An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Bifunctional cross-linking agent that links covalently free amino groups of proteins or polypeptides, including those in cell membranes. It is used as reagent or fixative in immunohistochemistry and is a proposed antisickling agent.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).

Estradiol increases spine density and NMDA-dependent Ca2+ transients in spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices. (1/683)

To investigate the physiological consequences of the increase in spine density induced by estradiol in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, we performed simultaneous whole cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging in CA1 neuron spines and dendrites in hippocampal slices. Four- to eight-days in vitro slice cultures were exposed to 17beta-estradiol (EST) for an additional 4- to 8-day period, and spine density was assessed by confocal microscopy of DiI-labeled CA1 pyramidal neurons. Spine density was doubled in both apical and basal dendrites of the CA1 region in EST-treated slices; consistently, a reduction in cell input resistance was observed in EST-treated CA1 neurons. Double immunofluorescence staining of presynaptic (synaptophysin) and postsynaptic (alpha-subunit of CaMKII) proteins showed an increase in synaptic density after EST treatment. The slopes of the input/output curves of both alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) postsynaptic currents were steeper in EST-treated CA1 neurons, consistent with the observed increase in synapse density. To characterize NMDA-dependent synaptic currents and dendritic Ca2+ transients during Schaffer collaterals stimulation, neurons were maintained at +40 mV in the presence of nimodipine, picrotoxin, and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). No differences in resting spine or dendritic Ca2+ levels were observed between control and EST-treated CA1 neurons. Intracellular Ca2+ transients during afferent stimulation exhibited a faster slope and reached higher levels in spines than in adjacent dendrites. Peak Ca2+ levels were larger in both spines and dendrites of EST-treated CA1 neurons. Ca2+ gradients between spine heads and dendrites during afferent stimulation were also larger in EST-treated neurons. Both spine and dendritic Ca2+ transients during afferent stimulation were reversibly blocked by D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D,L-APV). The increase in spine density and the enhanced NMDA-dependent Ca2+ signals in spines and dendrites induced by EST may underlie a threshold reduction for induction of NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.  (+info)

Recurrent mossy fiber pathway in rat dentate gyrus: synaptic currents evoked in presence and absence of seizure-induced growth. (2/683)

A common feature of temporal lobe epilepsy and of animal models of epilepsy is the growth of hippocampal mossy fibers into the dentate molecular layer, where at least some of them innervate granule cells. Because the mossy fibers are axons of granule cells, the recurrent mossy fiber pathway provides monosynaptic excitatory feedback to these neurons that could facilitate seizure discharge. We used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy to study the synaptic responses evoked by activating this pathway. Whole cell patch-clamp recording demonstrated that antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers evoked an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) in approximately 74% of granule cells from rats that had survived >10 wk after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Recurrent mossy fiber growth was demonstrated with the Timm stain in all instances. In contrast, antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers evoked an EPSC in only 5% of granule cells studied 4-6 days after status epilepticus, before recurrent mossy fiber growth became detectable. Notably, antidromic mossy fiber stimulation also evoked an EPSC in many granule cells from control rats. Clusters of mossy fiber-like Timm staining normally were present in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer at the level of the hippocampal formation from which slices were prepared, and several considerations suggested that the recorded EPSCs depended mainly on activation of recurrent mossy fibers rather than associational fibers. In both status epilepticus and control groups, the antidromically evoked EPSC was glutamatergic and involved the activation of both AMPA/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. EPSCs recorded in granule cells from rats with recurrent mossy fiber growth differed in three respects from those recorded in control granule cells: they were much more frequently evoked, a number of them were unusually large, and the NMDA component of the response was generally much more prominent. In contrast to the antidromically evoked EPSC, the EPSC evoked by stimulation of the perforant path appeared to be unaffected by a prior episode of status epilepticus. These results support the hypothesis that recurrent mossy fiber growth and synapse formation increases the excitatory drive to dentate granule cells and thus facilitates repetitive synchronous discharge. Activation of NMDA receptors in the recurrent pathway may contribute to seizure propagation under depolarizing conditions. Mossy fiber-granule cell synapses also are present in normal rats, where they may contribute to repetitive granule cell discharge in regions of the dentate gyrus where their numbers are significant.  (+info)

Differences in the properties of ionotropic glutamate synaptic currents in oxytocin and vasopressin neuroendocrine neurons. (3/683)

Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) hormone release from neurohypophysial terminals is controlled by the firing pattern of neurosecretory cells located in the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei. Although glutamate is a key modulator of the electrical activity of both OT and VP neurons, a differential contribution of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) has been proposed to mediate glutamatergic influences on these neurons. In the present study we examined the distribution and functional properties of synaptic currents mediated by AMPARs and NMDARs in immunoidentified SON neurons. Our results suggest that the properties of AMPA-mediated currents in SON neurons are controlled in a cell type-specific manner. OT neurons displayed AMPA-mediated miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) with larger amplitude and faster decay kinetics than VP neurons. Furthermore, a peak-scaled nonstationary noise analysis of mEPSCs revealed a larger estimated single-channel conductance of AMPARs expressed in OT neurons. High-frequency summation of AMPA-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials was smaller in OT neurons. In both cell types, AMPA-mediated synaptic currents showed inward rectification, which was more pronounced in OT neurons, and displayed Ca2+ permeability. On the other hand, NMDA-mediated mEPSCs of both cell types had similar amplitude and kinetic properties. The cell type-specific expression of functionally different AMPARs can contribute to the adoption of different firing patterns by these neuroendocrine neurons in response to physiological stimuli.  (+info)

Clozapine, but not haloperidol, prevents the functional hyperactivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat cortical neurons induced by subchronic administration of phencyclidine. (4/683)

Repeated exposure of rats to the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine (PCP) markedly increased the response of prefrontal cortical neurons to the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) relative to agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid. Moreover, acute challenge by PCP produced a significantly reduced block of NMDA-induced current. In addition, the subchronic administration of PCP reduced significantly the paired-pulse facilitation, accompanied by a significant increase of excitatory postsynaptic current variance. These results suggest that repeated exposure to PCP increased evoked release of excitatory amino acids. The enhanced release of excitatory amino acids evoked by NMDA could explain, at least partly, a hypersensitive response to NMDA and a reduced blockade of the NMDA responses by a PCP challenge in rats exposed repeatedly to PCP. Pretreatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, but not the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol, attenuates the repeated PCP-induced effect. Our results support the hypothesis that clozapine may facilitate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission to improve schizophrenic-negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. This novel approach is useful for evaluating the cellular mechanisms of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs.  (+info)

BIIR 561 CL: a novel combined antagonist of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels with anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties. (5/683)

Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype, as well as of voltage-gated sodium channels, exhibit anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties in vivo. One can postulate that a compound that combines both principles might be useful for the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system, like focal or global ischemia. Here, we present data on the effects of dimethyl-(2-[2-(3-phenyl-[1,2, 4]oxadiazol-5-yl)-phenoxy]ethyl)-amine hydrochloride (BIIR 561 CL) on neuronal AMPA receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels. BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated membrane currents in cultured cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 8.5 microM. The inhibition was noncompetitive. In a cortical wedge preparation, BIIR 561 CL reduced AMPA-induced depolarizations with an IC50 value of 10.8 microM. In addition to the effects on the glutamatergic system, BIIR 561 CL inhibited binding of radiolabeled batrachotoxin to rat brain synaptosomal membranes with a Ki value of 1.2 microM. The compound reduced sodium currents in voltage-clamped cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 5.2 microM and inhibited the veratridine-induced release of glutamate from rat brain slices with an IC50 value of 2.3 microM. Thus, BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels in a variety of preparations. BIIR 561 CL suppressed tonic seizures in a maximum electroshock model in mice with an ED50 value of 2.8 mg/kg after s.c. administration. In a model of focal ischemia in mice, i.p. administration of 6 or 60 mg/kg BIIR 561 CL reduced the area of the infarcted cortical surface. These data show that BIIR 561 CL is a combined antagonist of AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels with promising anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties.  (+info)

SPD 502: a water-soluble and in vivo long-lasting AMPA antagonist with neuroprotective activity. (6/683)

Accumulating preclinical data suggest that compounds that block the excitatory effect of glutamate on excitatory amino acid receptors may have neuroprotective effects and utility for the treatment of neurodegeneration after brain ischemia. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of the novel glutamate antagonist SPD 502 [8-methyl-5(4-(N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl)phenyl)-6,7, 8,9,-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-h]-isoquinoline-2, 3-dione-3-O-(4-hydroxybutyric acid-2-yl)oxime] are described. In binding studies, SPD 502 was shown to display selectivity for the [3H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-binding site (IC50 = 0.043 microM) compared with the [3H]kainate- (IC50 = 81 microM), [3H]cis-4-phosphonomethyl-2-piperidine carboxylic acid-(CGS 19755), and [3H]glycine-binding sites (IC50 > 30 microM) in rat cortical membranes. In an in vitro functional assay, SPD 502 blocked the AMPA-induced release of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid from cultured mouse cortical neurons in a competitive manner with an IC50 value of 0.23 microM. Furthermore, SPD 502 potently and selectively inhibited AMPA-induced currents in cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 0.15 microM. In in vivo electrophysiology, SPD 502 blocked AMPA-evoked spike activity in rat hippocampus after i.v. administration with an ED50 value of 6.1 mg/kg and with a duration of action of more than 1 h. Furthermore, SPD 502 increased the seizure threshold for electroshock-induced tonic seizures in mice at i.v doses of 40 mg/kg and higher. In the two-vessel occlusion model of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils, SPD 502 (10 mg/kg bolus injection followed by a 10 mg/kg/h infusion for 2 h) resulted in a highly significant protection against the ischemia-induced damage in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Ethanol inhibition of synaptically evoked kainate responses in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. (7/683)

Many studies have demonstrated that intoxicating concentrations of ethanol (10-100 mM) can selectively inhibit the component of glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors while having little or no effect on excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by non-NMDA receptors [i.e., alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and/or kainate (KA) receptors]. However, until the recent development of highly selective AMPA receptor antagonists, it was not possible to assess the relative contribution of AMPA and KA receptors to non-NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission or to determine whether these glutamate receptor subtypes differed in their sensitivity to ethanol. In the present experiments, we used the highly selective AMPA receptor antagonist LY 303070 to pharmacologically isolate KA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and tested their sensitivity to ethanol. Concentrations of ethanol as low as 20 mM significantly and reversibly depressed KA EPSCs. Ethanol also inhibited KA currents evoked by direct pressure application of KA in the presence of LY 303070, suggesting that this inhibition was mediated by a postsynaptic action. In contrast, ethanol had no effect on AMPA EPSCs in these cells, even at the highest concentration tested (80 mM). Ethanol significantly inhibited NMDA EPSCs in these neurons, but these responses were less sensitive to ethanol than KA EPSCs. These results suggest that in addition to its well-described depressant effect on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission, ethanol has an even greater inhibitory effect on glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by KA receptors in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Differential roles of ionotropic glutamate receptors in canine medullary inspiratory neurons of the ventral respiratory group. (8/683)

The relative roles of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in supplying excitatory drive to inspiratory (I) augmenting pattern neurons of the ventral respiratory group were studied in anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed, and vagotomized dogs. Multibarrel micropipettes were used to record simultaneously single-unit neuronal activity and pressure microeject the NMDA antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5; 2 mM), the non-NMDA antagonist 2, 3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX; 0.25 mM), and an artificial cerebrospinal fluid vehicle. Ejected volume-rates were measured directly via meniscus level changes. The moving time average of phrenic nerve activity was used to determine respiratory phase durations and to synchronize cycle-triggered histograms of the discharge patterns. Both AP5 and NBQX produced dose-dependent reductions in peak spontaneous I neuronal discharge frequency (Fn). The average (+/- SE) maximum reduction in peak Fn produced by AP5 was 69.1 +/- 4.2% and by NBQX was 47.1 +/- 3.3%. Blockade of both glutamate receptor subtypes nearly silenced these neurons, suggesting that their activity is highly dependent on excitatory synaptic drive mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors. Differential effects were found for the two glutamatergic antagonists. AP5 produced downward, parallel shifts in the augmenting pattern of discharge, whereas NBQX reduced the slope of the augmenting discharge pattern. These results suggest that time-varying excitatory input patterns to the canine I bulbospinal neurons are mediated by non-NMDA glutamate receptors and that constant or tonic input patterns to these neurons are mediated by NMDA receptors.  (+info)

This case series describes 7 patients with encephalitis with antibodies against the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and provides a
(S)-α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid - CAS 83643-88-3 - Calbiochem CAS 83643-88-3 - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nerve growth factor rapidly suppresses basal, NMDA-evoked, and AMPA-evoked nitric oxide synthase activity in rat hippocampus in vivo. AU - Lam, H. H.D.. AU - Bhardwaj, A.. AU - OConnell, M. T.. AU - Hanley, D. F.. AU - Traystman, R. J.. AU - Sofroniew, M. V.. PY - 1998/9/1. Y1 - 1998/9/1. N2 - In adult forebrain, nerve growth factor (NGF) influences neuronal maintenance and axon sprouting and is neuroprotective in several injury models through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Most NGF signaling is thought to occur after internalization and retrograde transport of trkA receptor and be mediated through the nucleus. However, NGF expression in hippocampus is rapidly and sensitively regulated by synaptic activity, suggesting that NGF exerts local effects more dynamically than possible through signaling requiring retrograde transport to distant afferent neurons. Interactions have been reported between NGF and nitric oxide (NO). Because NO affects both neural plasticity and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition by adenosine A(2A) receptors of NMDA but not AMPA currents in rat neostriatal neurons. AU - Wirkner, Kerstin. AU - Assmann, Heike. AU - Köles, L.. AU - Gerevich, Zoltan. AU - Franke, Heike. AU - Nörenberg, Wolfgang. AU - Boehm, Rudolf. AU - Illes, Peter. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - 1. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments were used to investigate the transduction mechanism of adenosine A(2A) receptors in modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents in rat striatal brain slices. The A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) inhibited the NMDA, but not the (S)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) current in a subset of striatal neurons. 2. Lucifer yellow-filled pipettes in combination with immunostaining of A(2A) receptors were used to identify CGS 21680-sensitive cells as typical medium spiny striatal neurons. 3. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP and the protein kinase A activator Sp-cyclic ...
Functional reconstitution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors from rat brain. Article date: 1992/11/1 PubMed ID: 1383430 Journal name: Journal of neurochemistry (ISSN: 0022-3042) ABSTRACT Glutamate receptors belonging to the subclass specifically activated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) were solubilized from rat forebrain membranes with Triton X-100 and partially purified through a series of three chromatograph…
GYKI 53655 | AMPA antagonist | LY 300168 | GYKI53655 | LY300168 | CAS [143692-18-6] | Axon 1374 | Axon Ligand™ with >99% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
1. Current-voltage (I-V) relationships and Ca2+ permeability of receptor channels activated by bath application of kainate, a non-desensitizing agonist of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, were examined in various types of neurones in hippocampal slices of 5- …
AMPA Receptors: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
objref synList obfunc distSynsCluster() { local totalSyns localobj lengthList1, cumLList1, sref, t1List, lengthList, cumLList, tobj, toAdd, randomNum, randomNum2, r2, randomVec, distList // INPUTS // numClust = $1 //number of clusters // section list for synapses to be distributed over= $2 // gmax = $3, this is the max conductance of the nmda current // ntar = $4, this defines the conductance of the ampa current // with ampa current = gmax/ntar // synsPerClust =$5 //number of synapses per cluster // lClust = $6 //length of cluster seed = 1 lengthList = new Vector(0) // a vector of branch lengths in order numClust = $1 //numClust synsPerClust =$5 //number of synapses per cluster lClust = $6 //length of cluster totalL = 0 forsec $o2 { totalL += L lengthList.append(L) } cumLList = new Vector(lengthList.size()) // a vector of the cummulative // branch length, in order for i=0,lengthList.size()-1{ cumLList.x[i]=lengthList.sum(0,i) } synList = new List() randomNum = new Random() rN = ...
引用Abcams Anti-Glutamate Receptor 1 (AMPA subtype)抗体(ab31232)的参考文献列表。为您列举引用本产品的发表文章,并提供信息包括论文文献数据库中的检索编号以便您搜寻文章
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of calpain in AMPA-induced toxicity to rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. AU - Mansouri, Bobbak. AU - Henne, William M.. AU - Oomman, Sowmini K.. AU - Bliss, Richard. AU - Attridge, Jennifer. AU - Finckbone, VelvetLee. AU - Zeitouni, Tarek. AU - Hoffman, Trent. AU - Bahr, Ben A.. AU - Strahlendorf, Howard K.. AU - Strahlendorf, Jean C.. PY - 2007/2/28. Y1 - 2007/2/28. N2 - AMPA receptor-elicited excitotoxicity is manifested as both a type of programmed cell death termed dark cell degeneration and edematous necrosis, both of which are linked to increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The appearance of marked cytoskeletal changes in response to abusive AMPA receptor activation, coupled with increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration suggests activation of various destructive enzymes such as calpains, a family of Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases. Since calpains and AMPA have been linked to both necrotic cell death and programmed cell death, we sought to determine the ...
The changes in excitatory amino acid receptor ligand binding induced by transient cerebral ischemia were studied in the rat hippocampal subfields. Ten minutes of ischemia was induced by common carotid artery occlusion combined with hypotension, and the animals were allowed variable periods of recovery ranging from 1 day to 4 weeks. The binding of 3H-AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) to quisqualate receptors, 3H-kainic acid (KA) to kainate receptors, and 3H-glutamate to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors as determined by quantitative autoradiography. One week following ischemia the CA1 region of the hippocampus displayed a severe (90%) dendrosomatic lesion with preservation of presynaptic terminals. This was associated with a 60% decrease in AMPA binding and a 25% decrease in glutamate binding to NMDA receptors. At 4 weeks postischemia, both AMPA and NMDA sites were greatly reduced. Although the dentate gyrus granule cells are resistant to an ischemic insult of ...
Formation of glutamatergic synapses entails development of silent immature contacts into mature functional synapses. To determine how this transformation occurs, we investigated the development of neurotransmission at single synapses in vitro. Maturation of presynaptic function, assayed with endoc …
Bourasset F, Bernard K, Muñoz C, Genissel P, Scherrmann JM (August 2005). Neuropharmacokinetics of a new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) modulator, S18986 [(S)-2,3-dihydro-[3,4]cyclopentano-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide], in the rat. Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals 33 (8): 1137-43. PMID 15860654. doi:10.1124/dmd.105.004424. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
Principal Investigator:KAKEGAWA Wataru, Project Period (FY):2009 - 2010, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), Research Field:General physiology
Buy (S)-ATPA - an affordable, high quality AMPA receptor Agonist from Hello Bio, a trusted supplier for life science researchers worldwide
A report on the Host-Pathogen Interactions minisymposium at the initial conference of the European Lifestyle Scientist Company (ELSO), Geneva, Switzerland, September 2-6, 2000. an enormous aggregate (the invasome) in an activity that is evidently powered by the web host cellular ...
Ut quis lorem eu est auctor ultricies. Aliquam quis feugiat urna. Nunc a lobortis odio. Vivamus mollis dolor quis consectetur convallis.. ...
Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris.. ...
Ut orci lectus, molestie ut scelerisque ac, condimentum quis nulla. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Pellentesque rhoncus id mauris blandit dictum.
Dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit por incididunt ut labore et dolore ma gna alin veniam, quis nostrud exercitat exercitation ullamco laboris. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of spinal cord alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in complete Freunds adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. AU - Park, Jang Su. AU - Yaster, Myron. AU - Guan, Xiaowei. AU - Xu, Ji Tian. AU - Shih, Ming Hung. AU - Guan, Yun. AU - Raja, Srinivasa N.. AU - Tao, Yuan Xiang. PY - 2008/12/30. Y1 - 2008/12/30. N2 - Spinal cord α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) mediate acute spinal processing of nociceptive and non-nociceptive information, but whether and how their activation contributes to the central sensitization that underlies persistent inflammatory pain are still unclear. Here, we examined the role of spinal AMPARs in the development and maintenance of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA)-induced persistent inflammatory pain. Intrathecal application of two selective non-competitive AMPAR antagonists, CFM-2 (25 and 50 μg) and GYKI 52466 (50 μg), significantly attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor inhibition has been hypothesized to provide neuroprotective efficacy after cerebral ischemia on the basis of the activity in experimental ischemia models of a variety of compounds with varying selectivity for AMPA over other glutamate receptor subtypes. CP-465,022 is a new, potent, and selective noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study investigated the ability of this compound to reduce neuronal loss after experimental cerebral ischemia to probe the neuroprotective potential of AMPA receptor inhibition. METHODS: To demonstrate that CP-465,022 gains access to the brain, the effects of systemic administration of CP-465,022 were investigated on AMPA receptor-mediated electrophysiological responses in hippocampus and on chemically induced seizures in rats. The compound was then investigated for neuroprotective efficacy in rat global and focal ischemia models at doses demonstrated to be
Several AMPA antagonists have been developed as neuroprotective compounds and have entered clinical development. None of these compounds has reached phase 3 clinical trials, and unacceptable adverse events can be the main obstacle. The most prominent finding of this study was that the administration of the AMPA antagonist ZK200775 in ischemic stroke patients resulted in a transient neurological deterioration, which was associated with a higher than expected rise in serum S-100B levels. The level of sedation was more severe in stroke patients and occurred later than in normal subjects during the phase 1 studies. Besides a longer infusion time and higher doses in stroke patients, blood-brain barrier disruption, with increased tissue concentrations, may be responsible for these differences. Although baseline stroke characteristics were not equally distributed in all treatment groups, this is not a sufficient explanation for the difference in serum S-100B levels between the placebo group and dose ...
Ionotropic glutamatergic receptors open cation-permeable channels to mediate sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) or calcium (Ca2+) ion flow. There are three families of ionotropic receptors: the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), the amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and the kainate receptors.. The AMPA and the kainate receptors are collectively termed non-NMDA receptors and appear to control conductance of Na+ and K+ through channels that exhibit rapid kinetics. AMPA receptors are predominantly post-synaptic receptors, widely distributed in the cortex and ventral striatum and in temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala, with lower levels in the thalamus. Of the three ionotropic receptors in the CNS, AMPA receptors occur at the greatest density. They include GluR1, GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4. The agonists acting at AMPA receptors are AMPA and amino-3-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (ATPA). They mediate most fast excitatory transmissions in the ...
Excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission at Ia afferent-motoneuron synapses is enhanced shortly after physically severing or blocking impulse propagation of the afferent and/or motoneuron axons. We considered the possibility that these synaptic changes occur because of alterations in the number or properties of motoneuron α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed glutamate receptor (GluR)1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 AMPA subunit immunoreactivity (ir) in motoneurons 3, 7, or 14 days after axotomy or continuous tetrodotoxin (TTX) block of the sciatic nerve. GluR1-ir remained low in experimental and control motoneurons with either treatment and at any date. However, there was a large reduction of GluR2/3-ir (peak at 7 days |60% reduced) and a smaller, but statistically significant, reduction of GluR4-ir (around 10% reduction at days 3, 7, and 14) in axotomized motoneurons. TTX sciatic blockade did not affect AMPA subunit immunostainings. Axonal
Ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors (iGluRs) mediate the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and are essential for the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation and long-term depression, two cellular models of learning and memory. We identified a genomic deletion (0.4 Mb) involving the entire GRIA3 (encoding iGluR3) by using an X-array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and four missense variants (G833R, M706T, R631S, and R450Q) in functional domains of iGluR3 by sequencing 400 males with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Three variants were found in males with moderate MR and were absent in 500 control males. Expression studies in HEK293 cells showed that G833R resulted in a 78% reduction of iGluR3 due to protein misfolding. Whole-cell recording studies of iGluR3 homomers in HEK293 cells revealed that neither iGluR3-M706T (S2 domain) nor iGluR3-R631S (near channel core) had substantial channel function, whereas ...
The novel AMPA antagonist RPR 119990 has a potent affinity for the rat AMPA receptor in membrane-binding studies that compares favorably with results for other AMPA receptor antagonists described in the literature (Takahashi et al., 1998; Turski et al., 1998). The compound was selective with respect to other ionotropic glutamate receptors, although a certain affinity for the kainate-binding site at around 50-fold higher concentrations was noted. The compound shows low or negligible affinity for 37 other binding or uptake sites, suggesting strong specificity of action. The activity on the closely related kainite site is expected, because cross-reactivity has already been reported (Bleakman and Lodge, 1998) and may account for some of the compounds anticonvulsant and neuroprotective actions.. RPR 119990 acts as a competitive antagonist at the recombinant human AMPA receptor/channel expressed in X. laevis oocytes. The compound shows a profile compatible with a competitive single site antagonism of ...
3-METHYL SUBSTITUTION ON THE 4-AMINOPHENYL MOIETY AND 8-HALOGENATION SEPARATELY INCREASE ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID (AMPA) / KAINATE CHANNEL BLOCKING ABILITY OF 1-(4-AMINOPHENYL) -2, 3-BENZODIAZEPINE COMPOUNDS.. A192.36. Poster 253 - Tue 13/07, 16:45 - Hall ...
Buy CP 465022 hydrochloride - an affordable, high quality AMPA receptor antagonist from Hello Bio, a trusted supplier for life science researchers worldwide
AIM: Stroke prevalence increases with age, while alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) and inflammation have been related to ischaemia-induced damage. This study shows how age and treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent (meloxicam) modify the levels of AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2, as well as the mRNA levels of the GluR2-editing enzyme ...
History and purpose: A fresh class of heterotricyclic glutamate analogues lately was generated by incorporating structural components of two excitotoxic marine compounds, kainic acid and neodysiherbaine A. decreased excitatory synaptic transmitting in neuronal civilizations, and IKM-159 inhibited synaptic currents from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal pieces. IKM-159 inhibited glutamate-evoked whole-cell currents from recombinant GluA2- and GluA4-formulated with -amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors…. ...
Melcher, T.; Maas, S.; Higuchi, M.; Keller, W.; Seeburg, P. H.; Major, G.; Larkman, A. U.; Jonas, P.; Sakmann, B.; Jack, J. J. B.: Editing of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic Acid Receptor GluR-B Pre-mRNA in Vitro Reveals Site-selective Adenosine to Inosine Conversion. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270 (15), S. 8566 - 8570 (1995 ...
1M5C: Structural Basis for AMPA Receptor Activation and Ligand Selectivity: Crystal Structures of Five Agonist Complexes with the GluR2 Ligand-binding Core
Et minim consequat qui reprehenderit in. Voluptate consectetur excepteur ut laborum ea ex elit ea excepteur occaecat et cupidatat. Labore duis elit nulla nulla voluptate incididunt mol mollit ut fugiat. In incididunt excepteur commodo ad culpa labore labore.. Anim tempor pariatur culpa et aliquip qui do proident eiusmod incididunt quis pariatur ea proident. Eiusmod esse aute cupidatat ad Lorem qui aute veniam deserunt laboris. Ut voluptate nulla dolore tempor consequat ullamco enim officia elit. Ipsum aliqua irure magna aliqua elit.. Dolore labore sit eu quis proident minim eiusmod aute. Minim deserunt sunt esse eu id voluptate voluptate ea enim. Et ex laboris in sunt esse occaecat ullamco dolore nulla esse. Quis ut commodo incididunt id exercitation et. Reprehenderit cupidatat labore aute do officia ea culpa cillum eiusmod enim. Et enim qui eiusmod dolore et nostrud ut est laboris veniam mollit tempor cupidatat irure.. Occaecat Lorem sint occaecat in sit fugiat deserunt laboris laborum ullamco. ...
This modal can be opened by clicking the window icon in the pre-header. Because the link uses data-open-modal (instead of an href anchor) nothing appears in the address bar. You also cant use the back/forward buttons to close or reopen the modal. However, if you know the ID of the modal, you can still manually type the anchor link in your address bar and it will open (handy for client previews).. To simulate an extremely long modal and show how modals scroll, heres a ton of lorem ipsum:. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipisicing elit. Rerum fugit, aperiam qui ducimus incidunt quis ad saepe at! Quis pariatur id nemo iusto. Delectus doloremque, voluptates dicta ab ullam quibusdam!. Illo debitis nihil, labore impedit voluptates soluta asperiores dignissimos dolorem cupiditate optio possimus, accusamus sit libero magni saepe quae explicabo obcaecati laboriosam! Veniam nobis incidunt nam cum a quasi voluptas commodi voluptates rerum dolore nulla nihil numquam perspiciatis at blanditiis ...
description Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce quis mattis tellus. Donec pharetra odio nec mi elementum cursus. Sed ultrices rutrum sapien quis sodales. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Aenean porttitor mauris non sem venenatis auctor. Nulla facilisi. Donec tincidunt rutrum facilisis. Vivamus diam tortor, elementum non aliquet luctus. ...
4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Learn more about 4-hydroxy-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl-acetic-acid-hydrochloride. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in
Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem?. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis debitis aut rerum necessitatibus saepe eveniet.. ...
Consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. quis nostrud exercitation. ut aliquip ex ea commodo c...
Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem?. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis debitis aut rerum necessitatibus saepe eveniet.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi. ...
Consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. quis nostrud exercitation. ut aliquip ex ea commodo c...
The density of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on membranes prepared from cultured cortical neurons was determined using binding assays with [125I]I-MK-801 after exposure of cultures to antagonists of the NMDA receptor complex. The density of binding sites for [125I]I-MK-801 was increased by 40-80% after exposure to D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), with no change in the number or viability of neurons. The effect of D-AP5 was concentration dependent, with an EC50 of 10 microM. Up-regulation of NMDA receptors was observed after 2-7 days but not after 1 day of exposure to 100 microM D-AP5. The density of NMDA receptors was also increased after exposure of cells to CGS 19755 and MK-801 but not after exposure to the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. The binding of [3H]AMPA was unaltered after exposure to D-AP5. These results demonstrate that the density of NMDA receptors on cultured ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prenatal nicotine exposure alters medullary nicotinic and AMPA-mediated control of respiratory frequency in vitro. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The mechanism of action of aniracetam on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors was examined in outside-out patches and at glutamatergic synapses in neurons of the chick cochlear nucleus. A combination of rapid-flow analysis, using glutamate as an agonist, and kinetic modeling indicated that aniracetam slows both the rate of channel closing, and the microscopic rates of desensitization, even for partially liganded receptors. Little effect was observed on the rate of recovery from desensitization or on the response to the weakly desensitizing agonist kainate. Aniracetams effects on receptor deactivation saturated at lower concentrations than its effects on desensitization, suggesting that cooperativity between homologous binding sites was required to regulate desensitization. Analysis of responses to paired pulses of agonist also indicated that AMPA receptors must desensitize partially even after agonist exposures too brief to permit rebinding. In the presence of ...
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether antibody screening samples of patients with suspected autoimmune encephalitis with additional research assays would improve the detection of autoimmune encephalitis compared with standard clinical testing alone. METHODS: We examined 731 samples (333 CSF, 182 sera, and 108 pairs) from a cohort of 623 patients who were tested for CNS autoantibodies by the University of Pennsylvania clinical laboratory over a 24-month period with cell-based assays (CBAs) on commercially obtained slides of fixed cells for antibodies to NMDA receptor (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 ...
Products Name: 3-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)propionic acid Cas No.: 585-50-2 Molecular Formula: C10H9F3O2 Molecular Weight: - 3-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)propionic Acid Details.
Nunc tincidunt, elit non cursus euismod, lacus augue ornare metus, egestas imperdiet nulla nisl quis mauris. Suspendisse a pharetra urna. Morbi dui lectus, pharetra nec elementum eget, vulputate ut nisi. Aliquam accumsan, nulla sed feugiat vehicula, lacus justo semper libero, quis porttitor turpis odio sit amet ligula.. Duis dapibus fermentum orci, nec malesuada libero vehicula ut. Integer sodales, urna eget interdum eleifend, nulla nibh laoreet nisl, quis dignissim mauris dolor eget mi. Donec at mauris enim. Duis nisi tellus, adipiscing a convallis quis, tristique vitae risus. Nullam molestie gravida lobortis. Proin ut nibh quis felis auctor ornare. Cras ultricies, nibh at mollis faucibus, justo eros porttitor mi, quis auctor lectus arcu sit amet nunc. Vivamus gravida vehicula arcu, vitae vulputate augue lacinia faucibus. Nunc tincidunt, elit non cursus euismod, lacus augue ornare metus, egestas imperdiet nulla nisl quis mauris. Suspendisse a pharetra urna. Morbi dui lectus, pharetra nec ...
(R)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)-propionic acid; CAS Number: 83654-13-1; Linear Formula: C7H10N2O4; find J & W Pharmlab LLC-JWPH942F3343 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetuer eleifend elit vel tellus laoreet. At ut pellentesque risus quis sem eros et consequat enim lorem. Aenean lorem consequat consequat eu pellentesque risus quis sem eros pellentesque risus quis sem eros.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetuer eleifend elit vel tellus laoreet. At ut pellentesque risus quis sem eros et consequat enim lorem. Aenean lorem consequat consequat eu pellentesque risus quis sem eros pellentesque risus quis sem eros.. ...
3-Amino-3-(2,4,6-trimethoxy-phenyl)-propionic acid/ACM682804440 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
3-(2-Chloro-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid 97%; CAS Number: 853331-56-3; Linear Formula: C10H11ClO3; find Sigma-Aldrich-685550 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
3-[(5-Bromopyridine-3-carbonyl)amino]-propionic acid/AFI332874041 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Propionic Acid Market was valued at USD 908.0 million in 2012 and is expected to reach USD 1,540.5 million by 2019, growing at a CAGR of 7.7% over the forecast period from 2013 to 2019.
We, China Methyl-3-Oxo-4-(2,4,5-Trifluorophenyl) Butanoate Manufacturers, China Methyl-3-Oxo-4-(2,4,5-Trifluorophenyl) Butanoate Suppliers, provide quality Methyl-3-Oxo-4-(2,4,5-Trifluorophenyl) Butanoate product and the products related with China Methyl-3-Oxo-4-(2,4,5-Trifluorophenyl) Butanoate - ntjhzy
Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes empor quis congue in, interdum eget tortor. Vivamus aliquam dictum lacus quis tincidunt. Phasellus rhoncus ante sollicitudin nisl consectetur ultricies.. ...
Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan
Consectetur Adipisicing Elit Sed Do Eiusmod Tempor Incididunt Ut Labore Et Dolore Magna Aliqua Enim Ad Minim Veniam Quis. Terms & Conditions ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. ...
Lorem ipsn gravida nibh vel velit auctor aliquet. Aenean sollicitudin, lorem quis bibendum auci elit consequat ipsutis sem nibh id elit dolor sit amet.. ...
by admin , Dec 22, 2014 , Projects. Culpa qui officiaut Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Rutrum elementum sem. Phasellus a viverra risus, rutrum elementum sem. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. ...
SUMMARY: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu
SUMMARY: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. ...
Hodan Styrene is a British-Somali jazz DJ born and bred in London. She is the creator of radio projects like The Garden is Open and The Sessions and has played at NTS, Balamii and Rinse France ...
Piotr Sosnik is Former Vice Chair-Supervisory at Przedsiebiorstwo Farmaceutyczne Jelfa SA. See Piotr Sosniks compensation, career history, education, & memberships.
2003). "Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain". J. ... The R/G site is found at amino acid 769 immediately before the 3-amino-acid-long flip and flop modules introduced by ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor ... These channels are also responsive to the glutamate agonist, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpropionate (AMPA). Some ...
Ahmed AH, Oswald RE (March 2010). "Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (5): 2197-203. doi:10.1021/jm901905j. ... "Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in ... 58 (4): 1199-204. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992.tb11329.x. PMID 1372342. Vavers E, Zvejniece L, Veinberg G, Svalbe B, Domracheva ...
Ahmed AH, Oswald RE (March 2010). "Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... It is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA and shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with pyroglutamic acid. ... methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (5): 2197-203. doi:10.1021/jm901905j. ... Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid). Related drugs include the anticonvulsants levetiracetam and ...
The GRIA1 belongs to a family of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors. Each of the members ( ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor ... Leonard AS, Davare MA, Horne MC, Garner CC, Hell JW (July 1998). "SAP97 is associated with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... Leonard AS, Davare MA, Horne MC, Garner CC, Hell JW (1998). "SAP97 is associated with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ...
"Amino acid substitutions in the pore helix of GluR6 control inhibition by membrane fatty acids". J. Gen. Physiol. 132 (1): 85- ... Leuschner WD, Hoch W (1999). "Subtype-specific assembly of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (Jan 1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate ... The pre-mRNA of GLUR6 is edited at amino acid positions 567, 571, and 621. The Q/R position, which gets its name as editing ...
August 2003). "LY503430, a novel alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor potentiator with functional ... allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... 3 (3): 181-94. doi:10.2174/1568007043337508. PMID 15180479. O'Neill MJ, Witkin JM (May 2007). "AMPA receptor potentiators: ...
"Inhibition of calcineurin-mediated endocytosis and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors ... Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (14): 4667-79. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn435. PMC 2504311. PMID 18628291. Zhang XHD (2009). "A method for ... 4 (9): e6892. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006892. PMC 2731218. PMID 19727391. Malo N, Hanley JA, Carlile G, Liu J, Pelletier J, ... 15 (3): 551-8. doi:10.2307/1266860. JSTOR 1266860. Reiser B, Guttman I (1986). "Statistical inference for of Pr(Y-less-thaqn-X ...
"Inhibition of calcineurin-mediated endocytosis and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors ... Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (14): 4667-79. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn435. PMC 2504311. PMID 18628291. Klinghoffer RA, Frazier J, Annis ... 12 (4): 645-55. doi:10.1177/1087057107300646. PMID 17435171. Zhang XH, Yang XC, Chung N, Gates A, Stec E, Kunapuli P, Holder DJ ... 12 (5): 645-55. doi:10.1177/1087057107300645. PMID 17517904. Zhang XH, Ferrer M, Espeseth AS, Marine SD, Stec EM, Crackower MA ...
This point mutation in the coding sequence, a guanine to adenine switch at position 196, results in an amino acid switch: ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic ... subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (1): 693-99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008085200 ... The proteins resulting from mRNA that does get translated, are not trafficked and secreted normally, as the amino acid change ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic ... "PSD-95 promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A". Proceedings of the ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[36][35 ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic ... subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (1): 693-99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008085200 ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (February 2003). "The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor ... "Phosphorylation of NG2 proteoglycan by protein kinase C-alpha regulates polarized membrane distribution and cell motility". The ... 158 (3): 1324-31. PMID 9013976. Iida J, Meijne AM, Oegema TR, Yednock TA, Kovach NL, Furcht LT, McCarthy JB (March 1998). "A ...
Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (2003). "The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. ... "The carboxyl terminus of the prolactin-releasing peptide receptor interacts with PDZ domain proteins involved in alpha-amino-3- ... hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor clustering". Mol. Pharmacol. 60 (5): 916-23. doi:10.1124/mol.60.5.916. PMID ...
Bourasset F, Bernard K, Muñoz C, Genissel P, Scherrmann JM (August 2005). "Neuropharmacokinetics of a new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy ... 16 (4): 624-37. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.188. PMID 19136940. Destot-Wong KD, Liang K, Gupta SK, Favrais G, Schwendimann L, Pansiot ... 202 (1-3): 225-35. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1301-x. PMID 18762915. S2CID 35139538. Gupta SK, Mishra R, Kusum S, Spedding M, Meiri ... 19 (3): 235-44. doi:10.1097/FBP.0b013e3282feb0c1. PMID 18469541. S2CID 20415746. Kelly SJ, Bernard K, Muñoz C, Lawrence RC, ...
It also plays a role in clustering of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors ... 50 (3): 329-37. doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2005.06.011. PMID 16115696. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The Status ... 31 (4): 940-3. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.02.016. PMID 17408830. S2CID 23877321. Poulsen TT, Pedersen N, Perin MS, et al. (2006 ... 35 (3): e9-15. doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e318153fa42. PMID 17895837. S2CID 31006962. Marui T, Koishi S, Funatogawa I, et al. (2007 ...
Stasi K, Mitsacos A, Triarhou LC, Kouvelas ED (1997). "Cerebellar grafts partially reverse amino acid receptor changes observed ... the decline in binding occurred for the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor) receptor at ... "The Purkinje cell degeneration 5J mutation is a single amino acid insertion that destabilizes Nna1 protein". Mamm Genome. 17 (2 ... Increases per protein weight were also discerned in the granule cell layer and deep nuclei for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor and ...
Gliotransmitters include glutamate, ATP, and, more recently, the amino acid D-serine. Once thought to be glycine itself, D- ... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), respectively, but they both ... A low alpha/beta ratio causes an increased threshold for cellular excitation via calcium influx and thus favors LTP. There are ... Recent research has found that the calcium-dependent enzyme CaMKII, which exists in an alpha and beta isoform, is key in ...
Neuron 10, 51, (1993) Wilding, T.J., Huettner, J.E., Differential antagonism of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... isoxazolepropionic acid-preferring and kainate-preferring receptors by 2,3-benzodiazepines. Mol. Pharmacol. 47, 582, (1995) ... Allosteric regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors by thiocyanate and cyclothiazide at a ... Unlike conventional 1,4-benzodiazepines, GYKI-52466 and related 2,3-benzodiazepines do not act on GABAA receptors. Like other ...
... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor biophysics and synaptic responses". Molecular ... a benzothiadiazine derivative that enhances cognition by attenuating DL-alpha-amino-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4- ... isoxazolepropanoic acid (AMPA) receptor desensitization". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 272 (1): ... 43 (5): 664-9. doi:10.1002/ana.410430517. PMID 9585363. Nagarajan N, Quast C, Boxall AR, Shahid M, Rosenmund C (November 2001 ...
... allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 319 (1 ... Antagonisti: Neselektivni: APICA • EGLU • HYDIA • LY-307,452 • LY-341,495 • MCPG • MGS-0039; mGlu2-selektivni: PCCG-4; mGlu3- ... Agonisti: 5-Jodovilardin • ATPA • Domoična kiselina • Kainska kiselina • LY-339,434 • SYM-2081. Antagonisti: CNQX • DNQX • LY- ... Agonisti: 5-Fluoro-vilardin • AMPA • Domoična kiselina • Kuiskualinska kiselina; Pozitivni alosterni modulatori: Aniracetam • ...
... urocanic acid MeSH D03.383.129.385 - isoxazoles MeSH D03.383.129.385.025 - alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic ... pyridoxic acid MeSH D03.383.725.450 - 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine MeSH D03.383.725.463 - metyrapone MeSH ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 - pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 - xanthinol ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 - 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6- ...
... kainic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) channels. In the synapse, these receptors serve very different purposes. AMPA ... ISBN 978-0-87893-697-7. Dinh, L; Nguyen T; Salgado H; Atzori M (2009). "Norepinephrine homogeneously inhibits alpha-amino-3- ... AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) is a compound that is a specific agonist for the AMPA receptor, ... hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate- (AMPAR-) mediated currents in all layers of the temporal cortex of the rat". ...
Thermal rearrangements of α-amino methyl ketones". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 30 (9): 2967-72. doi:10.1021/jo01020a019. US ... Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H (August 2009). "Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide ... the metabolite with negligible affinity for the NMDA receptor but a potent alpha-7 nicotinic receptor antagonist may have ... In any case, it has been elucidated that acute blockade of NMDA receptors in the brain results in an activation of α-amino-3- ...
Bourasset F, Bernard K, Muñoz C, Genissel P, Scherrmann JM (August 2005). "Neuropharmacokinetics of a new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy ... 4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Reference[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Li Q, Cheng T, Wang Y, Bryant SH (2010). "PubChem as a ... Agonisti: 5-Jodovilardin • ATPA • Domoična kiselina • Kainska kiselina • LY-339,434 • SYM-2081. Antagonisti: CNQX • DNQX • LY- ... Antagonisti: Neselektivni: APICA • EGLU • HYDIA • LY-307,452 • LY-341,495 • MCPG • MGS-0039; mGlu2-selektivni: PCCG-4; mGlu3- ...
... aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; D-cycloserine; L-aspartate; quinolinate, etc. Partial agonists : N-methyl-D-aspartic acid ( ... Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical ... harboring an alpha-helix and 10 beta-strands. Following the ECD, four transmembrane segments (TMSs) are connected by ... Domoic acid, Quisqualic acid, etc. Antagonists: CNQX, Kynurenic acid, NBQX, Perampanel, Piracetam, etc. Positive allosteric ...
The Gs alpha subunit of the stimulated G protein complex exchanges GDP for GTP and is released from the complex.[7] ... "Regulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking through PKA phosphorylation of the Glu ... The Gs alpha subunit slowly catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, which in turn deactivates the Gs protein, shutting off the ... In a cAMP-dependent pathway, the activated Gs alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase, which, in ...
A 38-amino acid sequence found prior to (i.e., before the N-terminus of) the fourth membranous domain in all four AMPAR ... Leonard AS, Davare MA, Horne MC, Garner CC, Hell JW (July 1998). "SAP97 is associated with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... While the amino acid sequence of the subunit indicated that there seemed to be four transmembrane domains (parts of the protein ... The positively charged amino acid at the critical point makes it energetically unfavourable for calcium to enter the cell ...
In the past, hyperalgesia was thought to be modulated by the release of substance P and excitatory amino acids (EAA), such as ... December 2017). "Human Astrocytes Transfer Aggregated Alpha-Synuclein via Tunneling Nanotubes". The Journal of Neuroscience. 37 ... N-methyl-D-aspartate) and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors follows. It is the activation of these receptors ... Subsequent activation of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid), NMDA ( ...
A 38-amino acid sequence found prior to (i.e., before the N-terminus of) the fourth membranous domain in all four AMPAR ... Mammen AL, Kameyama K, Roche KW, Huganir RL (December 1997). "Phosphorylation of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole4- ... While the amino acid sequence of the subunit indicated that there seemed to be four transmembrane domains (parts of the protein ... Here, A→I editing alters the uncharged amino acid glutamine (Q) to the positively charged arginine (R) in the receptor's ion ...
Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (2003). "The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. ... "The carboxyl terminus of the prolactin-releasing peptide receptor interacts with PDZ domain proteins involved in alpha-amino-3- ... hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor clustering". Mol. Pharmacol. 60 (5): 916-23. PMID 11641419.. الوسيط , ...
... and oxiracetam enhanced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx in primary ... Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in ... Micromolar concentrations of piracetam, aniracetam, and oxiracetam enhanced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic ... as the drug changed neither the stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx by kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate nor the activation of inositol ...
Block of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by polyamines and polyamine toxins.. M S ... Block of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by polyamines and polyamine toxins.. M S ... Block of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by polyamines and polyamine toxins.. M S ... Block of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by polyamines and polyamine toxins. ...
S)-AMPA [(S)-alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid]. Código:. ALX-550-016 ... S)-AMPA [(S)-alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid] ... S)-AMPA [(S)-alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid] ... S)-AMPA [(S)-alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid] https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/alx-550-016 https ...
... and partial purification of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-, quisqualate-, kainate-sensitive L- ... Substances mentioned in the article: Detergents; Glutamates; Ibotenic Acid; Polyethylene Glycols; Glutamic Acid; alpha-Amino-3- ... Kainic Acid/pharmacology; Polyethylene Glycols; Quisqualic Acid/pharmacology; Solubility; Synapses/metabolism; alpha-Amino-3- ... Quisqualic Acid, Detergents, Glutamates, Nonidet P-40, alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid, Kainic Acid, ...
Home / Pharmacogn J, Vol 11, Issue 6, Nov-Dec, 2019 / Virtual Screening of Indonesian Herbal Database as alpha-Amino-3- Hydroxy ... Syahdi RR, Martinah CD, Yanuar A. Virtual Screening of Indonesian Herbal Database as alpha-Amino-3- Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4 ... Virtual Screening of Indonesian Herbal Database as alpha-Amino-3- Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4 Isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Antagonist ... Virtual Screening of Indonesian Herbal Database as alpha-Amino-3- Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4 Isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Antagonist ...
... beta-diaminopropionic acid. Article date: 1988/1/19 PubMed ID: 2895006 Journal name: European journal of pharmacology (ISSN: ... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid binding by the excitotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, ... N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; Receptors, Neurotransmitter; Toxins, Biological; oxalyldiaminopropionic acid; Ibotenic Acid; alpha-Amino- ... Kainic Acid, oxalyldiaminopropionic acid, Oxadiazoles, Oxazoles, alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid, ...
Park, JS, Yaster, M, Guan, X, Xu, JT, Shih, MH, Guan, Y, Raja, SN & Tao, YX 2008, Role of spinal cord alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Role of spinal cord alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ... alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Medicine & Life Sciences ... Role of spinal cord alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in complete Freunds adjuvant-induced ...
... studies of 5-substituted willardiines and GluR2 S1S2 in the crystal. ... S)-ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID. AMPA (Synonym). C7 H10 N2 O4 UUDAMDVQRQNNHZ-YFKPBYRVSA-N ... Version 1_4: 2017-08-23. Type: Refinement description, Source and taxonomy ...
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid / metabolism Substances * alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... isoxazolepropionic Acid Grant support * R01NS37711/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States ...
N-methyl-D-aspartic acid. POA. pre-optic area. POMC. proopiomelanocortin. RI. reproductive index. T. testosterone. TC. ... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid. AVP. arginine vasopressin. AVT. arginine vasotocin. BPP. Bayesian ... The role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the regulation of pituitary gonadotropin release in fish. Biochem. Cell Biol. 78, ... gamma-aminobutyric acid. GH. growth hormone. GHRH. growth hormone-releasing hormone. GnRH. gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. GO ...
... tumor necrosis factor alpha; IFN-g, interferon gamma; AMPAR, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor; ... GABAR, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor; NMDAR, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; ECS, electroconvulsive seizure therapy; APP, ... On the other hand, in the neural IGF-IR, a polymer of sialic acid is present and is resistant to neuraminidase catalysis (110, ... It has been reported that the accumulation of high levels of Abeta can be toxic, although the alpha-secretase cleaved amyloid ...
AMPA stands for alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid.) ... All these changes were evident within 2-3 days after the seizure. ...
... a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia; NBI-1065845, an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy ... is 5.. The pillar scores are Audit: 1; Board: 6; Shareholder Rights: 5; Compensation: 5. ... 5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid potentiator for the treatment of resistant depression; and NBI-1065846, a G protein-coupled ...
2002) Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain. J Biol ... Here, we find that AMPAR subunits lacking M4 or containing single amino acid substitutions in the specific M4 face no longer ... 2007) N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 forms the substrate for oligomeric assembly of the NMDA receptor. J Biol ... we find that subunits lacking M4 or containing single amino acid substitutions along an "interacting" face of the M4 helix that ...
2002) Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain. J Biol ... Here, we find that AMPAR subunits lacking M4 or containing single amino acid substitutions in the specific M4 face no longer ... 2007) N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 forms the substrate for oligomeric assembly of the NMDA receptor. J Biol ... we find that subunits lacking M4 or containing single amino acid substitutions along an "interacting" face of the M4 helix that ...
This upregulation was manifested as a robust increase in the amplitude of AMPAR-mediated currents 2-3 h post-CFA. These changes ... This upregulation was manifested as a robust increase in the amplitude of AMPAR-mediated currents 2-3 h post-CFA. These changes ... we showed that remarkable hyperalgesia and allodynia developes in 1-3 h after intraplantar CFA injection. By utilizing patch- ... we showed that remarkable hyperalgesia and allodynia developes in 1-3 h after intraplantar CFA injection. By utilizing patch- ...
... alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid; rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins. ... White Rose Research Online is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the ... 3 more authors) (2009) Regulation of endosomal motility and degradation by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2/alsin. Molecular ...
Perampanel is a noncompetitive antagonist of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate ... Ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine in childhood absence epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 4. 362(9):790-9. [Medline]. ... This agent has multiple mechanisms of action, including (1) inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-associated sodium ... Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Neurology, ...
Antagonization of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate subtype of the glutamate receptor ... Valproic acid reduces the frequency of migraines. This agent is believed to enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ... Dihydroergotamine is an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent with a direct stimulating effect on smooth muscle of peripheral and ... The drug blocks alpha-adrenergic receptors and depresses the release of hypophyseal and hypothalamic hormones. As a rule, ...
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Carrier Proteins: 11456*Membrane Transport Proteins: 165*Ion Channels: 3653 ... A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl- ... hydroxy- 5- methyl- 4- isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) 4. Glutamic Acid (Glutamate) ... Amino Acid Receptors: 22*Glutamate Receptors: 2226*Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors: 173*AMPA Receptors: 888*glutamate receptor ...
Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ... Excitatory Amino Acid Receptor; Receptor, Glutamate; Excitatory Amino Acid Receptors; Receptors, Excitatory Amino Acid ... human alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype glutamate receptor ... Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ...
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor. ANNA. anti-neuronal nuclear antibody ... Human N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antibodies alter memory and behaviour in mice. Brain. 2015;138(Pt 1):94-109.PubMedCrossRef ... gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor. GAD. glutamic acid decarboxylase. GFAP. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein ... Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in children and adolescents. Ann Neurol. 2009;66(1):11-8.PubMed ...
... isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to be the causes of autoimmune ... Alphaamino3hydroxy5methyl4isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate (NMDA) receptors are two major ... hydroxy5methyl4isoxazolepropionic acid receptor: Case series and review of the literature. JAMA Neurology, 72(10), 1163- ... AMPA, alphaamino3hydroxy5methyl4isoxazolepropionic acid; NMDA, N‐methyl‐ ... ...
Subunit dependencies of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ( ... Identification of amino acid residues of the NR2A subunit that control glutamate potency in recombinant NR1/NR2A NMDA receptors ... Studying block in cloned N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.. Ruppersberg JP, Mosbacher J, Günther W, Schoepfer R, Fakler B. ... Subcellular localisation of recombinant alpha- and gamma-synuclein.. Specht CG, Tigaret CM, Rast GF, Thalhammer A, Rudhard Y, ...
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptor. G. gestational day. GABA. Gamma-aminobutyric acid ... N- methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptor. P. postnatal day. SIDS. sudden infant death syndrome. SN. substantia nigra. VTA. ... Belhage B, Hansen GH, Elster L, Schousboe A. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on synaptogenesis and synaptic function ... Localization of alpha 7 nicotinic receptor subunit mRNA and alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in developing mouse somatosensory ...
CC] alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid selective glutamate receptor complex *[CC] cell junction *[CC] ... BP] regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity *[BP] regulation ...
Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in ... Nefiracetam potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function via protein kinase C activation and reduces magnesium ... Nebracetam (WEB 1881FU) prevents N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity in rat striatal slices. Jpn J Pharmacol ... 5.. Wheble PC, Sena ES, Macleod MR. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of piracetam and piracetam-like ...
CC] alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid selective glutamate receptor complex *[CC] endocytic vesicle ... BP] regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity *[BP] synaptic ... calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4. 3837002. Incomplete. BC004504. calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma ...
  • L-[3H]Glutamate bound to the solubilized preparation could be effectively displaced by agonists of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) L-glutamate receptors but not by NMDA or alpha-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate. (muscimol.xyz)
  • This agent has multiple mechanisms of action, including (1) inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-associated sodium channels, (2) potentiation of GABAergic activity, and (3) inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. (medscape.com)
  • Autoantibodies to the alpha‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazolepropionic acid ( AMPA ) receptor and N ‐methyl‐ d ‐aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor are known to be the causes of autoimmune encephalitis particularly limbic encephalitis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alpha‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N ‐methyl‐ d ‐aspartate (NMDA) receptors are two major glutamate receptors and are antigens of patients with autoimmune limbic encephalitis (Lai et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Graph theoretical analysis, in silico modeling, prediction of toxicity, metabolism and synthesis of novel 2-(methyl/phenyl)-3-(4-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) phenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-ones as NMDA receptor inhibitor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adjuvant N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-enhancing agents, such as GlyT-1 inhibitors and NMDA-glycine site agonists have been demonstrated to be beneficial for chronic schizophrenia patien. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Zusätzlich kann diese Methodik verwendet werden, um drei Konformationszustände in der Ligandenbindungsdomäne des N-Methyl-D-aspartat (NMDA) -Rezeptors zu identifizieren. (jove.com)
  • We evaluated the effects of NMDA-R Ab on the NMDA- and AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid)-mediated regulation of glutamate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA)-Type Glutamate Receptor Autoantibody Disorders - Anti-NMDA-Receptor Encephalitis. (arupconsult.com)
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) encephalitis is a treatment-responsive inflammatory encephalopathic autoimmune disease associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. (arupconsult.com)
  • Recognition that dissociative anesthetics block the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel has inspired a search for glutamatergic therapeutic mechanisms because ketamine and phencyclidine are known to induce psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbate the symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. (genes2cognition.org)
  • In addition to discussing the activation of mGlu2 receptors with mGlu2/3 receptor agonists or mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), we discuss other methods that may potentially modulate circuits with hypofunctional NMDA receptors such as glycine transporter inhibitors and mGlu5 receptor PAMs. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors are alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and kainite. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Previous studies have reported that information from carotid chemoreceptors activates sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) exclusively via N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, we found that glutamate synapses onto these interneurons can also be N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-silent, that is, only AMPA-signaling. (gu.se)
  • Kainate, a natural product, is an excitotoxic glutamate analogue produced by an algae, while NMDA is N-methyl-d-aspartate. (axonmedchem.com)
  • 4] The Role of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptors in Pain: A Review. (axonmedchem.com)
  • [3,4] Transient reduction of GABA A receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IP-SCs) is thought to play a role in regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. (asahq.org)
  • [3,4] The resulting depolarization can recruit previously inactive receptors, for example, by relieving the magnesium-voltage-dependent block of the NMDA receptor-mediated calcium channel. (asahq.org)
  • [3,4] Prolongation of the open-time of the GABA A receptor-chloride channel by pentobarbital [2,11] partially depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane, enhancing conductance at the NMDA receptor-mediated calcium channel. (asahq.org)
  • In the presence of the GABA A receptor antagonist picrotoxin, the NMDA receptor antagonist AP-5, and the selective AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 53655, KA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (KA EPSCs) were revealed. (elsevier.com)
  • Vulnerability to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurred prior to their localisation in apposition to pre-synaptic terminals, indicating that excitotoxicity can be mediated by extrasynaptic receptor puncta. (edu.au)
  • The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor forms a cation-selective channel with a high calcium permeability and sensitivity to channel block by extracellular magnesium. (sciencemag.org)
  • The density of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on membranes prepared from cultured cortical neurons was determined using binding assays with [125I]I-MK-801 after exposure of cultures to antagonists of the NMDA receptor complex. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The density of NMDA receptors was also increased after exposure of cells to CGS 19755 and MK-801 but not after exposure to the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Block of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by polyamines and polyamine toxins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Spinal cord α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) mediate acute spinal processing of nociceptive and non-nociceptive information, but whether and how their activation contributes to the central sensitization that underlies persistent inflammatory pain are still unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) expression level at extrasynaptic sites of neuronal plasma membrane is high throughout the central nervous system (CNS). (frontiersin.org)
  • Serotonin 5-HT1F receptor agonists (ie, ditans) do not elicit a vasoconstrictive effect, whereas triptans cause vasoconstriction via agonistic action at 5-HT1B/1D receptors. (medscape.com)
  • These drugs are selective serotonin agonists, specifically acting at 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT 1B/1D ) receptors on intracranial blood vessels and sensory nerve endings. (medscape.com)
  • A selective agonist for serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptors, naratriptan has higher bioavailability and a longer half-life than sumatriptan, which may contribute to a lower rate of headache recurrences. (medscape.com)
  • A selective agonist for serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptors in cranial arteries, zolmitriptan suppresses the inflammation associated with migraine headaches. (medscape.com)
  • A selective agonist for serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptors in cranial arteries, rizatriptan suppresses the inflammation associated with migraine headaches. (medscape.com)
  • A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid). (curehunter.com)
  • Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. (curehunter.com)
  • [23] It may also modulate the activity of various neurotransmitter receptors, including the Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this insensitivity to PTX, neither adenosine receptors nor GABA(B) (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors, which operate via PTX-sensitive G-proteins, mediate the OGD-induced outward current. (uzh.ch)
  • When adenosine receptors or GABA(B) receptors were blocked with 1,3-dipropyl-8-psulphophenylxanthine (DPSPX, 5 microM) or CGP 52 432 (10 microM), respectively, the OGD-induced response was not modified. (uzh.ch)
  • Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) undergo constitutive cycling between the intracellular compartment and the cell surface in the central nervous system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Blockade of 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptors plays a contributory role in the actions of the second generation of antipsychotic drugs, the so-called atypical antipsychotics. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Crystal structure of the GluR2 amino-terminal domain provides insights into the architecture and assembly of ionotropic glutamate receptors. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors are functionally diverse but have a common architecture, including the 400-residue amino-terminal domain (ATD). (genes2cognition.org)
  • In this study, we examined the possible involvement of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors in the RVLM on sympathetic chemoreceptor reflex in pentobarbitone anaesthetised, vagotomised and artificially ventilated rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we present structural and functional data on two new positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors, phenyl-1,4-bis-alkylsulfonamide (CMPDA) and phenyl-1,4-bis-carboxythiophene (CMPDB). (aspetjournals.org)
  • α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors mediate the initial peak of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and are critical for the strengthening and weakening of synapses that underlie the cellular basis of learning and memory. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3] Kainate receptors. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Photoinactivation of glutamate receptors by genetically encoded unnatural amino acids. (abcam.com)
  • On the other hand, cocaine self-administration and withdrawal increases the surface expression of subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluA1) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors at the level of the NAc. (dovepress.com)
  • 1. The superficial layers II and III of the entorhinal cortex, which form the main cortical input to the hippocampus, receive a large serotonergic projection from the raphe nuclei and express 5-HT receptors at high density. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • 6. We conclude that serotonin potently suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via 5-HT1A receptors in layers II and III of the medial entorhinal cortex by a presynaptic mechanism. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • CAMKII regulates numerous physiological functions, including neuronal synaptic plasticity through the phosphorylation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate (AMPA) receptors. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In the present paper, we report the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II alpha (PI4KIIalpha) is a novel substrate of GSK3 that regulates trafficking and cell-surface expression of neurotransmitter receptors in neurons. (garvan.org.au)
  • Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) at excitatory synapse mediate fast neurotransmission. (hku.hk)
  • These asparagines are in a position homologous to the site in the TM2 region (Q/R site) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors that is occupied by either glutamine (Q) or arginine (R) and that controls divalent cation permeability of the AMPA receptor channel. (sciencemag.org)
  • Up-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on cultured cortical neurons after exposure to antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Micromolar concentrations of piracetam, aniracetam, and oxiracetam enhanced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells. (nih.gov)
  • Potentiation by oxiracetam was specific for AMPA receptor-mediated signal transduction, as the drug changed neither the stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx by kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate nor the activation of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis elicited by quisqualate or (+-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid. (nih.gov)
  • These channels are also responsive to the glutamate agonist, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpropionate (AMPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes 5 subunits of the glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptor subunits (Glur2, Glur3, Glur4) and Kainate receptor subunits (Glur5, Glur6). (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor antagonists are of potential interest for the treatment of certain acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The compound displaced [ 3 H]AMPA from rat cortex membranes with a K i of 107 nM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • it is a noncompetitive antagonist of the ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor on postsynaptic neurons. (drugs.com)
  • TMHS is structurally similar to other ion channel regulatory subunits such as TARPs (transmembrane alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor regulatory proteins). (scoop.it)
  • Perampanel is an orally administered, selective non-competitive AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)-type glutamate receptor antagonist, discovered and being developed by Eisai. (drugs.com)
  • In contrast, the ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) response was not affected. (uzh.ch)
  • TAK-653 is a potential first-in-class Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazole Propionic Acid (AMPA) potentiator. (koreanewswire.co.kr)
  • However, microinjection of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, a selective AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, 2 mM, 100 nl) into the RVLM after intravenous MK-801 abolished the hypoxia evoked sympathoexcitatory response. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the hippocampal CA1 area, glutamate transmission to the developing, but not to the adult, principal neurons is characterized by the presence of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) silent synapses and of AMPA silencing induced by test pulse stimulation (0.03-1 Hz). (gu.se)
  • RNA encoding the B subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR-B) undergoes a posttranscriptional modification in which a genomically encoded adenosine is represented as a guanosine in the GluR-B complementary DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is first and only FDA-approved non-competitive AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor antagonist. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ( AMPA ) is an artificial glutamate analogue. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Importantly, a reduction in PI4KIIalpha expression or phosphorylation increases alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor expression at the surface of hippocampal neurons. (garvan.org.au)
  • We found that KA EPSCs are 5-10% of AMPA/KA EPSCs in all layers of the adult mouse IC. (elsevier.com)
  • alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5- methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has been implicated in the changes in synaptic strength at central glutamatergic synapses associated with memory formation. (epfl.ch)
  • However, vulnerability to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity was related to localisation ofreceptors at synapses and in spines. (edu.au)
  • Casals, N., 2015, "Novel Regulation of the Synthesis of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptor Subunit GluA1 by Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C) in the Hippocampus. (uic.es)
  • In addition, we studied the effects of infusion of GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid) after blockade of the alpha2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) with pregabalin, to assess the responsiveness of the glutamatergic synapses to exogeneous GABA when the presynaptic release of glutamate was blocked. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glutamate transmission to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons and to principal neurons differs in various important respects. (gu.se)
  • Pubmed ID: 11961124 Acid(B) funzionale gamma-amminobutirrico (recettori GABA(B)) montare da due subunità, GABA(B(1)) e GABA(B(2). (jove.com)
  • Piracetam (2-oxo-Pyrrolidine Acetamide) - is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). (anabolicminds.com)
  • A LARGE body of evidence suggests that the ([Greek small letter gamma]-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) receptor complex is an important cellular target for general anesthetics. (asahq.org)
  • According to the anion shift model, [3,4] GABA plays a dual role in the inhibition and facilitation of synaptic transmission ( Figure 1 A). High-frequency stimulation, by increasing GABA release, prolongs the open-time of the GABA ( A ) channel. (asahq.org)
  • This effect causes the GABA A reversal potential (E GABA ) to shift from E Cl (hyperpolarized) toward E HCO 3 (depolarized). (asahq.org)
  • [3,4] (B) The anion gradient shift mechanism for GABA A receptor-mediated depolarization. (asahq.org)
  • By utilizing patch-clamp recording combined with Ca 2+ imaging, we found a significant upregulation of extrasynaptic AMPARs in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the rat spinal cord 2-3 h after CFA injection. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2007). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunits in hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that transplantation of X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells can promote stem cell survival and differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, increase dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels, reduce α-synuclein aggregation in the substantia nigra, and improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in rats. (nrronline.org)
  • The ECM modifications in the nervous system are likely achieved by the concerted actions of several different proteases that are secreted by neurons and glial cells [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Synaptosome preparations subjected to co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed AMPAR subunits (GluA1 and GluA2/3) binding to both syndecan-3 (a transmembrane HS proteoglycan of neurons) and proheparanase, suggesting their clustering in a functional complex. (hku.hk)
  • The density of binding sites for [125I]I-MK-801 was increased by 40-80% after exposure to D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), with no change in the number or viability of neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a mitogenic protein family that includes IGF-I and IGF-II and six binding proteins (IGFBP-I-IGFBP-6) and is involved in functions from embryonic growth to cell differentiation to homeostasis, mostly mediated by IGF-lR ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • IGF-l signaling yield through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and RAS-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) cascades via IGF-IR ( 15 ) while the IGF-IIR induces signaling through G proteins that activate protein kinase C (PKC) and phospholipase C (PLC), ultimately regulates Ca 2+ homeostasis ( 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Selective Methyl Labeling of Proteins: Enabling Structural and Mechanistic Studies As Well As Drug Discovery Applications by Solution-State NMR. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Escherichia coli expression protocols for selective labeling of methyl groups in proteins have been essential in expanding the size range of targets that can be studied by biomolecular NMR. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1-4 KIF proteins act together with motor proteins from the dynein and myosin superfamilies. (bmj.com)
  • Glutamate receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIA4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inward current induced by the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 1 S, 3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylate (1S,3R-ACPD) and the outward current elicited by adenosine or baclofen were strongly or completely attenuated. (uzh.ch)
  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II binds to and phosphorylates a specific SAP97 splice variant to disrupt association with AKAP79/150 and modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) activity. (abcam.com)
  • The glutamate receptor α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is important for synaptic transmission, memory, and learning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5. The effects of serotonin on intrinsic properties and EPSPs were partially mimicked by 5-HT1A receptor agonists (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-carboxamido-tryptamine maleate (5-CT), and reduced by 5-HT1A receptor antagonists S-(-)-5-fluoro-8-hydroxy-DPAT hydrochloride (S-UH-301), 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4-(2-phthalimido)butyl]piperazine hydrobromide (NAN-190) and spiperone. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • 3. Serotonin depressed mixed as well as isolated {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole- propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)- and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials/currents (EPSPs/EPSCsapproximately 40 % reduction with 1 microM serotonin). (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Recently, authors from two laboratories [3,4] proposed that an anion gradient shift contributes to the excitatory postsynaptic effects of high-frequency stimulation of GABAergic interneurons. (asahq.org)
  • Using approaches to assay the native oligomeric state of AMPAR subunits, we find that subunits lacking M4 or containing single amino acid substitutions along an "interacting" face of the M4 helix that block surface expression no longer tetramerize in either homomeric or heteromeric assemblies. (jneurosci.org)
  • This upregulation was manifested as a robust increase in the amplitude of AMPAR-mediated currents 2-3 h post-CFA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Discovery of (R)-5-((5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4-(methylamino)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-3-(piperidin-3-yloxy)picolinonitrile, a novel CHK1 inhibitor for hematologic malignancies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • TAK-831 is a potential first-in-class D-Amino Acid Oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor that has completed multiple Phase I studies and is currently in on-going Phase II studies, including the Phase II INTERACT proof-of-concept study in negative symptoms of schizophrenia. (koreanewswire.co.kr)
  • This study investigated the effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) on the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at 1 and 2 weeks after unilateral optic nerve transection in adult hamsters. (nrronline.org)
  • A selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist, almotriptan results in cranial vessel constriction, inhibition of neuropeptide release, and reduced pain transmission in trigeminal pathways. (medscape.com)
  • Discovery and Development of N-4-(l-Cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yloxy) phenyl-2-(morpholin-4-yl) acetamide dihydrochloride (SUVN-G3031): A Novel, Potent, Selective and Orally Active Histamine H3 Receptor Inverse Agonist with Robust Wake-Promoting Activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Each subunit is composed of four domains: an amino-terminal domain, a ligand-binding core or domain (LBC or LBD) to which both agonists and allosteric modulators bind, the membrane spanning domains (M1, M3, and M4) and a re-entrant pore loop (M2), and the cytoplasmic domain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • After their initial expression, the MAP1A and MAP1B polypeptides are cleaved into light and heavy chains, which are then assembled into mature complexes together with the separately encoded light chain 3 subunit (LC3). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulation of {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking through PKA phosphorylation of the Glu receptor 1 subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Solubilization, characterization, and partial purification of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-, quisqualate-, kainate-sensitive L-glutamate binding sites from porcine brain synaptic junctions. (muscimol.xyz)
  • The rank order for the competitive ligands in displacing L-[3H]glutamate was: quisqualate greater than alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid greater than L-glutamate greater than kainate. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Importanza Del Recettore Gamma-amminobutirrico Acid(B) C-termini Per Accoppiamento G-proteina Molecular Pharmacology. (jove.com)
  • Subgroup 3 includes piracetam derivatives with unknown clinical efficacies, and of these nefiracetam failed to improve cognition in post-stroke patients and rolipram is currently in clinical trials as an antidepressant. (springer.com)
  • Then a series of 5-(pyrimidin-2-ylamino)picolinonitrile derivatives as CHK1 inhibitors were discovered by further rational optimization. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since the discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antibody by Dalmau et al. (springer.com)
  • The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a principal subtype of glutamate-gated ion channel and plays key roles in neuronal plasticity and memory functions. (springer.com)
  • The picrotoxin-mediated effect on M1 mACh receptor responsiveness was completely prevented by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor blockade. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. (uniprot.org)
  • Although subgroup 2 compounds act via binding to another neuronal receptor (synaptic vesicle 2A), some of the subgroup 3 compounds, such as nefiracetam, are similar to those of subgroup 1. (springer.com)
  • The encoded protein negatively regulates Ras, Rap and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic membrane to regulate synaptic plasticity and neuronal homeostasis. (genecards.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor , also known as BDNF , is a protein [5] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of endogenous G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 by transfection with the non-G(q/11)alpha-binding, catalytically-inactive (D110A,K220R)G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 mutant, decreased the extent of M1 mACh receptor desensitization under all conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • OGD failed to induce the outward current under conditions where G-protein function was disrupted by loading cells with guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) [GDPbetaS] or after prolonged injection of guanosine 5'-O(3-thiotdphosphate) [GTPgammaS]. (uzh.ch)
  • Moreover, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the substantia nigra were significantly increased, α-synuclein expression was decreased, and neurological behaviors were significantly ameliorated in rats following transplantation of X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells. (nrronline.org)
  • This gene encodes a Ras GTPase activating protein that is a member of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. (genecards.org)
  • GSK3 phosphorylates two distinct sites in the N-terminus of PI4KIIalpha (Ser5 and Ser47), promoting binding to the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex for trafficking to the lysosome to be degraded. (garvan.org.au)
  • Of note, Eisai presented three post-hoc analyses evaluating the potential of FYCOMPA to help patients experience long-term, sustained convulsive seizure freedom, as well as data that supported the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of FYCOMPA for monotherapy and adjunctive use in pediatric patients 4 years and older for the treatment of partial-onset seizures (POS) with or without secondarily generalized seizures. (biospace.com)
  • These long-term seizure freedom data showed about 53% of patients with secondarily generalized seizures experienced convulsive seizure freedom at 2 years and close to 35% at 3 years," said Trevor Resnick , MD, Pediatric Neurologist at Nicklaus Children's Hospital. (biospace.com)
  • In September 2018 , FYCOMPA was approved for monotherapy and adjunctive use in pediatric patients 4 years and older for the treatment of POS with or without secondarily generalized seizures. (biospace.com)
  • 1 ] At randomised doses of 4-12 mg, perampanel conferred significant improvements in reducing seizure frequency and 50% responder rates for all partial seizures and complex partial (CP) seizures with secondary generalisation (SG seizures), compared with placebo. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Methods: Recurrent seizures were induced in the intact hippocampal preparation in vitro by continuous 5-hour exposure to low-Mg2⫹ solution. (docme.ru)
  • This system is responsible for the regulation of brain mass homeostasis and neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation ( 4 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • There are three members of the ADAR family ADARs 1-3, with ADAR 1 and ADAR 2 being the only enzymatically active members.ADAR3 is thought to have a regulatory role in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADAR1 and ADAR 2 are widely expressed in tissues, while ADAR 3 is restricted to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Editing of GluR-3 is regulated in rat brain from low levels in embryonic stage to a large increase in editing levels at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying major depression using whole-brain functional connectivity: a multivariate pattern analysis," Brain , vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 1498-1507, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • The effect of negative emotional context on neural and behavioural responses to oesophageal stimulation," Brain , vol. 126, Part 3, pp. 669-684, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase contributes to the comorbidity of pain and depression," The Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 122, no. 8, pp. 2940-2954, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Glutamatergic (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) hypofrontality in schizophrenia: too little juice or a miswired brain? (genes2cognition.org)
  • Moreover, nNOS carry on transferring electrons to the haem and, hence, oxidase NADPH at a high rate, while in eNOS and iNOS this reaction can happen at a much slower rate [ 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In this study we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which ER stress induction and oxidative stress impair vascular endothelial function.We conducted in vitro studies with primary endothelial cells from coronary arteries stimulated with tunicamycin, 1 μg/mL, in the presence or absence of two ER stress inhibitors: tauroursodeoxycholic acid (Tudca), 500 μg/mL, and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), 5 mM. (chemweb.com)
  • Inhibition of [3H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid binding by the excitotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid. (muscimol.xyz)
  • The demonstration that a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist prodrug decreased both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia raised hopes that glutamatergic mechanisms may provide therapeutic advantages. (genes2cognition.org)
  • A series of ferrocenes which contain dinitrogen-fused pyrazolidinone ring were synthesized from acryloylferrocene (4) and N,N'‑cyclic azomethine imines (3). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The amount of GluR2 was markedly increased in the crude cytosolic fraction and decreased in the crude membrane fraction from the ipsilateral L 4-5 dorsal horn at 24 h (but not at 2 h) post-CFA injection. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been shown that the quaternary structure of the membrane spanning domain has 4-fold symmetry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A series of chemical optimizations guided by in vitro affinity at histamine H3 receptor (H3R), physico-chemical properties and pharmacokinetics in rats resulted in identification of N-[4-(1-Cyclobutyl. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Huperzine A, Vinpocetine, Acetyl-L-carnitine, Rhodiola Rosea and Alpha-lipoic Acid are popular nutritional supplements that have shown promising benefits in improving a range of biological (e.g., blood flow, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and direct neurotransmitter effects) and cognitive processes from in vitro, animal and human clinical research. (exrx.net)
  • Sixty participants (40 females and 20 males, with a mean age of 45.4 years, SD = 12.6) completed either the odd or even items from the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) at baseline and the opposite odd or even items at week 4 after consuming either the combination nootropic or placebo. (exrx.net)
  • Serotonin 5-HT1F receptor agonist indicated to treat acute migraine with or without aura. (medscape.com)
  • The role of the CDK Pho85 in cell cycle control", Biochemistry and molecular biology international, 4, 140-149. (uic.es)
  • Furthermore, the activity of MAP1A and MAP1B is controlled by upstream signaling mechanisms, including the MAP kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3 β pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we provide insight into the molecular basis of the potency and efficacy elicited by the 5-substituted willardiines on the basis of cocrystal structures with the GluR2 ligand-binding core. (rcsb.org)
  • and 3) whether predictions of mechanism of action could be inferred by comparing molecular interactions between the ligand-binding domain and each compound with those of cyclothiazide and CX614. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PLOS Biology 11(3): 10.1371/annotation/f32bc670-c9cf-4bb0-9376-cd8cfd1053c1. (plos.org)
  • The intronic sequence includes a 5' splice site, and the predicted double-stranded region is 30 base pairs in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intronic sequence involved contains a 5' donor splice site. (wikipedia.org)
  • In two- as well as six-transmembrane K + channels, the amino- and carboxy-termini are located intracellularly and are required for tetramerization ( Deutsch, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 2002 Fall;8(3):255-82. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rabbit model of traumatic optic nerve injury, established by occlusion of the optic nerve using a vascular clamp, was used to investigate the effects of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 on apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells following nerve injury. (nrronline.org)
  • The results demonstrate that following acute optic nerve injury, apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells is a programmed process, which can be inhibited by the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist. (nrronline.org)
  • All racetams are schedule 4 substances in Australia under the Poisons Standard (February 2020). (wikipedia.org)
  • A schedule 4 substance is classified as "Prescription Only Medicine, or Prescription Animal Remedy - Substances, the use or supply of which should be by or on the order of persons permitted by State or Territory legislation to prescribe and should be available from a pharmacist on prescription. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (5) to evaluate an equivocal finding on a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (medworm.com)
  • Here, we describe the synthesis and pharmacological properties of 9-carboxymethyl-4-oxo-5 H ,10 H -imidazo[1,2- a ]indeno[1,2- e ]pyrazin-2-phosphonic acid (RPR 119990). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neurostim +C is a good premade stack, though I like to add piracetam to it when I need to concentrate in order to learn (only 4 more months of grad school at night, yay). (anabolicminds.com)