An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
Quinoxalines are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a benzene fused to a pyrazine ring, which have been studied for their potential antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Bifunctional cross-linking agent that links covalently free amino groups of proteins or polypeptides, including those in cell membranes. It is used as reagent or fixative in immunohistochemistry and is a proposed antisickling agent.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).

Estradiol increases spine density and NMDA-dependent Ca2+ transients in spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices. (1/683)

To investigate the physiological consequences of the increase in spine density induced by estradiol in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, we performed simultaneous whole cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging in CA1 neuron spines and dendrites in hippocampal slices. Four- to eight-days in vitro slice cultures were exposed to 17beta-estradiol (EST) for an additional 4- to 8-day period, and spine density was assessed by confocal microscopy of DiI-labeled CA1 pyramidal neurons. Spine density was doubled in both apical and basal dendrites of the CA1 region in EST-treated slices; consistently, a reduction in cell input resistance was observed in EST-treated CA1 neurons. Double immunofluorescence staining of presynaptic (synaptophysin) and postsynaptic (alpha-subunit of CaMKII) proteins showed an increase in synaptic density after EST treatment. The slopes of the input/output curves of both alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) postsynaptic currents were steeper in EST-treated CA1 neurons, consistent with the observed increase in synapse density. To characterize NMDA-dependent synaptic currents and dendritic Ca2+ transients during Schaffer collaterals stimulation, neurons were maintained at +40 mV in the presence of nimodipine, picrotoxin, and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). No differences in resting spine or dendritic Ca2+ levels were observed between control and EST-treated CA1 neurons. Intracellular Ca2+ transients during afferent stimulation exhibited a faster slope and reached higher levels in spines than in adjacent dendrites. Peak Ca2+ levels were larger in both spines and dendrites of EST-treated CA1 neurons. Ca2+ gradients between spine heads and dendrites during afferent stimulation were also larger in EST-treated neurons. Both spine and dendritic Ca2+ transients during afferent stimulation were reversibly blocked by D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D,L-APV). The increase in spine density and the enhanced NMDA-dependent Ca2+ signals in spines and dendrites induced by EST may underlie a threshold reduction for induction of NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.  (+info)

Recurrent mossy fiber pathway in rat dentate gyrus: synaptic currents evoked in presence and absence of seizure-induced growth. (2/683)

A common feature of temporal lobe epilepsy and of animal models of epilepsy is the growth of hippocampal mossy fibers into the dentate molecular layer, where at least some of them innervate granule cells. Because the mossy fibers are axons of granule cells, the recurrent mossy fiber pathway provides monosynaptic excitatory feedback to these neurons that could facilitate seizure discharge. We used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy to study the synaptic responses evoked by activating this pathway. Whole cell patch-clamp recording demonstrated that antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers evoked an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) in approximately 74% of granule cells from rats that had survived >10 wk after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Recurrent mossy fiber growth was demonstrated with the Timm stain in all instances. In contrast, antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers evoked an EPSC in only 5% of granule cells studied 4-6 days after status epilepticus, before recurrent mossy fiber growth became detectable. Notably, antidromic mossy fiber stimulation also evoked an EPSC in many granule cells from control rats. Clusters of mossy fiber-like Timm staining normally were present in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer at the level of the hippocampal formation from which slices were prepared, and several considerations suggested that the recorded EPSCs depended mainly on activation of recurrent mossy fibers rather than associational fibers. In both status epilepticus and control groups, the antidromically evoked EPSC was glutamatergic and involved the activation of both AMPA/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. EPSCs recorded in granule cells from rats with recurrent mossy fiber growth differed in three respects from those recorded in control granule cells: they were much more frequently evoked, a number of them were unusually large, and the NMDA component of the response was generally much more prominent. In contrast to the antidromically evoked EPSC, the EPSC evoked by stimulation of the perforant path appeared to be unaffected by a prior episode of status epilepticus. These results support the hypothesis that recurrent mossy fiber growth and synapse formation increases the excitatory drive to dentate granule cells and thus facilitates repetitive synchronous discharge. Activation of NMDA receptors in the recurrent pathway may contribute to seizure propagation under depolarizing conditions. Mossy fiber-granule cell synapses also are present in normal rats, where they may contribute to repetitive granule cell discharge in regions of the dentate gyrus where their numbers are significant.  (+info)

Differences in the properties of ionotropic glutamate synaptic currents in oxytocin and vasopressin neuroendocrine neurons. (3/683)

Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) hormone release from neurohypophysial terminals is controlled by the firing pattern of neurosecretory cells located in the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei. Although glutamate is a key modulator of the electrical activity of both OT and VP neurons, a differential contribution of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) has been proposed to mediate glutamatergic influences on these neurons. In the present study we examined the distribution and functional properties of synaptic currents mediated by AMPARs and NMDARs in immunoidentified SON neurons. Our results suggest that the properties of AMPA-mediated currents in SON neurons are controlled in a cell type-specific manner. OT neurons displayed AMPA-mediated miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) with larger amplitude and faster decay kinetics than VP neurons. Furthermore, a peak-scaled nonstationary noise analysis of mEPSCs revealed a larger estimated single-channel conductance of AMPARs expressed in OT neurons. High-frequency summation of AMPA-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials was smaller in OT neurons. In both cell types, AMPA-mediated synaptic currents showed inward rectification, which was more pronounced in OT neurons, and displayed Ca2+ permeability. On the other hand, NMDA-mediated mEPSCs of both cell types had similar amplitude and kinetic properties. The cell type-specific expression of functionally different AMPARs can contribute to the adoption of different firing patterns by these neuroendocrine neurons in response to physiological stimuli.  (+info)

Clozapine, but not haloperidol, prevents the functional hyperactivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat cortical neurons induced by subchronic administration of phencyclidine. (4/683)

Repeated exposure of rats to the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine (PCP) markedly increased the response of prefrontal cortical neurons to the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) relative to agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid. Moreover, acute challenge by PCP produced a significantly reduced block of NMDA-induced current. In addition, the subchronic administration of PCP reduced significantly the paired-pulse facilitation, accompanied by a significant increase of excitatory postsynaptic current variance. These results suggest that repeated exposure to PCP increased evoked release of excitatory amino acids. The enhanced release of excitatory amino acids evoked by NMDA could explain, at least partly, a hypersensitive response to NMDA and a reduced blockade of the NMDA responses by a PCP challenge in rats exposed repeatedly to PCP. Pretreatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, but not the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol, attenuates the repeated PCP-induced effect. Our results support the hypothesis that clozapine may facilitate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission to improve schizophrenic-negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. This novel approach is useful for evaluating the cellular mechanisms of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs.  (+info)

BIIR 561 CL: a novel combined antagonist of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels with anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties. (5/683)

Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype, as well as of voltage-gated sodium channels, exhibit anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties in vivo. One can postulate that a compound that combines both principles might be useful for the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system, like focal or global ischemia. Here, we present data on the effects of dimethyl-(2-[2-(3-phenyl-[1,2, 4]oxadiazol-5-yl)-phenoxy]ethyl)-amine hydrochloride (BIIR 561 CL) on neuronal AMPA receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels. BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated membrane currents in cultured cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 8.5 microM. The inhibition was noncompetitive. In a cortical wedge preparation, BIIR 561 CL reduced AMPA-induced depolarizations with an IC50 value of 10.8 microM. In addition to the effects on the glutamatergic system, BIIR 561 CL inhibited binding of radiolabeled batrachotoxin to rat brain synaptosomal membranes with a Ki value of 1.2 microM. The compound reduced sodium currents in voltage-clamped cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 5.2 microM and inhibited the veratridine-induced release of glutamate from rat brain slices with an IC50 value of 2.3 microM. Thus, BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels in a variety of preparations. BIIR 561 CL suppressed tonic seizures in a maximum electroshock model in mice with an ED50 value of 2.8 mg/kg after s.c. administration. In a model of focal ischemia in mice, i.p. administration of 6 or 60 mg/kg BIIR 561 CL reduced the area of the infarcted cortical surface. These data show that BIIR 561 CL is a combined antagonist of AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels with promising anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties.  (+info)

SPD 502: a water-soluble and in vivo long-lasting AMPA antagonist with neuroprotective activity. (6/683)

Accumulating preclinical data suggest that compounds that block the excitatory effect of glutamate on excitatory amino acid receptors may have neuroprotective effects and utility for the treatment of neurodegeneration after brain ischemia. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of the novel glutamate antagonist SPD 502 [8-methyl-5(4-(N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl)phenyl)-6,7, 8,9,-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-h]-isoquinoline-2, 3-dione-3-O-(4-hydroxybutyric acid-2-yl)oxime] are described. In binding studies, SPD 502 was shown to display selectivity for the [3H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-binding site (IC50 = 0.043 microM) compared with the [3H]kainate- (IC50 = 81 microM), [3H]cis-4-phosphonomethyl-2-piperidine carboxylic acid-(CGS 19755), and [3H]glycine-binding sites (IC50 > 30 microM) in rat cortical membranes. In an in vitro functional assay, SPD 502 blocked the AMPA-induced release of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid from cultured mouse cortical neurons in a competitive manner with an IC50 value of 0.23 microM. Furthermore, SPD 502 potently and selectively inhibited AMPA-induced currents in cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 0.15 microM. In in vivo electrophysiology, SPD 502 blocked AMPA-evoked spike activity in rat hippocampus after i.v. administration with an ED50 value of 6.1 mg/kg and with a duration of action of more than 1 h. Furthermore, SPD 502 increased the seizure threshold for electroshock-induced tonic seizures in mice at i.v doses of 40 mg/kg and higher. In the two-vessel occlusion model of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils, SPD 502 (10 mg/kg bolus injection followed by a 10 mg/kg/h infusion for 2 h) resulted in a highly significant protection against the ischemia-induced damage in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Ethanol inhibition of synaptically evoked kainate responses in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. (7/683)

Many studies have demonstrated that intoxicating concentrations of ethanol (10-100 mM) can selectively inhibit the component of glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors while having little or no effect on excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by non-NMDA receptors [i.e., alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and/or kainate (KA) receptors]. However, until the recent development of highly selective AMPA receptor antagonists, it was not possible to assess the relative contribution of AMPA and KA receptors to non-NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission or to determine whether these glutamate receptor subtypes differed in their sensitivity to ethanol. In the present experiments, we used the highly selective AMPA receptor antagonist LY 303070 to pharmacologically isolate KA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and tested their sensitivity to ethanol. Concentrations of ethanol as low as 20 mM significantly and reversibly depressed KA EPSCs. Ethanol also inhibited KA currents evoked by direct pressure application of KA in the presence of LY 303070, suggesting that this inhibition was mediated by a postsynaptic action. In contrast, ethanol had no effect on AMPA EPSCs in these cells, even at the highest concentration tested (80 mM). Ethanol significantly inhibited NMDA EPSCs in these neurons, but these responses were less sensitive to ethanol than KA EPSCs. These results suggest that in addition to its well-described depressant effect on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission, ethanol has an even greater inhibitory effect on glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by KA receptors in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Differential roles of ionotropic glutamate receptors in canine medullary inspiratory neurons of the ventral respiratory group. (8/683)

The relative roles of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in supplying excitatory drive to inspiratory (I) augmenting pattern neurons of the ventral respiratory group were studied in anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed, and vagotomized dogs. Multibarrel micropipettes were used to record simultaneously single-unit neuronal activity and pressure microeject the NMDA antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5; 2 mM), the non-NMDA antagonist 2, 3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX; 0.25 mM), and an artificial cerebrospinal fluid vehicle. Ejected volume-rates were measured directly via meniscus level changes. The moving time average of phrenic nerve activity was used to determine respiratory phase durations and to synchronize cycle-triggered histograms of the discharge patterns. Both AP5 and NBQX produced dose-dependent reductions in peak spontaneous I neuronal discharge frequency (Fn). The average (+/- SE) maximum reduction in peak Fn produced by AP5 was 69.1 +/- 4.2% and by NBQX was 47.1 +/- 3.3%. Blockade of both glutamate receptor subtypes nearly silenced these neurons, suggesting that their activity is highly dependent on excitatory synaptic drive mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors. Differential effects were found for the two glutamatergic antagonists. AP5 produced downward, parallel shifts in the augmenting pattern of discharge, whereas NBQX reduced the slope of the augmenting discharge pattern. These results suggest that time-varying excitatory input patterns to the canine I bulbospinal neurons are mediated by non-NMDA glutamate receptors and that constant or tonic input patterns to these neurons are mediated by NMDA receptors.  (+info)

Alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) is a type of excitatory amino acid that functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in fast synaptic transmission and plasticity in the brain. AMPA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the binding of glutamate or AMPA, allowing the flow of sodium and potassium ions across the neuronal membrane. This ion flux leads to the depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron and the initiation of action potentials. AMPA receptors are also targets for various drugs and toxins that modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity in the brain.

AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels found in the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in fast synaptic transmission and are responsible for the majority of the fast excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the brain.

AMPA receptors are tetramers composed of four subunits, which can be any combination of GluA1-4 (previously known as GluR1-4). When the neurotransmitter glutamate binds to the AMPA receptor, it causes a conformational change that opens the ion channel, allowing the flow of sodium and potassium ions. This leads to depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane and the generation of an action potential if the depolarization is sufficient.

In addition to their role in synaptic transmission, AMPA receptors are also involved in synaptic plasticity, which is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time in response to changes in activity. This process is thought to underlie learning and memory.

Benzothiadiazines are a class of heterocyclic chemical compounds that contain a benzene fused to a thiadiazine ring. They have been used in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical drugs, particularly those used for their anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and diuretic properties.

One of the most well-known benzothiadiazines is benothiazine itself, which has been used as a precursor in the synthesis of various dyes and pigments. However, it is not used in medical applications.

The benzothiadiazines that are used medically are typically derivatives of the parent compound, such as clotrimazole and ftorafur. Clotrimazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, while ftorafur is an antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of certain types of cancer.

It's important to note that benzothiadiazines are not a commonly used class of drugs in medicine, and their use is typically limited to specific indications where they have been shown to be effective.

Kainic acid is not a medical term per se, but it is a compound that has been widely used in scientific research, particularly in neuroscience. It is a type of excitatory amino acid that acts as an agonist at certain types of receptors in the brain, specifically the AMPA and kainate receptors.

Kainic acid is often used in research to study the effects of excitotoxicity, which is a process that occurs when nerve cells are exposed to excessive amounts of glutamate or other excitatory neurotransmitters, leading to cell damage or death. Kainic acid can induce seizures and other neurological symptoms in animals, making it a valuable tool for studying epilepsy and related disorders.

While kainic acid itself is not a medical treatment or diagnosis, understanding its effects on the brain has contributed to our knowledge of neurological diseases and potential targets for therapy.

Glutamate receptors are a type of neuroreceptor in the central nervous system that bind to the neurotransmitter glutamate. They play a crucial role in excitatory synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neuronal development. There are several types of glutamate receptors, including ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, which can be further divided into subclasses based on their pharmacological properties and molecular structure.

Ionotropic glutamate receptors, also known as iGluRs, are ligand-gated ion channels that directly mediate fast synaptic transmission. They include N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and kainite receptors.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors, also known as mGluRs, are G protein-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic transmission through second messenger systems. They include eight subtypes (mGluR1-8) that are classified into three groups based on their sequence homology, pharmacological properties, and signal transduction mechanisms.

Glutamate receptors have been implicated in various physiological processes, including learning and memory, motor control, sensory perception, and emotional regulation. Dysfunction of glutamate receptors has also been associated with several neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia and depression.

Kainic acid receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are widely distributed in the central nervous system. They are named after kainic acid, a neuroexcitatory compound that binds to and activates these receptors. Kainic acid receptors play important roles in excitatory synaptic transmission, neuronal development, and synaptic plasticity.

Kainic acid receptors are composed of five subunits, which can be assembled from various combinations of GluK1-5 (also known as GluR5-7 and KA1-2) subunits. These subunits have different properties and contribute to the functional diversity of kainic acid receptors.

Activation of kainic acid receptors leads to an influx of calcium ions, which can trigger various intracellular signaling pathways and modulate synaptic strength. Dysregulation of kainic acid receptor function has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy, pain, ischemia, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of excitatory neurotransmitters, particularly glutamate and aspartate, in the brain. These drugs work by binding to and blocking the receptors for these neurotransmitters, thereby reducing their ability to stimulate neurons and produce an excitatory response.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, their use is limited by the fact that blocking excitatory neurotransmission can also have negative effects on cognitive function and memory.

There are several types of excitatory amino acid receptors, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors. Different excitatory amino acid antagonists may target one or more of these receptor subtypes, depending on their specific mechanism of action.

Examples of excitatory amino acid antagonists include ketamine, memantine, and dextromethorphan. These drugs have been used in clinical practice for various indications, such as anesthesia, sedation, and treatment of neurological disorders. However, their use must be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and risks associated with blocking excitatory neurotransmission.

Excitatory amino acid agonists are substances that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors, leading to an increase in the excitation or activation of neurons. The most common excitatory amino acids in the central nervous system are glutamate and aspartate.

Agonists of excitatory amino acid receptors can be divided into two main categories: ionotropic and metabotropic. Ionotropic receptors, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors, are ligand-gated ion channels that directly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission. Metabotropic receptors, on the other hand, are G protein-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic activity through second messenger systems.

Excitatory amino acid agonists have been implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including learning and memory, neurodevelopment, and neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also used in research to study the functions of excitatory amino acid receptors and their roles in neuronal signaling. However, due to their potential neurotoxic effects, the therapeutic use of excitatory amino acid agonists is limited.

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, which are found in the membranes of excitatory neurons in the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated channels that are permeable to calcium ions (Ca2+) and other cations.

NMDA receptors are composed of four subunits, which can be a combination of NR1, NR2A-D, and NR3A-B subunits. The binding of the neurotransmitter glutamate to the NR2 subunit and glycine to the NR1 subunit leads to the opening of the ion channel and the influx of Ca2+ ions.

NMDA receptors have a unique property in that they require both agonist binding and membrane depolarization for full activation, making them sensitive to changes in the electrical activity of the neuron. This property allows NMDA receptors to act as coincidence detectors, playing a critical role in synaptic plasticity and learning.

Abnormal functioning of NMDA receptors has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and chronic pain. Therefore, NMDA receptors are a common target for drug development in the treatment of these conditions.

Glutamic acid is an alpha-amino acid, which is one of the 20 standard amino acids in the genetic code. The systematic name for this amino acid is (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2CO2H.

Glutamic acid is a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain, and it plays an essential role in learning and memory. It's also involved in the metabolism of sugars and amino acids, the synthesis of proteins, and the removal of waste nitrogen from the body.

Glutamic acid can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, dairy products, and vegetables. In the human body, glutamic acid can be converted into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), another important neurotransmitter that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. It is a member of the quinoxaline family of compounds, which are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms.

The 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione compound has several notable features, including:

* A quinoxaline ring structure, which is made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyrazine ring.
* A cyano group (-CN) at the 6th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* A nitro group (-NO2) at the 7th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* Two carbonyl groups (=O) at the 2nd and 3rd positions of the quinoxaline ring.

This compound is known to have various biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. However, its use in medical treatments is not widespread due to potential toxicity and lack of comprehensive studies on its safety and efficacy. As with any chemical compound, it should be handled with care and used only under appropriate laboratory conditions.

Quinoxalines are not a medical term, but rather an organic chemical compound. They are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyrazine ring. Quinoxalines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives have been synthesized and used in medicinal chemistry as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used in the production of dyes and pigments.

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) is not a medication but a type of receptor, specifically a glutamate receptor, found in the post-synaptic membrane in the central nervous system. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. NMDA receptors are involved in various functions such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. They also play a role in certain neurological disorders like epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, and chronic pain.

NMDA receptors are named after N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, a synthetic analog of the amino acid aspartic acid, which is a selective agonist for this type of receptor. An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response similar to that of the natural ligand (in this case, glutamate).

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

A synapse is a structure in the nervous system that allows for the transmission of signals from one neuron (nerve cell) to another. It is the point where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite or cell body of another, and it is here that neurotransmitters are released and received. The synapse includes both the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, as well as the cleft between them.

At the presynaptic side, an action potential travels down the axon and triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft through exocytosis. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic side, which can either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron. The strength of the signal between two neurons is determined by the number and efficiency of these synapses.

Synapses play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system, allowing for the integration and processing of information from various sources. They are also dynamic structures that can undergo changes in response to experience or injury, which has important implications for learning, memory, and recovery from neurological disorders.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Quisqualic Acid is not a commonly used term in medicine or medical research. It is actually a type of neurotoxin that comes from certain plants and has been used in scientific research related to the nervous system and brain function. However, it is not something that would typically be discussed in a medical context for patient care or treatment.

Ibotenic acid is a naturally occurring neurotoxin that can be found in certain species of mushrooms, including the Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. It is a type of glutamate receptor agonist, which means it binds to and activates certain receptors in the brain called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.

Ibotenic acid has been used in scientific research as a tool for studying the brain and nervous system. It can cause excitotoxicity, which is a process of excessive stimulation of nerve cells leading to their damage or death. This property has been exploited in studies involving neurodegenerative disorders, where ibotenic acid is used to selectively destroy specific populations of neurons to understand the functional consequences and potential therapeutic interventions for these conditions.

However, it's important to note that ibotenic acid is not used as a treatment or therapy in humans due to its neurotoxic effects. It should only be handled and used by trained professionals in controlled laboratory settings for research purposes.

2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) is a neurotransmitter receptor antagonist that is used in research to study the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. These receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including learning and memory, and are also implicated in a number of neurological disorders. APV works by binding to the NMDA receptor and blocking its activity, which allows researchers to study the role of these receptors in different biological processes. It is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are electrical signals that occur in the dendrites and cell body of a neuron, or nerve cell. They are caused by the activation of excitatory synapses, which are connections between neurons that allow for the transmission of information.

When an action potential, or electrical impulse, reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. The excitatory neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, causing a local depolarization of the membrane potential. This depolarization is known as an EPSP.

EPSPs are responsible for increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron. When multiple EPSPs occur simultaneously or in close succession, they can summate and cause a large enough depolarization to trigger an action potential. This allows for the transmission of information from one neuron to another.

It's important to note that there are also inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) which decrease the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron, by causing a local hyperpolarization of the membrane potential.

Carbocisteine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as mucolytic agents. It works by breaking down and thinning mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. This can help to relieve symptoms of respiratory conditions such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.

The chemical name for carbocisteine is S-carboxymethylcysteine. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and syrup, and is typically taken by mouth several times a day. As with any medication, it's important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to be aware of potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Patch-clamp techniques are a group of electrophysiological methods used to study ion channels and other electrical properties of cells. These techniques were developed by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1991 for their work. The basic principle of patch-clamp techniques involves creating a high resistance seal between a glass micropipette and the cell membrane, allowing for the measurement of current flowing through individual ion channels or groups of channels.

There are several different configurations of patch-clamp techniques, including:

1. Cell-attached configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is attached to the outer surface of the cell membrane, and the current flowing across a single ion channel can be measured. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of individual channels in their native environment.
2. Whole-cell configuration: Here, the micropipette breaks through the cell membrane, creating a low resistance electrical connection between the pipette and the inside of the cell. This configuration allows for the measurement of the total current flowing across all ion channels in the cell membrane.
3. Inside-out configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the inner surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in isolation from other cellular components.
4. Outside-out configuration: Here, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the outer surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in their native environment, but with the ability to control the composition of the extracellular solution.

Patch-clamp techniques have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of ion channel function and have contributed to numerous breakthroughs in neuroscience, pharmacology, and physiology.

Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that have been widely used for their sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. They act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. They can also be used as premedication before medical procedures to produce sedation, amnesia, and anxiolysis. Some examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), and temazepam (Restoril).

While benzodiazepines are effective in treating various medical conditions, they can also cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are needed to achieve the same effect. Abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines can result in severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, hallucinations, and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to taper off benzodiazepines gradually under medical supervision.

Benzodiazepines are classified as Schedule IV controlled substances in the United States due to their potential for abuse and dependence. It is essential to use them only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of their potential risks and benefits.

Cycloleucine is a chemical compound that is synthetically produced and is not naturally occurring. It is a cyclic analog of the amino acid leucine, which means that it has a similar structure to leucine but with a chemical ring formed by linking two ends of the molecule together.

Cycloleucine has been used in research to study the metabolism and function of amino acids in the body. It can inhibit certain enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, which makes it useful as a tool for studying the effects of disrupting these pathways. However, cycloleucine is not known to have any therapeutic uses in humans and is not used as a medication.

In summary, cycloleucine is a synthetic chemical compound that is used in research to study amino acid metabolism. It is not used as a medication or has any medical applications in humans.

Excitatory amino acid agents are drugs or substances that increase the activity of excitatory neurotransmitters, particularly glutamate, in the central nervous system. These agents can cause excitation of neurons and may lead to various effects on the brain and other organs. They have been studied for their potential use in various medical conditions, such as stroke and cognitive disorders, but they also carry the risk of adverse effects, including neurotoxicity and excitotoxicity. Examples of excitatory amino acid agents include N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists, AMPA/kainate receptor agonists, and glutamate release enhancers.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. There are eight different subtypes of mGluRs, labeled mGluR1 through mGluR8, which are classified into three groups (Group I, II, and III) based on their sequence homology, downstream signaling pathways, and pharmacological properties.

Group I mGluRs include mGluR1 and mGluR5, which are primarily located postsynaptically in the central nervous system. Activation of Group I mGluRs leads to increased intracellular calcium levels and activation of protein kinases, which can modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity.

Group II mGluRs include mGluR2 and mGluR3, which are primarily located presynaptically in the central nervous system. Activation of Group II mGluRs inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity and reduces neurotransmitter release.

Group III mGluRs include mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8, which are also primarily located presynaptically in the central nervous system. Activation of Group III mGluRs inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity and voltage-gated calcium channels, reducing neurotransmitter release.

Overall, metabotropic glutamate receptors play important roles in modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity, and have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including epilepsy, pain, anxiety, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurotransmitter receptors are specialized protein molecules found on the surface of neurons and other cells in the body. They play a crucial role in chemical communication within the nervous system by binding to specific neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons).

When a neurotransmitter binds to its corresponding receptor, it triggers a series of biochemical events that can either excite or inhibit the activity of the target neuron. This interaction helps regulate various physiological processes, including mood, cognition, movement, and sensation.

Neurotransmitter receptors can be classified into two main categories based on their mechanism of action: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that directly allow ions to flow through the cell membrane upon neurotransmitter binding, leading to rapid changes in neuronal excitability. In contrast, metabotropic receptors are linked to G proteins and second messenger systems, which modulate various intracellular signaling pathways more slowly.

Examples of neurotransmitters include glutamate, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine, among others. Each neurotransmitter has its specific receptor types, which may have distinct functions and distributions within the nervous system. Understanding the roles of these receptors and their interactions with neurotransmitters is essential for developing therapeutic strategies to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Glutamates are the salt or ester forms of glutamic acid, which is a naturally occurring amino acid and the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate plays a crucial role in various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and cognition. However, excessive levels of glutamate can lead to neuronal damage or death, contributing to several neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Glutamates are also commonly found in food as a natural flavor enhancer, often listed under the name monosodium glutamate (MSG). While MSG has been extensively studied, its safety remains a topic of debate, with some individuals reporting adverse reactions after consuming foods containing this additive.

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses following high-frequency stimulation of their afferents. It is a cellular mechanism for learning and memory, where the efficacy of neurotransmission is increased at synapses in the hippocampus and other regions of the brain. LTP can last from hours to days or even weeks, depending on the type and strength of stimulation. It involves complex biochemical processes, including changes in the number and sensitivity of receptors for neurotransmitters, as well as alterations in the structure and function of synaptic connections between neurons. LTP is widely studied as a model for understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory.

The cerebellum is a part of the brain that lies behind the brainstem and is involved in the regulation of motor movements, balance, and coordination. It contains two hemispheres and a central portion called the vermis. The cerebellum receives input from sensory systems and other areas of the brain and spinal cord and sends output to motor areas of the brain. Damage to the cerebellum can result in problems with movement, balance, and coordination.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Glycine is a simple amino acid that plays a crucial role in the body. According to the medical definition, glycine is an essential component for the synthesis of proteins, peptides, and other biologically important compounds. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as the production of creatine, which supports muscle function, and the regulation of neurotransmitters, affecting nerve impulse transmission and brain function. Glycine can be found as a free form in the body and is also present in many dietary proteins.

Dizocilpine maleate is a chemical compound that is commonly known as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. It is primarily used in research settings to study the role of NMDA receptors in various physiological processes, including learning and memory.

The chemical formula for dizocilpine maleate is C16H24Cl2N2O4·C4H4O4. The compound is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. It has potent psychoactive effects and has been investigated as a potential treatment for various neurological and psychiatric disorders, although it has not been approved for clinical use.

Dizocilpine maleate works by blocking the action of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in learning and memory, at NMDA receptors in the brain. By doing so, it can alter various cognitive processes and has been shown to have anticonvulsant, analgesic, and neuroprotective effects in animal studies. However, its use is associated with significant side effects, including hallucinations, delusions, and memory impairment, which have limited its development as a therapeutic agent.

Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron that receive and process signals from other neurons. They are typically short and highly branching, increasing the surface area for receiving incoming signals. Dendrites are covered in small protrusions called dendritic spines, which can form connections with the axon terminals of other neurons through chemical synapses. The structure and function of dendrites play a critical role in the integration and processing of information in the nervous system.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Dimethyl adipimidate is a chemical compound that is used as a cross-linking agent in various biochemical and medical applications. It is an imidate ester of adipic acid, which contains two reactive dimethylamino groups. These groups can react with amino groups on proteins or other molecules to form covalent bonds, creating a cross-linked network.

In the context of medical research and diagnostics, dimethyl adipimidate is sometimes used to modify proteins in order to study their structure and function. For example, it can be used to create stable, cross-linked complexes between different proteins or protein domains, which can then be analyzed using various biochemical techniques.

It's important to note that dimethyl adipimidate is not a drug or therapeutic agent itself, but rather a tool used in laboratory research and diagnostics. As with any chemical compound, it should be handled with care and used only by trained professionals in a controlled environment.

Pyramidal cells, also known as pyramidal neurons, are a type of multipolar neuron found in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain. They have a characteristic triangular or pyramid-like shape with a single apical dendrite that extends from the apex of the cell body towards the pial surface, and multiple basal dendrites that branch out from the base of the cell body.

Pyramidal cells are excitatory neurons that play a crucial role in information processing and transmission within the brain. They receive inputs from various sources, including other neurons and sensory receptors, and generate action potentials that are transmitted to other neurons through their axons. The apical dendrite of pyramidal cells receives inputs from distant cortical areas, while the basal dendrites receive inputs from local circuits.

Pyramidal cells are named after their pyramid-like shape and are among the largest neurons in the brain. They are involved in various cognitive functions, including learning, memory, attention, and perception. Dysfunction of pyramidal cells has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.

A protein subunit refers to a distinct and independently folding polypeptide chain that makes up a larger protein complex. Proteins are often composed of multiple subunits, which can be identical or different, that come together to form the functional unit of the protein. These subunits can interact with each other through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces, as well as covalent bonds like disulfide bridges. The arrangement and interaction of these subunits contribute to the overall structure and function of the protein.

Neuronal plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity or neural plasticity, refers to the ability of the brain and nervous system to change and adapt as a result of experience, learning, injury, or disease. This can involve changes in the structure, organization, and function of neurons (nerve cells) and their connections (synapses) in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Neuronal plasticity can take many forms, including:

* Synaptic plasticity: Changes in the strength or efficiency of synaptic connections between neurons. This can involve the formation, elimination, or modification of synapses.
* Neural circuit plasticity: Changes in the organization and connectivity of neural circuits, which are networks of interconnected neurons that process information.
* Structural plasticity: Changes in the physical structure of neurons, such as the growth or retraction of dendrites (branches that receive input from other neurons) or axons (projections that transmit signals to other neurons).
* Functional plasticity: Changes in the physiological properties of neurons, such as their excitability, responsiveness, or sensitivity to stimuli.

Neuronal plasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory, perception, and cognition. It also contributes to the brain's ability to recover from injury or disease, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Bicuculline is a pharmacological agent that acts as a competitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors, which are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. By blocking the action of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) at these receptors, bicuculline can increase neuronal excitability and cause convulsions. It is used in research to study the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in various physiological processes and neurological disorders.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) antagonists are substances that block the action of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and reducing the transmission of nerve impulses.

GABA antagonists work by binding to the GABA receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the normal function of GABA and increasing neuronal activity. These agents can cause excitation of the nervous system, leading to various effects depending on the specific type of GABA receptor they target.

GABA antagonists are used in medical treatments for certain conditions, such as sleep disorders, depression, and cognitive enhancement. However, they can also have adverse effects, including anxiety, agitation, seizures, and even neurotoxicity at high doses. Examples of GABA antagonists include picrotoxin, bicuculline, and flumazenil.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Organ culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain or grow intact organs or pieces of organs under controlled conditions in vitro, while preserving their structural and functional characteristics. These techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study organ physiology, pathophysiology, drug development, and toxicity testing.

Organ culture can be performed using a variety of methods, including:

1. Static organ culture: In this method, the organs or tissue pieces are placed on a porous support in a culture dish and maintained in a nutrient-rich medium. The medium is replaced periodically to ensure adequate nutrition and removal of waste products.
2. Perfusion organ culture: This method involves perfusing the organ with nutrient-rich media, allowing for better distribution of nutrients and oxygen throughout the tissue. This technique is particularly useful for studying larger organs such as the liver or kidney.
3. Microfluidic organ culture: In this approach, microfluidic devices are used to create a controlled microenvironment for organ cultures. These devices allow for precise control over the flow of nutrients and waste products, as well as the application of mechanical forces.

Organ culture techniques can be used to study various aspects of organ function, including metabolism, secretion, and response to drugs or toxins. Additionally, these methods can be used to generate three-dimensional tissue models that better recapitulate the structure and function of intact organs compared to traditional two-dimensional cell cultures.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

GABA-A receptors are ligand-gated ion channels in the membrane of neuronal cells. They are the primary mediators of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. When the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binds to these receptors, it opens an ion channel that allows chloride ions to flow into the neuron, resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability of the neuron. This inhibitory effect helps to regulate neural activity and maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. GABA-A receptors are composed of multiple subunits, and the specific combination of subunits can determine the receptor's properties, such as its sensitivity to different drugs or neurotransmitters.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is primarily found in certain species of pufferfish, blue-ringed octopuses, and other marine animals. It blocks voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, leading to muscle paralysis and potentially respiratory failure. TTX has no known antidote, and medical treatment focuses on supportive care for symptoms. Exposure can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption, depending on the route of toxicity.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and preventing excessive neuronal firing, which helps to maintain neural homeostasis and reduce the risk of seizures. GABA functions by binding to specific receptors (GABA-A, GABA-B, and GABA-C) on the postsynaptic membrane, leading to hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane and reduced neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

In addition to its role in the central nervous system, GABA has also been identified as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system, where it is involved in regulating various physiological processes such as muscle relaxation, hormone secretion, and immune function.

GABA can be synthesized in neurons from glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, through the action of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Once synthesized, GABA is stored in synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse upon neuronal activation. After release, GABA can be taken up by surrounding glial cells or degraded by the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) into succinic semialdehyde, which is further metabolized to form succinate and enter the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Therefore, modulating GABAergic signaling through pharmacological interventions or other therapeutic approaches may offer potential benefits for the treatment of these conditions.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT, or α1-antiproteinase, A1AP) is a protein that is primarily produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream. It belongs to a group of proteins called serine protease inhibitors, which help regulate inflammation and protect tissues from damage caused by enzymes involved in the immune response.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin is particularly important for protecting the lungs from damage caused by neutrophil elastase, an enzyme released by white blood cells called neutrophils during inflammation. In the lungs, AAT binds to and inhibits neutrophil elastase, preventing it from degrading the extracellular matrix and damaging lung tissue.

Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease. The most common cause of AAT deficiency is a genetic mutation that results in abnormal folding and accumulation of the protein within liver cells, leading to reduced levels of functional AAT in the bloodstream. This condition is called alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and can be inherited in an autosomal codominant manner. Individuals with severe AATD may require augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of purified human AAT to help prevent lung damage.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Alpha adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are classified into two main categories: α1-ARs and α2-ARs.

The activation of α1-ARs leads to the activation of phospholipase C, which results in an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of various signaling pathways that mediate diverse physiological responses such as vasoconstriction, smooth muscle contraction, and cell proliferation.

On the other hand, α2-ARs are primarily located on presynaptic nerve terminals where they function to inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine. The activation of α2-ARs also leads to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels, which can mediate various physiological responses such as sedation, analgesia, and hypotension.

Overall, α-ARs play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including cardiovascular function, mood, and cognition, and are also involved in the pathophysiology of several diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the body's response to low oxygen levels, also known as hypoxia. HIF-1 is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: an alpha subunit (HIF-1α) and a beta subunit (HIF-1β).

The alpha subunit, HIF-1α, is the regulatory subunit that is subject to oxygen-dependent degradation. Under normal oxygen conditions (normoxia), HIF-1α is constantly produced in the cell but is rapidly degraded by proteasomes due to hydroxylation of specific proline residues by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs). This hydroxylation reaction requires oxygen as a substrate, and under hypoxic conditions, the activity of PHDs is inhibited, leading to the stabilization and accumulation of HIF-1α.

Once stabilized, HIF-1α translocates to the nucleus, where it heterodimerizes with HIF-1β and binds to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding results in the activation of gene transcription programs that promote cellular adaptation to low oxygen levels. These adaptive responses include increased erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and pH regulation, among others.

Therefore, HIF-1α is a critical regulator of the body's response to hypoxia, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

An amino acid substitution is a type of mutation in which one amino acid in a protein is replaced by another. This occurs when there is a change in the DNA sequence that codes for a particular amino acid in a protein. The genetic code is redundant, meaning that most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon (a sequence of three nucleotides). As a result, a single base pair change in the DNA sequence may not necessarily lead to an amino acid substitution. However, if a change does occur, it can have a variety of effects on the protein's structure and function, depending on the nature of the substituted amino acids. Some substitutions may be harmless, while others may alter the protein's activity or stability, leading to disease.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) is not a medication, but rather a research chemical used in scientific studies. It is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide, a molecule involved in the relaxation of blood vessels.

Therefore, L-NAME is often used in experiments to investigate the role of nitric oxide in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. It is important to note that the use of L-NAME in humans is not approved for therapeutic purposes due to its potential side effects, which can include hypertension, decreased renal function, and decreased cerebral blood flow.

Methyl parathion is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing nervous system excitation and ultimately damage or death in insects. However, it can also have toxic effects on mammals, including humans, if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It is classified as a highly hazardous pesticide by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its use is restricted or banned in many countries due to its high toxicity and environmental persistence.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Neurotoxins are substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve cells (neurons) and the nervous system. They can cause damage by destroying neurons, disrupting communication between neurons, or interfering with the normal functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins can be produced naturally by certain organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals, or they can be synthetic compounds created in a laboratory. Examples of neurotoxins include botulinum toxin (found in botulism), tetrodotoxin (found in pufferfish), and heavy metals like lead and mercury. Neurotoxic effects can range from mild symptoms such as headaches, muscle weakness, and tremors, to more severe symptoms such as paralysis, seizures, and cognitive impairment. Long-term exposure to neurotoxins can lead to chronic neurological conditions and other health problems.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a type of cholinergic receptor found in the nervous system that is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is a ligand-gated ion channel that is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, including in the hippocampus, cortex, thalamus, and autonomic ganglia.

The α7nAChR is composed of five subunits arranged around a central pore, and it has a high permeability to calcium ions (Ca2+). When acetylcholine binds to the receptor, it triggers a conformational change that opens the ion channel, allowing Ca2+ to flow into the cell. This influx of Ca2+ can activate various intracellular signaling pathways and have excitatory or inhibitory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and function of the receptor.

The α7nAChR has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, attention, sensory perception, and motor control. It has also been studied as a potential therapeutic target for various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and pain.

"Xenopus laevis" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a specific species of African clawed frog that is often used in scientific research, including biomedical and developmental studies. Therefore, its relevance to medicine comes from its role as a model organism in laboratories.

In a broader sense, Xenopus laevis has contributed significantly to various medical discoveries, such as the understanding of embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, and genetic research. For instance, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1963 to John R. B. Gurdon and Sir Michael J. Bishop for their discoveries concerning the genetic mechanisms of organism development using Xenopus laevis as a model system.

Integrin α3β1 is a type of cell surface receptor that is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial and endothelial cells. It is composed of two subunits, α3 and β1, which form a heterodimeric complex that plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesion and signaling.

Integrin α3β1 binds to several extracellular matrix proteins, such as laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV, and mediates various cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It also participates in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell behavior and tissue homeostasis.

Mutations in the genes encoding integrin α3β1 have been associated with several human diseases, including blistering skin disorders, kidney disease, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of integrin α3β1 is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Integrin α4 (also known as CD49d or ITGA4) is a subunit of integrin proteins, which are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Integrin α4 typically pairs with β1 (CD29 or ITGB1) or β7 (ITGB7) subunits to form integrins α4β1 and α4β7, respectively.

Integrin α4β1, also known as very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), is widely expressed on various hematopoietic cells, including lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. It plays crucial roles in the adhesion, migration, and homing of these cells to secondary lymphoid organs, as well as in the recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory sites. Integrin α4β1 binds to its ligands, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin, via the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif.

Integrin α4β7, on the other hand, is primarily expressed on gut-homing lymphocytes and interacts with mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), a protein mainly found in the high endothelial venules of intestinal Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. This interaction facilitates the trafficking of immune cells to the gastrointestinal tract, where they participate in immune responses against pathogens and maintain gut homeostasis.

In summary, Integrin α4 is a crucial subunit of integrins that mediates cell adhesion, migration, and homing to specific tissues through its interactions with various ligands. Dysregulation of integrin α4 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer metastasis.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Integrin α6 (also known as CD49f) is a type of integrin, which is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrins play crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Integrin α6 is a 130 kDa glycoprotein that pairs with integrin β1, β4 or β5 to form three distinct heterodimeric complexes: α6β1, α6β4, and α6β5. Among these, the α6β4 integrin is the most extensively studied. It specifically binds to laminins in the basement membrane and plays essential roles in maintaining epithelial tissue architecture and function.

The α6β4 integrin has a unique structure with an extended cytoplasmic domain of β4 that can interact with intracellular signaling molecules, cytoskeletal proteins, and other adhesion receptors. This interaction allows the formation of stable adhesion complexes called hemidesmosomes, which anchor epithelial cells to the basement membrane and provide mechanical stability to tissues.

Mutations in integrin α6 or its partners can lead to various human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and mucous membranes that blister and tear easily.

Neuroprotective agents are substances that protect neurons or nerve cells from damage, degeneration, or death caused by various factors such as trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress, or excitotoxicity. These agents work through different mechanisms, including reducing the production of free radicals, inhibiting the release of glutamate (a neurotransmitter that can cause cell damage in high concentrations), promoting the growth and survival of neurons, and preventing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Neuroprotective agents have been studied for their potential to treat various neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and to develop effective therapies.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Integrin α5β1, also known as very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) or fibronectin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits: α5 and β1. This integrin is widely expressed in various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

Integrin α5β1 plays a crucial role in mediating cell-matrix adhesion by binding to the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present in the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The interaction between integrin α5β1 and fibronectin is essential for various biological processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, this integrin has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including tumor progression, angiogenesis, and fibrosis.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is not a medication, but rather a chemical compound with the formula CH3SO3CH3. It's an alkylating agent that is used in laboratory settings for various research purposes, including as a methylating agent in biochemical and genetic studies.

MMS works by transferring its methyl group (CH3) to other molecules, which can result in the modification of DNA and other biological macromolecules. This property makes it useful in laboratory research, but it also means that MMS is highly reactive and toxic. Therefore, it must be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions.

It's important to note that MMS is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine due to its high toxicity and potential to cause serious harm if mishandled or misused.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Essential amino acids are a group of 9 out of the 20 standard amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. They include: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These amino acids are essential for various biological processes such as protein synthesis, growth, and repair of body tissues. A deficiency in any of these essential amino acids can lead to impaired physical development and compromised immune function. Foods that provide all nine essential amino acids are considered complete proteins and include animal-derived products like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy, as well as soy and quinoa.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Integrin α4β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits, α4 and β1. It is involved in various cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, and signaling. This integrin plays a crucial role in the immune system by mediating the interaction between leukocytes (white blood cells) and the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. The activation of Integrin α4β1 allows leukocytes to roll along and then firmly adhere to the endothelium, followed by their migration into surrounding tissues, particularly during inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, Integrin α4β1 also interacts with extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and helps regulate cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation in various cell types.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of inflamation and immune responses. IL-1α is primarily produced by activated macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. It is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that binds to the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and activates signaling pathways leading to the expression of genes involved in inflammation, fever, and cellular activation. IL-1α is involved in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, bone remodeling, and response to infection or injury. Dysregulation of IL-1α has been implicated in several pathological conditions including autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Amino acid motifs are recurring patterns or sequences of amino acids in a protein molecule. These motifs can be identified through various sequence analysis techniques and often have functional or structural significance. They can be as short as two amino acids in length, but typically contain at least three to five residues.

Some common examples of amino acid motifs include:

1. Active site motifs: These are specific sequences of amino acids that form the active site of an enzyme and participate in catalyzing chemical reactions. For example, the catalytic triad in serine proteases consists of three residues (serine, histidine, and aspartate) that work together to hydrolyze peptide bonds.
2. Signal peptide motifs: These are sequences of amino acids that target proteins for secretion or localization to specific organelles within the cell. For example, a typical signal peptide consists of a positively charged n-region, a hydrophobic h-region, and a polar c-region that directs the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for translocation.
3. Zinc finger motifs: These are structural domains that contain conserved sequences of amino acids that bind zinc ions and play important roles in DNA recognition and regulation of gene expression.
4. Transmembrane motifs: These are sequences of hydrophobic amino acids that span the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and anchor transmembrane proteins in place.
5. Phosphorylation sites: These are specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by protein kinases to regulate protein function.

Understanding amino acid motifs is important for predicting protein structure and function, as well as for identifying potential drug targets in disease-associated proteins.

Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (also known as α1-adrenoreceptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are primarily found in the smooth muscle of various organs, including the vasculature, heart, liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system.

When an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor is activated by a catecholamine, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of phospholipase C, which in turn activates protein kinase C and increases intracellular calcium levels. This ultimately results in smooth muscle contraction, increased heart rate and force of contraction, and vasoconstriction.

Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors are also found in the central nervous system, where they play a role in regulating wakefulness, attention, and anxiety. There are three subtypes of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (α1A, α1B, and α1D), each with distinct physiological roles and pharmacological properties.

In summary, alpha-1 adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines and mediates various physiological responses, including smooth muscle contraction, increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction, and regulation of wakefulness and anxiety.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Integrin α2β1, also known as very late antigen-2 (VLA-2) or laminin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α2 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α2β1 is widely expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some hematopoietic cells. It functions as a receptor for several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, and V), laminin, and fibronectin. The binding of integrin α2β1 to these ECM components mediates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival, thereby regulating various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor progression.

In addition, integrin α2β1 has been implicated in several diseases, including fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, targeting this integrin with therapeutic strategies may provide potential benefits for treating these conditions.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Integrin α5 (also known as CD49e) is a subunit of the heterodimeric integrin receptor called very late antigen-5 (VLA-5). Integrins are transmembrane adhesion receptors that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The α5β1 integrin, formed by the association of α5 and β1 subunits, specifically recognizes and binds to fibronectin, a major extracellular matrix protein. This binding event is essential for various biological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

In summary, Integrin alpha5 (α5) is an essential subunit of the α5β1 integrin receptor that mediates cell-fibronectin interactions and contributes to several vital cellular functions.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Calcium channels are specialized proteins that span the membrane of cells and allow calcium ions (Ca²+) to flow in and out of the cell. They are crucial for many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, and gene expression.

There are several types of calcium channels, classified based on their biophysical and pharmacological properties. The most well-known are:

1. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs): These channels are activated by changes in the membrane potential. They are further divided into several subtypes, including L-type, P/Q-type, N-type, R-type, and T-type. VGCCs play a critical role in excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells and neurotransmitter release in neurons.
2. Receptor-operated calcium channels (ROCCs): These channels are activated by the binding of an extracellular ligand, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, to a specific receptor on the cell surface. ROCCs are involved in various physiological processes, including smooth muscle contraction and platelet activation.
3. Store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs): These channels are activated by the depletion of intracellular calcium stores, such as those found in the endoplasmic reticulum. SOCCs play a critical role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and signaling within cells.

Dysregulation of calcium channel function has been implicated in various diseases, including hypertension, arrhythmias, migraine, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, calcium channels are an important target for drug development and therapy.

Integrin α1β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-1 (VLA-1) or CD49a/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α1 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α1β1 is primarily expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some immune cells. This integrin binds to several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, IV), laminin, and fibronectin, mediating cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, α1β1 integrin has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, fibrosis, and tumor progression.

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in various organs and tissues throughout the body.

Activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors leads to a variety of physiological responses, including inhibition of neurotransmitter release, vasoconstriction, and reduced heart rate. These receptors play important roles in regulating blood pressure, pain perception, and various cognitive and emotional processes.

There are several subtypes of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, including alpha-2A, alpha-2B, and alpha-2C, which may have distinct physiological functions and be targeted by different drugs. For example, certain medications used to treat hypertension or opioid withdrawal target alpha-2 adrenergic receptors to produce their therapeutic effects.

Amino acid transport systems refer to the various membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the active or passive translocation of amino acids across cell membranes in the body. These transport systems play a crucial role in maintaining amino acid homeostasis within cells and regulating their availability for protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and other physiological processes.

There are several distinct amino acid transport systems, each with its own specificity for particular types of amino acids or related molecules. These systems can be classified based on their energy requirements, substrate specificity, and membrane localization. Some of the major amino acid transport systems include:

1. System A - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that primarily transports small, neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and proline. It has several subtypes (ASC, A, and AN) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
2. System L - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. It has several subtypes (L1, L2, and y+L) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
3. System B0 - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that transports both neutral and basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (B0,+, B0-, and b0,+) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
4. System y+ - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports primarily basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (y+L, y+, b0,+) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
5. System X-AG - This is a sodium-independent antiporter system that exchanges glutamate and aspartate for neutral amino acids such as cystine, serine, and threonine. It plays an essential role in maintaining redox homeostasis by regulating the intracellular levels of cysteine, a precursor of glutathione.

These transport systems are critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and regulating various physiological processes such as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and immune function. Dysregulation of these transport systems has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these transport systems is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Integrin α6β1, also known as CD49f/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α6 and β1 subunits. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hematopoietic cells. Integrin α6β1 plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesion, particularly to the laminin component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This receptor is involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, integrin α6β1 has been implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in certain cancers.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Integrin α6β4 is a type of cell surface receptor that is composed of two subunits, α6 and β4. It is also known as CD49f/CD104. This integrin is primarily expressed in epithelial cells and plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, and signal transduction.

Integrin α6β4 specifically binds to laminin-332 (also known as laminin-5), a component of the basement membrane, and forms a stable anchorage complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. This interaction is critical for maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell behavior during processes such as wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Mutations in the genes encoding integrin α6β4 have been associated with various human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering. Additionally, integrin α6β4 has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis, as its expression is often upregulated in tumor cells and contributes to their invasive behavior.

Methyl chloride, also known as methyl chloride or chloromethane, is not typically considered a medical term. However, it is a chemical compound with the formula CH3Cl. It is a colorless and extremely volatile liquid that easily evaporates at room temperature.

In terms of potential health impacts, methyl chloride can be harmful if inhaled, swallowed, or comes into contact with the skin. Exposure to high levels can cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing. Prolonged exposure or significant inhalation can lead to more severe health effects, including damage to the nervous system, liver, and kidneys.

It is essential to handle methyl chloride with care, following appropriate safety measures and guidelines, to minimize potential health risks.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Integrins are a type of cell-adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. They are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits, which form more than 24 distinct integrin heterodimers in humans.

Integrins bind to specific ligands, such as ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin), cell surface molecules, and soluble factors, through their extracellular domains. The intracellular domains of integrins interact with the cytoskeleton and various signaling proteins, allowing them to transduce signals from the ECM into the cell (outside-in signaling) and vice versa (inside-out signaling).

These molecular interactions are essential for numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of integrin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Integrins are a family of cell-surface receptors that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and signaling. Integrin alpha chains are one of the two subunits that make up an integrin heterodimer, with the other subunit being an integrin beta chain.

Integrin alpha chains are transmembrane glycoproteins consisting of a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic tail. The extracellular domain contains several domains that mediate ligand binding, while the cytoplasmic tail interacts with various cytoskeletal proteins and signaling molecules to regulate intracellular signaling pathways.

There are 18 different integrin alpha chains known in humans, each of which can pair with one or more beta chains to form distinct integrin heterodimers. These heterodimers exhibit unique ligand specificities and functions, allowing them to mediate diverse cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions.

In summary, integrin alpha chains are essential subunits of integrin receptors that play crucial roles in regulating cell adhesion, migration, and signaling by mediating interactions between cells and their extracellular environment.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Integrin α1 (also known as ITGA1 or CD49a) is a subunit of a heterodimeric integrin receptor, specifically the collagen receptor α1β1. Integrins are transmembrane proteins that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The α1β1 integrin binds to various collagen types, such as collagens I, II, III, and V, and mediates cellular responses upon binding to these ECM components.

The gene encoding Integrin α1 is located on chromosome 5 (5q31) in humans. Mutations in the ITGA1 gene can lead to various diseases, including leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II and some forms of epidermolysis bullosa.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Nicotinic receptors are a type of ligand-gated ion channel receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the alkaloid nicotine. They are widely distributed throughout the nervous system and play important roles in various physiological processes, including neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Nicotinic receptors are composed of five subunits that form a ion channel pore, which opens to allow the flow of cations (positively charged ions) when the receptor is activated by acetylcholine or nicotine. There are several subtypes of nicotinic receptors, which differ in their subunit composition and functional properties. These receptors have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.

Alpha rhythm is a type of brain wave that is typically observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of normal, awake individuals when they have their eyes closed. It is characterized by sinusoidal waves with a frequency range of 8-13 Hz and is most prominent over the occipital region of the head, which is located at the back of the skull above the brain's visual cortex.

Alpha rhythm is typically associated with relaxed wakefulness, and its presence may indicate that an individual is awake but not engaged in any mentally demanding tasks. It can be blocked or suppressed by various stimuli, such as opening one's eyes, hearing a loud noise, or engaging in mental activity.

Disruptions in alpha rhythm have been observed in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the clinical significance of these abnormalities.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

... and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-preferring receptors". Mol. Pharmacol. 49 (3): 540-6. PMID 8643094 ... 151-. ISBN 978-3-7643-6011-5. Chas Bountra; Rajesh Munglani; William K. Schmidt (28 May 2013). Pain: Current Understanding, ... Licostinel (INN) (code name ACEA-1021) is a competitive, silent antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor (Kb = 5 nM ... 249-. ISBN 978-0-306-47694-5. Wilding TJ, Huettner JE (1996). "Antagonist pharmacology of kainate- ...
Pasternack A, Coleman SK, Jouppila A, Mottershead DG, Lindfors M, Pasternack M, Keinänen K (December 2002). "Alpha-amino-3- ... The R/G site is found at amino acid 769 immediately before the 3-amino-acid-long flip and flop modules introduced by ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (January 1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate ... hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain". The Journal of Biological ...
Ahmed AH, Oswald RE (March 2010). "Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (5): 2197-203. doi:10.1021/jm901905j. ... "Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in ... 58 (4): 1199-204. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992.tb11329.x. PMID 1372342. Vavers E, Zvejniece L, Veinberg G, Svalbe B, Domracheva ...
Ahmed AH, Oswald RE (March 2010). "Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (5): 2197-2203. doi:10.1021/jm901905j. ... is a cyclic derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA and shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with pyroglutamic acid ... For comparison, in rats the LD50 of vitamin C is 12 g/kg and the LD50 of table salt is 3 g/kg. Piracetam's mechanism of action ...
The GRIA1 belongs to a family of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors. Each of the members ( ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor ... Leonard AS, Davare MA, Horne MC, Garner CC, Hell JW (July 1998). "SAP97 is associated with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... Leonard AS, Davare MA, Horne MC, Garner CC, Hell JW (1998). "SAP97 is associated with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ...
"Amino acid substitutions in the pore helix of GluR6 control inhibition by membrane fatty acids". J. Gen. Physiol. 132 (1): 85- ... Leuschner WD, Hoch W (1999). "Subtype-specific assembly of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (Jan 1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate ... The pre-mRNA of GLUR6 is edited at amino acid positions 567, 571, and 621. The Q/R position, which gets its name as editing ...
August 2003). "LY503430, a novel alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor potentiator with functional ... allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... 8 (5): 603-20. doi:10.2174/138945007780618517. PMID 17504104. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... 3 (3): 181-94. doi:10.2174/1568007043337508. PMID 15180479. O'Neill MJ, Witkin JM (May 2007). "AMPA receptor potentiators: ...
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"Inhibition of calcineurin-mediated endocytosis and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors ... Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (14): 4667-79. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn435. PMC 2504311. PMID 18628291. Klinghoffer RA, Frazier J, Annis ... 12 (5): 645-55. doi:10.1177/1087057107300645. PMID 17517904. Zhang XH, Ferrer M, Espeseth AS, Marine SD, Stec EM, Crackower MA ... 12 (4): 645-55. doi:10.1177/1087057107300646. PMID 17435171. S2CID 7542230. Zhang XH, Yang XC, Chung N, Gates A, Stec E, ...
This point mutation in the coding sequence, a guanine to adenine switch at position 196, results in an amino acid switch: ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic ... subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (1): 693-99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008085200 ... The proteins resulting from mRNA that does get translated, are not trafficked and secreted normally, as the amino acid change ...
... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor biophysics and synaptic responses". Molecular ... a benzothiadiazine derivative that enhances cognition by attenuating DL-alpha-amino-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4- ... isoxazolepropanoic acid (AMPA) receptor desensitization". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 272 (1): ... 43 (5): 664-9. doi:10.1002/ana.410430517. PMID 9585363. S2CID 39977647. Nagarajan N, Quast C, Boxall AR, Shahid M, Rosenmund C ...
Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (February 2003). "The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor ... "Phosphorylation of NG2 proteoglycan by protein kinase C-alpha regulates polarized membrane distribution and cell motility". The ... 158 (3): 1324-31. PMID 9013976. Iida J, Meijne AM, Oegema TR, Yednock TA, Kovach NL, Furcht LT, McCarthy JB (March 1998). "A ...
Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (2003). "The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. ... "The carboxyl terminus of the prolactin-releasing peptide receptor interacts with PDZ domain proteins involved in alpha-amino-3- ... hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor clustering". Mol. Pharmacol. 60 (5): 916-23. doi:10.1124/mol.60.5.916. PMID ...
Bourasset F, Bernard K, Muñoz C, Genissel P, Scherrmann JM (August 2005). "Neuropharmacokinetics of a new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy ... 16 (4): 624-37. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.188. PMID 19136940. Destot-Wong KD, Liang K, Gupta SK, Favrais G, Schwendimann L, Pansiot ... 202 (1-3): 225-35. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1301-x. PMID 18762915. S2CID 35139538. Gupta SK, Mishra R, Kusum S, Spedding M, Meiri ... 57 (3): 277-86. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.05.010. PMID 19501111. S2CID 1400467. v t e (Articles with short description, ...
It also plays a role in clustering of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors ... 50 (3): 329-37. doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2005.06.011. PMID 16115696. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The Status ... 31 (4): 940-3. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.02.016. PMID 17408830. S2CID 23877321. Poulsen TT, Pedersen N, Perin MS, et al. (2006 ... 35 (3): e9-15. doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e318153fa42. PMID 17895837. S2CID 31006962. Marui T, Koishi S, Funatogawa I, et al. (2007 ...
Stasi K, Mitsacos A, Triarhou LC, Kouvelas ED (1997). "Cerebellar grafts partially reverse amino acid receptor changes observed ... the decline in binding occurred for the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor) receptor at ... "The Purkinje cell degeneration 5J mutation is a single amino acid insertion that destabilizes Nna1 protein". Mamm Genome. 17 (2 ... Increases per protein weight were also discerned in the granule cell layer and deep nuclei for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor and ...
Gliotransmitters include glutamate, ATP, and, more recently, the amino acid D-serine. Once thought to be glycine itself, D- ... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), respectively, but they both ... A low alpha/beta ratio causes an increased threshold for cellular excitation via calcium influx and thus favors LTP. There are ... Recent research has found that the calcium-dependent enzyme CaMKII, which exists in an alpha and beta isoform, is key in ...
... amino acids. These compounds have the L configuration of the alpha carbon atom. Quisqualic acid contains, in its structure a ... "The metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptor agonist 1S,3R-ACPD selectively potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced brain ... amino acids undergo transamination/deamination in the liver. Thus amino acids are converted into ammonia and keto acids, which ... Non-proteinogenic amino acids, Toxic amino acids, Neurotoxins, Excitotoxins). ...
... urocanic acid MeSH D03.383.129.385 - isoxazoles MeSH D03.383.129.385.025 - alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic ... pyridoxic acid MeSH D03.383.725.450 - 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine MeSH D03.383.725.463 - metyrapone MeSH ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 - pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 - xanthinol ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 - 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6- ...
Bredt and Nicoll determined that a then recently discovered protein, stargazin, links PSD-95 to the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl- ... glycosylation and endoplasmic reticulum chaperone pathways for Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor oligomerization and membrane ... On November 3, 2022, Cassava Sciences filed a lawsuit in federal court against a group that includes Bredt, who Cassava alleges ... Bredt as co-author of an anonymous FDA citizen petition to halt phase 3 trials of simufilam, a drug from Cassava Sciences which ...
Alpha-Amino acids, Isoxazoles, Glutamate (neurotransmitter)). ... kainic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) channels. In ... ISBN 978-0-87893-697-7. Dinh, L; Nguyen T; Salgado H; Atzori M (2009). "Norepinephrine homogeneously inhibits alpha-amino-3- ... α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, better known as AMPA, is a compound that is a specific agonist for the ... AMPA was first synthesized, along with several other ibotenic acid derivatives, by Krogsgaard-Larsen, Honoré, and others toward ...
Thermal rearrangements of α-amino methyl ketones". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 30 (9): 2967-72. doi:10.1021/jo01020a019. US ... This final intermediate is then heated in decalin or another suitable high-boiling solvent, upon which an Alpha-ketol ... Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H (August 2009). "Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide ... Morris PJ, Moaddel R, Zanos P, Moore CE, Gould TD, Zarate CA, Thomas CJ (September 2017). "Synthesis and N-Methyl-d-aspartate ( ...
... aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; D-cycloserine; L-aspartate; quinolinate, etc. Partial agonists : N-methyl-D-aspartic acid ( ... Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical ... harboring an alpha-helix and 10 beta-strands. Following the ECD, four transmembrane segments (TMSs) are connected by ... Domoic acid, Quisqualic acid, etc. Antagonists: CNQX, Kynurenic acid, NBQX, Perampanel, Piracetam, etc. Positive allosteric ...
Alpha-Amino acids, Benzamides, Halogen-containing natural products, Chlorobenzenes, Phenols). ... the incorporation of the C2 and C9 amino acids, and the formation of the C3 and C4 stereocenters. Kaitocephalin acts by ... α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA)/Glutamate Receptor, GluA2", J. Biol. Chem. 287 (2012): 41007-41013 ... 49 (2013): 5231-5233 Amelia C. Stolk and De B. Scott, "Studies on the Genus Eupenicillium Ludwig", Persoonia 4 (1967): 391-405 ...
A 38-amino acid sequence found prior to (i.e., before the N-terminus of) the fourth membranous domain in all four AMPAR ... Leonard AS, Davare MA, Horne MC, Garner CC, Hell JW (July 1998). "SAP97 is associated with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... While the amino acid sequence of the subunit indicated that there seemed to be four transmembrane domains (parts of the protein ... The positively charged amino acid at the critical point makes it energetically unfavourable for calcium to enter the cell ...
The Gs alpha subunit of the stimulated G protein complex exchanges GDP for GTP and is released from the complex. In a cAMP- ... Man, Heng-Ye; Sekine-Aizawa, Yoko; Huganir, Richard L. (27 February 2007). "Regulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking through PKA phosphorylation of the Glu receptor 1 subunit". Proceedings of the ... The Gs alpha subunit, in turn, activates adenylyl cyclase, which quickly converts ATP into cAMP. This leads to the activation ...
In the past, hyperalgesia was thought to be modulated by the release of substance P and excitatory amino acids (EAA), such as ... December 2017). "Human Astrocytes Transfer Aggregated Alpha-Synuclein via Tunneling Nanotubes". The Journal of Neuroscience. 37 ... N-methyl-D-aspartate) and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors follows. It is the activation of these receptors ... Thus, an increased uptake and oxidation of fatty acids in glia containing FABP7 is likely to cause the oxidative stress and ...
... and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-preferring receptors". Mol. Pharmacol. 49 (3): 540-6. PMID 8643094 ... 151-. ISBN 978-3-7643-6011-5. Chas Bountra; Rajesh Munglani; William K. Schmidt (28 May 2013). Pain: Current Understanding, ... Licostinel (INN) (code name ACEA-1021) is a competitive, silent antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor (Kb = 5 nM ... 249-. ISBN 978-0-306-47694-5. Wilding TJ, Huettner JE (1996). "Antagonist pharmacology of kainate- ...
AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) glutamate receptors play a major role in oligodendrocyte ... Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Neurology ... Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Neurology ... Howard S Kirshner, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Neurological Association, ...
... orally-active non-competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist approved for ... Perampanel (2-[2-oxo-1-phenyl-5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl]benzonitrile; E2007) is the first potent, selective, ...
Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... is an amino acid derivative referred to as functionalized amino acid. The (R)-enantiomer lacosamide has about twice the potency ... The major identified metabolites of felbamate are p-hydroxy-felbamate, 2-hydroxy-felbamate, a monocarbonate, and a 3-carbamoyl ... Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ...
BACKGROUND/AIM: Mounting evidence suggests that trophic cell signaling can be mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) activation. It has been demonstrated that exogenous application of brain-derived ... Ampakines are small molecule positive allosteric modulators of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ( ... receptors bearing the alpha(1) and alpha(2) subunits. This hypothesis predicts that a compound with high efficacy at GABA(A) ...
Effect of idebenone on the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-selective glutamate receptor was ... These results suggest that idebenone acts on AMPA-selective glutamate receptor channels composed of alpha 1 and alpha 2 ... evaluated using Xenopus oocytes injected with RNAs encoding mouse alpha 1 and alpha 2 AMPA receptors. Concanavalin A augmented ... 30 mg 2-3 times a day after meals, the last intake is no later than 5 pm. The duration of the treatment is 1.5-2 months. ...
Dias A. C., Colombari E., Mifflin S. W. (2003). Effect of nitric oxide on excitatory amino acid-evoked discharge of neurons in ... kainic acid, and N-methyl-D-aspirate (NMDA), which contribute to the full expression of various autonomic reflexes, such as the ... 2006). Role of hypothalamic alpha-adrenoceptor activity in fructose-induced hypertension. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 33, ... kynurenic acid (2 mM), was bath-applied. Kynurenic acid alone decreased the firing rate from 1.6 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.2 Hz in 8 ...
... thus evoking in turn ODC Ca2+ signals through N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2014, 42, 7290-7304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Bellingham, S.A.; Coleman, B.M.; Hill, A.F. ... Exosome-associated GPLs promote the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5/ ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2010, 38, 7248-7259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Melo, S.A.; Sugimoto, H.; OConnell, J.T.; Kato ...
Guan Y, Terayama R, Dubner R, Ren K (2002) Plasticity in excitatory amino acid receptor-mediated descending pain modulation ... Haws CM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL (1990) Alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists, but not antagonists, alter the tail-flick latency ... and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonists in the RVM (Hurley and Hammond, 2000; Guan et al., 2002, 2003, 2004). A facilitation ... Whiteaker P, Sharples CGV, Wonnacott S (1998) Agonist-induced up-regulation of alpha 4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ...
Anti-Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Encephalitis: A Review. Zhang TY, Cai MT, Zheng Y, Lai ... Clinical characteristics and prognosis of anti-alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic acid receptor encephalitis ... Keywords: AMPAR; Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor; Antibody-mediated encephalitis; Autoimmune ... Clinical characteristics and prognosis of anti-alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic acid receptor encephalitis ...
Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4- Isoxazole Propionic Acid Receptor Components of the Anti-Depressant Ketamine Response Study ... Isoxazole Propionic Acid receptors (AMPAR) is critical to the anti-depressant response of ketamine. ... The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that stimulation of Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4- ... Start Date: January 4, 2023. Eligibility: 18 Years and Older, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers. Location(s): VA Boston ...
Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... is an amino acid derivative referred to as functionalized amino acid. The (R)-enantiomer lacosamide has about twice the potency ... The major identified metabolites of felbamate are p-hydroxy-felbamate, 2-hydroxy-felbamate, a monocarbonate, and a 3-carbamoyl ... Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ...
Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... is an amino acid derivative referred to as functionalized amino acid. The (R)-enantiomer lacosamide has about twice the potency ... The major identified metabolites of felbamate are p-hydroxy-felbamate, 2-hydroxy-felbamate, a monocarbonate, and a 3-carbamoyl ... Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ...
B) Illustration of a mutant cycle for coupling between two sites indicated as A and B. (C) Amino acid alignment for AMPA and ... New developments in the molecular pharmacology of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate and kainate receptors. ... The mechanisms controlling glutamate receptor assembly involve an initial step in which the amino terminal domains (ATD) ... and exchange of conserved residues in the loop connecting alpha helix F with beta strand 7. ...
... alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid ... Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Human Urine ... Here, we describe a method for the determination of urinary glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid ( ... The recoveries of analytes spiked into urine matrix ranged from 79.1% to 119%, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of 4-10%. ...
The encoded protein negatively regulates Ras, Rap and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor ... This gene encodes a Ras GTPase activating protein that is a member of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. The N-terminal ... Conserved Domains (4) summary. cd04013. Location:252 → 414. C2_SynGAP_like; C2 domain present in Ras GTPase activating protein ... Conserved Domains (5) summary. cd05136. Location:415 → 722. RasGAP_DAB2IP; The DAB2IP family of Ras GTPase-activating proteins ...
Anti-Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Encephalitis: A Review.. Zhang TY; Cai MT; Zheng Y; Lai ... Fatal X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1-associated limbic encephalitis with positive anti-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antibody.. Ochiai S; Hayakawa I; Ohashi E; Hamano S; Miyata Y; Sakuma H; Hogetsu K; ... 1. An Uncommon Presentation of a Primary Bone Tumor: Anti-AMPA (Anti-α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic acid) ...
Noncompetitive antagonist of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor on post- ... Protein Bound: 95-96% (mainly albumin and alfa1-acid glycoprotein). Blood to plasma ratio: 0.55-0.59 ... 4 years. *. Initial. *In absence of enzyme-inducing AEDs: 2 mg PO qHS; increase by 2 mg/day increments in at least weekly ... 4. This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty ...
Prolonged positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors induces calpain- ... Excitotoxicity: perspectives based on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:717-72311861773. ... Time-resolved benzene carboxylic acids measurement in the coastal area during the KORUS-AQ campaign, Environmental Pollution, ... Immediate anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (etanercept) therapy enhances axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. J ...
Ibotenic Acid/analogs & derivatives (1980-1993). See Also. Receptors, AMPA. Public MeSH Note. 94; ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5- ... METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID was indexed under IBOTENIC ACID/analogs & derivatives 1980-93. Online Note. use ALPHA-AMINO-3- ... HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID (NM) to search ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID 1980-93. ... alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Preferred Term Term UI T054751. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ...
Ibotenic Acid/analogs & derivatives (1980-1993). See Also. Receptors, AMPA. Public MeSH Note. 94; ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5- ... METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID was indexed under IBOTENIC ACID/analogs & derivatives 1980-93. Online Note. use ALPHA-AMINO-3- ... HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID (NM) to search ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID 1980-93. ... alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Preferred Term Term UI T054751. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ...
propionic acid Medicine & Life Sciences 20% * alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Medicine & Life Sciences ... The associations of the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor subunit GRIN2A and AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole ... The associations of the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor subunit GRIN2A and AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole ... The associations of the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor subunit GRIN2A and AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole ...
Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist Current Synonym true false ... Substance with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist mechanism of action (substance). ... Substance with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist mechanism of action (substance). ... Substance with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist mechanism of action (substance) { ...
Ibotenic Acid/analogs & derivatives (1980-1993). Public MeSH Note:. 94; ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ... ACID was indexed under IBOTENIC ACID/analogs & derivatives 1980-93. Online Note:. use ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4- ... ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID (NM) to search ALPHA-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPIONIC ACID 1980-93. ... alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Descriptor Spanish: Ácido alfa-Amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazol ...
Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs). *Insertion of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole- ... methyl]- phosphonic acid (NVP-AAM077) acting at recombinant NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: Implications ... alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid [AMPA] receptors [AMPARs]) into the synaptic plasma membrane (Gerfen ... Floyd, D.W.; Jung, K.Y.; and McCool, B.A. Chronic ethanol ingestion facilitates N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function and ...
The most common neuronal antibody was alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Magnetic resonance ... 3. Extracellular volume fraction derived from equilibrium contrast-enhanced CT as a diagnostic parameter in anterior ... while the pooled AUC of 4 studies differentiating stage classification was 0.826 (95% CI, 0.817-0.893). Meta-regression ... Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 52(5): 518-520, 2023 May 08. ... J Thorac Oncol ; 18(4): e35-e37, 2023 04. Artigo em Inglês , ...
Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ... is an amino acid derivative referred to as functionalized amino acid. The (R)-enantiomer lacosamide has about twice the potency ... The major identified metabolites of felbamate are p-hydroxy-felbamate, 2-hydroxy-felbamate, a monocarbonate, and a 3-carbamoyl ... Three main glutamate receptor subtypes are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), metabotropic, and non-NMDA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- ...
... the new approval expands use those as young as 4. ... The drug is a selective, noncompetitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5 ... methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist.. In addition to past phase 3 trials of adults with POS, two safety ... The former is available in 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-mg doses; the latter is available at a dose of 0.5 mg/mL. ... The expanded indication is for both monotherapy and adjunctive use in patients 4 years of age and older. ...
This gene encodes a component of the outer-core of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor ... This gene encodes a component of the outer-core of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor ... Table representing the top 5 knowledge attributes in the illumination graph. The knowledge value property is on a scale of 0 to ... Pharos Version 3.18.1Pharos Change LogTCRD Version 6.13.4TCRDDownload TCRDSitemap ...
Within that circuitry, AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, which are found all over the ... After conducting a series of clinical trials, including 6 phase-3 studies, the positive data generated from 1,700 patients led ... There are ongoing phase-3 studies of this second proposed indication for esketamine. Also encouraging, long-term studies ...
V2.575.249 Excitatory Amino Acid Agents D14.100.190 Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists D14.100.190.200 Excitatory Amino Acid ... D12.776.476.24.406 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid D17.350.50.175.725.720.720.500.500 ... 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine D24.185.926.640.550 1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II D17.350.50.50.50.725 ... Amino Acid Oxidoreductases D8.811.682.135 D8.811.682.664.500 Amino Acids, Sulfur D2.886.30 Aminobenzoic Acids D11.786.708.54 ...
Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Selective Glutamate Receptor Complex ... Barbituric acid derivative. *(S)-Des-Me-Ampa. *AMPA. *2-Amino-3-(5-Tert-Butyl-3-(Phosphonomethoxy)-4-Isoxazolyl)Propionic Acid ... Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole Propionate Selective Glutamate Receptor Activity ... S)-2-Amino-3-(1,3,5,7-Pentahydro-2,4-Dioxo-Cyclopenta[E]Pyrimidin-1-Yl) Proionic Acid ...
N0000171346 Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 N0000169796 Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha ... Methyl Ethers N0000166537 Methyl Green N0000166483 Methyl Methanesulfonate N0000166799 Methyl n-Butyl Ketone N0000166451 Methyl ... Hydroquinones N0000007981 Hydroxamic Acids N0000007982 Hydroxides N0000006542 Hydroxocobalamin N0000007983 Hydroxy Acids ... Neutral N0000006806 Amino Acids N0000011372 Amino Acids, Acidic N0000011248 Amino Acids, Aromatic N0000011332 Amino Acids, ...
Tonghui Su, Yi Lu, Yang Geng, Wei Lu, Yelin Chen (2019) How could N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonists Lead to Excitation ... Lu W, Khatri L, Ziff EB (2014) Trafficking of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor (AMPA) Receptor ... 2010) Increased expression of alpha-synuclein reduces neurotransmitter release by inhibiting synaptic vesicle reclustering ... Jun;22(3):470-9.. Lu W, Gray JA, Granger AJ, During MJ and Nicoll RA. (2011) Potentiation of synaptic AMPA receptors induced by ...
  • AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) glutamate receptors play a major role in oligodendrocyte damage. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of idebenone on the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-selective glutamate receptor was evaluated using Xenopus oocytes injected with RNAs encoding mouse alpha 1 and alpha 2 AMPA receptors. (aniracetam.eu)
  • The main groups include sodium channel blockers, calcium current inhibitors, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enhancers, glutamate blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, hormones, and drugs with unknown mechanisms of action (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • These results suggest that idebenone acts on AMPA-selective glutamate receptor channels composed of alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits. (aniracetam.eu)
  • Licostinel (INN) (code name ACEA-1021) is a competitive, silent antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor (Kb = 5 nM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, recent evidence has shown that a wave of apoptosis further affects the oligodendrocytes up to 4 segments from the trauma site days and weeks after the initial trauma. (medscape.com)
  • E2007) is the first potent, selective, orally-active non-competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of patients with epilepsy. (prnewswire.com)
  • Statistics show the cost of the care of patients with C1-4 tetraplegia at approximately $1,149,629 in the first year and approximately $199,637 for each subsequent year. (medscape.com)
  • The American Headache Society released a list of 5 commonly performed tests or procedures that are not always necessary in the treatment of migraine and headache, as part of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Choosing Wisely campaign. (medscape.com)
  • Epibatidine reversed heat hyperalgesia when microinjected in the RVM 4 h, 4 d, or 2 weeks after CFA treatment. (eneuro.org)
  • Depending on the severity of the symptoms 2-3 courses per year are administered. (aniracetam.eu)
  • Although DHβE completely blocked epibatidine's antihyperalgesic effect at 4 h, at 2 weeks it elicited only partial antagonism. (eneuro.org)
  • Encephalitis associated with antibodies against alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is an extremely rare type of antibody-mediated encephalitis. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms controlling glutamate receptor assembly involve an initial step in which the amino terminal domains (ATD) assemble as dimers. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a Ras GTPase activating protein that is a member of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein negatively regulates Ras, Rap and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic membrane to regulate synaptic plasticity and neuronal homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • 1. An Uncommon Presentation of a Primary Bone Tumor: Anti-AMPA (Anti-α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic acid) Receptor Limbic/Paraneoplastic Encephalitis as a Presenting Feature of Ewing Sarcoma. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies against the α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic acid receptor: a case report. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Peripheral neuropathy in limbic encephalitis with anti-glutamate receptor antibodies: Case report and systematic literature review. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus with neurogenic pulmonary edema and anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor limbic encephalitis: a case report. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Clinical Spectrum of Encephalitis Associated With Antibodies Against the α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor: Case Series and Review of the Literature. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Fatal X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1-associated limbic encephalitis with positive anti-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antibody. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Anti-Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Encephalitis: A Review. (nih.gov)
  • The associations of the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor subunit GRIN2A and AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor subunit GRIA3 provide support for dysfunction of the glutamatergic system as a mechanistic hypothesis in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. (arizona.edu)
  • The drug is a selective, noncompetitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist. (medscape.com)
  • This gene encodes a component of the outer-core of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor protein in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that stimulation of Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4- Isoxazole Propionic Acid receptors (AMPAR) is critical to the anti-depressant response of ketamine. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Hashimoto's encephalitis associated with AMPAR2 antibodies: a case report. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe a method for the determination of urinary glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was optimized using isotopically labelled internal standards (13C2, 15N-glyphosate, 13C, 15N, D2-AMPA, and D3-glufosinate) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with cation-exchange and anion-exchange cartridges. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to past phase 3 trials of adults with POS, two safety studies of children with epilepsy aged 4 to 11 years have been conducted. (medscape.com)
  • After conducting a series of clinical trials, including 6 phase-3 studies, the positive data generated from 1,700 patients led to the treatment's FDA approval. (nih.gov)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted expanded approval of perampanel ( Fycompa, Esai Inc) for the treatment of "partial-onset seizures (POS) with or without secondary generalized seizures" in patients as young as 4 years, the manufacturer reports. (medscape.com)
  • Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line (SDQLCHi044-A) from a patient with autosomal dominant mental retardation type 5 harboring heterozygous mutation in SYNGAP1 gene. (nih.gov)
  • There are ongoing phase-3 studies of this second proposed indication for esketamine. (nih.gov)
  • The pooled AUC of 11 studies reporting high/low-risk histologic subtypes was 0.855 (95% CI, 0.817-0.893), while the pooled AUC of 4 studies differentiating stage classification was 0.826 (95% CI, 0.817-0.893). (bvsalud.org)
  • 2008 . Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults. (nih.gov)
  • A Method for the Analysis of Glyphosate, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Human Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that genes prioritized from common variant analyses of schizophrenia are enriched in rare variant risk 3 , suggesting that common and rare genetic risk factors converge at least partially on the same underlying pathogenic biological processes. (arizona.edu)