Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia
Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). (1/27)Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV). (+info)
Rapid acquisition of an alarm response by a neotropical primate to a newly introduced avian predator. (2/27)Predation is an important selective pressure in natural ecosystems. Among non-human primates, relatively little is known about how predators hunt primate prey and how primates acquire adaptive responses to counteract predation. In this study we took advantage of the recent reintroduction of radio-tagged harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) to Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama to explore how mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), one of their primary prey, acquire anti-predator defences. Based on the observation that harpies follow their prey prior to attack, and often call during this pursuit period, we broadcast harpy eagle calls to howlers on BCI as well as to a nearby control population with no harpy predation. Although harpies have been extinct from this area for 50-100 years, results indicate that BCI howlers rapidly acquired an adaptive anti-predator response to harpy calls, while showing no response to other avian vocalizations; howlers maintained this response several months after the removal of the eagles. These results not only show that non-human primates can rapidly acquire an alarm response to a newly introduced predator, but that they can detect and identify predators on the basis of acoustic cues alone. These findings have significant implications both for the role of learning mechanisms in the evolution of prey defence and for conservation strategies, suggesting that the use of 'probing' approaches, such as auditory playbacks, may highly enhance an a priori assessment of the impact of species reintroduction. (+info)
Natural selection on molar size in a wild population of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). (3/27)Dental traits have long been assumed to be under selection in mammals, based on the macroevolutionary correlation between dental morphology and feeding behaviour. However, natural selection acting on dental morphology has rarely, if ever, been documented in wild populations. We investigated the possibility of microevolutionary selection on dental traits by measuring molar breadth in a sample of Alouatta palliata (mantled howler monkey) crania from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. The age at death of the monkeys is an indicator of their fitness, since they were all found dead of natural causes. Howlers with small molars have significantly decreased fitness as they die, on average, at an earlier age (well before sexual maturity) than those with larger molars. This documents the existence of phenotypic viability selection on molar tooth size in the BCI howlers, regardless of causality or heritability. The selection is further shown to occur during the weaning phase of A. palliata life history, establishing a link between this period of increased mortality and selection on a specific morphological feature. These results provide initial empirical support for the long-held assumption that primate molar size is under natural selection. (+info)
A case of yellow fever in a brown howler (Alouatta fusca) in Southern Brazil. (4/27)Many brown howlers (Alouatta fusca) have died in a 3-month period in a subtropical forest in Southern Brazil. One was examined after a systemic illness. According to clinical signs, and necropsy and histopathology findings, yellow fever virus (YFV) infection was suspected. Tissue sections from liver, kidney, and lymphoid organs were screened by immunohistochemistry for YFV antigens. Cells within those tissues stained positively with a polyclonal antibody against YFV antigens (1:1,600 dilution), and yellow fever was diagnosed for the first time in the brown howler in the area. (+info)
Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates. (5/27)Olfactory receptor (OR) genes constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Previous studies suggested that the proportion of pseudogenes in the OR gene family is significantly larger in humans than in other apes and significantly larger in apes than in the mouse. To investigate the process of degeneration of the olfactory repertoire in primates, we estimated the proportion of OR pseudogenes in 19 primate species by surveying randomly chosen subsets of 100 OR genes from each species. We find that apes, Old World monkeys and one New World monkey, the howler monkey, have a significantly higher proportion of OR pseudogenes than do other New World monkeys or the lemur (a prosimian). Strikingly, the howler monkey is also the only New World monkey to possess full trichromatic vision, along with Old World monkeys and apes. Our findings suggest that the deterioration of the olfactory repertoire occurred concomitant with the acquisition of full trichromatic color vision in primates. (+info)
Genetic evidence for the coexistence of pheromone perception and full trichromatic vision in howler monkeys. (6/27)Vertebrate pheromones are water-soluble chemicals perceived mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for intraspecific communications. Humans, apes, and Old World (OW) monkeys lack functional genes responsible for the pheromone signal transduction and are generally insensitive to vomeronasal pheromones. It has been hypothesized that the evolutionary deterioration of pheromone sensitivity occurred because pheromone communication became redundant after the emergence of full trichromatic color vision via the duplication of the X-chromosome-linked red/green opsin gene in the common ancestor of hominoids and OW monkeys. Interestingly, full trichromacy also evolved in the New World (NW) howler monkeys via an independent duplication of the same gene. Here we sequenced from three species of howler monkeys an essential component of the VNO pheromone transduction pathway, the gene encoding the ion channel TRP2. In contrast to those of hominoids and OW monkeys, the howler TRP2 sequences have none of the characteristics of pseudogenes. This and other observations indicate that howler monkeys have maintained both their systems of pheromone communication and full trichromatic vision, suggesting that the presence of full trichromacy alone does not lead to the loss of pheromone communication. We suggest that the ecological differences between OW and NW primates, particularly in habitat selection, may have also affected the evolution of pheromone perception. (+info)
Functional morphology of the first cervical vertebra in humans and nonhuman primates. (7/27)The cervical vertebral column bears or balances the weight of the head supported by the nuchal muscles that partly originate from the cervical vertebrae. The position of the head relative to the vertebral column, and consequently locomotion and posture behavior, could thus be associated with the form of the cervical vertebrae. In spite of this assumption and some empirical indications along these lines, primate vertebral morphologies have been reported to be very similar and not clearly related to locomotion. We therefore study the relationship between the morphology of the first cervical vertebra, the atlas, and the locomotion pattern within primates using a geometric morphometric approach. Our analysis is based on a total of 116 vertebrae of adult Homo sapiens, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Hylobates lar, Macaca mulatta, Papio hamadryas, Ateles geoffroyi, and Alouatta palliata. On each atlas, 56 landmarks were digitized and superimposed by Procrustes registration. The resulting shape variables were analyzed by principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and partial least-squares analysis. We found that the nine primate species differ clearly in their atlas morphology and that allometric shape change is distinct between the nonhuman primates and Homo sapiens. We could further identify morphological features that relate to the species' locomotion pattern. Human atlas shape, however, cannot be predicted by an extrapolation of the nonhuman primate model. This implies that either the primate atlas is generalized enough to allow bipedal locomotion or else the human atlas morphology is a unique adaptation different from that in the more orthograde nonhuman primates. (+info)
Nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode. (8/27)Functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. We tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. We used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of Ateles geoffroyi, Symphalangus syndactylus, Alouatta seniculus, Colobus guereza, Macaca fascicularis, and Papio cynocephalus (n = 46). We analyzed a size-scaled superior and inferior volume of interest (VOI) in the femoral neck. The ratio of the superior to inferior VOI bone volume fraction indicated that the distribution of trabecular bone was inferiorly skewed in most (but not all) quadrupeds and evenly distributed the climbing/suspensory species, but interspecific comparisons indicated that all taxa overlapped in these measurements. Degree of anisotropy values were generally higher in the inferior VOI of all species and the results for the two climbing/suspensory taxa, A. geoffroyi (1.71 +/- 0.30) and S. syndactylus (1.55 +/- 0.04), were similar to the results for the quadrupedal anthropoids, C. guereza (male = 1.64 +/- 0.13; female = 1.68 +/- 0.07) and P. cynocephalus (1.47 +/- 0.13). These results suggest strong trabecular architecture similarity across body sizes, anthropoid phylogenetic backgrounds, and locomotor mode. This structural similarity might be explained by greater similarity in anthropoid hip joint loading mechanics than previously considered. It is likely that our current models of anthropoid hip joint mechanics are overly simplistic. (+info)
In the medical field, "Alouatta" refers to a genus of New World monkeys that includes several species commonly known as howler monkeys. These monkeys are known for their loud vocalizations, which can be heard from a distance of several miles. Howler monkeys are found in Central and South America, and are an important part of the rainforest ecosystem. They are also of interest to researchers studying primate behavior and evolution.
Cebidae is a family of primates that includes the capuchins, squirrel monkeys, and howler monkeys. These animals are found in Central and South America and are known for their intelligence, social behavior, and ability to use tools. In the medical field, Cebidae are not typically studied directly, but their behavior and biology can provide insights into the evolution and behavior of primates more broadly. Additionally, some species of Cebidae are used in research studies, such as the common marmoset, which is a popular model organism for studying human diseases.
Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare, benign (non-cancerous) condition that affects the oral mucosa (the lining of the mouth). It is also known as Heck's disease or Epstein-Barr virus-associated oral disease (EBV-OED). FEH is characterized by the development of small, raised, pink or white bumps or plaques on the tongue, gums, roof of the mouth, or other areas of the oral cavity. These bumps may be asymptomatic (not cause any symptoms) or may cause mild discomfort or irritation. FEH is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a common virus that can cause infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever) and is also associated with certain types of cancer. The exact mechanism by which EBV causes FEH is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the virus infecting cells in the oral mucosa and causing them to multiply abnormally. FEH is usually diagnosed through a physical examination of the mouth and may be confirmed through a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment for FEH is generally not necessary, as the condition is benign and does not typically cause any serious health problems. However, in some cases, the bumps may be removed surgically if they are causing discomfort or if they are cosmetically unappealing.
Monkey diseases, also known as primate diseases, are infections or illnesses that are caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that are naturally found in non-human primates, such as monkeys, apes, and lemurs. These diseases can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Some examples of monkey diseases that can be transmitted to humans include: 1. Ebola virus disease: This is a severe and often fatal illness that is caused by the Ebola virus, which is found in primates in Africa. 2. Marburg virus disease: This is another severe and often fatal illness that is caused by the Marburg virus, which is also found in primates in Africa. 3. Monkeypox: This is a viral infection that is caused by the monkeypox virus, which is found in primates in Africa and the Americas. 4. Lassa fever: This is a viral infection that is caused by the Lassa virus, which is found in rats and other small animals in West Africa. 5. Rabies: This is a viral infection that is caused by the rabies virus, which is found in a wide range of animals, including primates. 6. Cholera: This is a bacterial infection that is caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium, which is found in contaminated water and food. 7. Typhoid fever: This is a bacterial infection that is caused by the Salmonella typhi bacterium, which is found in contaminated food and water. It is important for healthcare workers and travelers to be aware of the risks of monkey diseases and to take appropriate precautions to prevent infection. This may include avoiding direct contact with wild animals, practicing good hygiene, and receiving appropriate vaccinations.
Cestode infections, also known as tapeworm infections, are caused by tapeworms, which are flatworms that live in the intestines of animals, including humans. Tapeworms are divided into two main groups: cestodes and trematodes. Cestodes are the type of tapeworm that infects humans. Cestodes are characterized by their long, flat bodies, which are divided into segments called proglottids. Each proglottid contains reproductive organs and can detach from the main body of the tapeworm and pass through the digestive system to be excreted in the feces. Cestode infections are typically acquired by consuming contaminated food or water, or by coming into contact with contaminated soil or surfaces. The most common types of cestode infections in humans include: 1. Taenia solium (pork tapeworm): This tapeworm is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked pork or pork products that contain the eggs of the tapeworm. 2. Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm): This tapeworm is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked beef or beef products that contain the eggs of the tapeworm. 3. Echinococcus granulosus (dog tapeworm): This tapeworm is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked meat or raw vegetables that have been contaminated with the eggs of the tapeworm. Symptoms of cestode infections may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and weight loss. In some cases, the tapeworms may cause more serious complications, such as blockages in the intestines or allergic reactions. Treatment for cestode infections typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications to kill the tapeworms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tapeworms or to treat complications caused by the infection. Prevention of cestode infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meat thoroughly, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or surfaces.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic flatworms that are commonly known as tapeworms. They are characterized by their flattened, ribbon-like bodies and their ability to attach themselves to the walls of the small intestine of their host. Tapeworms are found in a wide range of animals, including humans, and can cause a variety of health problems in infected individuals. Some common examples of tapeworms include Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), and Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm). Treatment for tapeworm infections typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications.
In the medical field, "Cercopithecus" refers to a genus of Old World monkeys that includes several species commonly kept as pets or used in research. These monkeys are known for their intelligence, social behavior, and ability to learn and perform tasks. Some common species within the Cercopithecus genus include the vervet monkey, the olive baboon, and the patas monkey. These monkeys can be susceptible to a variety of health problems, including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal issues, and parasitic infections. In addition, they may also be at risk for certain diseases that are transmissible to humans, such as Ebola and Marburg virus.
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Crop-raiding of mango fruits (Mangifera indica) by mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the Refugio de Vida Silvestre...
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- and the howler monkey, alouatta caraya were compared. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- howler monkey (Alouatta), which comprises between nine and 14 species and ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is the most widely distributed platyrrhines. (lutzonilab.net)
- These include the jaguar (Panthera onca), red-necked aracari (Pteroglossus bitorquatus), channel-billed toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus), South American tapir (Tapirus terrestrius), eastern black-handed tamarin monkey (Saguinus ursulus), red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul), and black bearded saki monkey (Chiropotes satanas), many of which are currently considered to be threatened or vulnerable to extinction. (pulpapernews.com)
- The southern brown howler (Alouatta guariba clamitans) is a monkey subspecies of brown howler native to southeastern Brazil (Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul) and far northeastern Argentina (Misiones). (wikipedia.org)
- Positively selected variants in functionally important regions of TLR7 in Alouatta guariba clamitans with yellow fever virus exposure in Northern Argentina. (cdc.gov)
- A new species of Alouatta (Primates, Atelinae) from the Late Pleistocene of Bahia, Brazil. (organismnames.com)
Mantled howler monkeys1
- McKinney, T & Orozco Zamora, C 2008, ' Crop-raiding of mango fruits (Mangifera indica) by mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the Refugio de Vida Silvestre Curú, Costa Rica ', American Journal of Biological Anthropology , vol. 135, no. (southwales.ac.uk)
- Atelidae Alouatta spp. (j-monkey.jp)
- Sixty-two (25.6%) samples containing genome segments representative of members of the family Herpesviridae, including 16.1% for Callitrichine gammaherpesvirus 3, 6.1% for Human alphaherpesvirus 1, 2.1% for Alouatta macconnelli cytomegalovirus, and 0.83% for Cebus albifrons lymphocryptovirus 1. (bvsalud.org)
- The aim was to identify hierarchy and dominance behaviors through quantification and duration of conducts, comparing the data with information already described for Alouatta genus. (bvsalud.org)
- Gregorin, 2006, considered the southern brown howler to be a separate species, Alouatta clamitans, but this has not been universally accepted. (wikipedia.org)
- BRAZA, F., ALVAREZ, F. and AZCARATE, T. (1983) Feeding habits of the red howler monkeys ( Alouatta seniculus ) in the Llanos of Venezuela. (degruyter.com)
- Adult howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) eating green leaves on a tree branch within the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas Mexico. (biosphoto.com)
- Adult howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) hanging on a tree branch within the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas Mexico. (biosphoto.com)
- Baby howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) carefully watching the other troop of monkeys. (biosphoto.com)
- Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) eating green leaves on tree inside the Montes Azules biosphere reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. (biosphoto.com)
- In the coastal areas of the Caribbean, you can find the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliate), which is characterized by being of black ceded hair and lighter hair stands out on the back, which is why it is called the golden-mantled howler monkey. (maya-ethnozoology.org)
- This is a female red howler monkey (alouatta) with young attached and what I believe are giant cheek pouches probably full of food. (clubantietam.com)
- This scenario is not hypothetical: the Guatemalan howler monkey ( Alouatta pigra ), for example, recently went from being considered of "least concern" to "endangered" in just three years. (anthropocenemagazine.org)
- Resumen: Antecedentes y Objetivos: Diversos estudios han destacado el importante papel de los monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata mexicana) en la dispersión de semillas y, con ello, en la regeneración de las poblaciones de plantas con frutos carnosos de los bosques tropicales. (scielo.org)
- Abstract: Background and Aims: Several studies have emphasized the important role of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) in seed dispersal and, as a result, in the regeneration of fleshy-fruited plant populations in tropical forests. (scielo.org)