A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.
The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

Alpha-crystallin binds to the aggregation-prone molten-globule state of alkaline protease: implications for preventing irreversible thermal denaturation. (1/156)

Alpha-crystallin, the major eye-lens protein with sequence homology with heat-shock proteins (HSPs), acts like a molecular chaperone by suppressing the aggregation of damaged crystallins and proteins. To gain more insight into its chaperoning ability, we used a protease as the model system that is known to require a propeptide (intramolecular chaperone) for its proper folding. The protease ("N" state) from Conidiobolus macrosporus (NCIM 1298) unfolds at pH 2.0 ("U" state) through a partially unfolded "I" state at pH 3.5 that undergoes transition to a molten globule-(MG) like "I(A)" state in the presence of 0.5 M sodium sulfate. The thermally-stressed I(A) state showed complete loss of structure and was prone to aggregation. Alpha-crystallin was able to bind to this state and suppress its aggregation, thereby preventing irreversible denaturation of the enzyme. The alpha-crystallin-bound I(A) state exhibited native-like secondary and tertiary structure showing the interaction of alpha-crystallin with the MG state of the protease. 8-Anilinonaphthalene sulphonate (ANS) binding studies revealed the involvement of hydrophobic interactions in the formation of the complex of alpha-crystallin and protease. Refolding of acid-denatured protease by dilution to pH 7.5 resulted in aggregation of the protein. Unfolding of the protease in the presence of alpha-crystallin and its subsequent refolding resulted in the generation of a near-native intermediate with partial secondary and tertiary structure. Our studies represent the first report of involvement of a molecular chaperone-like alpha-crystallin in the unfolding and refolding of a protease. Alpha-crystallin blocks the unfavorable pathways that lead to irreversible denaturation of the alkaline protease and keeps it in a near-native, folding-competent intermediate state.  (+info)

Mass measurements of C-terminally truncated alpha-crystallins from two-dimensional gels identify Lp82 as a major endopeptidase in rat lens. (2/156)

Molecular chaperone activity of lens alpha-crystallins is reduced by loss of the C terminus. The purpose of this experiment was to 1) determine the cleavage sites produced in vitro by ubiquitous m-calpain and lens-specific Lp82 on alpha-crystallins, 2) identify alpha-crystallin cleavage sites produced in vivo during maturation and cataract formation in rat lens, and 3) estimate the relative activities of Lp82 and m-calpain by appearance of protease-specific cleavage products in vivo. Total soluble protein from young rat lens was incubated with recombinant m-calpain or Lp82 and 2 mM Ca2+. Resulting fragmented alpha-crystallins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Eluted alpha-crystallin spots were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Cleavage sites on insoluble alpha-crystallins were determined similarly in mature rat lens nucleus and in cataractous rat lens nucleus induced by selenite. In vitro proteolysis of alphaA-crystallin by Lp82 and m-calpain produced unique cleavage sites by removing 5 and 11 residues, respectively, from the C terminus. In vivo, the protease-specific truncations removing 5 and 11 residues from alphaA were both found in maturing lens, whereas only the truncation removing 5 residues was found in cataractous lens. Other truncation sites, common to both calpain isoforms, resulted from the removal of 8, 10, 16, 17, and 22 residues from the C terminus of alphaA. Using uniquely truncated alphaA-crystallins as in vivo markers, Lp82 and m-calpain were both found to be active during normal maturation of rat lens, whereas Lp82 seemed especially active during selenite cataract formation. These C-terminal truncations decrease chaperone activity of alpha-crystallins, possibly leading to the observed increases in insoluble proteins during aging and cataract. The methodology that allowed accurate mass measurements of proteins eluted from 2D gels should be useful to examine rapidly other post-translational modifications.  (+info)

Subunit exchange, conformational stability, and chaperone-like function of the small heat shock protein 16.5 from Methanococcus jannaschii. (3/156)

Hsp16.5, isolated from the hyperthermophilic Archaea Methanococcus jannaschii, is a member of the small heat-shock protein family. Small Hsps have 12- to 42-kDa subunit sizes and have sequences that are conserved among all organisms. The recently determined crystal structure of Hsp16.5 indicates that it consists discretely of 24 identical subunits. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we show that at temperatures above 60 degrees C, the subunits of MjHsp16.5 freely and reversibly exchange with a rate constant of exchange at 68 degrees C of 0.067 min(-1). The subunit exchange reactions were strongly temperature-dependent, similar to the exchange reactions of the alpha-crystallins. The exchange reaction was specific to MjHsp16.5 subunits, as other sHsps such as alpha-crystallin were not structurally compatible and could not integrate into the MjHsp16.5 oligomer. In addition, we demonstrate that at temperatures as high as 70 degrees C, MjHsp16.5 retains its multimeric structure and subunit organization. Using insulin and alpha-lactalbumin as model target proteins, we also show that MjHsp16.5 at 37 degrees C is a markedly inefficient chaperone compared with other sHsps with these substrates. The results of this study support the hypothesis that MjHsp16.5 has a dynamic quaternary structure at temperatures that are physiologically relevant to M. jannaschii.  (+info)

Molecular adaptations of neuromuscular disease-associated proteins in response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. (4/156)

The molecular events by which eccentric muscle contractions induce muscle damage and remodelling remain largely unknown. We assessed whether eccentric exercise modulates the expression of proteinases (calpains 1, 2 and 3, proteasome, cathepsin B+L), muscle structural proteins (alpha-sarcoglycan and desmin), and the expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp27 and alphaB-crystallin. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from twelve healthy male volunteers were obtained before, immediately after, and 1 and 14 days after a 30 min downhill treadmill running exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage as evidenced by the analysis of muscle pain and weakness, creatine kinase serum activity, myoglobinaemia and ultrastructural analysis of muscle biopsies. The calpain 3 mRNA level was decreased immediately after exercise whereas calpain 2 mRNA level was increased at day 1. Both mRNA levels returned to control values by day 14. By contrast, cathepsin B+L and proteasome enzyme activities were increased at day 14. The alpha-sarcoglycan protein level was decreased immediately after exercise and at day 1, whereas the desmin level peaked at day 14. alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 protein levels were increased at days 1 and 14. Our results suggest that the differential expression of calpain 2 and 3 mRNA levels may be important in the process of exercise-induced muscle damage, whereas expression of alpha-sarcoglycan, desmin, alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 may be essentially involved in the subsequent remodelling of myofibrillar structure. This remodelling response may limit the extent of muscle damage upon a subsequent mechanical stress.  (+info)

Enzyme activity after resealing within ghost erythrocyte cells, and protection by alpha-crystallin against fructose-induced inactivation. (5/156)

The role of alpha-crystallin as a molecular chaperone has been shown in many in vitro studies. In the present paper, we report on the chaperone function of alpha-crystallin within resealed erythrocyte ghosts. Eight enzymes were individually resealed within erythrocyte ghosts and assayed at zero time and at 24 h. The ghost cell suspension was separated into soluble and membrane fractions. Five of the enzymes had significantly greater enzyme activity after 24 h than the control within the soluble fractions. Fructation caused a decrease in enzyme activity (relative to the control). Resealing of alpha-crystallin within the ghost cell alongside the enzymes protected against inactivation by fructose within the soluble fraction.  (+info)

Role of the C-terminal extensions of alpha-crystallins. Swapping the C-terminal extension of alpha-crystallin to alphaB-crystallin results in enhanced chaperone activity. (6/156)

Several small heat shock proteins contain a well conserved alpha-crystallin domain, flanked by an N-terminal domain and a C-terminal extension, both of which vary in length and sequence. The structural and functional role of the C-terminal extension of small heat shock proteins, particularly of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins, is not well understood. We have swapped the C-terminal extensions between alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins and generated two novel chimeric proteins, alphaABc and alphaBAc. We have investigated the domain-swapped chimeras for structural and functional alterations. We have used thermal and non-thermal models of protein aggregation and found that the chimeric alphaB with the C-terminal extension of alphaA-crystallin, alphaBAc, exhibits dramatically enhanced chaperone-like activity. Interestingly, however, the chimeric alphaA with the C-terminal extension of alphaB-crystallin, alphaABc, has almost lost its activity. Pyrene solubilization and bis-1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate binding studies show that alphaBAc exhibits more solvent-exposed hydrophobic pockets than alphaA, alphaB, or alphaABc. Significant tertiary structural changes are revealed by tryptophan fluorescence and near-UV CD studies upon swapping the C-terminal extensions. The far-UV CD spectrum of alphaBAc differs from that of alphaB-crystallin whereas that of alphaABc overlaps with that of alphaA-crystallin. Gel filtration chromatography shows alteration in the size of the proteins upon swapping the C-terminal extensions. Our study demonstrates that the unstructured C-terminal extensions play a crucial role in the structure and chaperone activity, in addition to generally believed electrostatic "solubilizer" function.  (+info)

Enhanced C-terminal truncation of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in diabetic lenses. (7/156)

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of diabetes on the cleavage of C-terminal amino acid residues of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in human and rat lenses. METHODS: The human lenses were diabetic or age-matched control lenses from donors 57, 59, 69, and 72 years of age. Lenses were also obtained from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Individual lens crystallins in water-soluble fractions were separated by gel-permeation chromatography. The high (alphaH)- and low (alphaL)-molecular-weight fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A typical mass spectrum of alphaA-crystallin from human lenses showed intact unmodified alphaA-crystallin, truncated alphaA(1-172), and monophosphorylated alphaA-crystallin. Diabetic lenses showed nearly twofold higher levels of alphaA(1-172) than did the control lenses. Also, the alphaH fraction consistently showed significantly higher levels of alphaA(1-172) than the alphaL fraction. Human alphaB-crystallin showed no evidence of C-terminal truncation. Rat alphaA-crystallin had five C-terminal-truncated components, most of which showed substantial increases in diabetes. Truncated alphaA(1-162) appeared only in the diabetic rat lenses, suggesting specific activation of m-calpain in diabetes. alphaB-crystallin had only one C-terminal-truncated component, alphaB(1-170), which also showed increased levels in diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that diabetic stress causes either enzymatic or nonenzymatic cleavage of peptide bonds between specific C-terminal amino acid residues. Such truncated alpha-crystallins appear to contribute to an increased level of the alphaH fraction generally present in diabetic lenses. Loss of alphaA-crystallin chaperone activity seems to be related to truncation of the C-terminal amino acid residues.  (+info)

Small heat-shock proteins regulate membrane lipid polymorphism. (8/156)

Thermal stress in living cells produces multiple changes that ultimately affect membrane structure and function. We report that two members of the family of small heat-shock proteins (sHsp) (alpha-crystallin and Synechocystis HSP17) have stabilizing effects on model membranes formed of synthetic and cyanobacterial lipids. In anionic membranes of dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine, both HSP17 and alpha-crystallin strongly stabilize the liquid-crystalline state. Evidence from infrared spectroscopy indicates that lipid/sHsp interactions are mediated by the polar headgroup region and that the proteins strongly affect the hydrophobic core. In membranes composed of the nonbilayer lipid dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, both HSP17 and alpha-crystallin inhibit the formation of inverted hexagonal structure and stabilize the bilayer liquid-crystalline state, suggesting that sHsps can modulate membrane lipid polymorphism. In membranes composed of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol (both enriched with unsaturated fatty acids) isolated from Synechocystis thylakoids, HSP17 and alpha-crystallin increase the molecular order in the fluid-like state. The data show that the nature of sHsp/membrane interactions depends on the lipid composition and extent of lipid unsaturation, and that sHsps can regulate membrane fluidity. We infer from these results that the association between sHsps and membranes may constitute a general mechanism that preserves membrane integrity during thermal fluctuations.  (+info)

Purpose: : In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that alpha-crystallins can negatively regulate stress-induced apoptosis through suppression of the ERK-mediated pathway and activation of the AKT signaling pathway. In the present study, we present evidence to show that alpha-crystallins can regulate the ATR-p53 pathway to prevent UVA-induced apoptosis. Methods: : UVA was used to irradiate human lens epithelial cells stably expressing vector, alphaA, and alphaB. Western blot analysis was used for detection of ATR, CHK1/2 and p53 activation. Reporter gene activity assay was used to explore the transactivity of p53. Hoechst staining was used for apoptosis assay. Results: : Human lens epithelial cells expressing either alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin are substantially resistant to UVA-induced apoptosis. UVA-induces activation of ATR and CHK1/2 kinases to activate p53 in vector-transfected cells. However, in alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin-transfected cells, activation of ATR, CHK1/2 kinases and p53 ...
Human alpha-crystallins were separated from fetal, young, senile nondiabetic and diabetic lenses. The effects of aging and diabetes mellitus were studied by fluorescence measurements, including emission maximum, quantum yield and polarization, using both intrinsic probes (tryptophan and non-tryptophan) and extrinsic probes [4-(N-iodoacetoxy)N-methylamino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD) and 6-(p-toluidinyl)naphthalene-2-sulfonate (TNS)]. Results indicate that diabetic effects (glycation and aggregation) give fluorescence change to a far greater extent than that of aging. This was demonstrated by a large decrease in tryptophan quantum yield and an increase in non-tryptophan quantum yield, and also by a decrease in polarization of non-tryptophan. The sulfhydryl (SH)-specific probe IANBD shows a blue-shift in emission maximum, a decrease in intensity and an increase in polarization. The hydrophobic probe TNS shows a decrease in both intensity and polarization. These results suggest that tryptophan
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Description: The heat-shock proteins (HSPs) belong to a larger group of polypeptides, the stress proteins, that are induced in various combinations in response to environmental challenges and developmental transitions. Synthesis of the small (27-kD) HSP has been shown to be correlated with the acquisition of thermotolerance. The deduced 199-amino acid HSP27 protein shows sequence similarity to mammalian alpha-crystallins. Approximately 20% of its residues are susceptible to phosphorylation. The HSP27 gene, which is mapped to 7q11.23 and has 3 exons1, produced a 2.2-kb transcript in an in vitro transcription assay. Decreasing ROS in cells expressing mutant huntingtin, HSP27 protects cells against oxidative stress2. In other words, HSP27 is a suppressor of polyglutamine (polyQ)-mediated cell death3. Furthermore, MAPKAPK5 is a major stress-activated kinase that can phosphorylate HSP27 in vitro.. Primary Antibody. ...
The chaperone-like protein alpha-crystallin is a approximately 35 subunit hetero-oligomer consisting of alphaA and alphaB subunits in a 3:1 molar ratio and has the function of maintaining eye lens transparency. We studied the thermal denaturation of alpha-crystallin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a function of pH. Our results show that between pH 7 and 10 the protein undergoes a reversible thermal transition. However, the thermodynamic parameters obtained by DSC are inconsistent with the complete denaturation of an oligomeric protein of the size of alpha-crystallin. Accordingly, the CD data suggest the presence of extensive residual secondary structure above the transition temperature. Within the pH range from 4 to 7 the increased aggregation propensity around the isoelectric point (pI approximately 6) precludes observation of a thermal transition. As pH decreases below 4 the protein undergoes a substantial unfolding. ...
Results. Effect of [alpha]-crystallin on restriction enzyme digestion. To determine whether the partially purified [alpha]-crystallin had inhibitory effects on restriction digestion of DNA, we assayed several commonly used restriction enzymes for activity in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. The commonly used restriction enzymes, Bam HI, Hind III, Nde I, Pst I and Sst I all remained active in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. For this experiment, a 5 fold excess of each enzyme (5 units) was incubated for 1 hour with 1 µg of plasmid DNA using manufacturers supplied buffer. Each reaction also contained 1 µl of the purified [alpha]-crystallin (10 mg/ml), final concentration, 1 mg/ml. Each selected enzyme digested the plasmid to completion indicating that [alpha]-crystallin had no major detrimental effects on restriction enzyme digestion (data not shown).. To assay the ability of [alpha]-crystallin to protect restriction enzymes from heat inactivation, we chose the enzyme Nde I. Unlike the ...
Ample evidence suggests that oxidative stress and other external stressors contribute to retinal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pathology, as implicated in diseases like age-related macular degeneration. Therefore the understanding of cellular protection against these insults is of therapeutic importance. We adapted two approaches for studying the mechanisms of macular and retinal degeneration. In one, the contribution and significance of these pathologic processes was investigated by use of cultured human and mouse RPE. In the in vivo counterpart studies, we assessed the importance of alpha-crystallins in the retina (and RPE) in models using knockout mice and cobalt chloride injections. In addition to alpha-crystallins, we looked at other oxidative stress protectants of the cell and examined the redox regulation and antioxidant functions mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). These studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of the pathways involved in retinal dysfunction and ...
A method for expressing proteins as a fusion chimera with a domain of p26 or alpha crystallin type proteins to improve the protein stability and solubility when over expressed in bacteria such as E. coli is provided. Genes of interest are cloned into the multiple cloning site of the Vector System just downstream of the p26 or alpha crystallin type protein and a thrombin cleavage site. Protein expression is driven by a strong bacterial promoter (TAC). The expression is induced by the addition of 1 mM IPTG that overcomes the lac repression (lac Iq). The soluble recombinant protein is purified using a fusion tag.
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Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. We previously reported a Russian family with autosomal dominant axonal CMT and assigned the locus underlying the disease (CMT2F; OMIM 606595) to chromosome 7q11-q21 (ref. 2). Here we report a missense mutation in the gene encoding 27-kDa small heat-shock protein B1 (HSPB1, also called HSP27) that segregates in the family with CMT2F. Screening for mutations in HSPB1 in 301 individuals with CMT and 115 individuals with distal hereditary motor neuropathies (distal HMNs) confirmed the previously observed mutation and identified four additional missense mutations. We observed the additional HSPB1 mutations in four families with distal HMN and in one individual with CMT neuropathy. Four mutations are located in the Hsp20-alpha-crystallin domain, and one mutation is in the C-terminal part of the HSP27 protein. Neuronal cells transfected with mutated HSPB1
Patagonian toothfish reaches sexual maturity late and grows slowly. This makes the species vulnerable to fishing pressure. In the 80s this species was discovered and the demand grew fast. in the 90s the species was strongly overfished. The state of the toothfish stocks was unknown for a long time, but since 2010 there are stock assessments being done for more and more stocks. The state of these stocks seems to improve.. This fishery with bottom trawls has a moderate amount of bycatch, but vulnerable shark species can be included in the bycatch. The fishery is managed by the CCAMLR (Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources). Several areas are closed for fishery and there are measures taken to reduce bycatch. The management is partly effective.. Illegal fishery is a big problem with the fishery on toothfish. ...
Crystallins are water-soluble proteins that compose about ninety% in the protein inside the lens.[13] The three main crystallin sorts present in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins have a tendency to variety soluble, high-molecular pounds aggregates that pack tightly in lens fibers, Therefore raising the index of refraction of the lens while protecting its transparency. β and γ crystallins are found mostly during the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin happen to be isolated from other areas of the eye and the human body ...
Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions (By similarity).
Ed to contribute to its chaperone-like activity , while the N-terminal domains contain phosphorylation sites that are the targets of various protein kinases .
Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein family and functions as molecular chaperone that primarily binds misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, as well as inhibit apoptosis and contribute to intracellular architecture. Post-translational modifications decrease the ability to chaperone. Defects in this gene/protein have been associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and ...
We report on a new cDNA clone (Qshsp10.4-CI) of a Quercus suber L. class-CI small heat-shock protein (sHsp) obtained from cork (phellem), a highly oxidatively stressed plant tissue. The deduced gene product lacks the C-terminal extension and the consensus I region of the alpha-crystallin domain, bei …
DNAJC4 (DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C4), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
DNAJC21 (DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C21), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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View mouse Hspb11 Chr4:107253593-107279938 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Complete information for HSPB6 gene (Protein Coding), Heat Shock Protein Family B (Small) Member 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for HSPB1P2 gene (Pseudogene), Heat Shock Protein Family B (Small) Member 1 Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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In Leuconostoc oenos, different stresses such as heat, ethanol, and acid shocks dramatically induce the expression of an 18-kDa small heat shock protein called Lo 18. The corresponding gene (hsp18) was cloned from a genomic library of L. oenos constructed in Escherichia coli. A 2.3-kb DNA fragment carrying the hsp18 gene was sequenced. The hsp18 gene encodes a polypeptide of 148 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 16,938 Da. The Lo18 protein has a significant identity with small heat shock proteins of the alpha-crystallin family. The transcriptional start site was determined by primer extension. This experiment allowed us to identify the promoter region exhibiting high similarity to consensus promoter sequences of gram-positive bacteria, as well as E. coli. Northern blot analysis showed that hsp18 consists of a unique transcription unit of 0.6 kb. Moreover, hsp18 expression seemed to be controlled at the transcriptional level. This small heat shock protein was found to be ...
A quantitative analysis of cell division and cell elongation was carried out during lens morphogenesis in the rat. At 13 days of development elongating cells in the posterior part of the lens vesicle (presumptive fibre cells) have a lower mitotic activity than cells in the anterior vesicle. By 14 days these elongating cells do not divide. Thus at 14 days of development the lens can be separated into two compartments; a proliferation compartment in the anterior lens and an elongation compartment in the posterior lens.. The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, α-,β- and γ-crystallins, were localized by immunofiuorescence. Alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By 14 days all lens cells contain α-crystallin. Beta- and β-crystallins are detected later at 12½ days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the posterior part of the lens vesicle. At later stages of development these crystallins ...
Royal New Zealand Navy confronts poachers.. Govt defends poaching operation. The Government is denying accusations by New Zealand First that the navy was too passive in its Southern Ocean stand-off with toothfish poachers.. Defence Minister Gerry Brownlee said such criticism was ill-informed and the operation had actually been a success.. Equatorial Guinea gave permission for New Zealand to board three fishing ships to verify their flagged status, after agreeing they were illegally fishing for toothfish in Antarctic waters.. Yesterday, crew on HMNZS Wellington were refused entry to the vessels by the captains, and did not forcefully enter because it was deemed to be too dangerous.. New Zealand Firsts defence spokesperson Ron Mark said the Navys toothless response to the illegal toothfish fishing was an embarrassment. He said a literal shot across the poachers bows was what was required.. How we behave right now will determine how poachers and pirates treat us in the future, he ...
Helianthus annuus hsp17.6 G1 protein: a small heat-shock protein from sunflower; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank Z95153
The CCAMLR tagging program is administered by the Secretariat which provides standardised tagging protocols and tagging equipment to fishing vessels engaged in the program. This standardisation is an essential component of the tagging program as CCAMLR uses the fisheries-based tag and recapture rates as the basis of abundance estimation for toothfish.. The Secretariat receives and stores data on all fish that are tagged and the subsequent recapture of those fish. Each recapture is linked to the tagging event in order to verify the data for use in population estimates as well as to examine movement rates and growth of fish.. CCAMLR uses a capture-recapture approach to estimate the abundance of toothfish. Vessels are required to tag and release fish during the course of their normal operations and to report all recaptures of tagged fish. The abundance of fish can then be estimated based on the assumption that the proportion of tagged fish in the total population will be the same as the proportion ...
Gene target information for HSPA13 - heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 13 (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Chen X, Lin S, Liu Q, Huang J, Zhang W, Lin J, Wang Y, Ke Y, He H. Expression and interaction of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in rice in response to heat stress. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Proteins and Proteomics, 2014, 1844 (4): 818-828. ...
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The Chilean Patagonian Toothfish fishery is a managed by the Chilean Government. For more information and a pdf version of the fact sheet, click the image below. COLTO Chile Fact Sheet 2021
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Hsp27, a small heat-shock protein, has important roles in many cellular processes, including cytoskeleton dynamics, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Its expression in normal epidermis correlates with differentiation; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms involved. In this study, we report that Hsp27 undergoes upregulation, phosphorylation, and redistribution to the cytoskeleton during the late phase of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. Our results also show that the expression of the dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK), an upstream activator of the MAP kinase pathways, is sufficient by itself to induce Hsp27 phosphorylation, cell periphery localization, and redistribution to the insoluble protein fraction (cytoskeleton) in poorly differentiated keratinocytes. This redistribution correlates with the insolubilization of cornified envelope-associated proteins such as involucrin. Interestingly, the effects of DLK on Hsp27 were blocked by PD98059, a selective ...
α-Crystallin, a member of small heat shock protein (sHsp) family, is comprised of αA and αB subunits and acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation. The αA-crystallin homopolymer consists of 30-40 subunits that are undergoing dynamic exchange. α-Crystallin and αA-crystallin are poorer chaperones in the presence of the crowding agent, dextran. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, it is shown that the αAcrystallin subunit exchange rate strongly increased with temperature. Binding of reduced ovotransferrin to αA-crystallin markedly decreases the rate of subunit exchange, as does the presence of dextran. In addition, in the presence of dextran the effect of reduced ovotransferrin on decreasing the rate of subunit exchange of αA-crystallin is stronger than in the absence of dextran. Under the conditions of molecular crowding, the αA-crystallin subunit exchange rate is not temperature-dependent. The exchange rate of αA-crystallin
Effect of long term heat stress and dietary restriction on the expression of small heat shock protein sHSP genes in rat liver tissue ...
Under changes in conditions as diverse as temperature, oxidation or pH, proteins in an organism may undergo harmful denaturation. Small Heat Shock proteins act as paramedics of the cell: during such events they quicky intervene by binding nascently unfolding proteins, leading them to refolding or denaturation pathways. Small heat shock proteins are ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life, but especially effective in plants: after all, plants cannot escape from harsh environmental conditions!. Collaborating with Benesch (University of Oxford) and Vierling (UMass) groups, we have contributed to shedding light into the mode of action of small Heat Shock Proteins in wheat and pea.. We describe a mechanism whereby dimers of these proteins are responsible for capturing their substrate, before assemblying into larger complexes. With our own integrative modelling methods using distance restraints and collision cross-section measurements, we demonstrate that small heat shock protein dimers assemble into ...
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Analytical data on determination of reproductive potential of Antarctic toothfish D. mawsoni in the Pacific (SSRUs 88.1, 88.2, 88.3), Indian Ocean (SSRUs 58.4.1 и 58.4.2) and Atlantic (SSRU 48.6, 48.5) Antarctic areas are presented. Morphological indices of females and males, indices of gonads, fecundity, and condition by Fulton are described. Spawning time and regions for Antarctic toothfish are discussing.. ...
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Abstract: Small heat shock proteins form large cytosolic assemblies from an α-crystallin domain (ACD) flanked by sequence extensions. Mutation of a conserved arginine in the ACD of several human small heat shock protein family members causes many common inherited diseases of the lens and neuromuscular system. The mutation R120G in αB-crystallin causes myopathy, cardiomyopathy and cataract. We have solved the X-ray structure of the excised ACD dimer of human αB R120G close to physiological pH and compared it with several recently determined wild-type vertebrate ACD dimer structures. Wild-type excised ACD dimers have a deep groove at the interface floored by a flat extended bottom sheet. Solid-state NMR studies of large assemblies of full-length αB-crystallin have shown that the groove is blocked in the ACD dimer by curvature of the bottom sheet. The crystal structure of R120G ACD dimer also reveals a closed groove, but here the bottom sheet is flat. Loss of Arg120 results in rearrangement of ...
article{28a73216-cb79-4da4-9c2e-f0213dfb2b2d, abstract = {During evolution of land plants, a specific motif occurred in the N-terminal domain of the chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein, Hsp21: a sequence with highly conserved methionines, which is predicted to form an amphipathic -helix with the methionines situated along one side. The functional role of these conserved methionines is not understood. We have found previously that treatment, which causes methionine sulfoxidation in Hsp21, also leads to structural changes and loss of chaperone-like activity. Here, mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana Hsp21 protein were created by site-directed mutagenesis, whereby conserved methionines were substituted by oxidation-resistant leucines. Mutants lacking the only cysteine in Hsp21 were also created. Protein analyses by nondenaturing electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, and circular dichroism proved that sulfoxidation of the four highly conserved methionines (M49, M52, M55, and M59) is ...
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous in living organisms. HSPs are an essential component for cell growth and survival; the main function of HSPs is controlling the folding and unfolding process of proteins. According to molecular function and mass, HSPs are categorized into six different families: HSP20 (small HSPS), HSP40 (J-proteins), HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSP100. In this paper, improved methods for HSP prediction are proposed—the split amino acid composition (SAAC), the dipeptide composition (DC), the conjoint triad feature (CTF), and the pseudoaverage chemical shift (PseACS) were selected to predict the HSPs with a support vector machine (SVM). In order to overcome the imbalance data classification problems, the syntactic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was used to balance the dataset. The overall accuracy was 99.72% with a balanced dataset in the jackknife test by using the optimized combination feature SAAC+DC+CTF+PseACS, which was 4.81% higher than the
Dr. Mason Posner has students use molecular biology techniques to understand how eye lens proteins adapt to changes in environmental temperature.. We are currently investigating the evolution and biological role of lens proteins called crystallins. These proteins are responsible for making the lens transparent and refracting light so that focused images fall on the retina. Amazingly, one family of crystallins, the alpha crystallins, also protect other proteins from the harmful effects of aging that can lead to lens cataracts, one of the leading causes of blindness in humans. Alpha crystallins are also involved in the original development of the lens in vertebrate embryos, and they have been linked to many diseases of the nervous system, heart, skeletal muscle, and are now known to be involved in many cancers.. Most research into alpha crystallins is done with mammals. However, by studying how this protein has evolved in a number of fish species that live at different environmental temperatures, ...
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Purpose: : A previous microarray study from our laboratory demonstrated that in lens epithelial cells treated with quercetin (10 µM), 65% of genes that showed significant increased expression (p≤0.01) were regulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We have, therefore, investigated the effect of quercetin on the HIF-1 signalling pathway in human lens epithelial cells. Methods: : FHL-124 cells were grown to 90% confluency and exposed to quercetin (10 or 30 µM). Protein and mRNA levels were analyzed by Western blot and qRT-PCR respectively. Immunocytochemistry experiments were carried out for visualisation of HIF-1. VEGF was measured in cell medium using ELISA. Results: : Quercetin (30 µM) induced an increase in HIF-1 protein levels after 4 and 24 hr, with a greater than 50-fold increase compared to untreated cells at 4 hr. At 10 µM quercetin, increases were seen after 24 hr. Visualisation of HIF-1 within the cell showed that quercetin caused its translocation to the nucleus and this ...
Gene target information for Dnajb11 - DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B11 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
... and iota-crystallins. For example, alpha, beta, and delta crystallins are found in avian and reptilian lenses, and the alpha, ... alpha-crystallin being found in small amounts in tissues outside the lens. Alpha-crystallin has chaperone-like properties ... Crystallins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) alpha-Crystallins at the US National Library ... Crystallins from a vertebrate eye lens are classified into three main types: alpha, beta and gamma crystallins. These ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGD gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... "Entrez Gene: CRYGD crystallin, gamma D". Graw J (1998). "The crystallins: genes, proteins and diseases". Biol. Chem. 378 (11): ...
Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. These ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ...
Bennardini F, Wrzosek A, Chiesi M (August 1992). "Alpha B-crystallin in cardiac tissue. Association with actin and desmin ... a conserved alpha helix rod, a variable non alpha helix head, and a carboxy-terminal tail. Desmin, as all intermediate ... The rod domain consists of 308 amino acids with parallel alpha helical coiled coil dimers and three linkers to disrupt it. The ... Desmin has been shown to interact with desmoplakin and αB-crystallin. Desmin was first described in 1976, first purified in ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallin B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB3 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGB gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallin B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB1 gene. Variants in CRYBB1 are associated with autosomal ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallin A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBA4 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an ... Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallin B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB2 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... 2005). "Unfolding crystallins: The destabilizing role of a β-hairpin cysteine in BetaB2-crystallin by simulation and experiment ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGS gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... "Entrez Gene: CRYGS crystallin, gamma S". Human CRYGS genome location and CRYGS gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Crystallin, gamma C, also known as CRYGC, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CRYGC gene. Crystallins are separated ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are organized in a ...
"Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Intra-cellular deposits of tau protein are also seen in the disease, and may also be implicated, as has aggregation of alpha ... "Beta-amyloid exhibits antagonistic effects on alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in orchestrated manner". Journal of ...
Kappe G, Franck E, Verschuure P, Boelens WC, Leunissen JA, de Jong WW (Jun 2003). "The human genome encodes 10 alpha-crystallin ... "Entrez Gene: HSPB6 heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6". Kato K, Goto S, Inaguma Y, Hasegawa K, Morishita R, Asano ... "Purification and characterization of a 20-kDa protein that is highly homologous to alpha B crystallin". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (21 ... Fontaine JM, Sun X, Benndorf R, Welsh MJ (2005). "Interactions of HSP22 (HSPB8) with HSP20, alphaB-crystallin, and HSPB3". ...
"Human alpha A-crystallin missing N-terminal domain poorly complexes with filensin and phakinin". Biochemical and Biophysical ... coassembly with alpha-crystallin but not with vimentin". Experimental Eye Research. 60 (2): 181-192. doi:10.1016/S0014-4835(95) ...
Shum WK, Maleknia SD, Downard KM (September 2005). "Onset of oxidative damage in alpha-crystallin by radical probe mass ... Downard KM, Kokabu Y, Ikeguchi M, Akashi S (November 2011). "Homology-modelled structure of the βB2B3-crystallin heterodimer ...
Characterization of lens alpha-crystallin tryptophan microenvironments by room temperature phosphorescence spectroscopy. ... The anaerobic photolysis of lens alpha-crystallin: evidence for triplet state mediated photodamage. Photochem Photobiol. 1990 ... Phosphorescence measurements of calf gamma-II, III, and IV crystallins at 77 and 293 K. Exp Eye Res. 1989 May;48(5):627-39. 35 ...
Bsibsi M, Holtman IR, Gerritsen WH, Eggen BJ, Boddeke E, van der Valk P, van Noort JM, Amor S (2013). "Alpha-B-Crystallin ...
DeJong W.W.; Zweers A.; Goodman M. (1981). "Relationship of aardvark to elephants, hyraxes and sea cows from alpha-crystallin ... DeJong, W.W.; J.A.M. Leunissen & G.J. Wistow (1993). "Eye lens crystallins and the phylogeny of placental orders: evidence for ...
Structure and function of the small heat shock protein/alpha-crystallin family of molecular chaperones. Advances in Protein ... "Copurification of small heat shock protein with alpha B crystallin from human skeletal muscle". The Journal of Biological ... Hsp27 is a chaperone of the sHsp (small heat shock protein) group among α-crystallin, Hsp20, and others. The common functions ... Hsp27 is rather unique among sHsps in that its α-crystallin domain contains a cysteine residue at its dimer interface, which ...
"Human alpha A-crystallin missing N-terminal domain poorly complexes with filensin and phakinin". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
Goenka S, Raman B, Ramakrishna T, Rao CM (2001). "Unfolding and refolding of a quinone oxidoreductase: alpha-crystallin, a ... The former class is also called phylogenetically-restricted crystallins. This gene encodes a taxon-specific crystallin protein ... "Entrez Gene: CRYZ crystallin, zeta (quinone reductase)". Human CRYZ genome location and CRYZ gene details page in the UCSC ... Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major ...
... alpha-crystallin, with molten globule states of bovine alpha-lactalbumin". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (44): 27722-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 1995). "Lactation is disrupted by alpha-lactalbumin deficiency and can be restored by human alpha-lactalbumin gene replacement ... Lactalbumin, alpha-, also known as LALBA, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LALBA gene. α-Lactalbumin is a protein ... The structure of alpha-lactalbumin is well known and is composed of 123 amino acids and 4 disulfide bridges. The molecular ...
Bsibsi M, Holtman IR, Gerritsen WH, Eggen BJ, Boddeke E, van der Valk P, van Noort JM, Amor S (Sep 2013). "Alpha-B-Crystallin ...
Alpha crystallin (α4- crystallin) or hspb4 is involved in the development of lens in Zebrafish as it is expressed in response ... Expression of the hspb4 gene, which codes for alpha crystallin, increases considerably in the lens in response to heat shock. ... Hsp90, hsp84, hsp70, hsp27, hsp20, and alpha B crystallin all have been reported as having roles in the cardiovasculature. ... A conserved protein binding domain of approximately 80 amino-acid alpha crystallins are known as small heat shock proteins ( ...
In particular, deficiency of Alpha B crystallin (CRYAB) is associated with worse disease outcome in stroke patients. She ...
Bhat SP, Nagineni CN (Jan 1989). "alpha B subunit of lens-specific protein alpha-crystallin is present in other ocular and non- ... Wang K, Spector A (May 1994). "The chaperone activity of bovine alpha crystallin. Interaction with other lens crystallins in ... Ubiquitous α -crystallins and bird δ -crystallins are two examples. The α-crystallins, which contributed to the discovery of ... η-crystallin, α-enolase/τ-crystallin, and lactic dehydrogenase/ -crystallin. Also, the anuran corneal epithelium, which can ...
... microcornea and corneal opacity and novel mutation in the alpha A crystallin gene (CRYAA)". Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 146 (7): 833- ...
"Nuclear speckle localisation of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin and its inhibition by the R120G cardiomyopathy- ... SAFB has been shown to interact with: Estrogen receptor alpha, HNRPD, SAFB2, and TAF15. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Structure-function analysis of the estrogen receptor alpha corepressor scaffold attachment factor-B1: identification of a ...
2002). "The NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase P1-zeta-crystallin in Arabidopsis catalyzes the alpha,beta-hydrogenation of 2-alkenals ... Other names in common use include NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase, and NADPH:2-alkenal alpha,beta-hydrogenase. As ...
These compounds are thought to act as bidentate nucleophiles that attack the adjacent carbonyls in the alpha-dicarbonyl ... and crystallin of the eyes. Covalent protein cross-links irreversibly link proteins together in the ECM of tissues. Glucosepane ... such as collagen in the skin and crystallin in the eyes. Skin collagen, for instance, has a half-life of fifteen years. Because ...
3DG as well as AGEs play a role in the modification and cross-linking of long-lived proteins such as crystallin and collagen, ... Araki A (September 1997). "[Oxidative stress and diabetes mellitus: a possible role of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds in free ...
... and Asp477 forms hydrogen bonds with the alpha hydroxyl group on the substrate, where it works to effectively bind the ... in the mammalian cornea by the stromal keratocytes and epithelial cells and is reputed to be one of the corneal crystallins. ... important catalytic effects because of its orientation in the middle of the active site and its interactions with the alpha ...
... encoding protein Crystallin, lambda 1 DLEU1: a long non-coding RNA DLEU2: Deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 1 DZIP1: DAZ ... alpha polypeptide RB1: retinoblastoma 1 (including osteosarcoma) RCBTB1: encoding protein RCC1 and BTB domain-containing ...
... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ... alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.085 - alpha 1-antitrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.100 - alpha-macroglobulins ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 ... Retinoid X receptor alpha MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.625 - Retinoid X receptor beta MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.750 - Retinoid X ...
To this end, a transgenic mouse line was created expressing porcine TGF-β1 under the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter and ... In a mouse model of Alzheimer's plaque formation, IL-1-alpha effects an increase in perlecan expression in response to brain ... Perlecan levels were increased in the hippocampus but not in the striatum during the healing period, along with IL 1-alpha ... The effect was more pronounced in the βB-1 Crystallin promoter-driven line. The IL family of inflammatory cytokines also ...
Berns, A. J. M.; Kraaikamp, M. Van; Bloemendal, H.; Lane, C. D. (1972). "Calf Crystallin Synthesis in Frog Cells: The ... The translation of reticulocyte 9S RNA in frog oocytes gives rise to alpha and beta globin chains. Communication to FEBS ...
... encoding alpha-2 chain of collagen VI COL18A1: encoding alpha-1 chain of collagen XVIII CRYAA: encoding alpha-crystallin A ... encoding interferon alpha/beta receptor 1 IFNAR2: encoding interferon alpha/beta receptor 2 IFNGR1: encoding interferon gamma ... encoding protein Protein Mis18-alpha MORC3: encoding MORC family CW-type zinc finger protein 3 MRAP: encoding melanocortin-2 ... encoding GA-binding protein alpha chain GART: encoding enzyme trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3 GATD3A: ...
2002). "CREB-binding protein/p300 co-activation of crystallin gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (27): 24081-9. doi:10.1074/ ... is a corepressor of human liver receptor homolog-1 and suppresses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene ... "CREB-binding protein/p300 co-activation of crystallin gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 277 (27): 24081-9. doi: ...
The propeptide region has an open-sandwich antiparallel-alpha/antiparallel-beta fold, with two alpha-helices and four beta- ... The yeast killer toxin structure was thought to be a precursor of the two-domain beta gamma-crystallin proteins, because of its ... It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding site, preventing access. Removal of this region by ... In the absence of sequence similarity, the SMPI structure shows clear similarity to both domains of the eye lens crystallins, ...
2003). "Activation of metallothioneins and alpha-crystallin/sHSPs in human lens epithelial cells by specific metals and the ...
... , in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing ... Alpha-enolase has been shown to interact with TRAPPC2. Enolase ENO2 ENO3 Alpha-Enolase Linked to Severe Asthma - medscape news ... "ENO1 enolase 1 (alpha)". NCBI Entrez Gene database. Zhu X, Miao X, Wu Y, Li C, Guo Y, Liu Y, Chen Y, Lu X, Wang Y, He S (July ... Song Y, Luo Q, Long H, Hu Z, Que T, Zhang X, Li Z, Wang G, Yi L, Liu Z, Fang W, Qi S (March 2014). "Alpha-enolase as a ...
It consists of 76 amino acids in three and a half alpha helix windings and five strands constituting a beta sheet. For example ... The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, ... Two proteins, gamma-B crystallin and ubiquitin, have been described as scaffolds for Affilin proteins. Certain amino acids in ... Historically, Affilin molecules were based on gamma crystallin, a family of proteins found in the eye lens of vertebrates, ...
The cause is lens hardening by decreasing levels of alpha-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures. ...
... alpha and gamma-endorphin, bombesin Thyroid gland cells Thyroid epithelial cell Parafollicular cell Parathyroid gland cells ... Medium spiny neurons Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Ependymal cells Tanycytes Pituicytes Anterior lens epithelial cell Crystallin- ... Parathyroid chief cell Oxyphil cell Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) Alpha cell (secretes glucagon) Beta cell (secretes ...
alpha-Crystallin does not interfere with the kinetics of the reduction of disulphide bonds in apo alpha-LA but does stabilise ... alpha-LA) upon reduction by dithiothreitol (DTT) in the presence of the small heat-shock protein alpha-crystallin, a molecular ... and the state of the protein that interacts with alpha-crystallin, have been obtained. alpha-LA contains four disulphide bonds ... Thus, alpha-crystallin is not a chaperone that is involved in protein folding per se. Rather, its role is to stabilise ...
The crystallin family of proteins is composed of alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallin. Alpha-crystallins, which are small heat ... The crystallin family of proteins is composed of alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallin. Alpha-crystallins, which are small heat ... The crystallin family of proteins is composed of alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallin. Alpha-crystallins, which are small heat ... The crystallin family of proteins is composed of alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallin. Alpha-crystallins, which are small heat ...
alpha B-crystallin is expressed in a variety of developmental, physiological and pathological conditions in a number of tissues ... Based on northern blots of total RNA, the existence of at least two size classes of alpha B-crystallin mRNAs has been reported ... We have investigated the origin of the size heterogeneity of alpha B-crystallin mRNA by using 5-upstream-, coding- and 3- ... Investigations into size heterogeneity of the alpha B-crystallin mRNA. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 1994 Aug; ...
"alpha-Crystallin B Chain/genetics/*physiology". Roles for alphaB-crystallin and HSPB2 in protecting the myocardium from ...
Mark H Katz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Urological Association, ... CRYAB (alpha B-crystallin) * CGNL1 (cingulin-like 1) * GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3) ...
Mark H Katz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Urological Association, ... CRYAB (alpha B-crystallin) * CGNL1 (cingulin-like 1) * GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3) ...
BRENDA - The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System
Regulation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis hypoxic response gene encoding alpha -crystallin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; ...
Crystallin alpha B. 0.7895. 39. ATP6V1D. ATPase H+ transporting V1 subunit D. 0.7825. 39. ...
Oxidation of the N-terminal methionine of lens alpha-A crystallin. Takemoto L, Horwitz J, Emmons T. Takemoto L, et al. Among ... The ability of lens alpha crystallin to protect against heat-induced aggregation is age-dependent. Horwitz J, Emmons T, ... Zebrafish alpha-crystallins: protein structure and chaperone-like activity compared to their mammalian orthologs. Dahlman JM, ... BetaB1-crystallin: identification of a candidate ciliary body uveitis antigen. Stempel D, Sandusky H, Lampi K, Cilluffo M, ...
In in-vitro studies, the beta crystallin was more resistant to degradation than were mixtures of alpha and gamma crystallins. ... The loss of alpha crystallin from the isoelectric focusing pattern was due to aggregation to higher molecular weight particles ... A very high molecular weight fraction contained alpha crystallin material. Rabbit lenses were exposed in-vitro and in-vivo to ... of the lenses incubated for 30 minutes at 45 degrees showed a definite loss in the lowest points of the alpha crystallin ...
Ubiquitin positive, alpha-B-crystallin (synuclein) positive, alpha- and beta-tubulin positive, tau-protein positive ... The role of alpha-synuclein in the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy. Acta Neuropathol. 2005. 109:129-40. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Preserved functional autonomic phenotype in adult mice overexpressing moderate levels of human alpha-synuclein in ... Cytoplasmic inclusions (immunocytochemical reaction with antibodies to alpha synuclein). Glial inclusions; argyrophilic ...
Alpha-Crystallin Protected Axons From Optic Nerve Degeneration After Crushing in Rats. J Mol Neurosci (2008) 35(3):253-8. doi: ... Alpha-Crystallin Protects RGC Survival and Inhibits Microglial Activation After Optic Nerve Crush. Life Sci (2014) 94(1):17-23 ... Piri N, Song M, Kwong JM, Caprioli J. Modulation of Alpha and Beta Crystallin Expression in Rat Retinas With Ocular ... and αB-crystallins enhance RGC survival after injury (65). Injection of α-crystallin protein into the vitreous space after ...
crystallin alpha B. protein-coding. CDC42EP4. CDC42 effector protein 4. protein-coding. ... C3 and PZP like, alpha-2-macroglobulin domain containing 8. protein-coding. ...
Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products; alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Two additional function of -crystallins are an autokinase ... Alpha-B is expressed widely in many tissues and organs and occurs in many neurological diseases. ...
Pang X., Howard S. T. 2007; Regulation of the alpha-crystallin gene acr2 by the MprAB two-component system of Mycobacterium ... Van Montfort R., Slingsby C., Vierling E. 2001; Structure and function of the small heat-shock protein/alpha-crystallin family ... Infection biology of a novel alpha-crystallin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Acr2. J Immunol 174:4237-4243 ... The stress-responsive chaperone alpha-crystallin 2 is required for pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol Microbiol 55 ...
Homo sapiens crystallin alpha A (CRYAA), mRNA.. D0373. NM_013501.3. Cryaa. Acry-1, Crya-1, Crya1, DAcry-1, lop18. Mouse. Mus ... Mus musculus crystallin, alpha A (Cryaa), transcript variant 1, mRNA.. Mm36859. NM_001278570.1. Cryaa. Acry-1, Crya-1, Crya1, ... Mus musculus crystallin, alpha A (Cryaa), transcript variant 3, mRNA.. Mm36860. NM_001314050.2. LOC102724652. CRYAA. Human. ... Homo sapiens alpha-crystallin A chain (LOC102724652), transcript variant 1, mRNA.. A8610. ...
Han J Schey KL . MALDI tissue imaging of ocular lens alpha-crystallin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2990-2996. [CrossRef] ... MALDI Tissue Imaging of Ocular Lens α-Crystallin. In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium ...
3-Hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid generate hydrogen peroxide and promote alpha-crystallin cross-linking by ...
expression analysis of genes encoding the DevR-DevS two-component system, Rv3134c and chaperone alpha-crystallin homologues. . ... Rv3134c and chaperone alpha-crystallin homologues. FEMS Microbiol Lett 211: 231-237. ...
Scientists have been studying the lens of the eye of zebra fish and specifically proteins called alpha crystallins. These act ...
... accumulates into Rosenthal fibers by a pathway that involves filament aggregation and the association of alpha B-crystallin and ...
HSPB8 , Alpha-crystallin C chain , CMT2L , Crystallin alpha c , DHMN2 , E2-induced gene 1 protein , CRYAC , E2IG1 , HMN2 , H11 ...
Gene Description: crystallin alpha A. Product Description: Each set contains 3 shRNA expression constructs and 1 scrambled ... shRNA Clone sets against Human crystallin alpha A. To view prices and proceed with order, click on buy check box next to ...
Alpha crystallin/Hsp20 domain. Alpha-crystallin, N-terminal. Alpha crystallin/Small heat shock protein, animal type. Alpha- ... crystallin, alpha A Symbol. cryaa Nomenclature History Previous Names. *[a]A-crystallin (1) ... Alpha crystallin/Hsp20 domain. Domain. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin, N-terminal. Family. IPR001436 Alpha crystallin/Small heat ...
Sagalam A, Calof AL, and Wray S (2021) A novel source for anti-inflammatory protein alpha-crystallin B: olfactory ensheathing ... Sagalam A, Calof AL, and Wray S (2020) A novel source for anti-inflammatory protein alpha-crystallin B: olfactory ensheathing ...
Tubulin/microtubule dynamics and alpha B-crystallin. Atomi, Y., Fujita, Y., Tanaka, M., Ohto, E. & Arai, H., 2001 10月, In: ... Small heat shock protein αB-Crystallin controls shape and adhesion of glioma and myoblast cells in the absence of stress. ...
... and alpha-B-crystallin. In contrast, MS was characterized by IgM autoantibodies targeting myelin basic protein, proteolipid ...
32 Alpha crystallin - a and b chains Bos taurus P02510 # id : 32 Alpha crystallin - a and b chains Bos taurus ... 33 Alpha crystallin - a and b chains Homo sapiens P02489 # id : 33 Alpha crystallin - a and b chains Homo sapiens ... 34 Alpha crystallin - a and b chains Rattus norvegicus P24623 # id : 34 Alpha crystallin - a and b chains Rattus norvegicus ... Alpha crystallin / Sturnus vulgaris # Export GlyConnect protein list related to protein with id 29 null # id : 29 Alpha ...
... protein encoded by this gene belongs to the superfamily of small heat-shock proteins containing a conservative alpha-crystallin ...
  • To recombine the human alpha B-crystallin (αB-crystallin) utilizing gene cloning expertise and prokaryotic expression vector and ensure the organic exercise of recombinant human αB-crystallin.Cloning the human αB-crystallin cDNA in line with the nucleotide sequence of the human αB-crystallin, setting up the pET-28/CRYAB prokaryotic expression plasmid by restriction enzyme digestion technique, and stably expressing remodeled into the Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5 alpha. (aprofarm.org)
  • Caused by heterozygous mutation in the alpha-B-crystallin gene (CRYAB) on chromosome 11q23. (cdc.gov)
  • Homo sapiens crystallin alpha A (CRYAA), mRNA. (genecopoeia.com)
  • Orthologous to human CRYAA (crystallin alpha A). (zfin.org)
  • Acunzo J, Katsogiannou M, Rocchi P. Small heat shock proteins HSP27 (HspB1), αB-crystallin (HspB5) and HSP22 (HspB8) as regulators of cell death. (besjournal.com)
  • Homo sapiens alpha-crystallin A chain (LOC102724652), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (genecopoeia.com)
  • The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits. (bvsalud.org)
  • The crystallin proteins were initially identified as structural proteins of the ocular lens and have been recently demonstrated to be expressed in normal retina. (elsevier.com)
  • The crystallin family of proteins is composed of alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallin. (elsevier.com)
  • Alpha-crystallins, which are small heat shock proteins, have received substantial attention recently. (elsevier.com)
  • The concentration of beta crystallin proteins was reduced by in-vivo exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists have been studying the lens of the eye of zebra fish and specifically proteins called alpha crystallins. (fbresearch.org)
  • Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alpha crystallin domain (ACD) found in mammalian small heat shock protein (sHsp) HspB7, also known as cardiovascular small heat shock protein (cvHsp), and similar proteins. (umbc.edu)
  • The pathogenesis of FXTAS results from the direct neural cell toxicity of elevated levels of the expanded-CGG-repeat FMR1 mRNA (RNA toxic gain-of-function), which leads in turn to dysregulation of a number of proteins including lamin A/C and alpha B crystallin ( Arocena et al 2005 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The unfolding of the apo and holo forms of bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) upon reduction by dithiothreitol (DTT) in the presence of the small heat-shock protein alpha-crystallin, a molecular chaperone, has been monitored by visible and UV absorption spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • From these data, a description and a time-course of the events that result from the unfolding of both forms of the protein, and the state of the protein that interacts with alpha-crystallin, have been obtained. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In holo alpha-LA, the disulphide bonds are less accessible to DTT, because of the stabilisation of the protein by the bound calcium ion, and reduction occurs much more slowly. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, alpha-crystallin is not a chaperone that is involved in protein folding per se. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Two roles for mu-crystallin: a lens structural protein in diurnal marsupials and a possible enzyme in mammalian retinas. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (sHSP also known as the HSP20). (prospecbio.com)
  • The Alexander disease-causing glial fibrillary acidic protein mutant, R416W, accumulates into Rosenthal fibers by a pathway that involves filament aggregation and the association of alpha B-crystallin and HSP27. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alpha B-crystallin (αBC) expression was absent from all fibers using a monoclonal antibody raised against the entire protein. (elsevier.com)
  • It binds the cytoskeleton protein alpha-filamin (also known as actin-binding protein 280). (umbc.edu)
  • Importantly, northern blot data obtained with coding region-only probe shows that the size of alpha B mRNA detected in the heart and the lens is similar (0.78 kb) in poly A+ as well as in total RNA. (who.int)
  • Cleavage from the N-terminal region of beta Bp crystallin during aging of the human lens. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidation of the N-terminal methionine of lens alpha-A crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of lens alpha crystallin to protect against heat-induced aggregation is age-dependent. (nih.gov)
  • Calf lens homogenates were incubated at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45 degrees-C. Isoelectric focused gel analysis of the lenses incubated for 30 minutes at 45 degrees showed a definite loss in the lowest points of the alpha crystallin components. (cdc.gov)
  • Crystallins, cataract, and dynamic lens proteostasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES . (bvsalud.org)
  • Bovine lens alpha-crystalline subunits are modified by O-linked GlcNAc. (expasy.org)
  • the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. (prospecbio.com)
  • This review summarizes the current knowledge of alpha-crystallins in retinal diseases, their roles in retinal neuron cell survival and retinal inflammation, and the regulation of their expression and activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Roles for alphaB-crystallin and HSPB2 in protecting the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in a KO mouse model. (glembotskilab.org)
  • The interaction of the molecular chaperone alpha-crystallin with unfolding alpha-lactalbumin: a structural and kinetic spectroscopic study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rao PV, Horwitz J, Zigler JS Jr. Alpha-crystallin, a molecular chaperone, forms a stable complex with carbonic anhydrase upon heat denaturation. (besjournal.com)
  • The loss of alpha crystallin from the isoelectric focusing pattern was due to aggregation to higher molecular weight particles which could not enter the gel. (cdc.gov)
  • BetaB1-crystallin: identification of a candidate ciliary body uveitis antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recombination and identification of human alpha B-crystallin. (aprofarm.org)
  • 6. Zhang WJ, Frei B. Alpha-lipoic acid inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells. (lifeextensionvitamins.com)
  • In in-vitro studies, the beta crystallin was more resistant to degradation than were mixtures of alpha and gamma crystallins. (cdc.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Investigations into size heterogeneity of the alpha B-crystallin mRNA. (who.int)
  • We have investigated the origin of the size heterogeneity of alpha B-crystallin mRNA by using 5'-upstream-, coding- and 3'-untranslated-region probes in RNAse protection and northern blot assays. (who.int)
  • 1999) Folding pattern of the alpha-crystallin domain in alphaA-crystallin determined by site-directed spin labeling. (besjournal.com)
  • Based on northern blots of total RNA, the existence of at least two size classes of alpha B-crystallin mRNAs has been reported, one smaller predominant species, 0.8-0.9 kb, and the other 1.2 to 1.4 kb. (who.int)
  • alpha-LA contains four disulphide bonds and binds a calcium ion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Two additional function of -crystallins are an autokinase activity and participation in the intracellular architecture. (prospecbio.com)
  • R)-alpha-lipoic acid-supplemented old rats have improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and increased metabolic rate. (lifeextensionvitamins.com)
  • alpha-Crystallin does not interfere with the kinetics of the reduction of disulphide bonds in apo alpha-LA but does stabilise the molten globule state. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Oxidative stress in the aging rat heart is reversed by dietary supplementation with (R)-(alpha)-lipoic acid. (lifeextensionvitamins.com)
  • It interacts efficiently with slowly aggregating, highly disordered intermediate (molten globule) states of alpha-LA. Real-time NMR spectroscopy shows that the kinetics of the refolding of apo alpha-LA following dilution from denaturant are not affected by the presence of alpha-crystallin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have examined the cleavage of ribonuclease A and the related N-linked glycoprotein ribonuclease B, and the O-linked glycoprotein alpha crystallin A chain, using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI-MS to identify the peptide products. (researchgate.net)
  • Cloning of a putative chicken MHC class II alpha chain gene. (elsevier.com)
  • collagen type XXII alpha 1 chain [Sou. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • collagen type IX alpha 3 chain [Sourc. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Interferon-alpha 1a Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 165 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 19.4 kDa.The Interferon-alpha 1a contains Valine residue at position 114.The IFN-a 1a is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (neobiolab.com)
  • Dr. Datiles and Dr. Walter J. Stark, professor and chief of the cataract and corneal diseases program of the Wilmer Eye Institute, studied this loss of alpha-crystallin over time by measuring levels of the protein every six months among 45 people, age 34 to 79, (66 eyes). (nih.gov)
  • The loss of alpha crystallin from the isoelectric focusing pattern was due to aggregation to higher molecular weight particles which could not enter the gel. (cdc.gov)
  • People are born with a fixed amount of alpha-crystallin, so if the supply becomes depleted due to radiation exposure, smoking, diabetes or other causes, a cataract is more likely to form. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers determined alpha-crystallin's light-scattering ability and then used animal models to develop a technique for detecting and measuring the amount of alpha-crystallin in lenses. (nih.gov)
  • We're born with a finite amount of alpha-crystallin, which doesn't pose a problem in our early years. (nih.gov)
  • alphaB-crystallin protein expression was not associated with patients' age, tumor size, histological type or lymph node involvement. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, BRCA1 mutations were more frequent (p = 0.045) in tumors with strong alphaB-crystallin protein expression compared to tumors with weak or negative expression (33.3% vs. 8.3% vs. 6.2%, respectively). (medscape.com)
  • For reasons not yet understood, the immune system considers the expression of the alphaB-crystallin protein in the brain a danger signal and attacks this healing substance. (cidpusa.org)
  • In collaboration with NASA physicist Rafat Ansari, Datiles co-developed a special clinical device based on a dynamic light-scattering technique and used it to show that oxidation-caused loss of a lens protein-alpha-crystallin, a molecular chaperone-leads to the formation of human age-related cataracts. (nih.gov)
  • Shamsi A, Anwar S, Mohammad T, Hassan MI, Ahmad F and Islam A (2020) Insight into the binding of PEG-400 with eye protein alpha-crystallin: Multi spectroscopic and computational approach: Possible therapeutics targeting eye diseases. (hassanlab.org)
  • The level of alpha-crystallin in the eye declines as cataract progresses. (nih.gov)
  • After a mean of 19 months, the researchers found that cataract progression was far more rapid in lenses with the lowest baseline levels of alpha-crystallin, or the higher rates of alpha-crystallin protein loss, compared to those lenses with the highest baseline levels of alpha-crystallin or slowest rates of loss. (nih.gov)
  • But since alpha-crystallin protein is itself too large to be delivered via eyedrops, NIH-funded researchers are trying to identify pieces of alpha-crystallin that may act as a kind of mini-chaperone with a similar anti-cataract effect. (nih.gov)
  • Inspired by the versatility of macrocycles and programmable guest selectivity through discrete functionalizations, we report on three water-soluble ionic resorcinarene receptors (A, B, and C) that disrupt the aggregation of αA66-80 crystallin peptide. (pdx.edu)
  • Tsp36, a tapeworm small heat-shock protein with a duplicated alpha-crystallin domain, forms dimers and tetramers with good chaperone-like activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Considering that an alpha-crystallin domain is essential for the oligomerization and chaperone-like properties of sHSPs, we characterized Tsp36 from the tapeworm Taenia saginata. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Alpha-crystallin appears to be depleted in the process of acting as a chaperone, so supplementing it before levels get too low may be a viable prevention strategy. (nih.gov)
  • Hsp22 is an alpha-crystallin-related chaperone (small hsp) that localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. (nih.gov)
  • It is characterized by a conserved C-terminal alpha-crystallin domain consisting of two anti-parallel beta-sheets that promote oligomer formation required for its primary chaperone function as inhibitor of irreversible protein aggregation. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • His recent experiments have established the importance of mutations in the intermediate filament protein desmin and the chaperone alpha B crystallin as causative for a class of cardiomyopathies, which has recently led to the startling observation that intracellular pre-amyloids appear to play an important, and possibly generalized role in cardiovascular diseases of various etiologies. (heartacademy.org)
  • The cytosolic small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin (alphaBC) is a molecular chaperone expressed in large quantities in the heart, where it protects from stresses such as ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Upon I/R, p38 MAP kinase activation leads to phosphorylation of alphaBC on Ser(59) (P-alphaBC-S59), which increases its protective ability. (glembotskilab.org)
  • Crystallin genes: lens specificity of the murine alpha A-crystallin gene. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, fish γM-crystallins do not conserve the paired tryptophan residues found in each domain in mammalian γ-crystallins and in the related β-crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • From NCBI Gene: Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families. (nih.gov)
  • alphaB-crystallin immunohistochemical detection in cancerous and non-cancerous tissues. (medscape.com)
  • alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is expressed widely in many tissues and organs. (nih.gov)
  • Crystallins are divided into B-crystallin is associated with many neurological diseases, and a missense mutation in this gene has co-segregated in a family with a Desmin-related myopathy. (neobiotechnologies.com)
  • The scientists found that as cloudiness increased, alpha-crystallin in the lenses decreased. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha-crystallin levels also decreased as the participants' ages increased, even when the lenses were still transparent. (nih.gov)
  • Calf lens homogenates were incubated at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45 degrees-C. Isoelectric focused gel analysis of the lenses incubated for 30 minutes at 45 degrees showed a definite loss in the lowest points of the alpha crystallin components. (cdc.gov)
  • αA66-80 crystallin peptide abundant in cataracted eye lenses contributes to aggregation of αA-crystallin protein leading to cataracts. (pdx.edu)
  • Even more promising, carnosine has now been shown to disassemble those dense opaque clumps of crystallin , thereby restoring lens transparency in animal lenses in culture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is by no means a foregone conclusion that the alpha crystallins present in the crystalline lens of the vertebrate eye could ever have naturally evolved into beta-gamma crystallins, which belong to an entirely different family. (uncommondescent.com)
  • In in-vitro studies, the beta crystallin was more resistant to degradation than were mixtures of alpha and gamma crystallins. (cdc.gov)
  • The results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicate that at temperatures below the melting point, the salt exhibits three different crystal lin e structures, denoted as alpha, beta and gamma existing at low, intermediate and high temperatures, respectively. (onacademic.com)
  • While the occurrence of a polymorphic transition between the beta and gamma phases has been noted previously, the existence of the low temperature alpha-phase is reported for the First time. (onacademic.com)
  • beta transition observed in this system and on heating the alpha-phase transforms directly to the gamma-phase. (onacademic.com)
  • crystallin beta-gamma domain containi. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • [ 46 ] Subsequently, tumors were considered as alphaB-crystallin positive based on the cytoplasmic staining of malignant cells. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, recent studies have revealed that the abnormal expressions and functions of both α-crystallins are associated with several types of tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Further analysis of the tumors led to a link between aB-crystallin and a significantly higher risk of death - 36 percent of women with aB-crystallin-positive cancer died within 10 years of diagnosis, compared to 25 percent of those who tested negative for the gene. (medicaldaily.com)
  • The protein at the center of the study, alpha-crystallin, is a major structural protein that, under healthy conditions, forms a transparent lattice in the lens. (nih.gov)
  • Structural changes in alpha-crystallin and whole eye lens during heating, observed by low angle x-ray diffraction. (stfc.ac.uk)
  • Of note, variable alphaB-crystallin positivity scores were obtained from the examined cores for the same tumor, ranging from negative to strongly positive.Regarding the non-cancerous breast tissue included in histospots, cytoplasmic alphaB-crystallin expression was observed only in myoepithelial cells (Figure 1B). (medscape.com)
  • A strong, positive association was noticed between alphaB-crystallin expression and Ki67, with 81.3% of the cases with positive expression of the former having high expression of the latter. (medscape.com)
  • In this review, we have summarized the current status regarding the expression patterns and functions of αA- and αB-crystallins implicated in tumorigenesis, and discussed the possible mechanisms underlying their functions. (elsevier.com)
  • 10. Expression of alpha-crystallins in human sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid. (nih.gov)
  • He also used duplicate copies of bands to falsely represent the RNA expression in ATDC5 cells grown under different conditions for either collagen Type II in Figure 3, MCB 2000 or collagen [alpha]1(X) in Figure 5 in MCB 22:4256-4267, 2002. (nih.gov)
  • Liu, "Lens development and crystallin gene expression," Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • alphaB-crystallin, a protein found primarily in the lens of the eye, can reverse paralysis when injected in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine report. (cidpusa.org)
  • alphaB-crystallin is not normally found in the brain but develops in response to the injuries inflicted on nerve cells by multiple sclerosis. (cidpusa.org)
  • Glycine max alpha-amylase inhibitor/lipid transfer/seed storage superfamily protein (LOC100527330), mRNA. (go.jp)
  • Glycine max alpha-crystallin-Hsps_p23-like superfamily protein (LOC100500503), mRNA. (go.jp)
  • A special type of sHSP, with a duplicated alpha-crystallin domain, is present in parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes). (ox.ac.uk)
  • They found that the highest antibody response was directed against alphaB-crystallin, leading the researchers to speculate that the protein could possibly reverse the damage in humans as it does in mice. (cidpusa.org)
  • Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. (nih.gov)
  • Hsp27 oligomerization is modulated by post-translational phosphorylation of Hsp27 at three serine residues, Ser15, Ser78, and Ser82, by a variety of protein kinases including MAPKAPK-3, PKAc-alpha, p70 S6K, PKD I, and PKC-delta. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • DL-alpha-lipoic acid (LA), an antioxidant with known function as cofactor in mitochondrial dehydrogenase reactions, will be a good candidate to annul the oxidative damage due to vaccination triggered inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • He and a NASA physicist codeveloped a clinical device based on a dynamic light-scattering technique and used it to show that oxidation-caused loss of a lens protein called alpha-crystallin leads to the formation of human age-related cataracts. (nih.gov)
  • A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens ( LENS, CRYSTALLINE ) in VERTEBRATES . (nih.gov)
  • and Ying Liu, Haochuan Li, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Noriyuki Tsumaki, and Yoshihiko Yamada, ``Identification of an enhancer sequence with the first intron required for cartilage-specific transcription of the [alpha]2(XI) collagen gene,' Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC) 275:12712-12718, 2000. (nih.gov)
  • In this regard, αA- and αB-crystallins seem to function differentially or even oppositely during tumorigenesis, and diverse molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain their roles in cell apoptosis, cell proliferation and tumor metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • He also co-discovered a novel lens protein in guinea pigs, the zeta-crystallin, with NEI protein chemist Dr. Sam Zigler. (nih.gov)
  • Adjunctive immunotherapy with a-crystallin based DNA vaccination reduces Tuberculosis chemotherapy period in chronically infected mice. (bu.edu)
  • The researchers measured and monitored alpha-crystallin levels using a fiber optic-based technology called dynamic light scattering, initially developed to conduct fluid physics experiments in space. (nih.gov)
  • In an analysis of about 4,000 patients, a team of researchers found that high levels of activity in a particular gene, called alpha beta (aB)-crystallin, was an independent predictor of relapse, specifically in the brain. (medicaldaily.com)
  • The researchers, from the Institute of Cancer Research, London, found that women who tested positive in an (aB)-crystallin test were three times more likely to have cancer that spread to the brain than women who tested negative. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Progressive impact of diabetes on retinal neuroprotection by alpha-crystallins. (umich.edu)
  • Yamada T、Tsuchida S. The Hirosaki small-eye rat: A novel recessive model animal of lens and retinal degeneration with loss of A3/A1-crystallin. (nichiyaku.ac.jp)