Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.delta-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in BIRDS and REPTILES. They are inactive forms of the enzyme argininosuccinate lyase.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Argininosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 4.3.2.1.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Fertile Period: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)

Decreased heat stability and increased chaperone requirement of modified human betaB1-crystallins. (1/136)

PURPOSE: To determine how deamidation and partial loss of the N- and C-terminal extensions alter the heat stability of betaB1-crystallin. METHODS: Human lens betaB1, a deamidated betaB1, Q204E, and alphaA-crystallins were expressed. Truncated betaB1 was generated by proteolytic removal of part of its terminal extensions. The aggregation and precipitation of these proteins due to heating was monitored by circular dichroism and light scattering. The effect of heat on the stability of both monomers and oligomers was investigated. The flexibility of the extensions in wild type and deamidated betaB1 was assessed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. RESULTS: With heat, deamidated betaB1 precipitated more readily than wild type betaB1. Similar effects were obtained for either monomers or oligomers. Flexibility of the N-terminal extension in deamidated betaB1 was significantly reduced compared to the wild type protein. Truncation of the extensions further increased the rate of heat-induced precipitation of deamidated betaB1. The presence of the molecular chaperone, alphaA-crystallin, prevented precipitation of modified betaB1s. More alphaA was needed to chaperone the truncated and deamidated betaB1 than deamidated betaB1 or truncated betaB1. CONCLUSIONS: Deamidation and truncation of betaB1 led to destabilization of the protein and decreased stability to heat. Decreased stability of lens crystallins may contribute to their insolubilization and cataract formation.  (+info)

Quantification of chick lens alphaA- and delta-crystallins in experimentally induced ametropia. (2/136)

PURPOSE: The role of the lens in experimentally induced ametropia is not known. A recent study of the chick lens demonstrated optical quality deterioration with the induction of refractive errors, without alteration in lens morphology, size or shape. A change in lens gradient of refractive index (which is dependent on alpha-, beta-, and delta-crystallin concentration and arrangement), could underlie this observation. The purpose of this work was to quantify the concentrations of alphaA- and delta-crystallin in lenses from chick eyes with induced high myopia or hyperopia. METHODS: White Leghorn chicks were unilaterally fitted on the day of hatching either with translucent plastic goggles to induce form-deprivation myopia (n=21) or with +15 D defocus goggles to induce hyperopia (n=14). The ungoggled contralateral eyes were used as controls. The chicks were refracted twice, once on the day of hatching and again seven days later, using streak retinoscopy. On day 7 chicks were sacrificed, lenses decapsulated, and soluble proteins were isolated. Western blot assays were optimized and used to assess crystallin concentration. RESULTS: Analysis revealed no significant difference in alphaA- or delta-crystallin concentration in lenses from eyes induced with form-deprivation myopia and hyperopia as compared to their respective control eyes. Analysis of the difference in medians of delta-crystallin between the control and treated groups of the myopia and hyperopia experiments revealed significance (p=0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that with the induction of ametropia, the increased lens spherical aberration previously noted is not due to a change in the absolute concentration of lens alphaA- or delta-crystallin. However, results suggest that the myopic and hyperopic treatments had different effects on lens delta-crystallin concentration. Further investigation is necessary to expand the current knowledge of the role played by the lens in experimental ametropia.  (+info)

Morphological characterization of the Alpha A- and Alpha B-crystallin double knockout mouse lens. (3/136)

BACKGROUND: One approach to resolving some of the in vivo functions of alpha-crystallin is to generate animal models where one or both of the alpha-crystallin gene products have been eliminated. In the single alpha-crystallin knockout mice, the remaining alpha-crystallin may fully or partially compensate for some of the functions of the missing protein, especially in the lens, where both alpha A and alpha B are normally expressed at high levels. The purpose of this study was to characterize gross lenticular morphology in normal mice and mice with the targeted disruption of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin genes (alpha A/BKO). METHODS: Lenses from 129SvEvTac mice and alpha A/BKO mice were examined by standard scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy methodologies. RESULTS: Equatorial and axial (sagittal) dimensions of lenses for alpha A/BKO mice were significantly smaller than age-matched wild type lenses. No posterior sutures or fiber cells extending to the posterior capsule of the lens were found in alpha A/BKO lenses. Ectopical nucleic acid staining was observed in the posterior subcapsular region of 5 wk and anterior subcapsular cortex of 54 wk alpha A/BKO lenses. Gross morphological differences were also observed in the equatorial/bow, posterior and anterior regions of lenses from alpha A/BKO mice as compared to wild mice. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that both alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin are necessary for proper fiber cell formation, and that the absence of alpha-crystallin can lead to cataract formation.  (+info)

Reduced survival of lens epithelial cells in the alphaA-crystallin-knockout mouse. (4/136)

alphaA-Crystallin (alphaA) is a molecular chaperone expressed preferentially in the lens. alphaA transcripts are first detected during the early stages of lens development and its synthesis continues as the lens grows throughout life. alphaA(-/-) mouse lenses are smaller than controls, and lens epithelial cells derived from these mice have diminished growth in culture. In the current work, we tested the hypothesis thatalphaA prevents cell death at a specific stage of the cell cycle in vivo. Seven-day-old 129Sv (wild-type) and alphaA(-/-) mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly synthesized DNA in proliferating cells. To follow the fate of the labeled cells, wholemounts of the capsule epithelial explants were made at successive times after the BrdU pulse, and the labeling index was determined. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that both wild-type and alphaA(-/-) cells had a 3-hour labeling index of 4.5% in the central region of the wholemount, indicating that the number of cells in S phase was the same. Twenty-four hours after the pulse, individual cells labeled with BrdU had divided and BrdU-labeled cells were detected in pairs. The 24-hour labeling index in the wild-type lens was 8.6%, but in the alphaA(-/-) lens it was significantly lower, suggesting that some of the cells failed to divide and/or that the daughter cells died during mitosis. TUNEL labeling was rarely detected in the wild-type lens, but was significant and always detected in pairs in the alphaA(-/-) wholemounts. Dual labeling with TUNEL and BrdU also suggested that the labeled cells were dying in pairs in the alphaA(-/-) lens epithelium. Immunolabeling of wholemounts with beta-tubulin antibodies indicated that the anaphase spindle in a significant proportion of alphaA(-/-) cells was not well organized. Examination of the cellular distribution of alphaA in cultured lens epithelial cells showed that it was concentrated in the intercellular microtubules of cells undergoing cytokinesis. These data suggest that alphaA expression in vivo protects against cell death during mitosis in the lens epithelium, and the smaller size of the alphaA(-/-) lens may be due to a decrease in the net production of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Alteration of protein-protein interactions of congenital cataract crystallin mutants. (5/136)

PURPOSE: A recent study demonstrated the presence of protein-protein interactions among lens crystallins in a mammalian cell two-hybrid system assay and speculated about the significance of these interactions for protein solubility and lens transparency. The current study extends those findings to the following crystallin genes involved in some congenital cataracts: CRYAA (R116C), CRYAB (R120G), and CRYGC (T5P). METHODS: A mammalian two-hybrid system was used to assay the protein-protein interactions. Congenital cataract crystallin genes were cloned and fused into the two-hybrid system vectors (target and prey proteins). Together, with the third vector containing a reporter gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), they were cotransfected into human HeLa cells. The presence of protein-protein interactions and the strength of these interactions were assayed by CAT ELISA. RESULTS: The pattern of changes in protein-protein interactions of those congenital cataract gene products with the three major crystallins, alphaA- or alphaB-, betaB2-, and gammaC-crystallins, differed. For the T5P gammaC-crystallin, most of the interactions were decreased; for the R116C alphaA-crystallin, the interactions with betaB2- and gammaC-crystallin decreased and those with alphaB-crystallin and heat-shock protein (Hsp)27 increased; and for the R120G alphaB-crystallin, the interactions with alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin decreased, but those with betaB2- and gammaC-crystallin increased slightly. An attempt was made to interpret the results on the basis of conformational change and disruption of dimeric interaction involving beta-strands. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that crystallin mutations involved in congenital cataracts altered protein-protein interactions, which may contribute to decreased protein solubility and formation of cataract.  (+info)

Immunological detection of D-beta-aspartate-containing protein in lens-derived cell lines. (6/136)

PURPOSE: Although the presence of biologically uncommon D-beta-aspartate (D-beta-Asp) in lens protein is thought to be related to aging, we recently found this isomer in lens alphaA-crystallin from human newborns. The objective of this study was to examine whether D-beta-Asp occurs in protein from lens-derived cell lines. METHODS: We examined the expression of D-beta-Asp-containing protein in the lens-derived cell lines alphaTN4-1 and N/N1003A, by western blot and immunoprecipitation analysis using a polyclonal antibody against Gly-Leu-D-beta-Asp-Ala-Thr-Gly-Leu-D-beta-Asp-Ala-Thr-Gly-Leu-D-beta-Asp-Ala-Thr (peptide 3R), which corresponds to three repeats of positions 149-153 in human alphaA-crystallin. The anti-peptide 3R antibody, prepared in a previous study, is a useful tool for investigating D-beta-Asp-containing peptides. RESULTS: Western immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analysis showed that a 50 kDa protein in N/N1003A cells was strongly immunoreactive with the anti-peptide 3R antibody. Antibodies against alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin also stained this protein. On the other hand, the alphaTN4-1 cell line only expressed proteins of about 20 kDa, which also reacted to antibodies against alphaA-crystallin and alphaB-crystallin. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the N/N1003A cell line expressed a 50 kDa D-beta-Asp-containing protein, which may share a common amino acid sequence with alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin.  (+info)

Induction of the differentiation of lentoids from primate embryonic stem cells. (7/136)

PURPOSE: To produce lens cells from primate embryonic stem (ES) cells in a reproducible, controlled manner. METHODS: Cynomologus monkey ES cells were induced to differentiate by stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). The lentoids produced by this treatment were processed for immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analysis. The effect of varying the concentration of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and the density of the ES colonies plated during the differentiation process were also examined. RESULTS: After a 2- to 3-week induction period, lentoids were produced by a subpopulation of ES colonies. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed that these lentoids expressed alphaA-crystallin and Pax6. The number of lentoids resulting from treatment increased with increasing FGF-2 concentration and plated colony density. CONCLUSIONS: The differentiation of primate ES cells into lentoids can be achieved by treatment with SIDA. ES cells can be used to facilitate a greater understanding of the mechanisms functioning in differentiation in vivo and in vitro.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in alphaA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice. (8/136)

We recently described a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing hamster alphaA-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, under direction of the hamster vimentin promoter. As a result myelin was degraded and axonal dystrophy in both central nervous system (especially spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system occurred. Homozygous transgenic mice developed hind limb paralysis after 8 weeks of age and displayed progressive loss of myelin and axonal dystrophy in both the central and peripheral nervous system with ongoing age. Pathologically the phenotype resembled, to a certain extent, neuroaxonal dystrophy. The biochemical findings presented in this paper (activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and transglutamase, myelin protein zero expression levels and blood sugar levels) confirm this pathology and exclude other putative pathologies like Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy. Consequently, an excessive cytoplasmic accumulation of the transgenic protein or a disturbance of the normal metabolism are considered to cause the observed neuropathology. Therefore, extra-ocular alphaA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice may serve as a useful animal model to study neuroaxonal dystrophy.  (+info)

α-Crystallin, a member of small heat shock protein (sHsp) family, is comprised of αA and αB subunits and acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation. The αA-crystallin homopolymer consists of 30-40 subunits that are undergoing dynamic exchange. α-Crystallin and αA-crystallin are poorer chaperones in the presence of the crowding agent, dextran. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, it is shown that the αAcrystallin subunit exchange rate strongly increased with temperature. Binding of reduced ovotransferrin to αA-crystallin markedly decreases the rate of subunit exchange, as does the presence of dextran. In addition, in the presence of dextran the effect of reduced ovotransferrin on decreasing the rate of subunit exchange of αA-crystallin is stronger than in the absence of dextran. Under the conditions of molecular crowding, the αA-crystallin subunit exchange rate is not temperature-dependent. The exchange rate of αA-crystallin
The cataract-causing mutation G98R in human aA-crystallin leads to folding defects and loss of chaperone activity Molecular Vision, 12, 1372-9 2006 ...
You didnt say anything about a single argument. Your exact words are shown above: where have I seen * so far?. Im pretty sure youve seen * used for multiplication. I also could have mentioned regexes, globs, and exponentiation ...
Purpose: : In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that alpha-crystallins can negatively regulate stress-induced apoptosis through suppression of the ERK-mediated pathway and activation of the AKT signaling pathway. In the present study, we present evidence to show that alpha-crystallins can regulate the ATR-p53 pathway to prevent UVA-induced apoptosis. Methods: : UVA was used to irradiate human lens epithelial cells stably expressing vector, alphaA, and alphaB. Western blot analysis was used for detection of ATR, CHK1/2 and p53 activation. Reporter gene activity assay was used to explore the transactivity of p53. Hoechst staining was used for apoptosis assay. Results: : Human lens epithelial cells expressing either alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin are substantially resistant to UVA-induced apoptosis. UVA-induces activation of ATR and CHK1/2 kinases to activate p53 in vector-transfected cells. However, in alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin-transfected cells, activation of ATR, CHK1/2 kinases and p53 ...
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Ed to contribute to its chaperone-like activity , while the N-terminal domains contain phosphorylation sites that are the targets of various protein kinases .
Abstract: : Purpose: To examine the dependence of lens cell signaling pathways on αA-crystallin and determine whether this novel function for αA-crystallin may be related to its association with α6 integrin. Methods: Mouse lenses obtained from wild type or αA knockout lenses were microdissected into epithelial and cortical fiber fractions. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies to activated forms of specific cell signaling proteins (Src, p38, ERK and JNK) was performed. Analysis of these cell signaling pathways was also performed with control mouse lens cultures and those transfected with wild type αA-crystallin or the R116C αA-crystallin mutant. The association of αA-crystallin with α6 integrin in mouse epithelial and cortical fiber fractions was analyzed by immunoprecipitation with antibodies to α6 integrin followed by immunoblotting for αA-crystallin. Similar studies were performed with chicken embryo lenses microdissected into central and equatorial epithelia, cortical and nuclear ...
Discussion. The data presented here indicate that heat incubation produces structural and functional changes in renatured a-, aA-, and aB-crystallins as well as in the native a-crystallin. The chain like structures observed in the 65 °C transmission electron micrographs may indicate the particles formed after heat incubation have a greater propensity to interact with each other than the native particles. These chains could also be artifacts of the negative staining process, however.. There are major differences in the heat-induced secondary structural transitions that separate the native a-crystallin from the other a-crystallins. Renatured a-crystallin exhibits more severe structural changes that are observable at lower incubation temperatures than the native a-crystallin. The effects of heat incubation on chaperone-like activity are also completely opposite, with the native a-crystallin samples showing an improvement and renatured a-crystallin samples showing a progressive decline in activity ...
Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions.
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The chaperone-like protein alpha-crystallin is a approximately 35 subunit hetero-oligomer consisting of alphaA and alphaB subunits in a 3:1 molar ratio and has the function of maintaining eye lens transparency. We studied the thermal denaturation of alpha-crystallin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a function of pH. Our results show that between pH 7 and 10 the protein undergoes a reversible thermal transition. However, the thermodynamic parameters obtained by DSC are inconsistent with the complete denaturation of an oligomeric protein of the size of alpha-crystallin. Accordingly, the CD data suggest the presence of extensive residual secondary structure above the transition temperature. Within the pH range from 4 to 7 the increased aggregation propensity around the isoelectric point (pI approximately 6) precludes observation of a thermal transition. As pH decreases below 4 the protein undergoes a substantial unfolding. ...
Human alpha-crystallins were separated from fetal, young, senile nondiabetic and diabetic lenses. The effects of aging and diabetes mellitus were studied by fluorescence measurements, including emission maximum, quantum yield and polarization, using both intrinsic probes (tryptophan and non-tryptophan) and extrinsic probes [4-(N-iodoacetoxy)N-methylamino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD) and 6-(p-toluidinyl)naphthalene-2-sulfonate (TNS)]. Results indicate that diabetic effects (glycation and aggregation) give fluorescence change to a far greater extent than that of aging. This was demonstrated by a large decrease in tryptophan quantum yield and an increase in non-tryptophan quantum yield, and also by a decrease in polarization of non-tryptophan. The sulfhydryl (SH)-specific probe IANBD shows a blue-shift in emission maximum, a decrease in intensity and an increase in polarization. The hydrophobic probe TNS shows a decrease in both intensity and polarization. These results suggest that tryptophan
The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) ...
Mutations in the small heat shock proteins α-crystallins have been linked to autosomal dominant cataracts in humans. Extensive studies in vitro have revealed a spectrum of alterations to the structure and function of these proteins including shifts in the size of the oligomer, modulation of subunit exchange and modification of their affinity to client proteins. Although mouse models of these mutants were instrumental in identifying changes in cellular proliferation and lens development, a direct comparative analysis of their effects on lens proteostasis has not been performed. Here, we have transgenically expressed cataract-linked mutants of αA- and αB-crystallin in the zebrafish lens to dissect the underlying molecular changes that contribute to the loss of lens optical properties. Zebrafish lines expressing these mutants displayed a range of morphological lens defects. Phenotype penetrance and severity were dependent on the mutation even in fish lines lacking endogenous α-crystallin. The ...
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Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions (By similarity).
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Ample evidence suggests that oxidative stress and other external stressors contribute to retinal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pathology, as implicated in diseases like age-related macular degeneration. Therefore the understanding of cellular protection against these insults is of therapeutic importance. We adapted two approaches for studying the mechanisms of macular and retinal degeneration. In one, the contribution and significance of these pathologic processes was investigated by use of cultured human and mouse RPE. In the in vivo counterpart studies, we assessed the importance of alpha-crystallins in the retina (and RPE) in models using knockout mice and cobalt chloride injections. In addition to alpha-crystallins, we looked at other oxidative stress protectants of the cell and examined the redox regulation and antioxidant functions mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). These studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of the pathways involved in retinal dysfunction and ...
Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7. 2001 (L Noms French ed7 ...
The ocular lens is one of two lenses in the optical train of a microscope, the other being the objective lens. Located in the eyepiece, the ocular lens is the nearest lens to the observer's eye providing additional magnification and directing the image into the observer's eye.Total MagnificationThe total magnification of a microscope is the product of the magnification of the ocular lens and the objective lens. For example, a 10x ocular lens and a 40x objective lens produce a total magnification of 400x.Monocular vs. Binocular MicroscopesMonocular microscopes have one ocular lens, while binocular microscopes have two ocular lenses--one for...
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Figure 2. Medians of normalized data for αA-crystallin from treated (OD) and control (OS) lens samples. A: The OS and OD group medians were 1.01 and 1.05 respectively. Statistical analysis (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, p=0.90) revealed no significant difference in αA-crystallin concentration in lenses from form-deprived myopic (OD) and control (OS) eyes. B: The OS and OD group medians were 1.24 and 1.37 respectively. Statistical analysis (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, p=0.54) revealed no significant difference in αA-crystallin concentration in lenses from eyes induced with hyperopia (OD) versus control eyes (OS). Statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney, p=0.70) revealed no significance in the difference of medians between the myopic and hyperopic study.. ...
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So if CEOs are starting to embrace social concepts for their businesses then that means the leadership model is starting to change in these organizations…or at least its starting to get very stressed. At the core of this change though is the concept of transparency. The software that enables social business has inherent transparency built in but is that enough? Unfortunately no, just because you enable information flow doesnt mean that it will actually flow anywhere. Underneath the software theres a need for a culture of transparency, which is fundamentally different from what often happens in businesses today. Transparency is build on trust, or maybe trust is built on transparency…frankly I dont know which comes first, theyre inexorably linked in my mind. I suppose I could have titled this "Creating a Culture of Trust" just as easily as transparency. Building an organization of trust requires free and open access to information and a culture that encourages openness (which is IMHO a ...
ATGen operates in the Commercial Physical Research sector. ATGen is a Korea-based company principally engaged in developing and manufacturing reagent used for experimentation . The Companys product portfolio consists of recombination proteins including binding immunoglobulin protein, carboxy terminus of HSP70 interacting protein, BCL2-associated athanogene 2; monoclonal antibodies including 14-3-3 beta antibody, A crystallin A antibody , alpha-crystallin B and NK Vue Kit used for physical examination and diagnosis. The Company distributes its products within domestic market and to overseas markets.
Transparency International said today that Europe urgently needs lobbying reform. A new report from the anti-corruption group found that of 19 European…
Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an ...
... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. These ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ...
... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin ... beta-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.331.199.750.500 - succinate dehydrogenase MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.050 - alpha 1- ... immunoglobulin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.500.350 - immunoglobulin alpha-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705. ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... "Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2 ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallin B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB2 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ...
... heavy chain 14 ECM1 (1q21) EDEM3: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 3 EGLN1 (1q42) ENAH (1q42) ESRRG ( ... Crystallin zeta CYP4B1 (1p33) CYR61 (1p22) DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 DCLRE1B: DNA cross-link repair ... 2-alpha-mannosidase IB MEAF6: MYST/ESA1 associated factor 6 MECR: Trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase, mitochondrial MFAP2: ... C-4 to C-12 straight chain ACTL8: Actin-like 8 ADGRL2 (1p31.1): adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L2 ADPRHL2: Poly(ADP-ribose ...
DNAH14 encoding protein Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14. *ECM1 (1q21). *EDEM3: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like ... COL11A1: collagen, type XI, alpha 1. *CPT2: carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. *CRYZ: Crystallin zeta ... ACADM: acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain ... DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2. *DCLRE1B ...
... rho crystallin, and many others. All possess a similar structure, with a beta-alpha-beta fold characteristic of nucleotide ... Some proteins of this family contain a potassium channel beta chain regulatory domain; these are reported to have ... The fold comprises a parallel beta-8/alpha-8-barrel, which contains a novel NADP-binding motif. The binding site is located in ...
... alpha 1 Collagen, type XIX, alpha 1 Collagen, type XXV, alpha 1 Collagen, type XXVII, alpha 1 Crystallin, beta A1 Cyclic ... DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein NADH ... alpha 1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Collagen, type IV, alpha 1 Collagen, type V, alpha 1 Collagen, ... type VI, alpha 1 Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 Collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type IX, alpha 1 Collagen, type X, alpha 1 ...
The N-terminal domain I (aa ~1-195) contains attachment sites for HS chains. Although HS chains are not required for correct ... To this end, a transgenic mouse line was created expressing porcine TGF-β1 under the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter and ... In a mouse model of Alzheimer's plaque formation, IL-1-alpha effects an increase in perlecan expression in response to brain ... The heparan sulfate chains of perlecan bind growth factors in the ECM, and serve as co-ligands or ligand enhancers when bound ...
"Vertebrate lens alpha-crystallins are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (1): ... and a peptide chain with a reactive serine or threonine hydroxyl group. The proposed reaction is an ordered sequential bi-bi ... "Dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin". Biochemistry. 35 (11): 3578-86. doi:10.1021/ ...
Domain 2 contains one small beta sheet, nine alpha helices, and the carboxyl terminus. Three of the nine alpha helices on one ... δ-crystallins are the major structural eye lens water-soluble proteins of most birds, reptiles, and some other vertebrates. ... ASL is composed of four identical monomers; each monomer consisting of a single polypeptide chain between 49 and 52 kDa, ... Two dimers then associate by way of alpha helix, one from each monomer, to form a central 20-helix core. The association of all ...
The propeptide region has an open-sandwich antiparallel-alpha/antiparallel-beta fold, with two alpha-helices and four beta- ... is a double-chain inhibitor consisting of an 11-residue and a 41-residue chain. The Carboxypeptidase inhibitor I68 family ... The yeast killer toxin structure was thought to be a precursor of the two-domain beta gamma-crystallin proteins, because of its ... It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding site, preventing access. Removal of this region by ...
Silva, R.A.G.D., *Nguyen, J.Y., and Decatur, S.M. (2002) "Probing the Effects of Side Chains on the Conformation and Stability ... "Formation of Amyloid Fibrils in Vitro by Human γd-crystallin and its Isolated Domains," Molecular Vision 14:81-89. Decatur, S.M ... "Two dimensional infrared measurements of the coupling of the amide modes of an alpha helix," Chemical Physics Letters 382: 586- ... "Twodimensional IR Spectroscopy and Segmental 13C Labeling reveals the Domain Structure of Human γδ-crystallin amyloid fibrils ...
These compounds are thought to act as bidentate nucleophiles that attack the adjacent carbonyls in the alpha-dicarbonyl ... and crystallin of the eyes. Covalent protein cross-links irreversibly link proteins together in the ECM of tissues. Glucosepane ... This then condenses with the arginine side chain to yield glucosepane in nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions of the ... such as collagen in the skin and crystallin in the eyes. Skin collagen, for instance, has a half-life of fifteen years. Because ...
Alpha cells (secreting glucagon) Beta cells (secreting insulin and amylin) Delta cells (secreting somatostatin) PP cells (gamma ... Intermediate skeletal muscle cell Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle Satellite cell (stem ... Anterior lens epithelial cell Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell Adipocytes: White fat cell Brown fat cell Liver lipocyte ...
Once a protein has been tagged with one ubiquitin molecule, additional rounds of ubiquitination form a polyubiquitin chain that ... Alpha crystallin. *Clusterin. *Survival of motor neuron *SMN1. *SMN2. Protein targeting. *Signal peptide ...
... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.400 --- 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH ... delta-crystallins MeSH D08.811.520.232.400 --- ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 --- aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.244.453.915.400 --- 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244. ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.400 --- 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH ...
... and aspartate side-chains, with a glutamate side-chain playing a secondary role. These side-chains, to be specific Arg359, ... and Asp477 forms hydrogen bonds with the alpha hydroxyl group on the substrate, where it works to effectively bind the ... in the mammalian cornea by the stromal keratocytes and epithelial cells and is reputed to be one of the corneal crystallins. ... To be specific, the His 263 and His30 side-chains form hydrogen bonds to the aldehyde end of the substrate, which is deepest ...
C-terminal domain - rich in alpha helical structure acts as a 'lid' for the substrate binding domain. The helical subdomain ... When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP the binding pocket of Hsp70 closes, tightly binding the now-trapped peptide chain. Further ...
Chen D, Li M, Luo J, Gu W (April 2003). "Direct interactions between HIF-1 alpha and Mdm2 modulate p53 function". The Journal ... Bálint E, Bates S, Vousden KH (July 1999). "Mdm2 binds p73 alpha without targeting degradation". Oncogene. 18 (27): 3923-9. doi ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase. 6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin ...
"Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Oligomerization is a chemical process that converts individual molecules into a chain consisting of a finite number of ... Intra-cellular deposits of tau protein are also seen in the disease, and may also be implicated, as has aggregation of alpha ... leading to a chain reaction akin to a prion infection. The oligomers are toxic to nerve cells. The other protein implicated in ...
Coexpression of SM alpha-actin and desmin was observed in the pericytes of entire capillary segments, and SM alpha-actin was ... We used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to analyze desmin ... alphaB-crystallin (CryAB) have been linked. PMID: 12555134. ... Expression of vimentin, desmin, alpha-sarcomeric and alpha- ... Alpha-smooth-muscle actin and desmin were demonstrated in the S-type cloned cells by indirect immunofluorescence, as well as by ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... help/chain target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>ChainiPRO_0000125906. 1 - 175. Alpha-crystallin B chainAdd BLAST. 175. ... IPR037882, ACD_alphaB-crystallin. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR003090, Alpha-crystallin_N. IPR008978, HSP20- ... IPR037882, ACD_alphaB-crystallin. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR003090, Alpha-crystallin_N. IPR008978, HSP20- ... "The amino-acids sequence of the alphaB2 chain of bovine alpha-crystallin.". van der Ouderaa F.J., de Jong W.W., Hilderink A., ...
Alpha-crystallin A2 chainAdd BLAST. 173. ChainiPRO_0000444508. 1 - 172. Alpha-crystallin A2(1-172)By similarity. ,p>Manually ... IPR002068, A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR012274, Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090, Alpha ... IPR002068, A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR012274, Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090, Alpha ... Chain Alpha-crystallin A2 chain:. Molecular mass is 20029 Da. Determined by ESI. With 1 phosphate group.1 Publication. Manual ...
What is alpha crystallin B chain? Meaning of alpha crystallin B chain medical term. What does alpha crystallin B chain mean? ... Looking for online definition of alpha crystallin B chain in the Medical Dictionary? alpha crystallin B chain explanation free ... redirected from alpha crystallin B chain) CRYAB. A gene on chromosome 11q22.3-q23.1 that encodes alpha crystallin B, a protein ... Alpha crystallin B chain , definition of alpha crystallin B chain by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin (phospho S19) antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. ... Alpha crystallin B chain antibody. *Alpha(B)-crystallin antibody. *Alpha-crystallin B chain antibody ... Lane 1 : phospho-alpha-B crystallin (Ser19). Lane 2 : unphosphorylated alpha-B crystallin. Observed band size : 20 kDa (why is ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin (phospho S19) antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ...
Rabbit polyclonal alpha A Crystallin/CRYAA antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, BL, sELISA and tested in Mouse, Rat, Cow. Cited in ... O-glycosylated; contains N-acetylglucosamine side chains.. Deamidation of Asn-101 in lens occurs mostly during the first 30 ... Alpha-crystallin is the largest of the crystallins and is composed of 2 primary gene products--alpha-A and alpha-B. There are ... Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1991 v1080 p173-180) describes the alpha-A crystallin and how it is split into alpha-A1 and alpha ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8). Validated: WB, ELISA, IB, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. ... crystallin, alpha A. *Heat shock protein beta-4. *HSPB4. *HSPB4alpha-crystallin A chain ... Does not cross-react with aB-crystallin, Beta L-crystallin, BH- crystallin, gamma-crystallin, HSP25, HSP27 or HSP47 proteins. ... analysis of Bovine tissue lysate showing detection of Alpha A Crystallin protein using Mouse Anti-Alpha A Crystallin Monoclonal ...
... alpha A (CRYAA) Protein (His tag). Species: Sheep (Ovine). Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1630960. ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) Background Recommended name: Alpha-crystallin A chain Cleaved into the following chain: 1.. Alpha- ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag) Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag). Details for ... alpha-crystallin A chain-like * crystallin alpha A S homeolog * alpha-crystallin A chain ...
PREDICTED: alpha-crystallin B chain isoform X1 [Mus musculus]. 175 aa protein ...
L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain; CRYAB: Alpha-crystallin B chain; YBX1: Nuclease-sensitive element-binding protein 1; PRKDC: ...
We identified a previously reported oligomerization disrupting mutation, c.62G > A (p.R21Q), in the Crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) ... The work strengthens the genotype-phenotype correlations between this functional mutation in the crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) ... PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers to amplify coding and untranslated regions of the 51 genes were designed with the Ion ... Andley UP, Song Z, Wawrousek EF, Fleming TP, Bassnett S. Differential protective activity of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin in ...
Recombinant Protein and Alpha-crystallin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alpha-crystallin A chain. Alpha-crystallin A chain ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin A chain Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin A chain ... Alpha-crystallin B chain. Alpha-crystallin B chain ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin B chain Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin B chain ... Alpha-crystallin. Alpha-crystallin ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin Antibody. Also known as Alpha- ...
alpha-Crystallin B Chain - physiology. -. dc.title. Identification of tumor suppressive activity by irradiation microcell- ... The association of alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB), a gene identified as being differentially expressed by gene profiling of NPC and ... The association of alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB), a gene identified as being differentially expressed by gene profiling of NPC and ... Alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB). Chromosome 11q. Irradiation microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Microcell hybrid. ...
Alpha-crystallin A chain Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). Mutation Frequency in ...
crystallin alpha A. LOC102724652 43169.041. 21p12. alpha-crystallin A chain. LINC00322 43322.209. 21q22.3. long intergenic non- ... collagen type VI alpha 1 chain. COL6A2 46098.119. 21q22.3. collagen type VI alpha 2 chain. ...
McKenna, M. C. (1992). The alpha crystallin A chain of the eye lens and mammalian phylogeny. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 28: 349-360. ...
Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an ...
... the alpha-A and alpha-B subunits have a 3:1 ratio, respectively. Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. These ... Alpha-A and alpha-B gene products are differentially expressed; alpha-A is preferentially restricted to the lens and alpha-B is ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ...
The maximal expression of the molecular chaperone, alpha crystallin B chain, occurs during the secretory phase. In view of ... and alpha crystallin B chain. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, and the constitutive form of Hsp70 (Hsc70) shows a sharp increase ...
Tandem mass spectrometry was applied both to ions of a tryptic fragment and intact protein of bovine alpha-crystallin A chain ... The [M + 19H](19+) to [M + 11H](11+) charge states of both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated bovine alpha-crystallin A chain ... A tryptic digest of the bovine alpha-crystallin A chain yielded a phosphopeptide containing one missed cleavage site. The ... Bovine alpha-crystallin A chain ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Hogan, J. M., Pitteri, S. J., McLuckey, S. A. 2003; 75 (23): 6509-6516 ...
Rat A crystallin A Monoclonal Antibody (Clone c9F2)-NP_000385 (MBS200007) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies ... Alpha-crystallin A chain; Heat shock protein beta 4; Acry-1; Alpha crystallin A chain; CRYA 1; CRYA1; CRYAA; Crystallin Alpha 1 ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ... This antibody is not shown cross-activity about Crystallin alpha B. A : Crystallin-alpha A recombinant protein B : Crystallin- ...
2470619 - Alpha b-crystallin is expressed in kidney epithelial cell lines and not in fibroblasts.. ... 18987199 - Glial chain migration requires pioneer cells.. 22775509 - Influence of stem-cell cycle time on accelerated re- ...
SDS-PAGE analysis of UV-A-exposed and unexposed WT αB-crystallin and its three deamidated mutant species. After UV-A-exposure ... alpha-Crystallin B Chain/chemistry*/isolation & purification/metabolism*. Minor. *Amino Acid Sequence ... The WT alphaB-crystallin and its three deamidated species were exposed to UV-A light (320-400 nm) at intensities of 20 or 50 J/ ... The WT alphaB-crystallin and its three deamidated species were exposed to UV-A light (320-400 nm) at intensities of 20 or 50 J/ ...
Intracellular degradation of alpha-crystallin: fractionation and characterization of degraded alpha A-chains. Eur J Biochem. ... Human alpha-crystallin. I: the isolation and characterization of newly synthesized alpha-crystallin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. ... de Jong WW, Terwindt EC, Bloemendal H. The amino acid sequence of the A chain of human alpha-crystallin. FEBS Lett. 1975;58:310 ... Kamei A, Iwase H, Masuda K. Cleavage of amino acid residue(s) from the N-terminal region of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallins in ...
  • B) Immunoblots showing αB-crystallin and Hsp27 expression in two sets of mice at 7 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • The chaperone expression in each genotype was confirmed by western-blotting two sets of brain lysates from 7-month old mice for αB-crystallin, and Hsp27 (Figure 2B). (nih.gov)
  • The physicochemical properties of α-crystallin obtained from mouse lenses with the Y118D mutation as well as a recombinant Y118D αA-crystallin were studied using gel filtration, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, multi-angle light scattering, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and chaperone activities. (arvojournals.org)
  • Purpose: Identification of causal mutation in the crystallin, connexin, and paired box 6 (PAX6) genes associated with childhood cataract in patients from India. (elsevier.com)
  • Genes associated with the development of lens include crystallin genes. (bjbms.org)
  • A hallmark of the microarray analysis is that the antagonist seems to be a novel stage-specific regulator of crystallin genes. (molvis.org)
  • We will also outline the importance of techniques such as differential display-polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) followed by in situ hybridization in the characterization of genes which may have a critical role in early prostate carcinogenesis. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Together, these studies strongly suggest that during human cataract formation, covalent changes occur in the C-terminal region of the alpha A2 molecule. (scripps.edu)
  • Immunofluorescence staining of phospho-alpha-B crystallin (Ser19) in U373 MG cells results in cytoplasmic staining. (abcam.com)
  • However, the dominant nuclear cataract is associated with a significant decrease in the amount of αA-crystallin, leading to a reduction in total chaperone capacity needed for maintaining lens transparency. (arvojournals.org)
  • Immobilized αB-crystallin was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and quartz crystal microgravimetry, which showed that ∼300 ng cm -2 (dry mass) of oligomeric αB-crystallin was bound to the surface. (edu.au)
  • A more consistent and severe lens phenotype was evident in maternal/zygotic αA-crystallin mutants compared to those observed by morpholino knockdown. (zfin.org)
  • It consists of a globular motor (or catalytic) domain that contains the sites responsible for the ATP hydrolysis and actin binding, and a neck region with a long α -helix extending from the globular part of the head and forming a complex with the essential and regulatory light chains [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been proposed that this light chain binding domain, also called regulatory domain, acts as a semi-rigid "lever arm" to amplify and transmit the conformational changes occurring in the ATP and actin binding sites of S1 [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was evaluated by alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining and proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) incorporation. (molvis.org)
  • Also known as Alpha-crystallin (Acr) (14 kDa antigen) (16 kDa antigen) (HSP 16.3) (Nox16). (mybiosource.com)
  • ADAM 17 precursor (EC 3.4.24.86) (A disintegrin and metalloproteinasedomain 17) (TNF-alpha-converting enzyme) (TNF-alpha convertase) (Snakevenom-like protease) (CD156b antigen). (nctu.edu.tw)