Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.delta-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in BIRDS and REPTILES. They are inactive forms of the enzyme argininosuccinate lyase.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Abrin: A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Fertile Period: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Degradation: Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.Plectin: A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).

Alterations in the mouse and human proteome caused by Huntington's disease. (1/314)

Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease that usually starts in midlife and inevitably leads to death. In our effort to identify proteins involved in processes upstream or downstream of the disease-causing huntingtin, we studied the proteome of a well established mouse model by large gel two-dimensional electrophoresis. We could demonstrate for the first time at the protein level that alpha1-antitrypsin and alphaB-crystalline both decrease in expression over the course of disease. Importantly, the alpha1-antitrypsin decrease in the brain precedes that in liver and testes in mice. Reduced expression of the serine protease inhibitors alpha1-antitrypsin and contraspin was found in liver, heart, and testes close to terminal disease. Decreased expression of the chaperone alphaB-crystallin was found exclusively in the brain. In three brain regions obtained post-mortem from Huntington's disease patients, alpha1-antitrypsin expression was also altered. Reduced expression of the major urinary proteins not found in the brain was seen in the liver of affected mice, demonstrating that the disease exerts its influence outside the brain of transgenic mice at the protein level. Maintaining alpha1-antitrypsin and alphaB-crystallin availability during the course of Huntington's disease might prevent neuronal cell death and therefore could be useful in delaying the disease progression.  (+info)

The small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin negatively regulates apoptosis during myogenic differentiation by inhibiting caspase-3 activation. (2/314)

Myoblasts respond to growth factor deprivation either by differentiating into multinucleated myotubes or by undergoing apoptosis; hence, the acquisition of apoptosis resistance by myogenic precursors is essential for their development. Here we demonstrate that the expression of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin is selectively induced in C2C12 myoblasts that are resistant to differentiation-induced apoptosis, and we show that this induction occurs at an early stage in their differentiation in vitro. In contrast, the expression of several known anti-apoptotic proteins (FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-x(L)) was not altered during myogenesis. We also demonstrate that ectopic expression of alpha B-crystallin, but not the closely related small heat shock protein Hsp27, renders C2C12 myoblasts resistant to differentiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that the myopathy-causing R120G alpha B-crystallin mutant is partly impaired in its cytoprotective function, whereas a pseudophosphorylation alpha B-crystallin mutant that mimics stress-induced phosphorylation is completely devoid of anti-apoptotic activity. Finally, we demonstrate that alpha B-crystallin negatively regulates apoptosis during myogenesis by inhibiting the proteolytic activation of caspase-3, whereas the R120G and pseudophosphorylation mutants are defective in this function. Taken together, our findings indicate that alpha B-crystallin is a novel negative regulator of myogenic apoptosis that directly links the differentiation program to apoptosis resistance.  (+info)

Orientation-dependent influence of an intergenic enhancer on the promoter activity of the divergently transcribed mouse Shsp/alpha B-crystallin and Mkbp/HspB2 genes. (3/314)

The mouse Shsp/alphaB-crystallin and Mkbp/HspB2 genes are closely linked and divergently transcribed. In this study, we have analyzed the contribution of the intergenic enhancer to Shsp/alphaB-crystallin and Mkbp/HspB2 promoter activity using dual-reporter vectors in transient transfection and transgenic mouse experiments. Deletion of the enhancer reduced Shsp/alphaB-crystallin promoter activity by 30- and 93-fold and Mkbp/HspB2 promoter activity by 6- and 10-fold in transiently transfected mouse lens alpha-TN4 and myoblast C2C12 cells, respectively. Surprisingly, inversion of the enhancer reduced Shsp/alphaB-crystallin promoter activity by 17-fold, but did not affect Mkbp/HspB2 promoter activity in the transfected cells. In contrast, enhancer activity was orientation-independent in combination with a heterologous promoter in transfected cells. Transgenic mouse experiments established the orientation dependence and Shsp/alphaB-crystallin promoter preference of the intergenic enhancer in its native context. The orientation dependence and preferential effect of the Shsp/alphaB-crystallin enhancer on the Shsp/alphaB-crystallin promoter provide an example of adaptive changes in gene regulation accompanying the functional diversification of duplicated genes during evolution.  (+info)

Retinal pigment epithelium is protected against apoptosis by alphaB-crystallin. (4/314)

PURPOSE: The degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is considered to be a crucial event in the pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cumulative oxidative damage has been implicated in the development of the changes seen in AMD. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in the RPE in response to oxidative stress and to explore whether alphaB-crystallin expression confers an antiapoptotic cytoprotective effect on RPE cells. METHODS: Native human RPE cells from the macula and retinal periphery were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis for expression of alphaB-crystallin. Monolayer cultures of human RPE cells were stressed by heat shock (42 degrees C for 20 minutes) or oxidant-mediated injury (50-300 micro M H(2)O(2) for 1 hour). Induction of alphaB-crystallin and the corresponding mRNA was assessed by Western and Northern blot analyses. To study the cytoprotective effect of alphaB-crystallin, human RPE cells were transfected with either a neomycin-selectable expression vector containing alphaB-crystallin cDNA or a control vector without alphaB-crystallin cDNA. Caspase-3 activity was determined by observing the cleavage of a colorimetric peptide substrate. Cell viability was quantified by combined propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. RESULTS: alphaB-crystallin is constitutively expressed in RPE under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Western blot analysis of freshly isolated RPE showed greater baseline expression levels in RPE derived from the macular area than in that from the more peripheral regions. Heat shock treatment and oxidative stress caused a significant increase in alphaB-crystallin mRNA and protein. Oxidant-mediated injury in RPE cells with baseline expression levels of alphaB-crystallin resulted in apoptotic cell death, as measured by caspase-3 activity, whereas RPE cells that had been stably transfected with alphaB-crystallin were more resistant to H(2)O(2)-induced cellular injury. CONCLUSIONS: alphaB-crystallin may function as a stress-inducible antiapoptotic protein in human RPE and is inducible by oxidative stress, a condition implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. Overexpression of alphaB-crystallin may be an important mechanism for the RPE to prevent apoptotic cell death in response to cellular stress.  (+info)

The small heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin promotes FBX4-dependent ubiquitination. (5/314)

AlphaB-crystallin is a small heat-shock protein in which three serine residues (positions 19, 45, and 59) can be phosphorylated under various conditions. We describe here the interaction of alphaB-crystallin with FBX4, an F-box-containing protein that is a component of the ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase SCF (SKP1/CUL1/F-box). The interaction with FBX4 was enhanced by mimicking phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin at both Ser-19 and Ser-45 (S19D/S45D), but not at other combinations. Ser-19 and Ser-45 are preferentially phosphorylated during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Also alphaB-crystallin R120G, a mutant found to co-segregate with a desmin-related myopathy, displayed increased interaction with FBX4. Both alphaB-crystallin S19D/S45D and R120G specifically translocated FBX4 to the detergent-insoluble fraction and stimulated the ubiquitination of one or a few yet unknown proteins. These findings implicate the involvement of alphaB-crystallin in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in a phosphorylation- and cell cycle-dependent manner and may provide new insights into the alphaB-crystallin-induced aggregation in desmin-related myopathy.  (+info)

Mechanism of chaperone function in small heat-shock proteins. Phosphorylation-induced activation of two-mode binding in alphaB-crystallin. (6/314)

The consequences of alphaB-crystallin phosphorylation on its chaperone activity were investigated using a detailed analysis of the recognition and binding of destabilized T4 lysozyme (T4L) mutants by alphaB-crystallin phosphorylation mimics containing combinations of serine to aspartate substitutions. The T4L site-directed mutants were selected to constitute an energetic ladder of progressively destabilized proteins having similar structures in the folded state. alphaB-crystallin and its variants differentially recognize the T4L mutants, binding the more destabilized ones to a larger extent. Furthermore, the aspartate substitutions result in an increase in the extent of binding to the same T4L mutant and in the appearance of biphasic binding isotherms. The latter indicates the presence of two modes of binding characterized by different affinities and different numbers of binding sites. The transition to two-mode binding can also be induced by temperature or pH activation of the second mode. The similarity between the phosphorylation, pH, and temperature effects suggests a common structural origin. The location of the phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal domain and the hypothesized burial of this domain in the core of the oligomeric structure are consistent with a critical role for the destabilization of the quaternary structure in the process of recognition and binding by small heat-shock proteins.  (+info)

Morphological characterization of the Alpha A- and Alpha B-crystallin double knockout mouse lens. (7/314)

BACKGROUND: One approach to resolving some of the in vivo functions of alpha-crystallin is to generate animal models where one or both of the alpha-crystallin gene products have been eliminated. In the single alpha-crystallin knockout mice, the remaining alpha-crystallin may fully or partially compensate for some of the functions of the missing protein, especially in the lens, where both alpha A and alpha B are normally expressed at high levels. The purpose of this study was to characterize gross lenticular morphology in normal mice and mice with the targeted disruption of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin genes (alpha A/BKO). METHODS: Lenses from 129SvEvTac mice and alpha A/BKO mice were examined by standard scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy methodologies. RESULTS: Equatorial and axial (sagittal) dimensions of lenses for alpha A/BKO mice were significantly smaller than age-matched wild type lenses. No posterior sutures or fiber cells extending to the posterior capsule of the lens were found in alpha A/BKO lenses. Ectopical nucleic acid staining was observed in the posterior subcapsular region of 5 wk and anterior subcapsular cortex of 54 wk alpha A/BKO lenses. Gross morphological differences were also observed in the equatorial/bow, posterior and anterior regions of lenses from alpha A/BKO mice as compared to wild mice. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that both alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin are necessary for proper fiber cell formation, and that the absence of alpha-crystallin can lead to cataract formation.  (+info)

Mimicking phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin on serine-59 is necessary and sufficient to provide maximal protection of cardiac myocytes from apoptosis. (8/314)

AlphaB-crystallin (alphaBC), a small heat shock protein expressed in high levels in the heart, is phosphorylated on Ser-19, 45, and 59 after stress. However, it is not known whether alphaBC phosphorylation directly affects cell survival. In the present study, constructs were prepared that encode forms of alphaBC harboring Ser to Ala (blocks phosphorylation) or Ser to Glu (mimics phosphorylation) mutations at positions 19, 45, and 59. The effects of each form on apoptosis of cultured cardiac myocytes after hyperosmotic or hypoxic stress were assessed. Compared with controls, cells that expressed alphaBC with Ser to Ala substitutions at all three positions, alphaBC(AAA), exhibited more stress-induced apoptosis. Cells expressing either alphaBC(AAE) or (EEE) exhibited 3-fold less apoptosis than cells expressing alphaBC(AAA), indicating that phosphorylation of Ser-59 confers protection. alphaBC is known to bind to procaspase-3 and to decrease caspase-3 activation. Compared with cells expressing alphaBC(AAA), the activation of caspase-3 was decreased by 3-fold in cells expressing alphaBC(AAE). These results demonstrate that mimicking the phosphorylation of alphaBC on Ser-59 is necessary and sufficient to confer caspase-3 inhibition and protection of cardiac myocytes against hyperosmotic or hypoxic stress. These findings provide direct evidence that alphaBC(S59P) contributes to the cardioprotection observed after physiologically relevant stresses, such as transient hypoxia. Identifying the targets of alphaBC(S59P) will reveal important details about the mechanism underlying the cytoprotective effects of this small heat shock protein.  (+info)

The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) ...
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Desmin-related myopathy is a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathy caused by mutations in desmin, CryAB, and other proteins that interact with the intermediate filaments. The pathology is characterized by myofibril disruption that appears to initiate at the Z-disk. Dislocation and aggregation of membranous organelles is observed as well as the accumulation of the mutant, misfolded desmin, and/or CryAB into insoluble aggregates, which gradually increase in the cytoplasm and are thought to eventually result in cell death.1-3 We previously showed that these aggregates may be classified as aggresomes, whose accumulation is often associated with neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein misfolding or unfolding.8 Our studies showed that the aggresomes present in the cardiomyocytes contain large concentrations of a toxic amyloid oligomer, which is typically found in many of the amyloid-based neurodegenerative diseases. The data thus link these cardiomyopathies to a broad class of amyloid-based ...
Desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC) belongs to the family of myofibrillar diseases characterized by the presence of toxic desmin-positive aggregates and degeneration at Z-disk structures. DRC has been linked to the mutations in the desmin, αBcrystallin (CryAB), or myotilin genes. Several human CryAB mutations cause multisystem disorders and experimental models of R120GCryAB in transgenic mice strikingly recapitulate similar phenotype observed in patients. In this context, we have generated the 450delACryAB linked to inheritable cataracts in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and mice hearts. 450delACryAB formed aggregates or aggresomes, and recruited HSP25 into the insoluble fraction in the cardiomyocytes. However, heart-specific 450delA CryAB overexpression neither causes desmin-related cardiomyopathy nor exacerbates pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of compensation to protein aggregates formation abrogates the development of cardiomyopathy and suggests ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Matrix metalloproteinase-1 induces cleavage of exogenous alphab-crystallin transduced by a cell-penetrating peptide. AU - Yang, Seung Won. AU - Lee, Seung Min. AU - Choi, Eun Young. AU - Lee, Kyung Hye. AU - Kim, Soo Hyuk. AU - Shin, Min Jeong. AU - Han, Ye Sun. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Chung, Ji Hyung. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), including TAT-CPP, have been used to deliver exogenous proteins into living cells. Although a number of proteins fused to TAT-CPP can be delivered into various cells, little is known about the proteolytic cleavage of TAT-fusion proteins in cells. In this study, we demonstrate that a small heat shock protein (sHSP), alphaB-crystallin (αB-crystallin), delivered by TAT-CPP is susceptible to proteolytic cleavage by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells. Recombinant TAT-αB-crystallin was efficiently transduced into H9c2 cells. For a few hours following protein transduction, generation of ...
Not surprisingly, the body can also suffer from reductive stress which frequently goes unmentioned. Reductive stress is achieved when the concentrations of reducing agents exceeds that of oxidizing agents. This is commonly encountered with the metabolism of ethanol. It is therefore possible for "Health Fanatics" to overdose on anti-oxidants and push the body into reductive stress instead of the oxidative stress they are steadfastly trying to avoid. Exercise can have positive or negative effects with regard to Redox effects on the body according to how it is performed. Exercise increases oxidative stress due to metabolic processes but when exercise is undertaken on a regular basis the body up-regulates its own anti-oxidant capacity to cope with the increased demand. This improved anti-oxidant activity clearly has additional benefits when we are not exercising but are under oxidative stress in other ways. Intermittent exercise will increase the oxidative stress burden on the body but is not ...
Accordingly, its important to look beyond the ostensibly obvious results like "low AGE diets promote fat and weight loss". While this may be true, even the cursory analysis of the study results in todays SuppVersity short news indicates that the obvious conclusion that reducing AGEs would mechanistically reduce body fat is probably flawed. Rather than that people who avoid high AGE foods will necessary avoid foods with high energy density, consume less energy and lose weight in response to a reduction in energy intake - not in response to the reduced intake of AGEs. Problems like these are why it is important to look beyond the conclusions in the abstracts and / or come back to the SuppVersity regularly for short and in-depth analyses of the latest studies , Comment on Facebook ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - P62 Stages an Interplay Between the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Autophagy in the Heart of Defense Against Proteotoxic Stress. AU - Su, Huabo. AU - Wang, Xuejun. PY - 2011/11/1. Y1 - 2011/11/1. N2 - As exemplified by desmin-related cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, proteasome functional insufficiency plays an essential pathogenic role in the progression of cardiac diseases with elevated proteotoxic stress. Upregulation of p62/SQSTM1 and increased selective autophagy in cardiomyocytes may protect against proteotoxic stress in the heart. p62 may serve as a proteotoxic stress sensor, promote segregation and degradation of misfolded proteins by autophagy, and mediate the cross talk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy.. AB - As exemplified by desmin-related cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, proteasome functional insufficiency plays an essential pathogenic role in the progression of cardiac diseases with elevated ...
Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein family and functions as molecular chaperone that primarily binds misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, as well as inhibit apoptosis and contribute to intracellular architecture. Post-translational modifications decrease the ability to chaperone. Defects in this gene/protein have been associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and ...
Alexander disease is a leukodystrophy, a group of more than 15 rare genetic disorders that cause progressive degeneration of the white matter of the brain due…
BACKGROUND: We studied a family including two half-siblings, sharing the same mother, affected by slowly progressive, adult-onset neurological syndromes. In spite of the diversity of the clinical features, characterized by a mild movement disorder with cognitive impairment in the elder patient, and severe motor-neuron disease (MND) in her half-brother, the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) features were compatible with adult-onset Alexanders disease (AOAD), suggesting different expression of the same, genetically determined, condition.METHODS: Since mutations in the alpha isoform of glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP-α, the only cause so far known of AOAD, were excluded, we applied exome Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to identify gene variants, which were then functionally validated by molecular characterization of recombinant and patient-derived cells.RESULTS: Exome-NGS revealed a mutation in a previously neglected GFAP isoform, GFAP-ϵ, which disrupts the GFAP-associated ...
Alexander disease, a Leukodystrophy, is a progressive and fatal neurological disorder in which the destruction of white matter in the brain is accompanied by the formation of abnormal deposits known as Rosenthal fibers. Rosenthal fibers are aggregations of protein that occur in astrocytes, one of the so-called "glial" cells of the central nervous system. These aggregates are found occasionally in other disorders, but not with the abundance or particular distribution in the brain that occurs in Alexander disease.. The age of onset is quite variable, ranging from prenatal through the sixth decade. The most common classification divides patients into three categories based on age of onset, infantile (0-2 years), juvenile (2-12 years), and adult (,12 years). More recently, a different classification has been proposed, with only two categories of type I and type II, with the distinction hinging more on distribution of lesions and clinical presentation rather than age of onset (all type I cases being ...
A representation of NAD showing the change that occurs in the nicotinamide moiety (encircled) when NAD+ is reduced to NADH. In NAD+, the nicotinamide moiety has a planar structure, whereas it is puckered in NADH as shown in this animation (avi).. In facultative aerobic bacteria the catabolism of fuel molecules is associated with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. During the transition to oxygen limited growth, an increased level of NADH builds up, as it is less efficiently reoxidized to NAD+ as a result of reduced aerobic respiration. These roles of NADH and NAD+ provide a link between energy homeostasis and gene regulation. In most Gram-positive bacteria a novel sensor of the NAD redox balance is present. This transcriptional repressor is called Rex (from redox; Figure 2). Transcription of Rex-repressed genes in Bacillus subtilis is activated when oxygen is limiting for aerobic respiration, and as a consequence the levels of free NADH increase. This leads to production of cytochrome bd (a ...
α-Crystallin is the principal lens protein which, in addition to its structural role, also acts as a molecular chaperone, to prevent aggregation and precipitation of other lens proteins. One of its two subunits, αB-crystallin, is also expressed in many non-lenticular tissues, and a natural missense mutation, R120G, has been associated with cataract and desminrelated myopathy, a disorder of skeletal muscles (Vicart et al., 1998, Nature Genet. 20:92-95). In the present study, real-time 1H NMR spectroscopy showed that the ability of R120G αB-crystallin to stabilize the partially folded, molten globule state of α- lactalbumin was significantly reduced in comparison with wild type αB-crystallin. The mutant showed enhanced interaction with, and promoted unfolding of reduced α- lactalbumin, while it showed limited chaperone activity for other target proteins. Using NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) it was observed that, unlike the wild type protein, R120G αB-crystallin is
See the Rosenthal surname, family crest & coat of arms. Free Search. Uncover the Rosenthal surname history for the German Origin. What is the history of the last name Rosenthal?
ATGen operates in the Commercial Physical Research sector. ATGen is a Korea-based company principally engaged in developing and manufacturing reagent used for experimentation . The Companys product portfolio consists of recombination proteins including binding immunoglobulin protein, carboxy terminus of HSP70 interacting protein, BCL2-associated athanogene 2; monoclonal antibodies including 14-3-3 beta antibody, A crystallin A antibody , alpha-crystallin B and NK Vue Kit used for physical examination and diagnosis. The Company distributes its products within domestic market and to overseas markets.
The Rosenthal Malibu winery holds a variety of year-round Malibu wine tasting events. We offer special VIP access for members and a variety of wines online.
The Rosenthal Malibu winery holds a variety of year-round Malibu wine tasting events. We offer special VIP access for members and a variety of wines online.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Howard Rosenthal, DDS Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Robert Rosenthal, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Listen free to Tom Rosenthal - The Pleasant Trees (Its OK, Going To be Wonderful and more). 6 tracks (16:49). Discover more music, concerts, videos, and pictures with the largest catalogue online at Last.fm.
Nikolai Rosenthal is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: תכנון ויישום מערכת עצבים בסימולציות לגו רובוטים
A young Southern woman of modest means suddenly finds herself thrust into New Yorks high society when she discovers that she is the illegitimate daughter of...
Purpose: : In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that alpha-crystallins can negatively regulate stress-induced apoptosis through suppression of the ERK-mediated pathway and activation of the AKT signaling pathway. In the present study, we present evidence to show that alpha-crystallins can regulate the ATR-p53 pathway to prevent UVA-induced apoptosis. Methods: : UVA was used to irradiate human lens epithelial cells stably expressing vector, alphaA, and alphaB. Western blot analysis was used for detection of ATR, CHK1/2 and p53 activation. Reporter gene activity assay was used to explore the transactivity of p53. Hoechst staining was used for apoptosis assay. Results: : Human lens epithelial cells expressing either alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin are substantially resistant to UVA-induced apoptosis. UVA-induces activation of ATR and CHK1/2 kinases to activate p53 in vector-transfected cells. However, in alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin-transfected cells, activation of ATR, CHK1/2 kinases and p53 ...
Alexander disease, also known as fibrinoid leukodystrophy, is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease. It is a rare genetic disorder and mostly affects infants and children, causing developmental delay and changes in physical characteristics. Delays in development of some physical, psychological and behavioral skills; progressive enlargement of the head (macrocephaly), seizures, spasticity, and in some cases also hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and dementia. Alexander disease is a genetic disorder affecting the midbrain and cerebellum of the central nervous system. It is caused by mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that maps to chromosome 17q21. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, such that the child of a parent with the disease has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition, if the parent is heterozygotic. However, most cases arise de novo as the result of sporadic mutations. Alexander disease belongs to leukodystrophies, a ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) forms biofilms harbouring antibiotic-tolerant bacilli in vitro, but the factors that induce biofilm formation and the nature of the extracellular material that holds the cells together are poorly understood. Here we show that intracellular thiol reductive stress (TRS) induces formation of Mtb biofilms in vitro, which harbour drug-tolerant but metabolically active bacteria with unchanged levels of ATP/ADP, NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH. The development of these biofilms requires DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Transcriptional analysis suggests that Mtb modulates only ∼7% of its genes for survival in biofilms. In addition to proteins, lipids and DNA, the extracellular material in these biofilms is primarily composed of polysaccharides, with cellulose being a key component. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying Mtb biofilm formation, although the clinical relevance of Mtb biofilms in human tuberculosis remains ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Health,...SALT LAKE CITY -- Antioxidants are widely considered an important defe...The findings published in the Aug. 10 issue of Cell indicate a new c...The protein alpha B-Crystallin termed a molecular chaperone normally...In a study of laboratory mice with failing hearts caused by mutant alp...,Reductive,stress,linked,to,heart,disease,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The eleven students involved learned basic experimental design (with positive and negative controls), troubleshooting, a wide variety of laboratory techniques, and data collection, analysis and presentations skills. In addition, students learned to read and analyze scientific work from other labs since they are given scientific articles to read beginning on their first day in the lab. This project is in collaboration with Ivor Benjamin M.D., Ph.D. at the University of Utah, which allowed these students the unique opportunity of discussing their research with a larger audience once a month. In addition to intellectual enrichment, students learned to function as a team, with those more experienced (graduate students Kelsey Langston and Whitney Hayes) mentoring those who are new in the lab. As students progressed in their understanding of the project and mastery of basic laboratory skills, they become involved in planning our weekly group meeting, preparing figures for presentations/publications, ...
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View mouse Hspb11 Chr4:107253593-107279938 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
A slowly progressive and ultimately fatal brain disorder that most commonly occurs in children. The infantile form of the disease is characterized by megalencephaly (an abnormally large head), seizures, spasticity and developmental retardation.…
Singh BN, Rao KS, Rao ChM (2010) Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation and synthesis of MyoD is modulated by alphaB-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, during muscle differentiation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1803, 288-99 20005263 ...
Emed, A.; Rosenthal, Móricz.; Grünfeld, József.; Spitzer, Sándor., 2003: Hungarian physicians in Vienna: Móric Rosenthal, József Grünfeld, Sándor Spitzer
Dr. Norman Rosenthal, MD is a psychiatry specialist in Rockville, MD. Dr. Rosenthal completed a residency at Ny State Psychology Institute. He currently practices at Capital Clinical Research Assocs.
Helianthus annuus hsp17.6 G1 protein: a small heat-shock protein from sunflower; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank Z95153
https://twitter.com/#!/CCSVI_Society Dr. Alexander (endothelial biologist) now presenting MS and cerebral endothelial dysfunctionDr. Alexander: endothelium becomes sticky with shear: activates leukocytes into brain parenchyma Dr. Alexander: endothelial cells very sensitive to glycemic (glucose) and oxidative stressDr. Alexander: Interferon beta may have ...
Mikecz, K., Glant, T. T., Markovics, A., Rosenthal, K. S., Kurko, J., Carambula, R. E., Cress, S., Steiner, H. L. & Zimmerman, D. H., Jul 13 2017, In : Vaccine. 35, 32, p. 4048-4056 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Read ratings and reviews for Dr. Randall Rosenthal who has 28 years of experience as a Obstetrician & Gynecologist in Newport, RI.
Rosenthal, A S., "Determinant selection and macrophage function in genetic control of the immune response." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 3821 ...
Heat-stress induced alterations in localization of small heat shock proteins in mouse myoblasts: intranuclear lamin A/C speckles as target for ?B-crystallin and hsp ...
Complete information for HSPA2 gene (Protein Coding), Heat Shock Protein Family A (Hsp70) Member 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an ...
... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. These ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ...
... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ... beta-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.331.199.750.500 - succinate dehydrogenase MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.050 - alpha 1- ... immunoglobulin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.500.350 - immunoglobulin alpha-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705. ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... "Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2 ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallin B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB2 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ...
... heavy chain 14 ECM1 (1q21) EDEM3: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 3 EGLN1 (1q42) ENAH (1q42) ESRRG ( ... Crystallin zeta CYP4B1 (1p33) CYR61 (1p22) DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 DCLRE1B: DNA cross-link repair ... 2-alpha-mannosidase IB MEAF6: MYST/ESA1 associated factor 6 MECR: Trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase, mitochondrial MFAP2: ... C-4 to C-12 straight chain ACTL8: Actin-like 8 ADGRL2 (1p31.1): adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L2 ADPRHL2: Poly(ADP-ribose ...
... rho crystallin, and many others. All possess a similar structure, with a beta-alpha-beta fold characteristic of nucleotide ... Some proteins of this family contain a potassium channel beta chain regulatory domain; these are reported to have ... The fold comprises a parallel beta-8/alpha-8-barrel, which contains a novel NADP-binding motif. The binding site is located in ...
DNAH14 encoding protein Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14. *ECM1 (1q21). *EDEM3: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like ... COL11A1: collagen, type XI, alpha 1. *CPT2: carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. *CRYZ: Crystallin zeta ... ACADM: acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain ... DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2. *DCLRE1B ...
... alpha 1 Collagen, type XIX, alpha 1 Collagen, type XXV, alpha 1 Collagen, type XXVII, alpha 1 Crystallin, beta A1 Cyclic ... DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein NADH ... alpha 1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Collagen, type IV, alpha 1 Collagen, type V, alpha 1 Collagen, ... type VI, alpha 1 Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 Collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type IX, alpha 1 Collagen, type X, alpha 1 ...
The N-terminal domain I (aa ~1-195) contains attachment sites for HS chains. Although HS chains are not required for correct ... To this end, a transgenic mouse line was created expressing porcine TGF-β1 under the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter and ... In a mouse model of Alzheimer's plaque formation, IL-1-alpha effects an increase in perlecan expression in response to brain ... The heparan sulfate chains of perlecan bind growth factors in the ECM, and serve as co-ligands or ligand enhancers when bound ...
"Vertebrate lens alpha-crystallins are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (1): ... and a peptide chain with a reactive serine or threonine hydroxyl group. The proposed reaction is an ordered sequential bi-bi ... "Dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin". Biochemistry. 35 (11): 3578-86. doi:10.1021/ ...
Domain 2 contains one small beta sheet, nine alpha helices, and the carboxyl terminus. Three of the nine alpha helices on one ... δ-crystallins are the major structural eye lens water-soluble proteins of most birds, reptiles, and some other vertebrates. ... ASL is composed of four identical monomers; each monomer consisting of a single polypeptide chain between 49 and 52 kDa, ... Two dimers then associate by way of alpha helix, one from each monomer, to form a central 20-helix core. The association of all ...
The propeptide region has an open-sandwich antiparallel-alpha/antiparallel-beta fold, with two alpha-helices and four beta- ... is a double-chain inhibitor consisting of an 11-residue and a 41-residue chain. The Carboxypeptidase inhibitor I68 family ... The yeast killer toxin structure was thought to be a precursor of the two-domain beta gamma-crystallin proteins, because of its ... It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding site, preventing access. Removal of this region by ...
Silva, R.A.G.D., *Nguyen, J.Y., and Decatur, S.M. (2002) "Probing the Effects of Side Chains on the Conformation and Stability ... "Formation of Amyloid Fibrils in Vitro by Human γd-crystallin and its Isolated Domains," Molecular Vision 14:81-89. Decatur, S.M ... "Two dimensional infrared measurements of the coupling of the amide modes of an alpha helix," Chemical Physics Letters 382: 586- ... "Twodimensional IR Spectroscopy and Segmental 13C Labeling reveals the Domain Structure of Human γδ-crystallin amyloid fibrils ...
These compounds are thought to act as bidentate nucleophiles that attack the adjacent carbonyls in the alpha-dicarbonyl ... and crystallin of the eyes. Covalent protein cross-links irreversibly link proteins together in the ECM of tissues. Glucosepane ... This then condenses with the arginine side chain to yield glucosepane in nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions of the ... such as collagen in the skin and crystallin in the eyes. Skin collagen, for instance, has a half-life of fifteen years. Because ...
Alpha cells (secreting glucagon) Beta cells (secreting insulin and amylin) Delta cells (secreting somatostatin) PP cells (gamma ... Intermediate skeletal muscle cell Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle Satellite cell (stem ... Anterior lens epithelial cell Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell Adipocytes: White fat cell Brown fat cell Liver lipocyte ...
Once a protein has been tagged with one ubiquitin molecule, additional rounds of ubiquitination form a polyubiquitin chain that ... Alpha crystallin. *Clusterin. *Survival of motor neuron *SMN1. *SMN2. Protein targeting. *Signal peptide ...
... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.400 --- 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH ... delta-crystallins MeSH D08.811.520.232.400 --- ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 --- aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.244.453.915.400 --- 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244. ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.400 --- 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH ...
... and aspartate side-chains, with a glutamate side-chain playing a secondary role. These side-chains, to be specific Arg359, ... and Asp477 forms hydrogen bonds with the alpha hydroxyl group on the substrate, where it works to effectively bind the ... in the mammalian cornea by the stromal keratocytes and epithelial cells and is reputed to be one of the corneal crystallins. ... To be specific, the His 263 and His30 side-chains form hydrogen bonds to the aldehyde end of the substrate, which is deepest ...
C-terminal domain - rich in alpha helical structure acts as a 'lid' for the substrate binding domain. The helical subdomain ... When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP the binding pocket of Hsp70 closes, tightly binding the now-trapped peptide chain. Further ...
Chen D, Li M, Luo J, Gu W (April 2003). "Direct interactions between HIF-1 alpha and Mdm2 modulate p53 function". The Journal ... Bálint E, Bates S, Vousden KH (July 1999). "Mdm2 binds p73 alpha without targeting degradation". Oncogene. 18 (27): 3923-9. doi ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase. 6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin ...
"Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Oligomerization is a chemical process that converts individual molecules into a chain consisting of a finite number of ... Intra-cellular deposits of tau protein are also seen in the disease, and may also be implicated, as has aggregation of alpha ... leading to a chain reaction akin to a prion infection. The oligomers are toxic to nerve cells. The other protein implicated in ...
Coexpression of SM alpha-actin and desmin was observed in the pericytes of entire capillary segments, and SM alpha-actin was ... We used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to analyze desmin ... alphaB-crystallin (CryAB) have been linked. PMID: 12555134. ... Expression of vimentin, desmin, alpha-sarcomeric and alpha- ... Alpha-smooth-muscle actin and desmin were demonstrated in the S-type cloned cells by indirect immunofluorescence, as well as by ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... help/chain target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>ChainiPRO_0000125906. 1 - 175. Alpha-crystallin B chainAdd BLAST. 175. ... IPR037882, ACD_alphaB-crystallin. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR003090, Alpha-crystallin_N. IPR008978, HSP20- ... IPR037882, ACD_alphaB-crystallin. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR003090, Alpha-crystallin_N. IPR008978, HSP20- ... "The amino-acids sequence of the alphaB2 chain of bovine alpha-crystallin.". van der Ouderaa F.J., de Jong W.W., Hilderink A., ...
Alpha-crystallin A2 chainAdd BLAST. 173. ChainiPRO_0000444508. 1 - 172. Alpha-crystallin A2(1-172)By similarity. ,p>Manually ... IPR002068, A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR012274, Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090, Alpha ... IPR002068, A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR012274, Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090, Alpha ... Chain Alpha-crystallin A2 chain:. Molecular mass is 20029 Da. Determined by ESI. With 1 phosphate group.1 Publication. Manual ...
What is alpha crystallin B chain? Meaning of alpha crystallin B chain medical term. What does alpha crystallin B chain mean? ... Looking for online definition of alpha crystallin B chain in the Medical Dictionary? alpha crystallin B chain explanation free ... redirected from alpha crystallin B chain) CRYAB. A gene on chromosome 11q22.3-q23.1 that encodes alpha crystallin B, a protein ... Alpha crystallin B chain , definition of alpha crystallin B chain by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin (phospho S19) antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. ... Alpha crystallin B chain antibody. *Alpha(B)-crystallin antibody. *Alpha-crystallin B chain antibody ... Lane 1 : phospho-alpha-B crystallin (Ser19). Lane 2 : unphosphorylated alpha-B crystallin. Observed band size : 20 kDa (why is ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin (phospho S19) antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ...
Rabbit polyclonal alpha A Crystallin/CRYAA antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, BL, sELISA and tested in Mouse, Rat, Cow. Cited in ... O-glycosylated; contains N-acetylglucosamine side chains.. Deamidation of Asn-101 in lens occurs mostly during the first 30 ... Alpha-crystallin is the largest of the crystallins and is composed of 2 primary gene products--alpha-A and alpha-B. There are ... Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1991 v1080 p173-180) describes the alpha-A crystallin and how it is split into alpha-A1 and alpha ...
PREDICTED: alpha-crystallin B chain isoform X1 [Mus musculus]. 175 aa protein ...
L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain; CRYAB: Alpha-crystallin B chain; YBX1: Nuclease-sensitive element-binding protein 1; PRKDC: ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8). Validated: WB, ELISA, IB, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. ... crystallin, alpha A. *Heat shock protein beta-4. *HSPB4. *HSPB4alpha-crystallin A chain ... Does not cross-react with aB-crystallin, Beta L-crystallin, BH- crystallin, gamma-crystallin, HSP25, HSP27 or HSP47 proteins. ... analysis of Bovine tissue lysate showing detection of Alpha A Crystallin protein using Mouse Anti-Alpha A Crystallin Monoclonal ...
... alpha A (CRYAA) Protein (His tag). Species: Sheep (Ovine). Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1630960. ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) Background Recommended name: Alpha-crystallin A chain Cleaved into the following chain: 1.. Alpha- ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag) Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag). Details for ... alpha-crystallin A chain-like * crystallin alpha A S homeolog * alpha-crystallin A chain ...
We identified a previously reported oligomerization disrupting mutation, c.62G > A (p.R21Q), in the Crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) ... The work strengthens the genotype-phenotype correlations between this functional mutation in the crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) ... PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers to amplify coding and untranslated regions of the 51 genes were designed with the Ion ... Andley UP, Song Z, Wawrousek EF, Fleming TP, Bassnett S. Differential protective activity of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin in ...
Recombinant Protein and Alpha-crystallin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alpha-crystallin A chain. Alpha-crystallin A chain ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin A chain Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin A chain ... Alpha-crystallin B chain. Alpha-crystallin B chain ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin B chain Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin B chain ... Alpha-crystallin. Alpha-crystallin ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin Antibody. Also known as Alpha- ...
Alpha-crystallin A chain Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). Mutation Frequency in ...
crystallin alpha A. LOC102724652 43169.041. 21p12. alpha-crystallin A chain. LINC00322 43322.209. 21q22.3. long intergenic non- ... collagen type VI alpha 1 chain. COL6A2 46098.119. 21q22.3. collagen type VI alpha 2 chain. ...
McKenna, M. C. (1992). The alpha crystallin A chain of the eye lens and mammalian phylogeny. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 28: 349-360. ...
alpha-Crystallin B Chain - physiology. -. dc.title. Identification of tumor suppressive activity by irradiation microcell- ... The association of alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB), a gene identified as being differentially expressed by gene profiling of NPC and ... The association of alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB), a gene identified as being differentially expressed by gene profiling of NPC and ... Alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB). Chromosome 11q. Irradiation microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Microcell hybrid. ...
The maximal expression of the molecular chaperone, alpha crystallin B chain, occurs during the secretory phase. In view of ... and alpha crystallin B chain. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, and the constitutive form of Hsp70 (Hsc70) shows a sharp increase ...
Tandem mass spectrometry was applied both to ions of a tryptic fragment and intact protein of bovine alpha-crystallin A chain ... The [M + 19H](19+) to [M + 11H](11+) charge states of both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated bovine alpha-crystallin A chain ... A tryptic digest of the bovine alpha-crystallin A chain yielded a phosphopeptide containing one missed cleavage site. The ... Bovine alpha-crystallin A chain ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Hogan, J. M., Pitteri, S. J., McLuckey, S. A. 2003; 75 (23): 6509-6516 ...
2470619 - Alpha b-crystallin is expressed in kidney epithelial cell lines and not in fibroblasts.. ... 18987199 - Glial chain migration requires pioneer cells.. 22775509 - Influence of stem-cell cycle time on accelerated re- ...
Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an ...
... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. These ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ...
SDS-PAGE analysis of UV-A-exposed and unexposed WT αB-crystallin and its three deamidated mutant species. After UV-A-exposure ... alpha-Crystallin B Chain/chemistry*/isolation & purification/metabolism*. Minor. *Amino Acid Sequence ... The WT alphaB-crystallin and its three deamidated species were exposed to UV-A light (320-400 nm) at intensities of 20 or 50 J/ ... The WT alphaB-crystallin and its three deamidated species were exposed to UV-A light (320-400 nm) at intensities of 20 or 50 J/ ...
Rat A crystallin A Monoclonal Antibody (Clone c9F2)-NP_000385 (MBS200007) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies ... Alpha-crystallin A chain; Heat shock protein beta 4; Acry-1; Alpha crystallin A chain; CRYA 1; CRYA1; CRYAA; Crystallin Alpha 1 ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... This antibody is not shown cross-activity about Crystallin alpha B. A : Crystallin-alpha A recombinant protein B : Crystallin- ...
... myoglobins and alpha-crystallins (a and b chains) on the y axis and the various organisms in phylogenetic order on X axis ... In fact, myoglobins and alpha-crystallins are composed by "alpha-helices" (all-alpha class) and "beta-strands" (all-beta class ... In details, we have evaluated the GC content in sirtuins, myoglobins and alpha-crystallins and plotted the value of GC content ... We have chosen to compare sirtuin sequences with those of myoglobins and alpha-crystallins; firstly because these are well ...
  • B) Immunoblots showing αB-crystallin and Hsp27 expression in two sets of mice at 7 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • The chaperone expression in each genotype was confirmed by western-blotting two sets of brain lysates from 7-month old mice for αB-crystallin, and Hsp27 (Figure 2B). (nih.gov)
  • The physicochemical properties of α-crystallin obtained from mouse lenses with the Y118D mutation as well as a recombinant Y118D αA-crystallin were studied using gel filtration, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, multi-angle light scattering, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and chaperone activities. (arvojournals.org)
  • Purpose: Identification of causal mutation in the crystallin, connexin, and paired box 6 (PAX6) genes associated with childhood cataract in patients from India. (elsevier.com)
  • A hallmark of the microarray analysis is that the antagonist seems to be a novel stage-specific regulator of crystallin genes. (molvis.org)
  • Genes associated with the development of lens include crystallin genes. (bjbms.org)
  • We will also outline the importance of techniques such as differential display-polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) followed by in situ hybridization in the characterization of genes which may have a critical role in early prostate carcinogenesis. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Together, these studies strongly suggest that during human cataract formation, covalent changes occur in the C-terminal region of the alpha A2 molecule. (scripps.edu)
  • Immunofluorescence staining of phospho-alpha-B crystallin (Ser19) in U373 MG cells results in cytoplasmic staining. (abcam.com)
  • However, the dominant nuclear cataract is associated with a significant decrease in the amount of αA-crystallin, leading to a reduction in total chaperone capacity needed for maintaining lens transparency. (arvojournals.org)
  • Immobilized αB-crystallin was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and quartz crystal microgravimetry, which showed that ∼300 ng cm -2 (dry mass) of oligomeric αB-crystallin was bound to the surface. (edu.au)
  • A more consistent and severe lens phenotype was evident in maternal/zygotic αA-crystallin mutants compared to those observed by morpholino knockdown. (zfin.org)
  • It consists of a globular motor (or catalytic) domain that contains the sites responsible for the ATP hydrolysis and actin binding, and a neck region with a long α -helix extending from the globular part of the head and forming a complex with the essential and regulatory light chains [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been proposed that this light chain binding domain, also called regulatory domain, acts as a semi-rigid "lever arm" to amplify and transmit the conformational changes occurring in the ATP and actin binding sites of S1 [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was evaluated by alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining and proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) incorporation. (molvis.org)
  • Also known as Alpha-crystallin (Acr) (14 kDa antigen) (16 kDa antigen) (HSP 16.3) (Nox16). (mybiosource.com)
  • ADAM 17 precursor (EC 3.4.24.86) (A disintegrin and metalloproteinasedomain 17) (TNF-alpha-converting enzyme) (TNF-alpha convertase) (Snakevenom-like protease) (CD156b antigen). (nctu.edu.tw)