Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Amanitins: Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Alpha-Amanitin: A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)DibenzothiepinsMaytansine: An ansa macrolide isolated from the MAYTENUS genus of East African shrubs.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.TriazolesDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Comparative Effectiveness Research: Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. ( accessed 6/12/2009)Confined Spaces: A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.

A tunable ratchet driving human RNA polymerase II translocation adjusted by accurately templated nucleoside triphosphates loaded at downstream sites and by elongation factors. (1/38)

When nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) substrates and alpha-amanitin are added to a human RNA polymerase II elongation complex simultaneously, the reaction becomes stalled in the core of the bond synthesis mechanism. The mode of stalling is influenced by NTP substrates at the active site and at downstream sites and by transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) and TFIIS. NTP substrates templated at i+2, i+3, and i+4 downstream DNA sites can reverse the previously stable binding of an NTP loaded at the i+1 substrate site. Deoxy-(d)NTPs and NDPs (nucleoside diphosphates) do not substitute for NTPs at the i+2 and i+3 positions (considered together) or the i+4, i+5, and i+6 positions (considered together). The mode of stalling is altered by changing the number of downstream template sites that are accurately occupied by NTPs and by changing NTP concentration. In the presence of the translocation blocker alpha-amanitin, a steady state condition is established in which RNA polymerase II stably loads an NTP substrate at i+1 and forms a phosphodiester bond but cannot rapidly complete bond synthesis by releasing pyrophosphate. These observations support a role for incoming NTP substrates in stimulating translocation; results appear inconsistent with the secondary pore being the sole route of NTP entry for human RNA polymerase II, and results indicate mechanisms of dynamic error avoidance and error correction during rapid RNA synthesis.  (+info)

Nucleolar translocalization of GRA10 of Toxoplasma gondii transfectionally expressed in HeLa cells. (2/38)

Toxoplasma gondii GRA10 expressed as a GFP-GRA10 fusion protein in HeLa cells moved to the nucleoli within the nucleus rapidly and entirely. GRA10 was concentrated specifically in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus morphologically by the overlap of GFP-GRA10 transfection image with IFA images by monoclonal antibodies against GRA10 (Tg378), B23 (nucleophosmin) and C23 (nucleolin). The nucleolar translocalization of GRA10 was caused by a putative nucleolar localizing sequence (NoLS) of GRA10. Interaction of GRA10 with TATA-binding protein associated factor 1B (TAF1B) in the yeast two-hybrid technique was confirmed by GST pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation assay. GRA10 and TAF1B were also co-localized in the nucleolus after co-transfection. The nucleolar condensation of GRA10 was affected by actinomycin D. Expressed GFP-GRA10 was evenly distributed over the nucleoplasm and the nucleolar locations remained as hollows in the nucleoplasm under a low dose of actinomycin D. Nucleolar localizing and interacting of GRA10 with TAF1B suggested the participation of GRA10 in rRNA synthesis of host cells to favor the parasitism of T. gondii.  (+info)

RNA is an integral component of chromatin that contributes to its structural organization. (3/38)

Chromatin structure is influenced by multiples factors, such as pH, temperature, nature and concentration of counterions, post-translational modifications of histones and binding of structural non-histone proteins. RNA is also known to contribute to the regulation of chromatin structure as chromatin-induced gene silencing was shown to depend on the RNAi machinery in S. pombe, plants and Drosophila. Moreover, both in Drosophila and mammals, dosage compensation requires the contribution of specific non-coding RNAs. However, whether RNA itself plays a direct structural role in chromatin is not known. Here, we report results that indicate a general structural role for RNA in eukaryotic chromatin. RNA is found associated to purified chromatin prepared from chicken liver, or cultured Drosophila S2 cells, and treatment with RNase A alters the structural properties of chromatin. Our results indicate that chromatin-associated RNAs, which account for 2%-5% of total chromatin-associated nucleic acids, are polyA(-) and show a size similar to that of the DNA contained in the corresponding chromatin fragments. Chromatin-associated RNA(s) are not likely to correspond to nascent transcripts as they are also found bound to chromatin when cells are treated with alpha-amanitin. After treatment with RNase A, chromatin fragments of molecular weight >3.000 bp of DNA showed reduced sedimentation through sucrose gradients and increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease digestion. This structural transition, which is observed both at euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, proceeds without loss of histone H1 or any significant change in core-histone composition and integrity.  (+info)

Extragenic accumulation of RNA polymerase II enhances transcription by RNA polymerase III. (4/38)

Recent genomic data indicate that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) function extends beyond conventional transcription of primarily protein-coding genes. Among the five snRNAs required for pre-mRNA splicing, only the U6 snRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Here we address the question of how Pol II coordinates the expression of spliceosome components, including U6. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and high-resolution mapping by PCR to localize both Pol II and Pol III to snRNA gene regions. We report the surprising finding that Pol II is highly concentrated approximately 300 bp upstream of all five active human U6 genes in vivo. The U6 snRNA, an essential component of the spliceosome, is synthesized by Pol III, whereas all other spliceosomal snRNAs are Pol II transcripts. Accordingly, U6 transcripts were terminated in a Pol III-specific manner, and Pol III localized to the transcribed gene regions. However, synthesis of both U6 and U2 snRNAs was alpha-amanitin-sensitive, indicating a requirement for Pol II activity in the expression of both snRNAs. Moreover, both Pol II and histone tail acetylation marks were lost from U6 promoters upon alpha-amanitin treatment. The results indicate that Pol II is concentrated at specific genomic regions from which it can regulate Pol III activity by a general mechanism. Consequently, Pol II coordinates expression of all RNA and protein components of the spliceosome.  (+info)

The RNA polymerase II trigger loop functions in substrate selection and is directly targeted by alpha-amanitin. (5/38)


Resistance of mitochondrial p53 to dominant inhibition. (6/38)


Expression of microRNA processing machinery genes in rhesus monkey oocytes and embryos of different developmental potentials. (7/38)


Identification of a novel pathway that selectively modulates apoptosis of breast cancer cells. (8/38)


  • Amino acid substitutions within the Pol II TL preferentially alter substrate usage and enzyme fidelity, as does inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin. (
  • Here, we report the development of a homologous cell extract from procyclic T. brucei cells in which rDNA and PARP A and VSG gene promoters drive efficient, accurate, and α-amanitin-resistant transcription. (
  • 2002. Structural basis of transcription: alpha-Amanitin-RNA polymerase II cocrystal at 2.8 Ã… resolution . (
  • This suggests that cells exposed to alpha-amanitin are able to complete their cell cycle because sufficiently high levels of mRNA are present in S/G2 due to basal level transcription, or are left from preceding cell cycles. (
  • The findings of this study demonstrate that direct hepatotoxicity of TNF-alpha is associated with an apoptotic mechanism that becomes manifest under the metabolic condition of arrested transcription and functional translation. (
  • We have compared NGF-mediated TH and AChE induction and have provided pharmacological evidence that TH induction involves a post-transcriptional, polyadenylation-dependent event (blockable by 9-beta-arabinofuranosyladenine but not by alpha- amanitin), whereas AChE induction requires transcription (blockable by alpha-amanitin). (
  • Host cell involvement in Sindbis virus (SB) replication was examined in cells which had been treated with either actinomycin D (AMD) or alpha-amanitin (alpha-A). Treatment with these inhibitors of host transcription before infection reduced the ability of cells to support SB growth by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while having little or no effect on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Heidelberg Pharma, GmbH, based in Ladenburg, Germany, a pharmaceutical company providing pre-clinical drug discovery and development services, has developed a new antibody-drug conjugate or ADC technology based on α-amanitin. (
  • The half-life of Penk mRNA levels (about 12 h), however, seems not to be affected by histamine as suggested by measurement of the subsequent decay of Penk mRNA levels after addition of .alpha. (
  • Alpha-amanitin binds to the bridge helix of the RNA Pol II complex and it also binds to part of the complex that is adjacent to the bridge helix, while it is in one specific conformation. (
  • Pol II from yeast binds α-amanitin with micromolar affinity, whereas metazoan Pol II enzymes exhibit nanomolar affinities. (
  • We found that protein synthesis inhibitors, such as anisomycin or emetine, and RNA synthesis inhibitors, such as actinomycin D or alpha-amanitin, blocked long-term facilitation without interferring with short-term facilitation. (
  • However, TNF-alpha induced a concentration-dependent cell death in hepatocytes that had been pretreated with the transcriptional inhibitors actinomycin D (ActD), D-galactosamine, or alpha-amanitin. (
  • alpha-Amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. (
  • These analytical conditions have been chosen on the basis of a preliminary in batch cyclic voltammetric investigation of alpha-, beta- and gamma-amanitins, which has allowed their oxidation process to be clarified and the pH dependence of their oxidation potentials to be determined. (
  • Determination of alpha-amanitin in serum and liver by multistage linear ion trap mass spectrometry. (
  • This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of triterpenoids from G. lucidum on liver injury induced by a-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and the mechanisms of action of these triterpenoids, including radical scavenging and antiapoptosis activities. (
  • Jahn W, Faulstich H, Wieland T. Pharmacokinetics of ( 3 H-)Methyl-Dehydroxy-Methyl- α -Amanitin in the isolated perfused rat liver. (
  • In the in vitro model, Glehnia littoralis was effective in limiting hepatic injury after α-amanitin poisoning. (
  • Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. (
  • As compared to NGF, cAMP produces a different pattern of enzyme induction (in addition to TH, DBH, PNMT, and AChE, dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is also induced), it acts rapidly (a 12-hr exposure produces the full effect), and it acts only at the transcriptional level (its effects are blocked by alpha-amanitin). (
  • Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells were pretreated in the presence or absence of GLEA (50, 100 and 200µg/ml) for 4 hours, then exposed to 60µmol/L of α-amanitin for an additional 4 hours. (
  • Our results show that alpha-amanitin blocks cells specifically in G1, irrespective of the concentration within the range of 3 to 30 micrograms/ml. (
  • SBamr grew normally not only in cells treated with AMD but also in alpha-A-treated cells. (
  • Patterson JB, Thomis DC, Hans SL, Samuel CE (1995) Mechanism of interferon action: double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells is inducible by alpha and gamma interferons. (
  • These subunits also have unique sequence motifs, especially at their C-terminal ends, which are involved in promoter specificity, for example the CTD of the bacterial RNAP alpha subunit ( IPR011260 ). (
  • RNA polymerase "core" from E. coli consists of five subunits: two alpha (α) subunits of 36 kDa , a beta (β) subunit of 150 kDa, a beta prime subunit (β′) of 155 kDa, and a small omega (ω) subunit. (
  • The core of the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) consists of four subunits, two alpha, a beta and a beta', which are conserved from bacteria to mammals. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether Glehnia littoralis ethyl acetate extract (GLEA) has the protective antioxidant effects on α-amanitin -induced hepatotoxicity. (
  • it is not unusual for significant effects to take as long as 24 hours after ingestion to appear, with this delay in symptoms making α-amanitin poisoning even more difficult to diagnose and all the more dangerous. (
  • For example, If β-amanitin comes in contact with skin, it may cause irritation, burns, redness, severe pain, and could be absorbed through the skin, causing similar effects to exposure via inhalation and ingestion. (
  • This adsorption did not affect the signal recorded for alpha- and gamma-amanitins at the amperometric detector, and for beta-amanitin a stronger adsorption for the anodic product was found, which leads to a marked positive shift of the potential required for the oxidation of this isomer in the amperometric detector cell. (
  • See "beta-Amanitin. (
Toxic Mushroom-Based Drug May Help Battle Colorectal Cancer | MD
Anderson Cancer Center
Toxic Mushroom-Based Drug May Help Battle Colorectal Cancer | MD Anderson Cancer Center (
Naturally nasty: the top 10 natural ingredients you need to avoid
Naturally nasty: the top 10 natural ingredients you need to avoid (
Toxins Art | Fine Art America
Toxins Art | Fine Art America (
The Basic Principles of Critical Care Nephrology - Nova Science Publishers
The Basic Principles of Critical Care Nephrology - Nova Science Publishers (
Search Results -   - 44 Results - Digital Library
Search Results - - 44 Results - Digital Library (
Search Results -   - 28 Results - Digital Library
Search Results - - 28 Results - Digital Library (
Get PDF - Mechanisms involved in the transcriptional activation of proenkephalin gene expression in bovine chromaffin cells
Get PDF - Mechanisms involved in the transcriptional activation of proenkephalin gene expression in bovine chromaffin cells (
Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat...
Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat... (
How Not to Do It: Dosing Volunteers  |  In the Pipeline
How Not to Do It: Dosing Volunteers | In the Pipeline (
Shoshana Levy | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Shoshana Levy | Stanford Medicine Profiles (
Evasion of the Innate Immune Response: the Old World Alphavirus nsP2 Protein Induces Rapid Degradation of Rpb1, a Catalytic...
Evasion of the Innate Immune Response: the Old World Alphavirus nsP2 Protein Induces Rapid Degradation of Rpb1, a Catalytic... (
Mushroom Toxicity: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Mushroom Toxicity: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology (
Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Monoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLink
Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Monoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLink (
Roger Kornberg's Profile | Stanford Profiles
Roger Kornberg's Profile | Stanford Profiles (
SMART: RPOLD domain annotation
SMART: RPOLD domain annotation (
SMART: ZnF_C2C2 domain annotation
SMART: ZnF_C2C2 domain annotation (
SMART: S1 domain annotation
SMART: S1 domain annotation (
Acute Effects of Drugs on Caenorhabditis elegans Movement Reveal Complex Responses and Plasticity | G3: Genes | Genomes |...
Acute Effects of Drugs on Caenorhabditis elegans Movement Reveal Complex Responses and Plasticity | G3: Genes | Genomes |... (
Active VSG Expression Sites in Trypanosoma brucei Are Depleted of Nucleosomes | Eukaryotic Cell
Active VSG Expression Sites in Trypanosoma brucei Are Depleted of Nucleosomes | Eukaryotic Cell (
Volume 78, Issue 4
JCI - Volume 78, Issue 4 (
Complete Structural Model of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase from a Hybrid Approach
Complete Structural Model of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase from a Hybrid Approach (
A novel form of necrosis, TRIAD, occurs in human Huntington's disease | Acta Neuropathologica Communications | Full Text
A novel form of necrosis, TRIAD, occurs in human Huntington's disease | Acta Neuropathologica Communications | Full Text (
Vol 48, No 1 (2010)
Vol 48, No 1 (2010) (
The Fungi - AnthroMedLibrary
The Fungi - AnthroMedLibrary (
Improving the prediction of mRNA extremities in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text
Improving the prediction of mRNA extremities in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text (
Plus it
Plus it (
ASMscience | Six Key Traits of Fungi
ASMscience | Six Key Traits of Fungi (
Sonstige (
Poisonous Plants of India  |authorSTREAM
Poisonous Plants of India |authorSTREAM (