-Crystallin Index (CI): A New Parameter to Assess Susceptibility to Cataract | IOVS | ARVO JournalsThe Alpha-Crystallin Index (CI): A New Parameter to Assess Susceptibility to Cataract | IOVS | ARVO Journals

"Alpha (α)-Crystallin Index" can be calculated, which is a measure of available α-crystallin in a living lens, and which is ... J. S. Zigler, M. B. Datiles, III, R. R. Ansari, K. I. Suh, S. Vitale, G. F. Reed, F. L. Ferris, III; The Alpha-Crystallin Index ... Conclusions:: The αCI, a measure of the amount of clinically measurable alpha-crystallin in the lens, statistically ... The Alpha-Crystallin Index (CI): A New Parameter to Assess Susceptibility to Cataract ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2387099

CRYAB (crystallin, alpha B)CRYAB (crystallin, alpha B)

... alpha B), Authors: Aysegul Ilhan, Ludwig Wagner, Wolfgang Gartner. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom Alpha-crystallin/HSP Alpha-crystallin_B Alpha-crystallin_N HSP20 HSP20-like_chaperone ... Crystallins are a highly conserved protein family consisting of three classes, alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha crystallins are ... Complete structure of the alpha B-crystallin gene: conservation of the exon-intron distribution in the two nonlinked alpha- ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_CRYAB.html

Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) | AbcamAnti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Human, Pig. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) at 2 µg/ml + Recombinant human Alpha B Crystallin protein.. Predicted band size: 20 ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) WB, IHC-P Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/alpha-b-crystallin-antibody-ab231268.html

Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab13497) | AbcamAnti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab13497) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Chicken, Cow, Human, Pig ... Alpha B Crystallin was immunoprecipitated using 0.5mg Mouse Spinal Cord tissue, 5µg of Rabbit polyclonal to Alpha B Crystallin ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab13497) at 1/1000 dilution + Human spinal cord tissue lysate - total protein (ab29188) at 10 ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/alpha-b-crystallin-antibody-ab13497.html?productwalltab=abreviews

Alpha B Crystallin StressXpress® Human ELISA | BioVendorAlpha B Crystallin StressXpress® Human ELISA | BioVendor

Alpha B Crystallin. By Technical Data. Alpha B Crystallin - Immunoassays. Alpha B Crystallin - Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled ... Alpha B Crystallin - for Serum - Immunoassays. Alpha B Crystallin - for Tissue extract - Immunoassays. Alpha B Crystallin - for ... further divided into acidic and basic groups (Alpha-A and Alpha-B respectively). In the. lens, alpha-crystallin primarily ... The alpha-crystallins are major water-soluble lens structural proteins of the vertebrate eye that are related to the small heat ...
more infohttps://www.biovendor.com/alpha-b-crystallin-stressxpress-human-elisa

Fluorescence study of the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus on human lens alpha-crystallin. - Semantic ScholarFluorescence study of the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus on human lens alpha-crystallin. - Semantic Scholar

Human alpha-crystallins were separated from fetal, young, senile nondiabetic and diabetic lenses. The effects of aging and ... Fluorescence study of the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus on human lens alpha-crystallin.. *. J Liang ... Human alpha-crystallins were separated from fetal, young, senile nondiabetic and diabetic lenses. The effects of aging and ... Fluorescence study of the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus on human lens alpha-crystallin.}, author={J Liang}, journal={ ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Fluorescence-study-of-the-effects-of-aging-and-dia-Liang/9c963224479bfafdcd5777d9ed0f0e8e761112d0

Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag)</span...Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag)</span...

... alpha A (CRYAA) Protein (His tag). Species: Sheep (Ovine). Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1630960. ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) Background Recommended name: Alpha-crystallin A chain Cleaved into the following chain: 1.. Alpha- ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag) Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag). Details for ... More product categories related to Crystallin, alpha A Protein * 152 anti-Crystallin, alpha A Primary Antibodies ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/1630960/Crystallin,+alpha+A+CRYAA+AA+1-173+protein+His+tag/

Thermal and acid denaturation of bovine lens alpha-crystallin | Drug Delivery TechnologyThermal and acid denaturation of bovine lens alpha-crystallin | Drug Delivery Technology

Thermal and acid denaturation of bovine lens alpha-crystallin. Publication Type:. Journal Article ... The chaperone-like protein alpha-crystallin is a approximately 35 subunit hetero-oligomer consisting of alphaA and alphaB ... We studied the thermal denaturation of alpha-crystallin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), ... obtained by DSC are inconsistent with the complete denaturation of an oligomeric protein of the size of alpha-crystallin. ...
more infohttp://drugdeliverytechnology.leidenuniv.nl/publications/3269

Wrapping the alpha-crystallin domain fold in a chaperone assembly - COREWrapping the alpha-crystallin domain fold in a chaperone assembly - CORE

Wrapping the alpha-crystallin domain fold in a chaperone assembly By R. Stamler, G. Kappé, W.C. Boelens and Christine Slingsby ... 1992). Alpha-crystallin can function as a molecular chaperone. * (2003). Analysis of cDNAs coding for immunologically dominant ... 1998). Genealogy of the alpha-crystallin - small heat-shock protein superfamily. * (2004). Hot-spot residue in small heat-shock ... Homologies to heat shock proteins and alpha-crystallins. * (1998). Sequence and preliminary characterisation of a Taenia ...
more infohttps://core.ac.uk/display/7348

Alpha B Crystallin Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 3A10.C9)Alpha B Crystallin Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 3A10.C9)

Shop QEDs high-quality Alpha B Crystallin antibodies, for use in WB & ELISA applications. With 20+ years of expertise, you can ... Alpha crystallins are further divided into acidic (Alpha A) and basic (Alpha B) groups. In the lens, alpha crystallin maintains ... Both alpha A and alpha B crystallin prevent apoptosis by inhibiting caspases. Alpha B crystallin is found in many cells and ... It does not cross-react with alpha A crystallin, beta- L crystallin, beta-H crystallin, gamma crystallin, Hsp25, Hsp27, or ...
more infohttps://www.qedbio.com/product/alpha-b-crystallin-3/

Recurrent mutation in the crystallin alpha A gene associated with inherited paediatric cataract | BMC Research Notes | Full TextRecurrent mutation in the crystallin alpha A gene associated with inherited paediatric cataract | BMC Research Notes | Full Text

We identified a previously reported oligomerization disrupting mutation, c.62G > A (p.R21Q), in the Crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) ... The work strengthens the genotype-phenotype correlations between this functional mutation in the crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) ... Andley UP, Song Z, Wawrousek EF, Fleming TP, Bassnett S. Differential protective activity of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin in ... alignments of crystallin alpha A protein sequence of the region of interest from seven species to the human crystallin alpha A ...
more infohttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-016-1890-0

Regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: isolation of a cDNA encoding a protein that binds to a cis sequence motif...Regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: isolation of a cDNA encoding a protein that binds to a cis sequence motif...

Regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: isolation of a cDNA encoding a protein that binds to a cis sequence motif ... Our results suggest that the lens-specific alpha A-crystallin, MHC class I, beta interferon and other genes have a similar cis- ... Regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: isolation of a cDNA encoding a protein that binds to a cis sequence motif ... Regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: isolation of a cDNA encoding a protein that binds to a cis sequence motif ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/10/7/3700?ijkey=cea0a478e32d5e9ec7863b06467d216f28b47af2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Gentaur Molecular :Assaypro \ CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source  Recombinant \ CRA30025Gentaur Molecular :Assaypro \ CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant \ CRA30025

Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant \ CRA30025 for more molecular products just contact us ... Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant. Related products : CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, ... Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant / Product Detail : CRA30025 CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human ... CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant recombinant proteins Most stable storage is at - 81 C ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product1057668-search-CRYAB
  • In this regard, αA- and αB-crystallins seem to function differentially or even oppositely during tumorigenesis, and diverse molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain their roles in cell apoptosis, cell proliferation and tumor metastasis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The alpha crystallins are divided into two groups according to their acidic as well as basic character, namely A and B. The genes encoding the alpha crystallins A and B are located at chromosome 11 and 21, respectively. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Structurally, this family is characterised by the presence of a conserved C-terminal domain, alpha-crystallin domain, of about 100 residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cellular stress occurs, alpha-crystallin enters its' phosphorylated state and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance (2). (biovendor.com)
  • In response to cellular stress, alpha crystallin is phosphorlyated and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance. (qedbio.com)
  • Alpha B crystallin is found in many cells and organs outside the lens and is over- expressed in cells subjected to stress conditions and in several neurological disorders. (qedbio.com)
  • The anti-aggregation potential of aspirin was evaluated towards these peptide-generated aggregates as well as towards the α-crystallin aggregate. (rsc.org)
  • Sequence differences in the a-crystallin domains between metazoans and nonmetazoans are critical to the different mechanism of dimerization, suggesting that some structural features seen for Tsp36 may be generalized to other metazoan sHsps. (core.ac.uk)
  • Gel retardation experiments with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides revealed a mouse lens nuclear protein which bound specifically to the palindromic sequence 5'-GGGAAATCCC-3' at positions -66 to -57 in the alpha A-crystallin promoter. (asm.org)
  • It further shows how sHsps can bind coil and secondary structural elements by wrapping them around the alpha-crystallin domain. (core.ac.uk)
  • In this review, we have summarized the current status regarding the expression patterns and functions of αA- and αB-crystallins implicated in tumorigenesis, and discussed the possible mechanisms underlying their functions. (eurekaselect.com)