Allylisopropylacetamide: An allylic compound that acts as a suicide inactivator of CYTOCHROME P450 by covalently binding to its heme moiety or surrounding protein.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Dicarbethoxydihydrocollidine: 1,4-Dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester.Ethylmorphine-N-Demethylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme of the hepatic microsomal oxidase system which catalyzes the oxidation of the N-methyl group of ethylmorphine with the formation of formaldehyde.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.MaleatesHeme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.MalonatesChick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Aza CompoundsAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. (1/64)

Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals.  (+info)

Cytochrome CYP sources of N-alkylprotoporphyrin IX after administration of porphyrinogenic xenobiotics to rats. (2/64)

Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A2 and CYP2C11 are sources of 70 and 30%, respectively, of N-vinylprotoporphyrin IX (N-vinylPP) formation after administration of 3-[(arylthio)ethyl]sydnone (TTMS) to rats. Female rats receiving TTMS were pretreated with dexamethasone, which induces CYP3A1 preferentially to CYP3A2. The resulting 12-fold increase in N-vinylPP formation showed that CYP3A1 was also a source of N-vinylPP. Phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment, which induces CYP2B1/2 and 3A1/2 in male rats, increased N-vinylPP formation after TTMS administration. Troleandomycin, a selective CYP3A inhibitor, was unable to decrease TTMS-mediated N-vinylPP formation in PB-treated male rats, indicating that CYP2B1/2 were sources of N-vinylPP. This conclusion was supported by demonstrating a 15-fold increase in TTMSinduced N-vinylPP formation in female rats after CYP2B1/2 induction with PB pretreatment. Allylispropylacetamide (AIA) inactivates rat CYP2B1/2, 2C6, 2C7, 2C11, and 3A1/2. Troleandomycin was unable to decrease N-AIA protoporphyrin IX adduct (N-AIAPP) formation, showing that CYP3A1/2 were not susceptible to AIA-mediated N-alkylation. N-AIAPP formation in females was approximately 30% of that in males, and thus we attribute 30% of N-AIAPP formation in males to the non-gender-specific isozymes (CYP2C6, 2C7, and/or 2B1/2), whereas approximately 70% originates from CYP2C11. PB treatment in female rats resulted in a 5-fold increase in N-AIAPP formation, showing that CYP2B1/2 were also susceptible to N-alkylation mediated by AIA. 1-Aminobenzotriazole elicited formation of equivalent amounts of N'N-aryl bridged protoporphyrin IX in male and female rat liver, demonstrating that nonselective mechanism-based inactivation is accompanied by nonselective conversion of the CYP heme moieties to N'N-aryl bridged protoporphyrin IX.  (+info)

On the sequence of reactions leading to cytochrome P-450 synthesis-effect of drugs. (3/64)

The effect of phenobarbital on the rates of the synthesis of the protein and heme moieties of cytochromeP-450 has been studied. For this purpose, cytochrome P-450 has been partially purified as its P-420 derivative and the labeled amino acid incorporation into the protein has been studied after subjecting a partially purified preparation to sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The incorporation studies into the protein species after sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis reveal that the drug primarily accelerates the rate of apoptotein synthesis followed by an increase in the rate of heme synthesis. The messenger for apocytochrome P-450 appears to be fairly stable.  (+info)

Cobalt stimulation of heme degradation in the liver. Dissociation of microsomal oxidation of heme from cytochrome P-450. (4/64)

The administration of cobalt to rats caused a marked increase in the oxidative degradation of heme (hematin, iron protoporphyrin-IX) BY HEPATIC MICROSOMAL ENZYMES. The onset of this enzyme stimulation was very rapid, beginning within 2 hours after injection of the metal and reaching its maximum in 16 to 24 hours. During the rapid phase of stimulation, i.e. the first 2 to 4 hours, when heme oxidation was 450% above control values, there was a significant decrease in microsomal oxidative N-demethylation activity and in microsomal oxidative Ndemethylation activity and in microsomal content of heme with an insignificant decrease in cytochrome P-450 content. Within 24 hours the oxidative activity of the microsomal electron transport chain for drugs was decreased to about 30% of the control. However, during the same period the oxidation of heme approached levels 800% above control. During this period there was a further decrease in the microsomal content of heme with a significant decrease in cytochrome P-450 content and an increase in the activity of delta-aminolevulinate synthetase. The activity of delta-aminolevulinate synthetase reached its maximum within 8 hours after cobalt treatment. Repeated injections (at 24-hour intervals) of cobalt were necessary to maintain these changes in microsomal enzyme activities since, after single injections of the metal, these parameters returned to normal within 72 hours. The inducing effect of cobalt on the oxidation of heme could be inhibited by the administration of actinomycin D and puromycin. Furthermore, this stimulatory effect could not be elicited by in vitro treatment of microsomes with cobalt nor could the effect be attributed to any soluble components of the cytoplasm. Cobalt protoporphyrin-IX was less effective than cobalt chloride in stimulating heme oxidation. 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole did not enhance hepatic heme oxidation activity, while allylisopropylacetamide decreased this activity. The oxidative degradation of heme was found not to be cytochrome P-450 dependent since the highly increased levels of heme oxidation in microsomes from cobalt-treated animals could be retained despite the fact that the cytochrome P-450 content of such microsomes was decreased to spectrally undetectable amounts and drug oxidation was eliminated by treatment of the microsomes with 4 M urea. These findings exclude an obligatory role for cytochrome P-450 in the oxidation of heme compounds, although the possibility that this process is a heme-dependent oxidation is not ruled out.  (+info)

Effect of allylisopropylacetamide on Nuclear Ribonucleic Acid synthesis in rat liver. (5/64)

The porphyrogenic drug allylisopropylacetamide, a potent inducer of delta-aminolaevulinate synthetase, specifically increases nucleoplasmic RNA synthesis in rat liver. The drug-mediated increase in nucleoplasmic RNA synthesis is blocked by cycloheximide and haemin, which also inhibit the enzyme induction.  (+info)

Degradation of cytochrome P-450 haem by carbon tetrachloride and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide in rat liver in vivo and in vitro. Involvement of non-carbon monoxide-forming mechanisms. (6/64)

Degradation of intrinsic hepatic [(14)C]haem was analysed as (14)CO formation in living rats and in hepatic microsomal fractions prepared from these animals 16h after pulse-labelling with 5-amino[5-(14)C]laevulinic acid, a precursor that labels bridge carbons of haem in non-erythroid tissues. NADPH-catalysed peroxidation of microsomal lipids in vitro (measured as malondialdehyde) was accompanied by loss of cytochrome P-450 and microsome-associated [(14)C]haem (largely cytochrome P-450 haem), but little (14)CO formation. No additional (14)CO was formed when carbon tetrachloride and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide were added to stimulate lipid peroxidation and increase loss of cytochrome P-450 [(14)C]haem. Because the latter effect persisted despite inhibition of lipid peroxidation with MnCl(2) or phenyl-t-butylnitrone(a spin-trapping agent for free radicals), it was concluded that carbon tetrachloride, as reported for 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide, may promote loss of cytochrome P-450 haem through a non-CO-forming mechanism independent of lipid peroxidation. By comparison with breakdown of intrinsic haem, catabolism of [(14)C]methaemalbumin by microsomal haem oxygenase in vitro produced equimolar quantities of (14)CO and bilirubin, although these catabolites reflected only 18% of the degraded [(14)C]haem. This value was increased to 100% by addition of MnCl(2), which suggests that lipid peroxidation may be involved in degradation of exogenous haem to products other than CO. Phenyl-t-butylnitrone completely blocked haem oxygenase activity, which suggests that hydroxy free radicals may represent a species of active oxygen used by this enzyme system. After administration of carbon tetrachloride or 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide to labelled rats, hepatic [(14)C]haem was decreased and haem oxygenase activity was unchanged; however, (14)CO excretion was either unchanged (carbon tetrachloride) or decreased (2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide). These changes were unaffected by cycloheximide pretreatment. From the lack of parallel losses of cytochrome P-450 [(14)C]haem and (14)CO excretion, one may infer that an important fraction of hepatic [(14)C]haem in normal rats is degraded by endogenous pathways not involving CO. We conclude that carbon tetrachloride and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide accelerate catabolism of cytochrome P-450 haem through mechanisms that do not yield CO as an end product, and that are insensitive to cycloheximide and independent of haem oxygenase activity.  (+info)

Characterization of the anticonvulsant profile and enantioselective pharmacokinetics of the chiral valproylamide propylisopropyl acetamide in rodents. (7/64)

1. Propylisopropyl acetamide (PID) is a new chiral amide derivative of valproic acid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of PID in rodent models of partial, secondarily generalized and sound-induced generalized seizures which focus on different methods of seizure induction, both acute stimuli, and following short-term plastic changes as a result of kindling, and to assess enantioselectivity and enantiomer-enantiomer interactions in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic PID and its pure enantiomers in rodents. 2. Anticonvulsant activity of (S)-PID, (R)-PID and racemic PID was evaluated in the 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model in mice, in the hippocampal kindled rat, and in the Frings audiogenic seizure susceptible mouse. The pharmacokinetics of (S)-PID and (R)-PID was studied in mice and rats. 3. In mice (S)-PID, (R)-PID and racemic PID were effective in preventing the 6 Hz seizures with (R)-PID being significantly (P < 0.05) more potent (ED(50) values 11 mg kg(-1), 46 mg kg(-1) and 57 mg kg(-1) at stimulation intensities of 22, 32 and 44 mA, respectively) than (S)-PID (ED(50) values 20 mg kg(-1), 73 mg kg(-1) and 81 mg kg(-1) at stimulation intensities of 22, 32 and 44 mA, respectively). (S)-PID, (R)-PID and racemic PID also blocked generalized seizures in the Frings mice (ED(50) values 16 mg kg(-1), 20 mg kg(-1) and 19 mg kg(-1) respectively). 4. In the hippocampal kindled rat a dose of 40 mg kg(-1) of (R)- and (S)-PID prevented the secondarily generalized seizure, whereas racemic PID also blocked the expression of partial seizures following an i.p. dose of 40 mg kg(-1). Racemic PID also significantly increased the seizure threshold in this model. 5. Mechanistic studies showed that PID did not affect voltage-sensitive sodium channels or kainate-, GABA- or NMDA- evoked currents. 6. The pharmacokinetics of PID was enantioselective following i.p. administration of individual enantiomers to mice, with (R)-PID having lower clearance and longer half-life than (S)-PID. In rats and mice, no enantioselectivity in the pharmacokinetics of PID was observed following administration of the racemate, which may be due to enantiomer-enantiomer interaction. 7. This study demonstrated that PID has both enantioselective pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The better anticonvulsant potency of (R)-PID in comparison to (S)-PID may be due to its more favorable pharmacokinetic profile. The enhanced efficacy of the racemate over the individual enantiomers in the kindled rat may be explained by a pharmacokinetic enantiomer-enantiomer interaction in rats. This study also showed the importance of studying the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chiral drugs following administration of the individual enantiomers as well as the racemic mixture.  (+info)

Hepatic heme metabolism and its control. (8/64)

This review summarizes heme metabolism and focuses especially upon the control of hepatic heme biosynthesis. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase, the first enzyme of heme biosynthesis, is of primary importance in controlling the overall activity of this biosynthetic pathway. Delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase is subject to inhibition and repression by heme, and numerous basic and clinical studies support the concept that there exists within hepatocytes a "regulatory" heme pool which controls activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase. In addition, activity of this enzyme is repressed by feeding, especially by ingestion of carbohydrates (the so-called "glucose effect"). Studies pertaining to the mechanisms underlying this effect are also reviewed. The "glucose effect" appears to be mediated by glucose or perhaps by glucose-6-phosphate or uridine diphosphate glucose, rather than by metabolites further removed from glucose itself. Unlike the situation in E. coli, the "glucose effect" in liver of higher organisms is not mediated by alterations in intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP. Effects of heavy metals, especially iron, on hepatic heme metabolism are also considered. Iron has been found to inhibit formation and utilization of uroporphyrinogen III and to lead to decreased concentrations of microsomal heme and cytochrome P-450. Administration of large amounts of iron is also associated with an increase in activity of heme oxygenase, a property shared by several other metal ions, most notably cobalt. This effect of iron or cobalt administration is similar to the effect of heme administration in increasing heme oxygenase activity; however, we believe it is unlikely that iron, rather than heme itself, is a physiologic regulator of hepatic heme metabolism, although this hypothesis has lately been proposed.  (+info)

  • After 18h of exposure to iron, followed by a change to fresh medium, the iron remaining within the cells did not stimulate further lipid peroxidation over the following 18h, but did potentiate an increase in 5-aminolaevulinate synthase on exposure to allylisopropylacetamide. (biochemj.org)