Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Cebidae: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)Platyrrhini: An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).PeruBoliviaBrazilEcuadorMedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.ChileRana clamitans: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in the eastern half of the United States and Canada. Two subspecies exist, commonly referred to as green frog (R. c. melanota) and bronze frog (R. c. clamitans).WashingtonPhlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Health Planning Organizations: Organizations involved in all aspects of health planning activities.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.PrimatesResearch Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). (1/27)

Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).  (+info)

Rapid acquisition of an alarm response by a neotropical primate to a newly introduced avian predator. (2/27)

Predation is an important selective pressure in natural ecosystems. Among non-human primates, relatively little is known about how predators hunt primate prey and how primates acquire adaptive responses to counteract predation. In this study we took advantage of the recent reintroduction of radio-tagged harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) to Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama to explore how mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), one of their primary prey, acquire anti-predator defences. Based on the observation that harpies follow their prey prior to attack, and often call during this pursuit period, we broadcast harpy eagle calls to howlers on BCI as well as to a nearby control population with no harpy predation. Although harpies have been extinct from this area for 50-100 years, results indicate that BCI howlers rapidly acquired an adaptive anti-predator response to harpy calls, while showing no response to other avian vocalizations; howlers maintained this response several months after the removal of the eagles. These results not only show that non-human primates can rapidly acquire an alarm response to a newly introduced predator, but that they can detect and identify predators on the basis of acoustic cues alone. These findings have significant implications both for the role of learning mechanisms in the evolution of prey defence and for conservation strategies, suggesting that the use of 'probing' approaches, such as auditory playbacks, may highly enhance an a priori assessment of the impact of species reintroduction.  (+info)

Natural selection on molar size in a wild population of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). (3/27)

Dental traits have long been assumed to be under selection in mammals, based on the macroevolutionary correlation between dental morphology and feeding behaviour. However, natural selection acting on dental morphology has rarely, if ever, been documented in wild populations. We investigated the possibility of microevolutionary selection on dental traits by measuring molar breadth in a sample of Alouatta palliata (mantled howler monkey) crania from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. The age at death of the monkeys is an indicator of their fitness, since they were all found dead of natural causes. Howlers with small molars have significantly decreased fitness as they die, on average, at an earlier age (well before sexual maturity) than those with larger molars. This documents the existence of phenotypic viability selection on molar tooth size in the BCI howlers, regardless of causality or heritability. The selection is further shown to occur during the weaning phase of A. palliata life history, establishing a link between this period of increased mortality and selection on a specific morphological feature. These results provide initial empirical support for the long-held assumption that primate molar size is under natural selection.  (+info)

A case of yellow fever in a brown howler (Alouatta fusca) in Southern Brazil. (4/27)

Many brown howlers (Alouatta fusca) have died in a 3-month period in a subtropical forest in Southern Brazil. One was examined after a systemic illness. According to clinical signs, and necropsy and histopathology findings, yellow fever virus (YFV) infection was suspected. Tissue sections from liver, kidney, and lymphoid organs were screened by immunohistochemistry for YFV antigens. Cells within those tissues stained positively with a polyclonal antibody against YFV antigens (1:1,600 dilution), and yellow fever was diagnosed for the first time in the brown howler in the area.  (+info)

Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates. (5/27)

Olfactory receptor (OR) genes constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Previous studies suggested that the proportion of pseudogenes in the OR gene family is significantly larger in humans than in other apes and significantly larger in apes than in the mouse. To investigate the process of degeneration of the olfactory repertoire in primates, we estimated the proportion of OR pseudogenes in 19 primate species by surveying randomly chosen subsets of 100 OR genes from each species. We find that apes, Old World monkeys and one New World monkey, the howler monkey, have a significantly higher proportion of OR pseudogenes than do other New World monkeys or the lemur (a prosimian). Strikingly, the howler monkey is also the only New World monkey to possess full trichromatic vision, along with Old World monkeys and apes. Our findings suggest that the deterioration of the olfactory repertoire occurred concomitant with the acquisition of full trichromatic color vision in primates.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for the coexistence of pheromone perception and full trichromatic vision in howler monkeys. (6/27)

Vertebrate pheromones are water-soluble chemicals perceived mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for intraspecific communications. Humans, apes, and Old World (OW) monkeys lack functional genes responsible for the pheromone signal transduction and are generally insensitive to vomeronasal pheromones. It has been hypothesized that the evolutionary deterioration of pheromone sensitivity occurred because pheromone communication became redundant after the emergence of full trichromatic color vision via the duplication of the X-chromosome-linked red/green opsin gene in the common ancestor of hominoids and OW monkeys. Interestingly, full trichromacy also evolved in the New World (NW) howler monkeys via an independent duplication of the same gene. Here we sequenced from three species of howler monkeys an essential component of the VNO pheromone transduction pathway, the gene encoding the ion channel TRP2. In contrast to those of hominoids and OW monkeys, the howler TRP2 sequences have none of the characteristics of pseudogenes. This and other observations indicate that howler monkeys have maintained both their systems of pheromone communication and full trichromatic vision, suggesting that the presence of full trichromacy alone does not lead to the loss of pheromone communication. We suggest that the ecological differences between OW and NW primates, particularly in habitat selection, may have also affected the evolution of pheromone perception.  (+info)

Functional morphology of the first cervical vertebra in humans and nonhuman primates. (7/27)

The cervical vertebral column bears or balances the weight of the head supported by the nuchal muscles that partly originate from the cervical vertebrae. The position of the head relative to the vertebral column, and consequently locomotion and posture behavior, could thus be associated with the form of the cervical vertebrae. In spite of this assumption and some empirical indications along these lines, primate vertebral morphologies have been reported to be very similar and not clearly related to locomotion. We therefore study the relationship between the morphology of the first cervical vertebra, the atlas, and the locomotion pattern within primates using a geometric morphometric approach. Our analysis is based on a total of 116 vertebrae of adult Homo sapiens, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Hylobates lar, Macaca mulatta, Papio hamadryas, Ateles geoffroyi, and Alouatta palliata. On each atlas, 56 landmarks were digitized and superimposed by Procrustes registration. The resulting shape variables were analyzed by principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and partial least-squares analysis. We found that the nine primate species differ clearly in their atlas morphology and that allometric shape change is distinct between the nonhuman primates and Homo sapiens. We could further identify morphological features that relate to the species' locomotion pattern. Human atlas shape, however, cannot be predicted by an extrapolation of the nonhuman primate model. This implies that either the primate atlas is generalized enough to allow bipedal locomotion or else the human atlas morphology is a unique adaptation different from that in the more orthograde nonhuman primates.  (+info)

Nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode. (8/27)

Functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. We tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. We used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of Ateles geoffroyi, Symphalangus syndactylus, Alouatta seniculus, Colobus guereza, Macaca fascicularis, and Papio cynocephalus (n = 46). We analyzed a size-scaled superior and inferior volume of interest (VOI) in the femoral neck. The ratio of the superior to inferior VOI bone volume fraction indicated that the distribution of trabecular bone was inferiorly skewed in most (but not all) quadrupeds and evenly distributed the climbing/suspensory species, but interspecific comparisons indicated that all taxa overlapped in these measurements. Degree of anisotropy values were generally higher in the inferior VOI of all species and the results for the two climbing/suspensory taxa, A. geoffroyi (1.71 +/- 0.30) and S. syndactylus (1.55 +/- 0.04), were similar to the results for the quadrupedal anthropoids, C. guereza (male = 1.64 +/- 0.13; female = 1.68 +/- 0.07) and P. cynocephalus (1.47 +/- 0.13). These results suggest strong trabecular architecture similarity across body sizes, anthropoid phylogenetic backgrounds, and locomotor mode. This structural similarity might be explained by greater similarity in anthropoid hip joint loading mechanics than previously considered. It is likely that our current models of anthropoid hip joint mechanics are overly simplistic.  (+info)

*New World monkey

... s (except for the howler monkeys of genus Alouatta) also typically lack the trichromatic vision of Old World ...

*Mantled howler

Alouatta palliata palliata, in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua; Mexican howler, Alouatta palliata mexicana, in ... The mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), or golden-mantled howling monkey, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World ... Kinzey, W. (1997). "Alouatta". In Kinzey, W. New World Primates Ecology, Evolution and Behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p ... However, in 1997 a Venezuelan red howler (Alouatta seniculus) was reported to use a stick as a club to hit a Linnaeus's two- ...

*Spix's red-handed howler

... (Alouatta discolor) is a species of Howler monkey native to the southeastern Amazon in Brazil. It is ... 23 (1). Pinto, L. P.; Setz, E. Z. (2004). "Diet of Alouatta belzebul discolor in an Amazonian rain forest of Northern Mato ... Kinzey, W.G. (1997). "Alouatta". In Warren G. Kinzey. New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: de ... Gregorin, R. (2006). "Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, Atelidae) no Brasil ...

*List of Costa Rican monkey species

"Alouatta palliata". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T39960A10280447. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS. ... Alouatta palliata) and Geoffroy's spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). All four species are classified scientifically as New World ...

*Ursine howler

The ursine howler (Alouatta arctoidea) is a species of howler monkey native to Venezuela and possibly Colombia. It is sometimes ... Urbani, B.; Boubli, J.-P. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). "Alouatta arctoidea". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e. ... considered a subspecies of the Venezuelan red howler and classified as Alouatta seniculus arctoidea. ...

*Mexican howler

Alouatta palliata coibensis, Alouatta palliata palliata, Alouatta palliata trabeata and Alouatta palliata mexicana. Compared ... The Mexican howler (Alouatta palliata mexicana) is a subspecies of the mantled howler, A. palliata. This subspecies is found ... Alouatta palliata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. . Downloaded on 09 December 2014. Cuarón, A.D., ... Alouatta palliata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. . Downloaded on 9 December 2014. Rylands; Groves; ...

*Maranhão red-handed howler

de Oliveira, M.M. & Kierulff, M.C.M. (2008). "Alouatta ululata". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e. ... The Maranhão red-handed howler (Alouatta ululata) is an endangered species of howler monkey endemic to forests (for example ... Gregorin, R. (2006). (in Portuguese) Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, ...

*List of Central American monkey species

a Some authorities regard Alouatta coibensis as a subspecies of Alouatta palliata. Sizes given are for Alouatta palliata. b ... Cuarón, A.D.; Shedden, A.; Rodríguez-Luna, E.; de Grammont, P.C.; Link, A.; Palacions, E. & Morales, A. (2010). "Alouatta ... Cuarón, A. D.; Shedden, A.; Rodríguez-Luna, E.; de Grammont, P. C. & Link, A. (2008). "Alouatta palliata ssp. coibensis". IUCN ... An eighth species, the Coiba Island howler (Alouatta coibensis) is often recognized, but some authorities treat it as a ...

*Black howler

The black howler (Alouatta caraya) (also known as black-and-gold howler) is a species of howler monkey, a large New World ... Together with the brown howler, it is the southernmost member of the Alouatta genus. Only the adult male is black; adult ... Fernandez-Duque, E.; Wallace, R.B. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). "Alouatta caraya". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. ... Gregorin, R. (2006). (in Portuguese) Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, ...

*Amazon black howler

The Amazon black howler (Alouatta nigerrima) is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, endemic to the south- ... Boubli, J.-P.; Di Fiore, A.; Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2008). "Alouatta nigerrima". The IUCN Red List of Threatened ... Gregorin, R. (2006). (in Portuguese) Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, ...

*Venezuelan red howler

The diurnal Alouatta seniculus is an arboreal primate, so it spends much of its time high in the canopy. Its preferred method ... The Venezuelan red howler (Alouatta seniculus) is a South American species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, found ... 1986). Colombian red howler, Alouatta seniculus seniculus Ursine howler, A. s. arctoidea Juruá red howler, A. s. juara A. s. ... Boubli, J.-P.; Di Fiore, A.; Rylands, A. B. & Mittermeier, R. A. (2008). "Alouatta seniculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened ...

*Guyanan red howler

The Guyanan red howler (Alouatta macconnelli) is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, native to Suriname, ... Boubli, J.-P.; Di Fiore, A. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2008). "Alouatta macconnelli". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. ...

*Brown howler

The brown howler (Alouatta guariba), also known as brown howler monkey, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World ... A.B.; Kierulff, M.C.M. & de Oliveira, M.M. (2008). "Alouatta guariba". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e. ... Strier, K. B.; Mendes, S. L.; Santos, R. R. (2001). "Timing of births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca ... It is difficult to breed the genus Alouatta in captivity and therefore the reproduction is relatively unknown. Brown howlers ...

*Bolivian red howler

The Bolivian red howler (Alouatta sara) is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, endemic to Bolivia. It can ... Boubli, J.-P.; Di Fiore, A.; Rylands, A.B.; Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. (2008). "Alouatta sara". The IUCN Red List of ... animaldiversity.org/accounts/alouatta_seniculus/ Primate Info Net Red Howler Factsheet Infonatura [1]. ... www.theprimata.com/alouatta_seniculus.html http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/alouatta_seniculus/ http:// ...

*Red-handed howler

In 2006, a major review of the Brazilian members of the genus Alouatta was able to match some of the variations to geography ( ... The red-handed howler (Alouatta belzebul) is a vulnerable species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey. It is endemic ... 23(1). Nascimento F.F., Bonvicino C.R., De Oliverira M.M., Schneider M.P.C. (2008). Population Genetic Studies of Alouatta ... Veiga, L.M.; Kierulff, C. & de Oliveira, M.M. (2008). "Alouatta belzebul". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008 ...

*Purus River

Alouatta puruensis) is a species of howler monkey native to Brazil, Peru and north of Bolivia. Peckoltia brevis, a kind of ... "Alouatta puruensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. ...

*List of Panamanian monkey species

a Sometimes regarded as a subspecies of Alouatta palliata. Sizes given are for Alouatta palliata. b Sometimes regarded as a ... The Azuero howler monkey (Alouatta coibensis trabeata or Alouatta palliata trabeata), which is considered a subspecies of ... A seventh species, the Coiba Island howler (Alouatta coibensis) is often recognized, but some authors treat it as a subspecies ... Cuarón, A.D.; Shedden, A.; Rodríguez-Luna, E.; de Grammont, P.C.; Link, A.; Palacions, E. & Morales, A. (2008). "Alouatta ...

*List of New World monkey species

Groves, C.P. (2005). "Alouatta pigra". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Alouatta guariba". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Mendes, S. L.; Rylands, A. B.; Kierulff, M. C. M. & de Oliveira, M. M. (2008). "Alouatta guariba". IUCN Red List of Threatened ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Alouatta sara". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ...

*Purus red howler

The Purús red howler (Alouatta puruensis) is a species of howler monkey native to Brazil, Peru and north of Bolivia. The ... "Alouatta puruensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. ...

*Juruá red howler

The Juruá red howler (Alouatta juara) is a species of howler monkey, native to Peru and Brazil. Boubli, J.-P.; Di Fiore, A.; ... Daniel Giraud Elliot (1910). "VIII.-Descriptions of new species of monkeys of the genera Galago, Cebus, Alouatta, and ... Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2008). "Alouatta juara". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International ...

*Guatemalan black howler

Marsh, L.K.; Cuarón, A.D.; Cortés-Ortiz, L.; Shedden, A.; Rodríguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Alouatta pigra". The ... The Guatemalan black howler, or Yucatan black howler, (Alouatta pigra) is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World ... It is a member of the howler monkey genus Alouatta. No subspecies are recognized. The Guatemalan black howler is sympatric with ... ISBN 978-0-387-25854-6. ARKive - images and movies of the Guatemalan black howler (Alouatta pigra) Infonatura Sound recordings ...

*Southern brown howler

The southern brown howler (Alouatta guariba clamitans) is a monkey subspecies of brown howler native to southeastern Brazil ( ... "Alouatta guariba ssp. clamitans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of ...

*Northern brown howler

Mendes, S. L.; Rylands, A. B.; Kierulff, M. C. M. & de Oliveira, M. M. (2008). "Alouatta guariba ssp. guariba". IUCN Red List ... The northern brown howler (Alouatta guariba guariba) is the type subspecies of the brown howler, native to Brazil. It is listed ...

*The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates

A.B.; Kierulff; M.C.M. & de Oliveira, M.M. (2008). "Alouatta guariba ssp. guariba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. ...

*Ecuadorian mantled howler

The Ecuadorian mantled howler (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) is a subspecies of the mantled howler, A. palliata. It ranges ... CuarónCuarón, A.D.; Shedden, A.; Rodríguez-Luna, E.; de Grammont, P.C. & Link, A. (2008). "Alouatta palliata ssp. aequatorialis ...
Aguiar, L. M., Mellek, D. M., Abreu, K. C., Boscarato, T. G., Bernardi, I. P., Miranda, J. M. D. and Passos, F. C. 2007. Sympatry between Alouatta caraya and Alouatta clamitans and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids in Southern Brazil. Primates 48: 24-248.. Arditi, S. I. and Placci, L. G. 1990. Hábitat y densidad de Aotus azarae y Alouatta caraya en Riacho Pilagá, Formosa. Boletín Primatológico Latinoamericano 2: 29-47.. Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1994. Padrão de utilização de uma ilha de mata por Alouatta caraya (Primates: Cebidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 54(1): 167-171.. Bicca-Marques, J. C. 2003. How do howler monkeys cope with habitat fragmentation? In: L. K. Marsh (ed.), Primates in Fragments: Ecology and Conservation, pp. 283-303. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA.. Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994. Feeding behavior of the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in a seminatural forest. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 16: 69-84.. Brown, A. ...
MEIRELES, Carla Maria et al. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae), based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences. Genet. Mol. Biol. [online]. 1999, vol.22, n.3, pp.337-344. ISSN 1415-4757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47571999000300009.. Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca). Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya). Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo: {A. caraya [A. ...
Mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), Costa Rica. The mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), or golden-mantled howling monkey, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, from Central and South America. It is one of the monkey species most often seen and heard in the wild in Central America. It takes its mantled name from the long guard hairs on its sides. The mantled howler is one of the largest Central American monkeys. Image by Andres Morya
Can you imagine someone hearing you holler from three kilometer away? Howler Monkeys have the loudest sound of any land animal, and it can be heard for three kilometers because of a bone its throat that acts like an amplifier. The noise you hear really does have a purpose. It saves the monkey energy. The male Howler Monkeys set up a howl that other male Howler Monkeys hear and respond to. In this manner they can locate one another, and avoid the territories of other Howler Monkeys. This decreases the amount of energy they have to spend fighting for territorial rights.. South America hosts the Howler Monkey. South Brazil, northern Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia are a few countries in which this monkey lives. They enjoy the rainforests, secondary forests, mangroves and cloud forests that these places offer.. The yellow-brown female Howler Monkeys and the, often black male Howler Monkeys are well adapted to their lives high in the trees. Their greatest asset is a thick power full tail that can ...
Aguiar, L. M., Mellek, D. M., Abreu, K. C., Boscarato, T. G., Bernardi, I. P., Miranda, J. M. D. and Passos, F. C. 2007. Sympatry between Alouatta caraya and Alouatta clamitans and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids in Southern Brazil. Primates 48: 24-248.. Buss, G. 2001. Estudo da densidade populacional do bugio-ruivo Alouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940) (Primates, Atelidae) nas formações florestais do Morro do Campista, Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS. Masters Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.. Chiarello, A. G. 1993. Dieta, padrão de atividades e área de vida de um grupo de bugios (Alouatta fusca) na Reserva de Santa Genebra. Masters Thesis, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.. Chiarello, A. G. 1995. Density and habitat use of primates at an Atlantic forest reserve of southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 55(1): 105-110.. Chiarello, A. G. 1999. Effects of fragmentation of the Atlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern ...
Black howler monkey mother with juvenile being sniffed by another monkey - View amazing Black howler monkey photos - Alouatta caraya - on Arkive
Vol 9: When Top-Down Becomes Bottom Up: Behaviour of Hyperdense Howler Monkeys Alouatta seniculus Trapped on a 0.6 Ha Island.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Alouatta music - free on Blip.fm. Listen to Alouatta mp3s, watch Alouatta videos, find Alouatta fans. Search for free music to stream.
Male Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta Palliata) Splayed in Tree Photographic Print by Shannon Nace. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. 100% satisfaction guaranteed.
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Mammalia • Subclassis: Theria • Infraclassis: Eutheria • Ordo: Primates • Subordo: Haplorrhini • Infraordo: Simiiformes • Parvordo: Platyrrhini • Familia: Atelidae • Genus: Alouatta • Species: Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812) ...
O bugio-da-Ilha-Coiba é um primata do gênero Alouatta que habita a Ilha Coiba, no Panamá. Não é certo se esse táxon constitui numa espécie separada, ou se é uma subespécie de Alouatta palliata. É considerado em risco de extinção pois habita apenas a Ilha de Coiba, com cerca de 460 km² de área, entretanto, apenas 5% de seu hábitat foi perdido. Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.), ed. Mammal Species of the World 3 ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 148-149. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de editores (link) Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P.C. & Link, A. (2008). «Alouatta palliata ssp. coibensis». IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1 ...
The brown howler (Alouatta guariba) is a New World monkey that is native to the far northeastern portions of Argentina, and Brazil. It is also commonly known as the brown howling monkey. Although its name implies that it is brown, it can vary in color with some individuals appearing to be redder in color or even black. It typically lives in small groups that contain up to eleven individuals. It holds two subspecies, one of which is critically endangered. The brown howler as a species appears on the IUCN Red List with a conservation status of "Least Concern".. Image Caption: Brown Howler Monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans Horto Florestal de São Paulo. Credit: Dario Sanches /Wikipedia(CC BY-SA 2.0) ...
We examined recruitment of trees whose seeds are dispersed by black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in forest fragments within the Community Baboon Sanctuary in north-central Belize. In the fragments, most other large frugivores are absent and howlers dominate the large frugivore community. Consequently, we expected to observe an increased representation of howler fruit trees among the sapling community. To test this prediction preliminarily we observed howler feeding behavior for one year and conducted adult tree and sapling transects in 6 locations where howlers were present. We sampled a seventh site where howlers were absent for vegetation only. We found that in 4 of 6 sites there were proportionately fewer howler fruit saplings when compared to adult tree samples. However, when recruitment of howler fruit trees in the 6 sites was compared to a site where howlers were absent, 11 of 12 species had relatively higher recruitment. The lack of recruitment among howler fruit trees in general ...
Alouatta pigra é uma espécie de bugio que habita a América Central. É encontrado em Belize, Guatemala e México, nas florestas semideciduais e ombrófilas de terras baixas. É o maior primata da América Central e o maior do gênero Alouatta, com os machos pesando em média 11,4 kg e as fêmeas 6,4 kg. Os grupos de A. pigra possuem em média, menos de 10 indivíduos. A espécie é considerada como "Ameaçada" pela IUCN, já que nos últimos 30 anos as populações diminuíram consideravelmente. Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.), ed. Mammal Species of the World 3 ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 149 páginas. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de editores (link) Marsh, L.K., Cuarón, A.D., Cortés-Ortiz, L., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C (2008). «Alouatta pigra». IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1 ...
Resumo: Este estudo aborda aspectos da ecologia de um grupo composto por sete a nove bugios-de-mãos-vermelhas (Alouatta belzebul discolor) em mata primária no norte do estado de Mato Grosso, sul da Amazônia. É relatada a presença de mais uma espécie de bugio na área, Alouatta seniculus, com descrição das suas interações. A dieta, o padrão de atividades diárias e a área de vida de A. b. discolor foram investigados através do método de varredura instantânea durante dez meses, entre outubro de 1999 e outubro de 2000. Durante 45 dias completos, os bugios se alimentaram de 67 espécies de plantas (N=2039 registros de alimentação) de 24 famílias. Dialium guianense (Leg. Caesalpinioideae) foi a espécie mais utilizada na alimentação. Os frutos foram os itens mais consumidos (55,0%), seguidos de folhas novas (19,8%) e flores (5,7%). A participação de folhas maduras na dieta foi pequena (5,0%). Casca de árvores, lenho de tronco vivo, madeira em decomposição e ramos lenhosos ...
img src="http://thewebsiteofeverything.com/weblog/images/guatemalan_black_howler_monkey.jpg" style="float:left;margin-right:10px;margin-bottom:5px;border:1px solid" title="Guatemalan Black Howler Monkey" alt="Guatemalan Black Howler Monkey" class="pivot-image" /,The endangered ,a href="http://www.thewebsiteofeverything.com/animals/mammals/Primates/Cebidae/Alouatta/Alouatta-pigra.html" title="" rel=external,Guatemalan Black Howler,/a, (,i,Alouatta pigra,/i,) (sometimes called the Yucatan Howler or Yucatan Black Howler) is one of many species of howler monkey, which is what is known as a New World monkey. Its range is throughout the Yucatan Peninsula, and includes the areas of Mexico, Belize, and of course Guatemala. The Guatemalan Black Howler prefers to live in very lush areas, mostly sticking to all types of rain forests such as the semi-deciduous, lowland and evergreen. Of its cousins and relatives, the Guatemalan Black Howler is the largest, and is also one of the largest New World ...
MnemonicDictionary.com - Meaning of alouatta and a memory aid (called Mnemonic) to retain that meaning for long time in our memory.
This Mondays endangered species article from the (Endangered Species Watch Post) focuses on the Red Handed Howler Monkey of which is listing near to endangerment. (Image Red Handed Howler Monkey) Generically identified as Alouatta belzebul back in 1766 by Professor Carl von Linnaeus (1707 - 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern biological naming scheme of binomial nomenclature.. Listed as vulnerable the species is endemic to Brazil (Alagoas, Maranhão, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe and Tocantins). Populations are currently on the decline of which its very likely the species will be re-categorized as endangered within the next five years, if not sooner.. A. belzebul is said to be extremely common in some areas such as Marajó however is noted as rare within the Atlantic Forest portion of the range known as; Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Paraíba ...
Alouatta caraya) "howl" to each other in the Amazon rainforest during the evening and early morning hours in order to maintain neighborly distances. >Groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) "howl" to each other in the Amazon rainforest during the evening and early morning hours in order to maintain neighborly distances. ...
17 min 16 sec) Watch the story of how gene therapy restored the sight of a nearly-blind young patient. Told from the perspective of two researchers who spent over 25 years working to develop this breakthrough technology, this short film chronicles their successes and challenges, and illustrates how the method works to treat inherited conditions. ...
email protected]. Madison: Whelen Engineering of Chester, Connecticut has won this months Noisy Dozen award from Noise Free America for manufacturing "The Howler," designed to produce intense low-frequency noise on emergency vehicles.. The "Howler Low-Frequency Tone Siren" produces noise that can he heard from 200 feet. Its low-frequency booms can easily penetrate homes with their windows closed.. The rationale for The Howler? To make police, fire, and ambulance sirens even louder, to overcome high ambient noise from boom cars and motorcycles. In other words, The Howler is an added layer of noise.. Whelen Engineering brags that The Howler is "an effective added layer of warning when used with your 100/200 watt siren amplifier. Howler provides deep, low frequency tones, which are able to penetrate other vehicles, alerting drivers and pedestrians of your approach." Whelen also notes that The Howler "adds a minimum eight-second penetrating burst of low frequency siren sound for use in heavy ...
Prehensile tailed monkeys are the largest of the New World monkeys. Species range from 382 to 686 mm head and body length in the Atelinae and from 559 to 915 mm head and body length in the howler monkeys (Alouattinae). Atelinae tail length ranges from 508 to 890 mm and weight from 5.5 to 15 kg. Alouattinae tail length ranges from 585 to 915 mm and weight from 4 to 12 kg. Males are substantially larger than females in howler monkeys (Alouatta) and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), sexes are similar in size in other genera. Dental formula is I 2/2; C1/1; P 3/3; M 3/3. (Nowak, 1991). Prehensile tailed monkeys are from pale buff or gray (Brachyteles) to dark black (Ateles) in pelage color. Males and females differ in color in some species of howler monkeys. Prehensile tailed monkeys tend to have long limbs, fingers, and tails. This is especially pronounced in spider monkeys and muriquis, where it is associated with brachiation and suspensory locomotion. Woolly monkeys and howler monkeys have more compact ...
Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet.
Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet.
Note: Many authors and source (ITIS & Mammal Species of the World) dont recognize this species or recognize it as a synonyms of Alouatta belzebul. But Gregorin (2006) & en.wikipedia & IUCN accept it as distinct species ...
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Threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation due to cattle ranching and agricultural development for soy. Populations can adapt, however, to living in relatively small patches of undisturbed forest. Lincoln Park Zoo participates in the Southern Black Howler Monkey Species Survival Plan®, a shared conservation effort by zoos throughout the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. ...
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COVER Brazil recently suffered its worst yellow fever outbreak in more than 70 years, with 792 confirmed cases, many in states once considered safe from the disease. Monkeys, like the black-and-gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) shown here, are especially vulnerable to yellow fever, and their deaths often serve as a warning that the disease is spreading to new areas. See page 637 ...
Apologies for the long radio silence. Travelling and the obligatory pre-travelling frenzy shut down the blogging assembly line for a couple weeks. Having wrapped up my west-coast jaunt (thanks to the great crowd that came out for the CSPAN taping at Stanford), I can write a bit about some of the new science that has caught my eye.. Crouching on top on the pile are howler monkeys. Howlers have become frequent visitors to the Loom, much to my surprise. For some reason theyve recently started to have a lot to say about evolution-particularly, as odd as it may seem, about the evolution of our own species. As I wrote in an earlier post, we humans have good eyesight compared to many other primates. We have three genes that make receptors for light in our eyes, each sensitive to its own band of the spectrum-red, green and blue. The combined sensitivity of these genes lets us tell the difference between yellow, organge, pink, and red. Other apes and monkeys in the Old World also have trichromatic ...
View our Animals Mammals Atelidae Seniculus Gallery containing 16 Prints. Framed, Poster, Canvas Prints, Puzzles, Photo Gifts and Wall Art. Ships from UK, USA, Australia for quick delivery
The disturbances of the habitat could be affecting the populations of the mantled howler, or golden-mantled howling monkey, (Alouatta palliate Mexicana) who in an extreme case could be developing mutations that make them ...
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No compres maderas que provengan de las selvas tropicales de manera ilegal, no fomentes la tala inmoderada!!! Evita comprar fauna silvestre y en espec...
Reports of successful predator attacks on primates are rare. Primates from all major radiations are particularly susceptible to raptors, carnivores, and snakes. Among New World primates, reports of snake predation are limited to medium- and small-bodied species. Here, we report the first documented case of successful predation of an atelid by a snake-an adult female Purús red howler monkey, Alouatta puruensis, that was subdued by a ca. 2-m-long Boa constrictor in an arboreal setting at a height of 7.5 m above the ground. The victim belonged to a group composed of six individuals (one adult male, two adult females, two juveniles, and one infant) that inhabited a ca. 2.5-ha forest fragment in the State of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon. The boa applied the species typical hunting behavior of striking and immediately coiling around its prey and then killing it through constriction (probably in less than 5 min), but the entire restraint period lasted 38 min. The attack occurred around noon. ...
New World monkeys are primates and are more closely related to humans, apes and Old World monkeys than any other living nonhuman primate group. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many New World monkeys in its scientific collections.
New World monkeys are primates and are more closely related to humans, apes and Old World monkeys than any other living nonhuman primate group. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many New World monkeys in its scientific collections.
May 22, 2012 - The Dog River Howlers, Rugby Canada and Balmy Beach Rugby Club teamed up to help Kerry Singh (Huggy) raise funds for his new wheelchair-accessible van. Better known to former teammates and friends as Huggy, was a member of the Balmy Beach RFC of Toronto in 1993 when he suffered a spinal cord injury while playing rugby. The injury resulted in quadriplegia and in 1994 the Balmy Beach Rugby Club, friends and family helped Huggy raise money to purchase a van that could be modified for him to drive. This helped him improve his quality of life and allowed him to enjoy his independence of mobility, but the van is over 15 years old now and in need of being replaced. To date this endeavour has reased some $36,000 of a targeted $50,000.http://donate.rugbycanada.ca/e/huggy ...
The researchers found highly inflated numbers of consumer animals on some of the islands as compared with the mainland-including 35 times more rodents, 25 times more howler monkeys, 10 times more iguanas and 100 times more leafcutter ants. "This is very strong evidence for top-down regulation," says lead author John Terborgh of Duke University. "If predators are gone, then the number of these consumers explodes." Hinting at the complexity of ecosystem control, however, the reproductive rates of the howler monkey on one island did exhibit bottom-up control, in that the birth rate was one quarter of that found on a less-populated island ...
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Unlike all other New World (platyrrine) monkeys, both male and feminine howler monkeys (has an unusual fovea, with significantly higher peak cone density in the foveal hole than every other diurnal anthropoid goof (both platyrrhines and catarrhines) and great ape yet analyzed, including humans. separation of light absorption highs, and each opsin is normally portrayed in a split cone course [1]C[3]. In addition, the existence of single-cone midget bipolar cells [4]C[5] and retinal post-receptoral sensory circuits offer color opposition systems to generate complete trichromacy in all people [6]C[11]. In many platyrrhine types, by comparison, just a percentage of females are trichromats (regular or anomalous). The staying females and all men are dichromats because there are just two code genetics for opsins, one in the X-chromosome and another in the chromosome 7. In men, with just one homozygous and X-chromosome females, the total result is normally dichromacy, while in heterozygous females gene ...
Have you ever heard of a pack of wolves, meercats, spider monkeys, chimps, gorillas, howler monkeys, lions, elephants, etc. living in five hundred to thousand individual size groups or shall we say herds? All of them and a mass of other such small group animals live in groups in numbers per group that stays within a certain range. In most, there is an alpha male whom the group revolves around. There will be sub-alphas who support him but one of which will ultimately replace him. When the group gets behond its usual size, it begins to become difficult to keep together. There is more dissention. If the alpha is weak, females will leave with their offspring or another male becomes dominant. With some groups, its the head female that is dominant. A too large group encourages the sub-dominant male to split off with some of the females. Nothing can make the females, gays and children more uneasy and insecure than if the group is large enough that the dominant male has more females than he can control ...
Have you ever heard of a pack of wolves, meercats, spider monkeys, chimps, gorillas, howler monkeys, lions, elephants, etc. living in five hundred to thousand individual size groups or shall we say herds? All of them and a mass of other such small group animals live in groups in numbers per group that stays within a certain range. In most, there is an alpha male whom the group revolves around. There will be sub-alphas who support him but one of which will ultimately replace him. When the group gets behond its usual size, it begins to become difficult to keep together. There is more dissention. If the alpha is weak, females will leave with their offspring or another male becomes dominant. With some groups, its the head female that is dominant. A too large group encourages the sub-dominant male to split off with some of the females. Nothing can make the females, gays and children more uneasy and insecure than if the group is large enough that the dominant male has more females than he can control ...
Cytogenetic analysis were done on specimens from two populations of Lysapsus limellus limellus, three of L. l. bolivianus and of one of Lysapsus caraya. All animals showed a diploid chromosomal number of 2n=24. The karyotypes of the two L. limellus subspecies were very similar, differing only by the larger amount of telomeric heterochromatin and a small pericentromeric C-band on the short arms of pair 2 in L. l. limellus specimens. The karyotype of L. caraya differed from those of the two L. limellus subspecies in terms of chromosomal morphology, C-banding pattern and location of the main NOR on chromosomes 7 and 6, respectively. The karyotype of the L. l. bolivianus population from Guajará-Mirim/RO differed from those of the other populations of the same subspecies in morphology and heterochromatin pattern of chromosomes 7 and 8. Additional NORs were detected by silver staining and confirmed by FISH in one of the homologues of pairs 1 and 8 in L. l. bolivianus and in pair 7 in L. caraya. These ...
We dove with a flock of manta rays so big and black they looked like flying black carpets or B-17s or something. We swam through walls of yellow jacks and school-master fish, the crowds so thick they looked like solid sheets of eyeballs and colored fins. We took a longboat twenty-five miles up the old Belize River, through the twisting jungle, to the ancient temples called Laminae, where the howler monkeys guard the comedy of lost religion and the creeper vines and palms make shadowed alleys under the towering pyramids of Mayan kings and jaguars. We read a thousand pages of cheap fiction. We SCUBAd inside the Barrier Reef and drank ourselves silly with big-hearted Tennessee song writers and crafty international entrepreneurs ...
We dove with a flock of manta rays so big and black they looked like flying black carpets or B-17s or something. We swam through walls of yellow jacks and school-master fish, the crowds so thick they looked like solid sheets of eyeballs and colored fins. We took a longboat twenty-five miles up the old Belize River, through the twisting jungle, to the ancient temples called Laminae, where the howler monkeys guard the comedy of lost religion and the creeper vines and palms make shadowed alleys under the towering pyramids of Mayan kings and jaguars. We read a thousand pages of cheap fiction. We SCUBAd inside the Barrier Reef and drank ourselves silly with big-hearted Tennessee song writers and crafty international entrepreneurs ...
and suffering a bit of sunburn from hiking all yesterday. Saw some howler monkeys, toucans and other birds . Found some interesting fruits on the property and Mo made salads for supper. Checking out the village more today…... ...
Bed & Breakfast for sale and personal home with 2 houses on property of 3/4 acre (3,030 m2) and buildings w/verandas & carport approximately 350 m2. One house at entrance is central to village w/gated parking lot and a 3-bedroom house for rental or employees/family w/carport/yard/gardens. A 50-meter sendero winds to the top among lush gardens where the main house is situated w/2 buildings attached by verandas & stairway to second floor. There are 2 bedrooms, sala, 4 baths, large kitchen, laundry rooms, work bodega, storage bodega and hot tub on veranda w/tiled shower room. Home is surrounded by tropical gardens, views of Arenal Volcano, panoramic views of Lake Arenal, private w/school owned property on one side, pasture land on back side and connecting entry gate on other side to Cabinas El Castillo & Fusion Restaurant. A bird watchers paradise w/hummingbirds, Montezuma, toucans, butterflies and visits from howler monkeys. The B&B is listed four consecutive editions of Lonely Planet and the ...
Swarming sharks, howler monkeys and Mayan temples rewarded a timid traveler for his first international (though still nearby) trip.
Bed & Breakfast for sale and personal home with 2 houses on property of 3/4 acre (3,030 m2) and buildings w/verandas & carport approximately 350 m2. One house at entrance is central to village w/gated parking lot and a 3-bedroom house for rental or employees/family w/carport/yard/gardens. A 50-meter sendero winds to the top among lush gardens where the main house is situated w/2 buildings attached by verandas & stairway to second floor. There are 2 bedrooms, sala, 4 baths, large kitchen, laundry rooms, work bodega, storage bodega and hot tub on veranda w/tiled shower room. Home is surrounded by tropical gardens, views of Arenal Volcano, panoramic views of Lake Arenal, private w/school owned property on one side, pasture land on back side and connecting entry gate on other side to Cabinas El Castillo & Fusion Restaurant. A bird watchers paradise w/hummingbirds, Montezuma, toucans, butterflies and visits from howler monkeys. The B&B is listed four consecutive editions of Lonely Planet and the ...
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UC Riverside-led study has health implications for nonsmokers living in homes that have (or had) smokers. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - RIVERSIDE. RIVERSIDE, Calif. - Thirdhand smoke (THS) results when exhaled smoke gets on surfaces - clothing, hair, homes and cars. THS has been shown, in mice, to damage the liver and lungs, complicate wound-healing and cause hyperactivity. Add to this list now type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease.. Research published today in PLOS ONE by a team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside shows, in mice, that THS exposure causes insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes.. "If confirmed in humans, our study could greatly impact how people view exposure to environmental tobacco toxins," said Manuela Martins-Green, a professor of cell biology and neuroscience at UC Riverside and the lead author of the study. "Children and the elderly are especially vulnerable to THS and its impact on health. Because infants frequently crawl on ...
BE CAREFUL HERE NOBODY CAN HELP YOU HERE OR EVEN SUGGEST HOW YOU CAN GET YOUR EX OR LOVE BACK,ANY TESTIMONIES OF MOST SPELL CASTER HERE MUST BE IGNORE.BECAUSE MOST OF THEM ARE SCAM I MEAN REAL SCAM WHICH I WAS A VICTIM AND I GOT RIPPED OF THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS BECAUSE I WAS SO ANXIOUS TO GET MY WIFE BACK AFTER SHE LEFT ME FOR OVER 2 YEARS WITH MY 7 YEARS OLD SON JERRY,I HAVE APPLIED TO 7 DIFFERENT SPELL CASTER HERE AND ALL TO NO AVAIL THEY ALL ASK FOR SAME THING SEND YOUR NAME YOUR EX NAME ADDRESS AND PICTURE PHONE NUMBER ETC WHICH I DID OVER AND OVER AGAIN AND MOST OF THEM WERE FROM WEST AFRICA UNTIL I SAW A POST ABOUT MAMA ANITA SPELL AND I DECIDED TO GAVE HER MY LAST TRAIL.SHE ASK ME FOUR THINGS MY REAL NAME,MY EX AND MY EX MOTHER NAME AND $380 AND SAID MY EX WILL COME BACK IN 24HOURS, I HAVE PAID OVER $3000 ON SPELL CASTING AND COURIER AND NOTHING HAVE WORK FOR ME AFTER 3 DAYS I WAS THINKING ABOUT HOW MUCH I HAVE LOST SO FAR SO I SAID LET ME GIVE HER A TRY SO I CALLED HER AGAIN AND SEND MY ...
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Review: Appleton Estate Reserve Rum 85/100 a review by Chip Dykstra (Aka Arctic Wolf) Revised May, 2017 The Appleton Estate is located in Nassau Valley in St. Elizabeth which is part of Jamaicas Cockpit Country. The Cockpit Country is a karst formation which was formed over millions of years as the underlying limestone was eroded…
My name is CINDY SCOTT am from BELARUS, am a woman who loves and cherish my husband more than any other thing you can imagine on earth surface. My husband was so lovely and caring after 9 years of marriage he was seriously ill and the doctor confirm and said he has a kidney infection that he needed a kidney donor, that was how I started searching for a good Samaritan who can help,doctor has given me a periodic hour that he will live just 2 days left, that was how I ask the doctor if I can be of help to my husband that was how he carried out the test,the confirming was successful, I was now having this taught that since 9years now we got married I have not be able to get pregnant can I be able to get pregnant again after the surgery? That was the question I ask the doctor, he never answer his response was do you want to lost your husband? I immediately reply no I cant afford to loose him. After the operation i and my husband came back home and live happily as husband and wife should. After ...
You made TDHs point at the same time you thought you were debunking it. The point is that there is no news in all this. Whatever truth-bending went on in the talking points, you cannot identify any specific deception that would be any different from any such matter. Rice was sticking to the talking points, with one difference being that she did expressly acknowledge to Bob Schieffer that day that al Qaeda could be involved to some extent in the attack. OK, so you might prefer to shift your focus to the talking points themselves, but these talking points were like any other early talking points on a matter like that. Delete ...
Winerip snarked a bit this week; because his work is so valuable, we wish he wouldnt. For our money, he put this thumb on the scale at times, making it seem that things have gone haywire in the schools of the Empire State. At one point, he used SAT scores as a measure of progress; thats almost always a bad idea. In our view, he sometimes cherry-picked NAEP scores a tad. Were New York States eighth-grade reading scores really "dismal" in 2007? In fact, the state outscored the nation by three points in eighth-grade reading that year; the states black kids, white kids and low-income kids all outscored their national peers. The states NAEP scores have slid a bit in recent years. But that fact deserves a careful look from this uber-valuable journalist, one of the few we have ...
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I didnt notice any real howlers, as sometimes happens in NS, nor any overstatements that creationists will be all-to-happy to latch on to. Many of the points of James Shapiro on natural genetic engineering are included, such as whole genome duplication. However, while Shapiros language is cringeworthily telic, this article is strong on the use of mindless in describing evolution. Why does our genome look the way it does? Thank some chance viral infections, acquisitions of transposons, WGD, etc. No plan necessary ...
I didnt notice any real howlers, as sometimes happens in NS, nor any overstatements that creationists will be all-to-happy to latch on to. Many of the points of James Shapiro on natural genetic engineering are included, such as whole genome duplication. However, while Shapiros language is cringeworthily telic, this article is strong on the use of mindless in describing evolution. Why does our genome look the way it does? Thank some chance viral infections, acquisitions of transposons, WGD, etc. No plan necessary ...
This Ron Weasely artifact box set includes Gryffindor Uniform Stitched Crest, Quidditch World Cup Map, Howler Letter, Dumbledore Card, Chudley Cannons Poster, Weasley Betting Slip and Weasley Twins Product Package.
President Obama addressed the nation moments ago, swatting down several lies by Romneys brief statement earlier. Meanwhile, from the same poor misled saps that brought us "Keep your government hands off Medicare!" comes a new howler, demonstrating the real world consequences of complete ignorance.. On the heels of the SCOTUS decision, some angry conservatives are threatening to move to Canada. Presumably to escape socialized medicine. If youre not sure why thats hilarious, in the words of George Bush sr., just ask a Canadian … and we have a few Canadians responding below!. ...
This Ron Weasely artifact box set includes Gryffindor Uniform Stitched Crest, Quidditch World Cup Map, Howler Letter, Dumbledore Card, Chudley Cannons Poster, Weasley Betting Slip and Weasley Twins Product Package.
GIVE THANKS/PHIL Have not done my 10,000 hours, but a couple of years at PSW, and moved from fishing with a single line to owner of a commercial trawler (metaphorically speaking). Now I fish with many lines. It is amazing when you go over the same information time and time again, eventually it clicks. Like planting trees; being the house, 20% sale items, selling into the excitement. and patience. I just sold an AAPL Jan 12 340/390 BCS financed by the sales of Jan 12 275 Put. The trade was put on one year ago for a net credit and exited five minutes ago for a 49 dollar per contract profit. No point in waiting till opex to see what happens, and I will just sell 10 of those VLO puts to make myself net the round 50. I no longer worry about opex coming as I have adjusted well in time for most positions that go against me. I still make some howlers (RIMM, TBT, TRGT) but I play the percentages and my winners outdistance my losers by many miles. I would never be in this position if it were not for Phil. ...
Updated: 14/03/2018: A new open-source Javascript engine/library named Howler has been employed to handle audiofile. Enjoy pronunciation ...
Victoria, B.C: Solvent of Society is an Alternative rock band coming out of Victoria British Columbia, Canada. Known for their sold out performances at the annual Moonfest Festival, they also hold house band status at Howlers in Ucluelet. In March of 2015 Solvent of Society released their EP titled
Terry Mattingly at GetReligion has an instructive post on the peculiarly alarmist boners to which the prestige media are susceptible when reporting on evangelicals. Most recently hed come upon a howler in Denvers Rocky Mountain News for November 23rd. The correction reads: This story
Synonyms for flaw in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for flaw. 52 synonyms for flaw: error, mistake, fault, blunder, inaccuracy, howler, solecism, weakness, failing, defect, weak spot, spot, fault, scar, blemish.... What are synonyms for flaw?
Looking for online definition of Trichromatic vision in the Medical Dictionary? Trichromatic vision explanation free. What is Trichromatic vision? Meaning of Trichromatic vision medical term. What does Trichromatic vision mean?
Its really, really, really unusual to see this many monkeys sick all at once and to see this many monkeys dead all at once," said ecologist Williams-Guillén, a visiting scholar at U-Ms School of Natural Resources and Environment who has studied wild howler monkeys in Nicaragua since 1999.. Williams-Guillén is also the director of conservation science for Paso Pacífico, an environmental nonprofit that works in Nicaraguas Pacific forests. She said her group has confirmed at least 75 deaths reported by Nicaraguan landowners and forest rangers, 70 of them since mid-January.. Williams-Guillén plans to return to Nicaragua in a few days to investigate the monkey deaths and to look for other sick or recently deceased howlers.. At this early stage, the researchers have four main cause-of-death hypotheses theyd like to investigate. They want to know whether the deaths were caused by: 1) drought or some other environmental stress resulting in lack of food or water; 2) poisoning by ingestion of ...
New World monkeys are small to mid-sized primates, ranging from the pygmy marmoset (the worlds smallest monkey), at 14 to 16 cm (5.5 to 6.5 in) and a weight of 120 to 190 g (4.2 to 6.7 oz), to the southern muriqui, at 55 to 70 cm (22 to 28 in) and a weight of 12 to 15 kg (26 to 33 lb). New World monkeys differ slightly from Old World monkeys in several aspects. The most prominent phenotypic distinction is the nose, which is the feature used most commonly to distinguish between the two groups. The clade for the New World monkeys, Platyrrhini, means "flat nosed". The noses of New World monkeys are flatter than the narrow noses of the Old World monkeys, and have side-facing nostrils. New World monkeys are the only monkeys with prehensile tails-in comparison with the shorter, non-grasping tails of the anthropoids of the Old World.. New World monkeys (except for the howler monkeys of genus Alouatta)[5] also typically lack the trichromatic vision of Old World monkeys.[6] Colour vision in New World ...
New World monkeys are small to mid-sized primates, ranging from the pygmy marmoset (the worlds smallest monkey), at 14 to 16 cm (5.5 to 6.5 in) and a weight of 120 to 190 g (4.2 to 6.7 oz), to the southern muriqui, at 55 to 70 cm (22 to 28 in) and a weight of 12 to 15 kg (26 to 33 lb). New World monkeys differ slightly from Old World monkeys in several aspects. The most prominent phenotypic distinction is the nose, which is the feature used most commonly to distinguish between the two groups. The clade for the New World monkeys, Platyrrhini, means "flat nosed". The noses of New World monkeys are flatter than the narrow noses of the Old World monkeys, and have side-facing nostrils. New World monkeys are the only monkeys with prehensile tails-in comparison with the shorter, non-grasping tails of the anthropoids of the Old World.. New World monkeys (except for the howler monkeys of genus Alouatta)[5] also typically lack the trichromatic vision of Old World monkeys.[6] Colour vision in New World ...
In addition to its unique appearance, the jaguarundi differs from other small New World cats in many aspects of its biology and behaviour. Individuals travel widely in unusually large home ranges and are more terrestrial than many other species, though are also agile climbers (2) (3) (6) (7). The jaguarundi is also much more diurnal than most cats (3) (10) (11). The diet consists mainly of small mammals, birds and reptiles, as well as occasional amphibians, fish and larger mammals (2) (3) (4) (6). Arthropods and some fruit may also be taken (7) (10). The jaguarundi has been observed to jump up to two metres off the ground to swat at birds in the air (6). The breeding behaviour of the jaguarundi is less well known (6). It is believed to live either alone or in pairs (2) (3) (7), and may breed year-round in the tropics, although one or two distinct breeding seasons have been suggested for northern parts of the range (3) (7). The female gives birth to between one and four young after a gestation ...
Sandwiched between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, Costa Rica is an alluring mix of palm-fringed beaches, mist-shrouded rainforest, volcanoes and barbequed lobster! Famed for its rich biodiversity and wildlife, theres much to see and do in its national parks. Look out for turtles in the Tortuguero National Park and Howler monkeys playing near its lagoons as you cruise its idyllic canals. And whether youre hiking through a cloud forest in the Arenal Volcano National Park, sunning yourself on its idyllic beaches, or visiting a local pineapple farm, youre never far from a spectacular view ...
Exhibit Essay. The nearly 9 million known species on Earth, in a multitude of forms, color, and size, are a wealth of natural beauty and mystery that attracts both scientists and artists. In the project Ant Farm: At the Nexus of Art and Science, artists depict the lives of one of the most sophisticated social insects, the leafcutter ants. Iconic members of the tropics, leafcutter ants are often visible from trails of moving leaves, each of which is carried by the large mandibles of an ant. Not only are the trails fascinating, but each leaf presents its own unique form marked by distinct mandibular cuts. The underground nest boasts an intricate design with a labyrinth of corridors and rooms, some with fungal gardens where fungi are cultivated by the ants using the leaves. Thus, the leafcutters form symbiotic relationships with fungi.. All of this happens in the backdrop of the rich sounds of the tropics. At 5 in the morning, howler monkeys call loudly and birds start to wake up. From the sound of ...
Book flights to Suriname with KLM and visit the capital Paramaribo, observe the howler monkeys in the jungle and dive into the Colakreek.
Book flights to Suriname with KLM and visit the capital Paramaribo, observe the howler monkeys in the jungle and dive into the Colakreek.
Once you realize that the new Autopsy album, out April 29th on Peaceville, is titled Tourniquets, Hacksaws and Graves, it becomes pretty evident that theyre not reinventing the wheel. However, its still a pretty damn terrifying wheel. Just look at that album cover. Its as gory as a Cattle Decaptiation video, but funnier - the zombies sawing off the only part of him thats still alive!. The first taste of the bands seventh album, perhaps related to the album cover, is titled "The Howling Dead," which is a great title. I mean, why would the dead walk without making any sound? The band are on a roll, with this being their second album in as many years following a 15 year retirement they emerged from in 2011. Noisey is premiering the song, which you can check out below.. ...
Last time, I found a list of what was necessary for accreditation over a century ago:. 1. follow respectable entrance requirements. 2. offer courses selected from the classics. 3. ensure a minimum of eight departments headed by full-time. instructors, each possessing at least a master s degree. 4. provide a good library. 5. properly prepare students for post-graduate study. 6. have a maximum class size of 30. 7. have a productive endowment of at least $200,000.. The first four are a joke for modern institutions, which seldom have any requirements (much less respectable ), have gutted offerings of classic knowledge, no longer need to have departments, and yet still have dusty libraries that are seldom used by students (for a variety of reasons, including the simple fact that books are cheap to acquire, and often available in electronic format).. Maybe the other three requirements are still followed by accredited schools? Let s look at two more:. 5. properly prepare students for post-graduate ...
Jaguarondi Ja gua*ron di, n. [Native name.] (Zo[ o]l.) A South American wild cat ({Felis jaguarondi}), having a long, slim body and very short legs. Its color is grayish brown, varied with a blackish hue. It is arboreal in its habits and feeds…
Light is a very interesting phenomenon. Different animals use it in different ways. Colobus monkeys tend to target young reddish not green leaves. Plant species tend to have young leaves that are red and are more nutritious. They are simply taking advantage of their sense of full color vision. This is the ability to distinguish certain shades of colors. Therefore this ability helps them with their survival. Non-primate animals lack full color vision. More specifically apes and Old World monkeys have trichromatic vision. This means they see across the visible spectrum from blue to green to red. Most animals are dichromatic which means they only see blue and yellow. Therefore in the case of the red leaves or the green leaves, dichromatic animals do not have the ability to see the red leaves.. This ability of animals to see light and distinguish color is a physiological response of the eye to light. The human eye usually has only three types of color receptors and each one is stimulated by light of ...
SHELTER BAY Wildlife - Shelter Bay Marina is located next door to San Lorenzo National Park. It is a short walk to the park entrance. The park is ideal for walking, jogging or biking and much of it is shaded. You may encounter troops of Howler and white-faced monkeys, two and three toed sloths and abundent bird life. Fort San Lorenzo - This well maintained historic site is located on a bluff just above the entrance to the Rio Chagres. There are signs in English & Spanish explaining the history of the fort and the surrounding area. Gatun locks - There is a visitor centre and observation deck. Have a look whats in store before you transit the canal. La Granja- Located 1/2 hour from the outskirts of Colon, this working farm offers horseback riding, a zip line and kayaking. They also have a Palapa right on Gatun Lake available for BBQs. For more detailed information look for brochures in the marina lobby. ...
GIVE THANKS/PHIL Have not done my 10,000 hours, but a couple of years at PSW, and moved from fishing with a single line to owner of a commercial trawler (metaphorically speaking). Now I fish with many lines. It is amazing when you go over the same information time and time again, eventually it clicks. Like planting trees; being the house, 20% sale items, selling into the excitement. and patience. I just sold an AAPL Jan 12 340/390 BCS financed by the sales of Jan 12 275 Put. The trade was put on one year ago for a net credit and exited five minutes ago for a 49 dollar per contract profit. No point in waiting till opex to see what happens, and I will just sell 10 of those VLO puts to make myself net the round 50. I no longer worry about opex coming as I have adjusted well in time for most positions that go against me. I still make some howlers (RIMM, TBT, TRGT) but I play the percentages and my winners outdistance my losers by many miles. I would never be in this position if it were not for Phil. ...
One: Getting Kissed up to God. Sheila Halpern got her looks from her Momma, who died pushing her out. Died before, even, but still kept pushing.. "Youre the prettiest thing in the whole darn world," her daddy told her the day he put her on the train for the St. Polycarps Home for Happy Wanderers, his age-soft teeth all chipped so everything sounded muffled. She was eight years old, lice riddled, and 90% liar like her daddy. He was beat-up and down and sideways-an egg with a broken yolk.. The day before, hed killed two howlers with just his hands. Pressed his thumbs plumb-through their eye sockets and mushed their brains. Now the rest of the pack was after them, and so were the New Mexico Staties. Roadblocks and night creatures left them no time to vanish south of Juarez.. "I don wanna," Sheila said. The ticket her daddyd pinned to her t-shirt was starting to crinkle. Nobodyd be able to read it. Theyd boot her right off the train and then shed be solo forever.. "You gotta," her daddy told ...
The antelope race beside the Ark.. The waters are glassy, sometimes, when the rain slows down. They are rich in color. The hoofprints of the antelope are like the dents of great raindrops.. The antelope have wide feet and a powerful light foot technique. For seventeen days they keep their balance on the water. Yet slowly, as the days pass, they sink deeper and deeper into the shining waters until at last they drown.. "Theres no room for the hippos," Ham says. "Well have to eat them.". "No eating the hippos," says Noah.. "But Dad!". Noah considers. "There are those birds," he says, "that fly into your urethra when youre peeing and nest inside your crotch. We could eat them.". Ham considers that.. "Okay," he says.. The seven-limbed howlers struggle upwards from the cities below. They flail. They howl. They reach the surface and fill their great and terrible lungs with air. Then they sink, again, slowly, pathetically, and hoard their energy for the next long breath.. The eagles circle tiredly in ...
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Parasites have been investigated for some New World primates; however, very little is known about ectoparasites and specifically fur mites. In this study, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri oerstedii, and Ateles geoffroyi monkeys from different areas of Costa Rica were searched for fur mites. A total of 276 monkeys were evaluated, and 51 of them were positive for mites of the family Atopomelidae. Listrocarpus alouattae was identified on 22.3% of A. palliata; Listrocarpus capucinus on 12.8% of C. capucinus; and Listrocarpus costaricensis on 36.8% of S. oerstedii; No fur mites were found on A. geoffroyi. Sex was not considered a determinant of mite infestation, but prevalence was significantly higher in the Central Volcanic Mountain Range Conservation Area for L. alouattae (p=0.01) and in the Central Pacific Conservation Area for L. capucinus (p=0.002). These primate fur mites are highly host-specific. Differences in the geographical distribution may be due to monkey behavior and history, ...
Although the life cycles of Bertiella species are not completely understood, it is generally believed the genus undergoes a two-host life cycle, with an arthropod intermediate host (usually a mite) and a vertebrate definitive host (usually non-human primates for the species implicated in human infection). The two species usually implicated in human infection are B. studeri and B. mucronata. Bertiella studeri, which is an Old World species, usually infects monkeys in the genera Anthropopithecus, Cercopithecus, Cynomologus and Macaca; B. mucronata, a New World species, usually infects monkeys in the genera Callicebus and Alouatta. Higher primates, such as chimpanzees (Pan) have also been infected, often in zoo or pet settings. Eggs and proglottids are passed in the feces of the definitive host ...
Guanacaste is a dry, sparsely populated area of the country thats known for its beautiful beaches (including ones where sea turtles nest), surfing, snorkeling, deep sea fishing, and its string of large resorts. The region is home to seven national parks, including Rincon de la Vieja Volcano National Park, where visitors can hike past boiling mud pots and smoking fissures. Guanacaste has a lower elevation than other areas of the country and an arid climate, so there are no rain forests here, but the dry tropical forests are still wildlife rich: Visitors can spot howler monkeys, sloths, white-faced capuchin monkeys, and iguanas.
White-throated capuchin interacting with howler monkey - View incredible White-throated capuchin videos - Cebus capucinus - on Arkive
jaguarundi: (Puma yagouaroundi), small, unspotted New World cat (family Felidae), also known as the otter-cat because of its otterlike appearance and swimming ability. The jaguarundi is native...
Husband-and-wife duo The Color Wheels are in the midst of a November tour in support of their new self-titled full-length album. tour: Nov 10 - Washington, DC @ Velvet Lounge Nov 11 - Pittsburgh, PA @ Howlers Coyote Nov 12 - Buffalo, NY @ Broadway Joes Nov 14 - Rochester, NY @ Montys Krown Nov 15 - Oswego, NY @ The
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disea...
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During the recent epidemic of acute anterior poliomyelitis in Panamá the author became interested in experimental studies of the etiologic agent. Three strains of poliomyelitis virus were isolated in rhesus monkeys (Rodaniche, in press). However, in view of the costliness of Macaca mulatta and the delay and difficulty experienced at times in obtaining specimens, it seemed advisable to attempt transmission of the virus to local monkeys. Since Melnick and Paul (1943) and Melnick (1946) had reported successful transmission to South American species of Cebus capucina, the corresponding Panamanian species was chosen for study. Later, experiments were also conducted with two of the four local subspecies of the howler monkey and with juvenile specimens of the black spider monkey. Mackay and Schroeder (1935) were unsuccessful in their attempts to transmit the virus to the South American spider monkey, Ateles ater, but we hoped that perhaps infant and juvenile specimens might prove more susceptible.
... s are New World monkeys of the family Atelidae, subfamily Atelinae. Found in tropical forests from southern Mexico to Brazil, spider monkeys belong to the genus Ateles; the closely related woolly spider monkeys are in the genus Brachyteles.. As they require large tracts of undisturbed forest and specialize on ripe fruits, spider monkeys may be considered an indicator species. The monkeys are threatened by habitat destruction through continued growth in South American agriculture. Disproportionately long, spindly limbs inspired the spider monkeys common name. Their deftly prehensile tails have highly flexible hairless tips.. Spider monkeys have hook-like, narrow and thumbless hands; the fingers are elongate and recurved. The hair is coarse, ranging in color from a ruddy gold to brown and black; the hands and feet are usually black. Heads are small with hairless faces. An unusually long labia in females may be mistaken for a penis; it is used to attract the males. A female will ...
Background: Dermatophytoses are cosmopolitan contagious mycoses of the skin and concern a wide range of mammals, including man, and more rarely birds. These mycoses are rarely diagnosed in New World Primates. The most frequent tinea of the subhuman Primates is microsporosis due to Microsporum canis or trichophytosis by Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. simii. The main clinical features are regular alopecia with erythema and squamosis, usually non-pruriginous although various degree of inammation may modify this typical aspect. As a consequence, an accurate clinical examination, a good differential diagnosis and laboratory analyses are required for a correct identification. Alouatta guariba are primates found from the Amazon region up to the Argentina Norwest. Due to the population development and expansion of the urban perimeters these animals are loosing their space in their own natural habitat and being exposed to more closed relationship with domestic animals and humans. This report contains ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolutionary and ecological factors underlying the tempo and distribution of yellow fever virus activity. AU - Carrington, Christine V.F.. AU - Auguste, Albert J.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Yellow fever virus (YFV) is historically one of the most important viruses to affect human populations. Despite the existence of highly effective vaccines for over 70. years, yellow fever remains a significant and re-emerging cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic and high-risk regions of South America and Africa. The virus may be maintained in sylvatic enzootic/epizootic, transitional and urban epidemic transmission cycles with geographic variation in terms of levels of genetic diversity, the nature of transmission cycles and patterns of outbreak activity. In this review we consider evolutionary and ecological factors underlying YFV emergence, maintenance and spread, geographic distribution and patterns of epizootic/epidemic activity.. AB - Yellow fever virus (YFV) is ...
The initial spatial pattern of seed deposition influences plant population and community structure, particularly when that pattern persists through recruitment. In a vertebrate-dispersed rain forest tree, Virola calophylla, we found that spatially aggregated seed deposition strongly influenced the spatial structure of later stages. Seed dispersion was clumped, and seed densities were highest underneath V. calophylla females and the sleeping sites of spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus), the key dispersal agent. Although these site types had the lowest per capita seed-to-seedling survival, they had the highest seedling/sapling densities. Conversely, seed and seedling/sapling densities were lowest, and seed survival was highest, at sites of diurnal seed dispersal by spider monkeys. Negative density-dependent and positive distance-dependent seed survival thinned seed clumps. Nonetheless, the clumped dispersion at sleeping and parental sites persisted to the seedling/sapling stage because differences in seed
In the late 19th century, the issue of infanticide captured the attention of a significant number of journalists, psychiatric and medical writers and social commentators. The act of intentionally killing an infant within 24 hours of its birth was by no means new to this period. Yet changing socio-cultural and economic circumstances, combined with shifting perceptions of murder and deviant female behaviour, ensured that infanticide gradually evolved into a publicly prominent concern. While the history of infanticide has been assessed in various national contexts, analyses of this form of murder in Ireland have surfaced only sporadically; Cliona Rattigans recent study of early 20th-century Ireland being an exception.(1) Elaine Farrells A Most Diabolical Deed: Infanticide and Irish Society, 1850-1900 offers the first comprehensive account of how infanticide was performed, perceived, responded to and legally managed in late 19th-century Ireland. Farrell draws upon an impressive range of case ...
Purified Recombinant Yellow Fever Virus NS1 Protein, His-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Yellow Fever Virus NS1 Protein, His-tagged can be used for research.

Alouatta seniculus ssp. puruensis (Purús Red Howler, Purús Red Howler Monkey)Alouatta seniculus ssp. puruensis (Purús Red Howler, Purús Red Howler Monkey)

Alouatta seniculus ssp. puruensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T136787A81229559. . Downloaded on 11 ... As for Alouatta seniculus, Brazil. Adult male 7.62 kg (n=28) (Ayres 1986). Adult female 6.02 kg (n=34) (Ayres 1986).. ... 1995) listed nine subspecies of the Red Howler Monkey, Alouatta seniculus: A. s. seniculus, A. s. arctoidea, A. s. stramineus, ... Alouatta seniculus puruensis Lönnberg, 1941, from Jaburú, Rio Purus, is recognized as a distinct form by Gregorin (2006). He ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/136787/0

Alouatta caraya (Black-and-gold Howler Monkey, Black Howler, Black Howler Monkey, Black Howling Monkey)Alouatta caraya (Black-and-gold Howler Monkey, Black Howler, Black Howler Monkey, Black Howling Monkey)

Sympatry between Alouatta caraya and Alouatta clamitans and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids in Southern ... Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812). Common Name(s): English. -. Black-and-gold Howler Monkey, Black Howler, Black Howler Monkey, ... Alouatta caraya. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41545A10496784. . Downloaded on 11 December 2017.. ... Hábitat y densidad de Aotus azarae y Alouatta caraya en Riacho Pilagá, Formosa. Boletín Primatológico Latinoamericano 2: 29-47. ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/41545/0

Vol 9: When Top-Down Becomes Bottom Up: Behaviour of Hyperdense Howler Monkeys Alouatta seniculus Trapped on a 0.6 Ha Island. -...Vol 9: When Top-Down Becomes Bottom Up: Behaviour of Hyperdense Howler Monkeys Alouatta seniculus Trapped on a 0.6 Ha Island. -...

Vol 9: When Top-Down Becomes Bottom Up: Behaviour of Hyperdense Howler Monkeys Alouatta seniculus Trapped on a 0.6 Ha Island ... Vol 9: When Top-Down Becomes Bottom Up: Behaviour of Hyperdense Howler Monkeys Alouatta seniculus Trapped on a 0.6 Ha Island.. ... Vol 9: When Top-Down Becomes Bottom Up: Behaviour of Hyperdense Howler Monkeys Alouatta seniculus Trapped on a 0.6 Ha Island ... Behaviour of Hyperdense Howler Monkeys Alouatta seniculus Trapped on a 0.6 Ha Island.. This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9. ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun4/14971203919-Vol-9-When-Top-Down-Becomes-Bottom-Up-Behaviour-of-Hyperdense-Howler-Monkeys-Alouatta-seniculus-Trapped-on-a-06-Ha-Island-Orihuela-Gabriela-Te.php

Alouatta
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Encyclopedia of LifeAlouatta - Encyclopedia of Life

Alouatta is a genus of primate in the family atelid monkeys. It is an omnivore ...
more infohttps://eol.org/pages/41553

Alouatta nigerrima - WikispeciesAlouatta nigerrima - Wikispecies

Alouatta nigerrima Lönnberg, 1941 Vernacular names[edit]. беларуская: Амазонскі чорны равун. Deutsch: Amazonischer Schwarzer ... italiano: Alouatta nigerrima. português: Bugio-preto-amazônico. Türkçe: Amazonlu kara uluyan maymun. ... Genus: Alouatta Species: Alouatta nigerrima Name[edit]. ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alouatta_nigerrima

Alouatta belzebul - WikispeciesAlouatta belzebul - Wikispecies

Alouatta belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766). Vernacular names[edit]. English: Red-handed Howler. português: Guariba, Bugio. Türkçe: ... Genus: Alouatta Species: Alouatta belzebul Name[edit]. * ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alouatta_belzebul

Mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) longevity, ageing, and life historyMantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) longevity, ageing, and life history

Alouatta aequatorialis, Alouatta inclamax, Mycetes niger, Alouatta palliata inconsonans, Alouatta palliata quichua, Alouatta ... Genus: Alouatta. Species. Alouatta palliata. Common name. Mantled howler monkey. Synonyms. ... AnAge entry for Alouatta palliata Classification (HAGRID: 02304). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ...
more infohttp://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Alouatta_palliata

Gastrointestinal Microbial Community Composition and Habitat Structure in Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra) | J. Craig Venter...Gastrointestinal Microbial Community Composition and Habitat Structure in Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra) | J. Craig Venter...

Alouatta sp.) are among the most folivorous of the New World monkeys and have highly flexible diets. However, despite the fact ... Howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are among the most folivorous of the New World monkeys and have highly flexible diets. However, ... The role of gut microbes in satisfying the nutritional demands of adult and juvenile wild, black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra ... The gut microbiota appears to compensate for seasonal diet variation in the wild black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra). ...
more infohttps://www.jcvi.org/gastrointestinal-microbial-community-composition-and-habitat-structure-howler-monkeys-alouatta-pigra

Observed infanticides following a male immigration event in black howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra, at Palenque National Park,...Observed infanticides following a male immigration event in black howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra, at Palenque National Park,...

Van Belle S, Estrada A, Strier KB (2008) Social relationships among male Alouatta pigra. Int J Primatol 29:1481-1498CrossRef ... Horwich RH (1983) Breeding behaviors in the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) of Belize. Primates 24:222-230CrossRefGoogle ... Infanticide Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) Reproductive strategies Male immigration This is a preview of subscription ... Izawa K (1997) Social changes within a group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus), VI. Field Stud Fauna Flora La Macarena ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10329-010-0207-5

Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae), based on |FONT FACE=Symbol|g...Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae), based on |FONT FACE=Symbol|g...

... the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the ... The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys) is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three ... MEIRELES, Carla Maria et al. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1415-47571999000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Alouatta seniculusAlouatta seniculus

Colombian Red Howler, Alouatta seniculus seniculus. * Ursine Howler, Alouatta seniculus arctoidea. * Juruá Red Howler, Alouatta ... Alouatta seniculus (*). Cladus: Eukaryota. Supergroup: Opisthokonta. Regnum: Animalia. Subregnum: Eumetazoa. Cladus: Bilateria ... Alouatta seniculus is an arboreal and diurnal primate that spends much of its time up high in the canopy. Its preferred method ... Alouatta seniculus, (Linnaeus, 1766). Vernacular names. Internationalization. English: Venezuelan Red Howler. Polski: Wyjec ...
more infohttp://www.scientificlib.com/en/Biology/Animalia/Chordata/Mammalia/AlouattaSeniculus01.html

Topsoil as affected by dung deposition under resting places of red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) - Jean-François Ponge -...Topsoil as affected by dung deposition under resting places of red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) - Jean-François Ponge -...

Alouatta seniculus) living in tropical rainforests of South America. Monkey dung was experimentally clumped on the field in a ... Alouatta seniculus) : In: Pedosphere, 2008, 18 (6), pp.691-698. The short-term influence of dung deposition and the further ... Topsoil as affected by dung deposition under resting places of red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) Jean-François Ponge - ... beetles was studied under a resting place of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) ...
more infohttps://www.youscribe.com/catalogue/documents/savoirs/science-de-la-nature/topsoil-as-affected-by-dung-deposition-under-resting-places-of-red-1606969

Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical
         (Alouatta palliata) and...Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and...

Alouatta. Animals. Basal Metabolism. Body Temperature Regulation. Macaca. Seasons. Species Specificity. Temperature. Thyroid ... Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold- ... Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold-habitat (Macaca fuscata) primate. Am J Primatol, 79(11). 10.1002/ajp.22714. Retrieved ... Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We collected urine and feces from animals ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/16138

ADW: Alouatta caraya: INFORMATIONADW: Alouatta caraya: INFORMATION

Genus Alouatta howler monkeys Alouatta: pictures (7) Alouatta: specimens (49) Alouatta: sounds (2) ... Species Alouatta caraya black howler monkey Alouatta caraya: information (1) Alouatta caraya: pictures (1) Alouatta caraya: ... In Alouatta caraya groups there are usually between 5 to 8, though they have been observed in the wild in groups up to 19 ... Alouatta caraya are sexually dimorphic where males average 6.7 kg and females average 4.4 kg. Male body size ranges from 1.7 to ...
more infohttp://animaldiversity.org/site/accounts/information/Alouatta_caraya.html

NAVER Academic | The Role of Canopy Ants in Removing Ficus perforata Seeds from Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana)...NAVER Academic | The Role of Canopy Ants in Removing Ficus perforata Seeds from Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana)...

The Role of Canopy Ants in Removing Ficus perforata Seeds from Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana) Feces at Los Tuxtlas ...
more infohttp://academic.naver.com/article.naver?doc_id=118836767

WILLIAMS-BEUREN MAPPING IN CALLITHRIX ARGENTATA, CALLICEBUS CUPREUS AND ALOUATTA CARAYA INDICATES DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF...WILLIAMS-BEUREN MAPPING IN CALLITHRIX ARGENTATA, CALLICEBUS CUPREUS AND ALOUATTA CARAYA INDICATES DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF...

WILLIAMS-BEUREN MAPPING IN CALLITHRIX ARGENTATA, CALLICEBUS CUPREUS AND ALOUATTA CARAYA INDICATES DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF ... WILLIAMS-BEUREN MAPPING IN CALLITHRIX ARGENTATA, CALLICEBUS CUPREUS AND ALOUATTA CARAYA INDICATES DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF ... Alouatta caraya (black and gold howler, 2n = 52). In both the marmoset and the howler monkeys, the signal was found on the ... CALLICEBUS CUPREUS AND ALOUATTA CARAYA INDICATES DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF CHROMOSOMAL REARRANGEMENTS IN NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES. ...
more infohttps://iris.unipa.it/handle/10447/19373

Mantled howler - WikipediaMantled howler - Wikipedia

Alouatta palliata palliata, in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua; Mexican howler, Alouatta palliata mexicana, in ... The mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), or golden-mantled howling monkey, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World ... Kinzey, W. (1997). "Alouatta". In Kinzey, W. New World Primates Ecology, Evolution and Behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p ... However, in 1997 a Venezuelan red howler (Alouatta seniculus) was reported to use a stick as a club to hit a Linnaeuss two- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantled_howler

Spixs red-handed howler - WikipediaSpix's red-handed howler - Wikipedia

Spixs red-handed howler (Alouatta discolor) is a species of Howler monkey native to the southeastern Amazon in Brazil. It is ... 23 (1). Pinto, L. P.; Setz, E. Z. (2004). "Diet of Alouatta belzebul discolor in an Amazonian rain forest of Northern Mato ... Kinzey, W.G. (1997). "Alouatta". In Warren G. Kinzey. New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: de ... Gregorin, R. (2006). "Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, Atelidae) no Brasil ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spix's_red-handed_howler

Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 41, Number 3Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 41, Number 3

How Important Are Urinary Signals in Alouatta? Clara B. Jones. Livingstone College, Community Conservation, Inc. Introduction. ... This is the first report of T. callithricis in this host, Alouatta caraya, and in a new geographical distribution, northeastern ... Urine-washing, however, has not been reported in species of Alouatta other than A. palliata, possibly because other howlers are ... The black-and-gold howler monkey, Alouatta caraya (in Spanish: mono carayá), is found in the rain forests of Argentina s ...
more infohttp://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn41-3.html

Browsing  by Author 0114425Browsing by Author "0114425"

A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.  Clarke, Margaret R; Glander, ... Average Body Weight for Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta palliata): An Assessment of Average Values and Variability  Glander ... Body weights before and after first pregnancies of immigrant adult female mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa ... Body temperature and thermal environment in a generalized arboreal anthropoid, wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/browse?type=author&authority=0114425

Geoffroys spider monkey - WikipediaGeoffroy's spider monkey - Wikipedia

Alouatta. (Howler monkeys). *A. palliata group: Coiba Island howler (A. coibensis). *Mantled howler (A. palliata) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffroy%27s_Spider_Monkey

ArboCat Virus: Manzanilla (MANV)ArboCat Virus: Manzanilla (MANV)

Alouatta 0/11 NT Wild birds 0/3,000 Trinidad Small rodents 0/1,000 ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=282&SID=7

Naczelne - Wikipedia, wolna encyklopediaNaczelne - Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia

Alouatta palliata). „Neotropical Primates". 16, s. 24-27, 2009. BioOne (ang.). ...
more infohttps://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naczelne

Costa Rica - Wikimedia CommonsCosta Rica - Wikimedia Commons

Français : Costa Rica est un pays en Amérique Centrale. Le capital et sa ville la plus importante est San José. Dautres villes importantes sont Alajuela, Heredia et Cartago ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Costa_Rica

Internet Archive Search: Munychryia seniculaInternet Archive Search: Munychryia senicula

discovered a trypanosome in a howler monkey {Alouatta senicula) captured in French Guiana (Fig. 203,3). Oiily ... discovered a trypanosome in a howler monkey {Alouatta senicula) captured in French Guiana (Fig. 203,3). Oiily. ... Putorius nigripes; Red Howling Monkey, Alouatta senicula; Sooty Mangaby, Ccrcocebus fuliginosus; two Doguera ... Putorius nigripes; Red Howling Monkey, Alouatta senicula; Sooty Mangaby, Ccrcocebus fuliginosus; two Doguera. ...
more infohttp://archive.org/search.php?query=Munychryia+senicula&sin=TXT&%3Bsort=titleSorter%E2%88%A7%5B%5D=creator%3A%22academy+of+natural+sciences+of+philadelphia%22%E2%88%A7%5B%5D=year%3A%222018%22&and%5B%5D=collection%3A%22blc%22
  • Aguiar LM, Ludwig G, Hilst CLS, Malanski LS, Passos FC (2005) Tentativa de infanticidio por um macho dominante de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt) (Primates, Atelidae) em um infante extra-grupo devido a influêcia do observador. (springer.com)
  • We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). (duke.edu)
  • Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold-habitat (Macaca fuscata) primate. (duke.edu)
  • Alouatta caraya range varies from tropical semi-deciduous gallery forest where rains are nearly constant throughout the year, to tropical deciduous forest spotted with savanna like openings where there is a marked wet, warm season and a dry, cool season. (animaldiversity.org)