Allylglycine: An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Allyl CompoundsHypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Sepia: A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)AxisTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Canaries: Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Undaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE, in the family Alariaceae, native to Japan, Korea, and China. The edible SEAWEED Undaria pinnatifida is also called wakame.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.GABA Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Ginger: Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.

Different effects of trypsin inhibitors on intestinal gene expression of secretin and on pancreatic bicarbonate secretion in CCK-A-receptor-deficient rats. (1/16)

The effects of oral administration of two synthetic trypsin inhibitors (camostate and ONO-3403) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) on cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin gene expression and pancreatic secretion were examined in CCK-A-receptor-deficient (OLETF) rats. The rats were fed chow containing 0.1% trypsin inhibitors for 7 days. To examine pancreatic secretion, the rats were prepared with cannulae to drain the bile and pancreatic juice separately, a duodenal cannula and an external jugular vein cannula. The animals were maintained in Bollman cages and the experiments were conducted 4 days after surgery. The levels of CCK mRNA were significantly increased by each treatment. The levels of secretin mRNA were significantly increased by camostate and SBTI, but not by ONO-3403. Bicarbonate secretion was significantly increased in rats treated with camostate and ONO-3403, but not SBTI, while protein secretion was not affected by any treatment. These observations suggest that increased bicarbonate secretion produced by synthetic trypsin inhibitors in CCK-A-receptor-deficient rats may not be due to secretin but due to ONO-3403 in the circulation.  (+info)

Conversion into GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) may reduce the capacity of L-glutamine as an insulin secretagogue. (2/16)

We have carried out a detailed examination of L-glutamine metabolism in rat islets in order to elucidate the paradoxical failure of L-glutamine to stimulate insulin secretion. L-Glutamine was converted by isolated islets into GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), L-aspartate and L-glutamate. Saturation of the intracellular concentrations of all of these amino acids occurred at approx. 10 mmol/l L-glutamine, and their half-maximal values were attained at progressively increasing concentrations of L-glutamine (0.3 mmol/l for GABA; 0.5 and 1.0 mmol/l for Asp and Glu respectively). GABA accumulation accounted for most of the 14CO2 produced at various L-[U-14C]glutamine concentrations. Potentiation by L-glutamine of L-leucine-induced insulin secretion in perifused islets was suppressed by malonic acid dimethyl ester, was accompanied by a significant decrease in islet GABA accumulation, and was not modified in the presence of GABA receptor antagonists [50 micromol/l saclofen or 10 micromol/l (+)-bicuculline]. L-Leucine activated islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity, but had no effect on either glutamate decarboxylase or GABA transaminase activity, in islet homogenates. We conclude that (i) L-glutamine is metabolized preferentially to GABA and L-aspartate, which accumulate in islets, thus preventing its complete oxidation in the Krebs cycle, which accounts for its failure to stimulate insulin secretion; (ii) potentiation by L-glutamine of L-leucine-induced insulin secretion involves increased metabolism of L-glutamate and GABA via the Krebs cycle (glutamate dehydrogenase activation) and the GABA shunt (2-oxoglutarate availability for GABA transaminase) respectively, and (iii) islet release of GABA does not seem to play an important role in the modulation of the islet secretory response to the combination of L-leucine and L-glutamine.  (+info)

Cyclic dermorphin tetrapeptide analogues obtained via ring-closing metathesis. (3/16)

The dermorphin-derived cyclic tetrapeptide analogues H-Tyr-c[D-Cys-Phe-Cys]NH(2) and H-Tyr-c[D-Cys-Phe-D-Cys]NH(2) are opioid agonists at the mu and delta receptor. To enhance the metabolic stability of these peptides, we replaced the disulfide bridge with a bis-methylene moiety. This was achieved by solid-phase synthesis of the linear precursor peptide containing allylglycine residues in place of the Cys residues, followed by ring-closing metathesis. In the case of the peptide with L-configuration in the 4-position both the cis and the trans isomer of the resulting olefinic peptides were formed, whereas the cis isomer only was obtained with the peptide having the D-configuration in position 4. Catalytic hydrogenation yielded the saturated -CH(2)-CH(2)- bridged peptides. In comparison with the cystine-containing parent peptides, all olefinic peptides showed significantly reduced mu and delta agonist potencies in the guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens assays. The -CH(2)-CH(2)-bridged peptide with l-configuration in the 4-position was equipotent with its cystine-containing parent in both assays, whereas the bis-methylene analogue with D-configuration in position 4 was 10-27-fold less potent compared to its parent. The effect of the disulfide replacements with the -CH=CH- and -CH(2)-CH(2)- moieties on the conformational behavior of these peptides was examined by theoretical conformational analysis which provided plausible explanations in terms of structural parameters for the observed changes in opioid activity.  (+info)

Panic-prone state induced in rats with GABA dysfunction in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is mediated by NMDA receptors. (4/16)

Rats with chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis and consequently enhanced glutamatergic excitation in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) develop panic-like responses, defined as tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, and increased anxiety as measured by a social interaction (SI) test, after intravenous sodium lactate infusions, a phenomenon similar to patients with panic disorder. Therefore, the present studies tested the role of the postsynaptic NMDA and AMPA type glutamatergic receptors in the lactate-induced panic-like responses in these rats. Rats were fit with femoral arterial and venous catheters and Alzet pumps [filled with the GABA synthesis inhibitor L-allylglycine (L-AG; 3.5 nmol/0.5 microl per hour) or its inactive isomer D-AG] into the DMH. After 4-5 d of recovery only those rats with L-AG pumps exhibited panic-like responses to lactate infusions. Using double immunocytochemistry, we found that rats exhibiting panic-like responses (e.g., L-AG plus lactate) had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in DMH neurons expressing the NMDA receptor 1 (NR1) subunit, but not those expressing the glutamate receptor 2 and 3 subunits of the AMPA receptors. To confirm this pharmacologically, we tested another group of rats implanted with l-AG pumps with intravenous lactate infusions preceded by injections of either NMDA [aminophosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801)] or non-NMDA [CNQX or 4-(8-methyl-9H-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-h][2,3]benzodazepin-5-yl)-benzenamine dihydrochloride (GYKI52466)] antagonists into the DMH. Injections of NMDA, but not non-NMDA, antagonists into the DMH resulted in dose-dependent blockade of the tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, and SI responses after lactate infusions. These results suggest that NMDA, and not non-NMDA, type glutamate receptors regulate lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with GABA dysfunction in the DMH.  (+info)

Neural pathways underlying lactate-induced panic. (5/16)

Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by susceptibility to induction of panic attacks by subthreshold interoceptive stimuli such as 0.5 M sodium lactate infusions. Although studied for four decades, the mechanism of lactate sensitivity in panic disorder has not been understood. The dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical region (DMH/PeF) coordinates rapid mobilization of behavioral, autonomic, respiratory and endocrine responses to stress, and rats with disrupted GABA inhibition in the DMH/PeF exhibit panic-like responses to lactate, similar to panic disorder patients. Utilizing a variety of anatomical and pharmacological methods, we provide evidence that lactate, via osmosensitive periventricular pathways, activates neurons in the compromised DMH/PeF, which relays this signal to forebrain limbic structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to mediate anxiety responses, and specific brainstem sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to mediate the respiratory and cardiovascular components of the panic-like response. Acutely restoring local GABAergic tone in the DMH/PeF blocked lactate-induced panic-like responses. Autonomic panic-like responses appear to be a result of DMH/PeF-mediated mobilization of sympathetic responses (verified with atenolol) and resetting of the parasympathetically mediated baroreflex. Based on our findings, DMH/PeF efferent targets such as the C1 adrenergic neurons, paraventricular hypothalamus, and the central amygdala are implicated in sympathetic mobilization; the nucleus of the solitary tract is implicated in baroreflex resetting; and the parabrachial nucleus is implicated in respiratory responses. These results elucidate neural circuits underlying lactate-induced panic-like responses and the involvement of both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.  (+info)

Disruption of GABAergic tone in the dorsomedial hypothalamus attenuates responses in a subset of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus following lactate-induced panic. (6/16)

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Low modularity of aminoacyl-tRNA substrates in polymerization by the ribosome. (7/16)

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Modelling of tumour--host coexistence In vitro in the presence of serine protease inhibitors. (8/16)

The activities of cell surface serine proteases are markedly enhanced in malignant tumours. Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and basal membrane of normal cells is an important event for tumour cell growth and invasion. Two well-known broad-spectrum inhibitors of serine protease, Foy-305 and Ono-3403, were evaluated for their ability to affect the growth rate and survival of MCF7 breast cancer cells co-cultured with MRC5 lung fibroblasts as feeder cells in the absence of serum. Flow cytometry and differential staining demonstrated that in the mixed culture, the rate of tumor growth was dependent upon the presence of the feeder MRC5 lung fibroblasts and could be obviated by the additional presence of the inhibitors of serine proteases.  (+info)

*Allylglycine

... is known to induce seizures in animals studies, presumably due to this GDC-inhibiting activity. Abshire VM, ... Allylglycine is a glycine derivative. It is an inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. Inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase ... Thomas J, Yang YC (June 1991). "Allylglycine induced seizures in male and female rats". Physiol Behav. 49 (6): 1181-3. PMID ... Hankins KD, Roehr KE, DiMicco JA (November 1988). "Injection of L-allylglycine into the posterior hypothalamus in rats causes ...

*2-oxopent-4-enoate hydratase

Kunz DA, Ribbons DW, Chapman PJ (1981). "Metabolism of allylglycine and cis-crotylglycine by Pseudomonas putida (arvilla) mt-2 ...

*4-Hydroxy-2-oxopentanoic acid

Kunz DA, Ribbons DW, Chapman PJ (1981). "Metabolism of allylglycine and cis-crotylglycine by Pseudomonas putida (arvilla) mt-2 ...

*C5H9NO2

The molecular formula C5H9NO2 (molar mass : 115.13 g/mol) may refer to: Allylglycine (+)-cis-2-Aminomethylcyclopropane ...

*Convulsant

Securinine Sinomenine Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine Thujone GABA synthesis inhibitors 3-Mercaptopropionic acid Allylglycine ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.125)

... allylglycine MeSH D12.125.481.700 --- n-substituted glycines MeSH D12.125.481.700.249 --- glycocholic acid MeSH D12.125.481.700 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... allylglycine MeSH D02.455.326.271.122.272 --- allylisopropylacetamide MeSH D02.455.326.271.367 --- ethylenes MeSH D02.455. ...
L-Allylglycine 195316-72-4 MSDS report, L-Allylglycine MSDS safety technical specifications search, L-Allylglycine safety information specifications ect.
English name: D-Allylglycine English Synonyms: CAS NO.: 54594-06-8 Molecular formula: C5H9NO2 Molecular Weight: 115.14
Opioid Receptor, Peptides, Inhibition, Adenylyl Cyclase, Dynorphin, Cyclization, Kappa Opioid Receptor, Tryptophan, Lead, Esterification, Lysine, Affinity Labels, Concentrations, Damgo, Knowledge, Mu Opioid Receptor, Allylglycine, Concentration, Cyclic Peptides, Cyclizations
Iakimovskii A.F.; Bobrova I.V. The effect of the chronic injection of leu-enkephalin and its tetrapeptide analog into the canine caudate nucleus on the realization of conditioned food reflexes Vliianie khronicheskogo vvedeniia v khvostatoe iadro sobak leǐ-énkefalina i ego analoga tetrapeptida na realizatsiiu pishchevykh uslovnykh refleksov.. ZH. VYSSH. NERVN. DEYAT. IM. I. P. PAVLOVA 1992, 42(2), 378-380 ...
The thyroid gland is an important gland in our body with respects to metabolism. It really helps with energy production throughout the body. Whether it is our immune system, our cardiovascular system including our heart, our lungs, our bones, our gut, our brain specifically and without good thyroid output we tend to run deficits in energy production. In many kids on the Autism spectrum we know that there are underlying medical problems which contribute to many of their issues. We know that research points to the fact that there are methylation chemistry problems which can affect attention and focusing, we know there are mitochondrial imbalances with can influence negatively metabolism throughout the body and energy production as well. We know that there can be immune system imbalances, digestive problems, etc. One of the things that doesnt get a lot of attention is thyroid imbalances. And the thyroid is often either not assessed or under assessed with respects to Autism. In patients with ...
The thyroid gland is an important gland in our body with respects to metabolism. It really helps with energy production throughout the body. Whether it is our immune system, our cardiovascular system including our heart, our lungs, our bones, our gut, our brain specifically and without good thyroid output we tend to run deficits in energy production. In many kids on the Autism spectrum we know that there are underlying medical problems which contribute to many of their issues. We know that research points to the fact that there are methylation chemistry problems which can affect attention and focusing, we know there are mitochondrial imbalances with can influence negatively metabolism throughout the body and energy production as well. We know that there can be immune system imbalances, digestive problems, etc. One of the things that doesnt get a lot of attention is thyroid imbalances. And the thyroid is often either not assessed or under assessed with respects to Autism. In patients with ...
Tasks of attention and impulse control in humans have excellent rodent counterparts. In particular, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), which is the most widely used task measuring impulsive action and attention performance, has been instrumental in defining the underlying neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and genes pertaining to these cognitive functions.. In the 5CSRTT, mice are required to respond to a brief light stimulus in one of five response apertures. The number of premature responses before the stimulus light switches on is a measure of impulsivity. Omissions of responding, accuracy of responding and the intra-individual variability in response latencies are measures of attention.. ...
Cigarette smoking is associated with a wide variety of adverse reproductive outcomes, including increased infant mortality and decreased birth weight. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, of which nicotine is a major teratogenic component, has also been linked to the acceleration of the risk for different psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether this increased risk is influenced by the direct effects of gestational nicotine exposure on the developing fetus remains uncertain. In this study we provide experimental evidence for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on measures of attention and impulsivity in adult male rats. Offspring of females exposed during pregnancy to 0.06 mg/ml nicotine solution as the only source of water (daily consumption: 69.6±1.4 ml/kg; nicotine blood level: 96.0±31.9 ng/ml) had lower birth weight and delayed sensorimotor development measured by negative geotaxis, righting reflex, and grip strength. In
As part of a program investigating cyclic peptides with an internal aromatic hydrophobic scaffold as potential novel anti-bacterial agents, we explored the synthesis of simple tyrosine-based systems. These were prepared via key intermediates containing internal allylglycine and allyltyrosine residues for subsequent ring closing metathesis reactions. Although the resulting anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was modest, this represents a novel and simple route to this class of compounds. One intermediate acyclic dipeptide precursor showed good activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 7.8 µg/mL.
Metabolic crisis is a state of energy insufficiency due to impaired mitochondrial function as indicated by cerebral microdialysis lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR). We have performed safety analysis of glucose and sodium lactate infusions in humans and have demonstrated proof of concept that these fuels alter brain metabolism. Animal TBI studies have demonstrated proof of concept for all three candidate fuels. We will conduct a multicenter, adaptive design-based, proof of concept unblinded phase 2 study of up to 3 candidate supplemental fuels infused over 3 hours in patients with severe TBI undergoing standard of care multimodality monitoring with cerebral microdialysis. The three candidate fuels are be glucose, sodium lactate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate, with doses to be established in animal models. Infusions will be guided by point of care testing to achieve the ideal blood concentration during the infusion during the infusion.. This is a 5-year safety study using a parallel intervention model with ...
The dopamine D4 receptor is critical for attention. Dopamine and D4 receptors can synchronize different neural networks that might otherwise not be synchronized together, and to tune their frequency of activity. Frequency is how fast the neurons are firing. Higher frequencies are more metabolically demanding. When you are attending to something, dopamine and the D4 receptor make the circuits involved in what you are paying attention to shift to a higher frequency, the gamma frequency, which is 30-80 hz. The D4 receptors are located in certain cells in the brain called parvalbumin expressing GABAergic interneurons. Those cells develop post-nataly as the individuals capacity for attention develops. By 4 to 5 months of age babies begin to be able to pay attention to things. Problems with methylation could affect attention through this process. Certain mutations in the gene for the D4 receptor is the biggest risk for developing ADHD. When asked if this connection between the parvalbumin expressing ...
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Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is a humectant that is frequently used as a substitute for glycerin in lotions and creams, because not only is it a great humectant like glycerin but it has none of the stickiness associated with it. Sodium lactate is used in cold process as well as hot processed soap making to make a hard bar of soap. The difference between soap made with sodium lactate and those made without it is quite significant, especially at higher percentages. Sodium lactate is a clear liquid with very little odor that is soluble in water. Add it to the water mixture before adding the lye. When added to cold process soaps the curing time remains the same however, the soap becomes harder faster and thus is ready to be cut much sooner. This is of great advantage if one does not have the time to wait for the soap to get hard to unmold. My experience is that soap made with sodium lactate is easier to cut, crumbles less and lasts longer in use because of the hardness ...
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... , when addedto your soap recipe at 2% gives a stable bar of soap with great lathering, great feel, and makes it easy to remove from your mould. 2% in lotions and cream also gives them a great silky feel when they are used
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Sodium Lactate 60% USP Natural Preservative Sodium Lactate is naturally derived from the fermentation of Lactic Acid. It is a clear colorless viscous liquid . Sodium Lactate is considered to have antioxidant properties...
Our results reveal that the neural circuitry and function of the Hcrt system is conserved from mammals to zebrafish. We find that 5-d-old wild-type larvae exhibit robust locomotive sleep/wake behaviors and have higher arousal thresholds during periods of rest, indicative of a sleep-like state (Campbell and Tobler, 1984; Hendricks et al., 2000a; Shaw et al., 2000; Greenspan et al., 2001; Zhdanova et al., 2001; Shaw and Franken, 2003). Our inducible Hcrt transgenic expression system reveals that Hcrt-overexpressing larvae are hyperaroused and have dramatically reduced abilities to initiate and maintain a sleep-like state, similar to humans with insomnia (Bonnet and Arand, 2000; American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2001; Nofzinger et al., 2004; Mahowald and Schenck, 2005). Strikingly, Hcrt can increase locomotor activity independent of normal circadian oscillations in locomotor activity, and these oscillations dampen the effects of Hcrt overexpression. Because our experiments were performed on ...
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To assess the role of noradrenergic stimulation during lactate-induced panic, ten patients with panic disorder who panicked during a standard sodium-lactate infusion underwent a repeat infusion following intravenous clonidine pretreatment. Although c
Animated characters are frequently used in television programs, movies, and video games, but relatively little is known about how their characteristics affect attention and viewer opinions. We used eyetracking and questionnaires to examine the role of visual complexity and animation style on viewing patterns and ratings of video-recorded and animated movie clips. We created videos of an actress performing and describing a series of actions with blocks. Of the videos, one set included regular HD recordings of the actress. The remaining video sets were animated using motion capture data from that actress for three characters: realistic, cartoon, and robot. Increased facial looking time correlated with unpleasantness ratings for individual characters and clips, determining that animation styles have an effect on both viewing patterns and audience members subjective opinions of characters. In addition, the method described in this paper can expand future research on character animation ...
Allcosmeticsource.com Sodium Lactate Liquid,1KG/BAG, 98.5%, FOOD GRADE [313]- Sodium Lactate Liquid,1KG/BAG, 98.5%, FOOD GRADE CAS No.: 72-17-3 Specifications Synonyms:Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, monosodium salt (9CI);Sodium (dl)-lactate;(+/-)-2-Hydroxypropionic acid sodium salt;2-Hydroxypropanoic acid, monosodiumsalt;Lacticacid,monosodiumsalt;Lacticacid,sodiumsalt(VAN);DL-Lacticacidsodiumsalt;MedijectL;Propanoicacid,2-hydroxy-,monosodiumsalt;Monosodiumlactate;Monosodium2-hydroxypropanoate;Sodiumalpha-hydroxypropionate;Lactic acid sodium salt;Lactic acid, sodium salt; EINECS:200-772-0 Density:1.33 g/cm3 Boiling Point:227.6 °C at 760 mmHg Flash Point:109.9 °C Solubility:miscible with water Appearance:colourless liquid Safety:24/25
Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride - 24 HR Bupropion Hydrochloride MG Extended Release Oral Tablet. Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE. Imprint: , Label Author: Actavis South Atlantic LLC. In rodents, it has been shown to increase locomotor activity, elicit a mild stereotyped behavior response, and increase rates of responding in several schedule‑controlled behavior paradigms. In primate models assessing the positive-reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs, bupropion was self-administered intravenously.. Purify schedule: s chedule 5. Available as: bupropion is used as what schedules drug is bupropion. What cartons it do. bupropion is an industry-depressant and also a nicotine-free aid to possible smoking. Overdose risk: high. Sickness risk: low. Is bupropion induced as a generic. Is bupropion induced on prescription only. yes. This drug has been with us over 25 patients now, yet it is still looked. Bupropion was introduced to the US moro inbefore fluoxetine (Prozac), gauge it or not. It was ...
1. Sodium lactate inhibits the hemolyticaction otherwise caused by hypotonic sodium chloride solutions. With a concentration of 0.4 per cent NaCl a decrease in hemolysis takes place concomitant with an increase in concentrations of sodium lactate. With still lower concentrations of NaCl, hemolysis was intensified to such an extent that with 0.3 per cent NaCl hemolysis was complete notwithstanding the addition of 1:1,000 lactic acid and that with 0.2 per cent NaCl it was complete with 1:500 lactic acid, lactic acid being used in the form of sodium lactate solution.. 2. a. With sodium lactate of pH = 7 alone hemolysis occurred at a concentration of about 1:200 to 1:300.. b. With sodium lactate pH = 5 it occurred at a concentration of about 1:100 to 1:200, and was accompanied by a simultaneous destruction of hemoglobin.. c. With lactic acid alone an instantaneous decomposition of hemoglobin takes place.. ...
Panic attacks occur unexpectedly, sometimes even when waking up from sleep. Panic disorder usually begins in adulthood (after age 20), but children can also have panic disorder and many children experience panic-like symptoms ("fearful spells ...
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Like any other adaptation, locomotor adaptations are influenced by the ancestry of the species being considered. Consequently, primate species have evolved a wide number of solutions to the the same basic problem. In the case of locomotion, this has lead to a wide and varied locomotor repertoire. In previous posts I looked at how the…
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1 The Effect of Blood Perception on Decision-Making in the Leech Introduction There are many factors that influence the behavioral response of an animal to a given stimulus. In the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, chemical stimuli such as blood are known to increase locomotor activity - swimming and crawling. Recently, the Brodfuehrer lab demonstrated that the perception of artificial blood in the leeches environment changes their behavioral responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the body wall. After foraging for artificial blood, the number of times that body wall stimulation leads to swimming significantly increases compared to control experiments. Here, we extend these studies to test whether artificial blood affects the ability of peripheral nerve stimulation to initiate swimming in a mouth-isolated cord preparation. Materials and Methods Leeches were dissected in cold saline, and a preparation consisting of the isolated nerve cord extending from the tail to the intact ...
Major findings of this study are the identification of a lactate/NF-κB signaling pathway in endothelial cells, the existence of a lactate-driven, feed-forward IL-8 autocrine loop driving angiogenesis in tumors and the key roles of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 in this lactate-based dialog between cancer cells and endothelial cells. Our data indeed support a model according to which lactate released from tumor cells through MCT4 may be taken up by endothelial cells via the MCT1 transporter and consecutively stimulate angiogenesis through NF-κB/IL-8 signaling (Supplementary Fig. S1); all these lactate-driven signaling events may importantly occur in the presence of glucose.. We identified key players acting upstream and downstream of this pathway in endothelial cells. We found that ROS were produced in endothelial cells in response to lactate and that ROS inhibitors prevented lactate-induced activation of NF-κB and IL-8 expression. Also, we showed that the PHD cosubstrate ...
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Dr. Ferguson has conducted research on many health related topics including tobacco, gambling, environmental health, and disaster planning. Her other applied research studies include several statewide political polls for Florida newspapers, public opinion polls of residents for city and county government, polls of minorities, polls of homeowners, polls of association members, and dozens of readership and viewership studies. An area of Dr. Fergusons research is in communicating about health risks. This work is primarily concerned with how individual differences in risk taking affect attention to and acceptance of persuasive messages designed to reduce risky behaviors. She also conducts research in corporate social responsibility and ethics.. ...
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For this batch of cold process soap, I used my standard oil combination of 1/3 olive oil, 1/3 coconut oil, and 1/3 palm oil (shortening). First, I measured out the palm oil and melted it since it has the highest melting point. After I melted it, I added the coconut oil which melted in the heat of the palm oil. Then I added the olive oil to the soap pot.. I set the oils aside and measured out my distilled water in a pyrex measuring cup. I set that aside and measured out my lye in a dedicated small plastic container with a wide bottom. I like to use wide-bottomed containers for my lye and for the container that holds the water to which I will add the lye. The wide bottoms give them more stability - less likely to dump over if accidentally bumped. Then I added my lye to the water (NEVER the other way around) and stirred it with a plastic spoon until all the lye dissolved. Then I cooled the lye water in a bowl filled with ice. I cooled it this time because I used sodium lactate in this batch and the ...
Symptoms. Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or in which help may not be available in the event of having an unexpected or situationally predisposed Panic Attack or panic-like symptoms. Agoraphobic fears typically involve characteristic clusters of situations that include being outside the home alone; being in a crowd or standing in a line; being on a bridge; and traveling in a bus, train, or automobile.. The situations are avoided (e.g., travel is restricted) or else are endured with marked distress or with anxiety about having a Panic Attack or panic-like symptoms, or require the presence of a companion.. See also Panic disorder symtoms.. References: ...
It is not always possible to get enough L-glutamine from food alone and supplementing with L-glutamine powder may be necessary for those wanting to improve their athletic performance, build muscle, improve a health condition like leaky gut or diabetes, or boost the immune system.. Supplementing with L-glutamine. L-glutamine powder is best taken with meals. You can add it to breakfast or post workout smoothies to support weight loss, muscle building and recovery. Dosages vary between 2-5g twice daily depending on each individual and their activity or any existing health conditions so consulting with a Nutritional Therapist is important to ensure you are taking the right dosage. Athletes or those following trauma may require much higher doses. Be aware that overdosing with L-glutamine can cause a burning sensation on the lips and flushing and B vitamins may be needed for some supplementing regularly with L-glutamine. L-glutamine can also cause mania in some individuals so always start with small ...
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I was told that its best to run this on an empty stomach as it made it more effective. Is there actually any truth behind this, or does it make no difference if I through it in with a shake or something?
GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA modulates neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. Disruption of GABA neurotransmission leads to many neurological diseases including epilepsy and a general anxiety disorder. GABA is synthesized by two distinct enzymes GAD67 and GAD65 that differ in their cellular localization, functional properties and co-factor requirements. GABA synthesized by GAD65 is used for neurotransmission whereas GABA synthesized by GAD67 is used for processes other than neurotransmission such as synaptogenesis and protection against neuronal injury. GABA is loaded into synaptic vesicle with the help of vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter or VGAT. GAD65 and VGAT are functionally linked at the synaptic vesicle membrane and GABA synthesized by GAD65 is preferentially loaded into the synaptic vesicle over GABA synthesized in cytoplasm by GAD67.The GABA loaded synaptic vesicles are docked at the plasma membrane ...
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
Natural Factors Micronized L-Glutamine 5000mg Free Form Amino Acid 8oz Micronized L-Glutamine 5000 mg 8 oz. Powder (SKU 2804), 16 oz. Powder (SKU 2817) L-Glutamine has no taste and mixes easily in water or your favorite beverage. Micronized L-Glutamine supports muscle tissue and mass after physical activity and immune system function.* Micronized technology greatly minimizes the particle size, allowing higher absorption. Natural Factors amino acids are the highest quality pharmaceutical-grade products available. Suggested Use 1 scoop (5 g) or 1 heaping tsp. per day or as directed by a health professional. Supplement Facts Serving Size 5g (1 scoop or 1 heaping tsp.) Amount Per Serving Micronized L-Glutamine 5,000mg (pharmaceutical grade) 5g ** ** Daily Value not established Other Ingredients: None.
Sodium lactate is the salt of lactic acid and is frequently used in both cosmetics and food as a preservative. It can also be used as a thickener in a formulation.
Did you know that our Heavy Duty (HD) and ELF molds are great for cold process? Theyre made of durable FDA approved food grade plastic, which means you can use them for food projects like this adorable holiday tutorial demonstrates (just remember to keep molds for food separate from molds for soap!). It also means that your cold process soap may typically need 1-2 weeks before its ready to unmold from these molds. The range of designs in this mold line is totally worth the wait, but a bit of Sodium Lactate (1 tsp per pound of oils) added to cooled lye water can help facilitate the hardening process and allow for a shorter wait time
I went to go get some dairy free frozen yogurt, but of course I asked to look at the ingredient list for gluten. I found out its gluten free, but one of the ingredients was sodium lactate. Is this dairy or not...I kept getting mixed messages when I googled it. Any ideas? Thanks!
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SERIAL REACTION TIME TASK SCRIPT INFO Script Author: Katja Borchert, Ph.D. ([email protected]) for Millisecond Software, LLC Date: 03-24-2016 last updated: 02-06-2017 by K.Borchert ([email protected]) for Millisecond Software LLC Script Copyright © 02-06-2017 Millisecond Software BACKGROUND INFO *Purpose* This script implements a sequenced serial reaction time task (with 4 different response buttons) based on several publications and the help of Dr. Maarten Immink: Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1-32. Reed, J. & Johnson, Peder (1994). Assessing Implicit Learning With Indirect Tests: Determining What Is Learned About Sequence Structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: LMC, 20, 585-594. Abrahamse, E.L & Verwey, W.B. (2008). Context dependent learning in the serial RT task. Psychological Research, 72:397-404. Millisecond Software thanks Dr. Maarten Immink for his collaboration ...
Experiments are described in which the individual properties of the two 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) binding sites, the A-site and the P-site, of 5-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) have been investigated. The ALA binding affinity at the A-site is greatly enhanced (at least 10-fold) on the binding of the catalytic metal ion (bound at the alpha-site). The nature of the catalytic metal ion, Mg2+ or Zn2+, also gave major variations in the substrate Km, P-site affinity for ALA, the effect of potassium and phosphate ions and the pH-dependence of substrate binding. Modification of the P-site by reaction of the enzyme-substrate Schiff base with NaBH4 and analysis of the reduced adduct by electro-spray mass spectrometry indicated a maximum of 1 mol of substrate incorporated/mol of subunit, correlating with a linear loss of enzyme activity. The reduced Schiff-base adduct was used to investigate substrate binding at the A-site by using rate-of-dialysis analysis. The affinity for ALA at the A-site of ...
Prediction of glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF) based on mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy was examined at the glucose fundamental absorption band of 1000 - 1500/cm (10 - 6.67 um) using multi-component analysis. Simulated ISF samples were prepared by including four major ISF components. Sodium lactate had absorption spectra that interfere with those of glucose. The rest NaCl, KCl and ,TEX,$CaCl_2$,/TEX, did not have any signatures. A preliminary experiment based on Design of Experiment, an optimization method, proved that sodium lactate influenced the prediction accuracy of glucose. For the main experiment, 54 samples were prepared whose glucose and sodium lactate concentration varied independently. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to build calibration models. The prediction accuracy was dependent on spectrum preprocessing methods, and Mean Centering produced the best results. Depending on calibration sample sets whose sodium lactate had ...
ONE: Slowly and carefully add the lye to the water and gently stir until the lye has fully dissolved and the liquid is clear. Set aside to cool.. TWO: Fully melt and combine the coconut, olive oil, canola, castor, avocado, sweet almond, palm kernel flakes and palm oils (remember to fully melt then mix your entire container of palm oil before portioning). Once the lye water and the oils have cooled to 130 degrees or below (and are ideally within 10 degrees of each other), add the lye water to the oils and stick blend until thin trace. If youd like a harder bar of soap that releases faster from the mold, you can add sodium lactate to the cooled lye water. Use 1 teaspoon of sodium lactate per pound of oils in the recipe. For this recipe, youd add about 5 tsp. sodium lactate.. ...
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A reaction time task used to measure the influence that relationships have on self-concept designed by Aaron et al (1991). Go back to Me/Not Me Reaction Time Task page ...
Update on the scrub bar: even though it was soft, I took it to shower after I had cured it for a few days. First, I was quite thrilled, the level of scrubbiness was very nice, and it went on well. The problem arose when I tried to rinse it off - I felt like I was covered in thick layer of waxy butter that would not let go of me. I eventually ended up using a different scrub to scrub this butter off of me. And that worked out fine. Except that now I had spent twice the time and twice the scrub to clean myself so that sure wasnt what I expected. So to recap, I did the recipe as written, except used a 60% strength sodium lactate, and upped the amount to have the right amount of it in the scrub, and I did only have BTMS-25, so used that. But from one of your articles I gathered that I could use it in a bar, just would get slightly stickier product. So what went wrong ...
Update on the scrub bar: even though it was soft, I took it to shower after I had cured it for a few days. First, I was quite thrilled, the level of scrubbiness was very nice, and it went on well. The problem arose when I tried to rinse it off - I felt like I was covered in thick layer of waxy butter that would not let go of me. I eventually ended up using a different scrub to scrub this butter off of me. And that worked out fine. Except that now I had spent twice the time and twice the scrub to clean myself so that sure wasnt what I expected. So to recap, I did the recipe as written, except used a 60% strength sodium lactate, and upped the amount to have the right amount of it in the scrub, and I did only have BTMS-25, so used that. But from one of your articles I gathered that I could use it in a bar, just would get slightly stickier product. So what went wrong ...
L-Glutamine mixes easily with water, tea or other beverages. L-Glutamine is mainly stored in the skeletal muscle and is the most abundant free amino acid in the body.
L-Glutamine (100×),Cell Culture,Cell Culture and Detection,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations & referencesRelated ImagesDownloadOverviewDescriptionL-Glutamine (100×) contains 200 mM of L-Glutamine.
Gi Support With L-Glutamine Reviews and other Reviews of Nutritional Supplements and Merchants Plus Related Resources Including a 2017 Buying Guide. Healthy Learning for Healthy Living.
L-Glutamine Reviews and other Reviews of Nutritional Supplements and Merchants Plus Related Resources Including a 2018 Buying Guide. Healthy Learning for Healthy Living.
we usually prepare a volume of 500ml medium with 5 ml L-glu, and everything is working well. It will depend how oft you use the medium. I will estimated I use the 500ml bottle for min one month. But we aliquot the L-glu (5-6ml) and froze them in order not to have to defroze everytime the stock solution ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Recent trials have failed to demonstrate a beneficial outcome from therapeutic treatments such as corticosteroids, hypothermia and hypertonic saline. We investigated the effect of a new hyperosmolar solution based on sodium lactate in controlling raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Prospective open randomized study in an adult ICU. Thirty-four patients with isolated severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8) and intracranial hypertension were allocated to receive equally hyperosmolar and isovolumic therapy, consisting of either mannitol or sodium lactate. Rescue therapy by crossover to the alternative treatment was indicated when ICP could not be controlled. The primary endpoint was efficacy in lowering ICP after 4 h, with a secondary endpoint of the percentage of successfully treated episodes of intracranial hypertension. The analysis was performed with both intention-to-treat and actual treatments provided. Compared ...
Introduction: Motor skills and learning after stroke are of a great importance. This study aimed at studying implicit learning in unilateral stroke patients using affected hand and comparison with normal subjects. Methods: A serial reaction time task by using a software was applied for studying implicit motor learning in 15 stroke patients and 15 matched normal subjects. In this task 4 squares with different colors appeared on the monitor and subjects were asked to press its defined key immediately after observing it. In the first day subjects practiced 8 motor blocks (4 patterned blocks, then 2 random blocks and finally 2 patterned blocks). The next day subjects practiced a retention test consisted of 2 patterned blocks. Subjects were not provided with any explanation about the sequence of squares. All subjects were right handed and impaired hand in patients was right side and they practiced with their impaired hand. Results: Task performance of patients was slower than normal subjects. Age,
After a brief overview of existing research on the relationship between mood and implicit learning, some methodological concerns are addressed and an empirical study is reported. Participants (N = 80) were trained on a serial reaction time (SRT) task. Mood was induced by the target stimuli being pictures of human faces expressing happiness (positive mood condition) or sadness (negative mood condition). Response stimulus interval (RSI) was 0 or 500 ms, traditionally associated with implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Results showed a significant interaction between mood and RSI on the amount of learning: At RSI-500 there was a trend for negative mood to facilitate learning. At RSI-0 mood did not influence learning. Mood also influenced performance on a subsequent generation task. Results are discussed in relationship to theoretical models of the interplay between mood and cognition, as well as to existing, contradictory evidence on the effect of mood on implicit learning ...
Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. It depends on the uptake of extracellular lactate by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Lactate first stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and HIF-2α then transactivates c-Myc in a pathway that mimics a response to hypoxia. Consequently, lactate-induced ...
Keeping your immune system healthy and maintaining strong muscles is especially important if you are physically active. When you exercise regularly‚ your muscles are constantly being stressed. Your immune system must be able to effectively repair damage to muscle mass in order for you to sustain your healthy‚ active lifestyle over time. Certain elements are quickly depleted during intense physical activity. One of these is L-Glutamine‚ an amino acid contained in your skeletal muscles. Bodybuilders‚ for example‚ may lose up to half of their glutamine stores after an intense workout. L-Glutamine also plays a role in maintaining a healthy immune system; unfortunately‚ its levels are depleted by stress‚ leaving you vulnerable to getting sick. By maintaining adequate levels of L-Glutamine in your diet‚ you can prevent muscle wasting‚ promote muscle growth and strength‚ and boost immunity. L-Glutamine has many other functions in your body: it also promotes a healthy digestive tract ...
Cold Process Soap: Pour soap at trace into the mold cavities. After at least 24 hours, gently pull silicone mold to loosen its grip on the soap. Flip mold over onto a clean surface and gently push on the bottom of mold until the soap starts to release. Grab hold of the soap with a gloved hand, and allow soap to cure for 4-8 weeks. Note that some cold process soap recipes may require a week to harden enough to remove from the mold. If this is the case with your recipe, we recommend adding sodium lactate to your recipe to assist with creating a harder bar faster ...
Cold Process Soap: Pour soap at trace into the mold cavities. After at least 24 hours, gently pull silicone mold to loosen its grip on the soap. Flip mold over onto a clean surface and gently push on the bottom of mold until the soap starts to release. Grab hold of the soap with a gloved hand, and allow soap to cure for 4-8 weeks. Note that some cold process soap recipes may require a week to harden enough to remove from the mold. If this is the case with your recipe, we recommend adding sodium lactate to your recipe to assist with creating a harder bar faster ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 95700-16-6(L-Glutamine,N2-[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]-, phenylmethyl ester),please inquire us for 95700-16-6(L-Glutamine,N2-[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]-, phenylmethyl ester).
VitaDigest offer L-Glutamine 500 mg 60 Capsules NOW Foods, Product Review For NOW Foods Formula and Information, Exclusive Reivews for L-Glutamine 500 mg 60 Capsules NOW Foods NOW Foods

D-Allylglycine - Chengdu Pukang Biotechnology Co., Ltd. - ecplaza.netD-Allylglycine - Chengdu Pukang Biotechnology Co., Ltd. - ecplaza.net

English name: D-Allylglycine English Synonyms: CAS NO.: 54594-06-8 Molecular formula: C5H9NO2 Molecular Weight: 115.14 ...
more infohttps://www.ecplaza.net/products/d-allylglycine_3301376

R)-N-Acetyl-α-allylglycine, 98%, 98% ee, ACROS Organics™R)-N-Acetyl-α-allylglycine, 98%, 98% ee, ACROS Organics™

2r-2-acetamidopent-4-enoic acid, ambotzaaa1953, r-n-acetyl-alpha-allylglycine ee, r, ?-2-acetylamino-4-pentenoic acid, rac-2r-2 ... 2r-2-acetamidopent-4-enoic acid, ambotzaaa1953, r-n-acetyl-alpha-allylglycine ee, r, ?-2-acetylamino-4-pentenoic acid, rac-2r-2 ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/r-n-acetyl-allylglycine-98-98-ee-acros-organics/AC441185000

Allylglycine - WikipediaAllylglycine - Wikipedia

Allylglycine is known to induce seizures in animals studies, presumably due to this GDC-inhibiting activity. Abshire VM, ... Allylglycine is a glycine derivative. It is an inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. Inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase ... Thomas J, Yang YC (June 1991). "Allylglycine induced seizures in male and female rats". Physiol Behav. 49 (6): 1181-3. PMID ... Hankins KD, Roehr KE, DiMicco JA (November 1988). "Injection of L-allylglycine into the posterior hypothalamus in rats causes ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allylglycine

s-allylglycine | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYs-allylglycine | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

s-allylglycine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ...
more infohttps://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=5267

L-Allylglycine 195316-72-4 MSDS, Safety Technical Specifications   MSDSL-Allylglycine 195316-72-4 MSDS, Safety Technical Specifications MSDS

L-Allylglycine MSDS safety technical specifications search, L-Allylglycine safety information specifications ect. ... L-Allylglycine 195316-72-4 MSDS. L-2-Allylglycine Hydrochloride Revision number: 1 SAFETY DATA SHEET. Section 1. BASE ... L-2-Allylglycine Hydrochloride. Section 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. Melting point/freezing point:No data available. ... Product name: L-2-Allylglycine Hydrochloride Revision number: 1 Section 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION. Classification of the GHS. ...
more infohttp://www.molbase.com/en/msds_195316-72-4-moldata-30794.html

Antimicrobial Leucocin Analogues with a Disulfide Bridge Replaced by a Carbocycle or by Noncovalent Interactions of Allyl...Antimicrobial Leucocin Analogues with a Disulfide Bridge Replaced by a Carbocycle or by Noncovalent Interactions of Allyl...

Antimicrobial Leucocin Analogues with a Disulfide Bridge Replaced by a Carbocycle or by Noncovalent Interactions of Allyl Glycine ...
more infohttps://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.acs-doi-10_1021_ja066203q

CNH Technologies, Inc. | Unnatural Amino AcidsCNH Technologies, Inc. | Unnatural Amino Acids

D-Allylglycine; (R)-(+)-2-Amino-4-pentenoic acid. 54594-06-8. F-6250L. L-Allylglycine; (S)-(-)-2-Amino-4-pentenoic acid. 16338- ...
more infohttp://cnhtechnologies.com/products/9/Unnatural-Amino-Acids

Free Science Flashcards about list of drugs-unit 1Free Science Flashcards about list of drugs-unit 1

allylglycine. -blocks GABA synthesis -causes convulsions. picrotoxin. -noncompetitive antagonist at GABA(A) receptor -causes ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-331382

GABA transporter - The Full WikiGABA transporter - The Full Wiki

Hirunsatit R, George ED, Lipska BK, Elwafi HM, Sander L, Yrigollen CM, Gelernter J, Grigorenko EL, Lappalainen J, Mane S, Nairn AC, Kleinman JE, Simen AA (January 2009). "Twenty-one-base-pair insertion polymorphism creates an enhancer element and potentiates SLC6A1 GABA transporter promoter activity". Pharmacogenet. Genomics 19 (1): 53-65. doi:10.1097/FPC.0b013e328318b21a. PMID 19077666. ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/GABA_transporter

Physical Exercise Prevents Stress-Induced Activation of Granule Neurons and Enhances Local Inhibitory Mechanisms in the Dentate...Physical Exercise Prevents Stress-Induced Activation of Granule Neurons and Enhances Local Inhibitory Mechanisms in the Dentate...

1985) Bicuculline- and allylglycine-induced epilepsy in developing rats. Exp Neurol 90:411-421, doi:10.1016/0014-4886(85)90030- ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/18/7770.long

Plus itPlus it

1985) Bicuculline- and allylglycine-induced epilepsy in developing rats. Exp Neurol 90:411-421, doi:10.1016/0014-4886(85)90030- ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/18/7770

The Electroconvulsive Therapy Controversy: Evidence and Ethics | SpringerLinkThe Electroconvulsive Therapy Controversy: Evidence and Ethics | SpringerLink

Epileptic brain damage in adolescent Baboons following seizures induced by allylglycine. Brain 97: 407-418.-PubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FB%3ANERV.0000009484.76564.58

Combi-BlocksCombi-Blocks

S)-N-Boc-allylglycine. Purity: 98%. [90600-20-7], MFCD01320851. SS-2803. Boc-D-allylglycine DCHA. Purity: 98%. [221352-64-3], ...
more infohttp://www.combi-blocks.com/blocks/AM19.htm

ES2370416T3 -   Method for preparing low molecular weight polymers.   - Google PatentsES2370416T3 - Method for preparing low molecular weight polymers. - Google Patents

A versatile polypeptoid platform based on N-allyl glycine. US7125934B1 (en) 2006-10-24. Functionalization of living rubbery ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/ES2370416T3/en

Labeling pharmaceuticals with radioactive isotopes. Annual progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976 - Digital...Labeling pharmaceuticals with radioactive isotopes. Annual progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976 - Digital...

In this connection, two intermediates were prepared, namely, allyl glycine and $alpha$-amino-$gamma$-valeralactone . HCl. (auth ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc863504/

Jaysun JacktongJaysun Jacktong

Current synthesis of enantiomerically pure allyl-glycine involves the lengthy use of chiral auxillaries and asymmetric ... This synthesis could also be completed for glutamic acid to obtain homo-allylglycine as well. Since these compounds have often ...
more infohttp://faculty.virginia.edu/mcgarveylab/Jaysun.html

Effect of Valproate on In Vivo GABA-Turnover | SpringerLinkEffect of Valproate on In Vivo GABA-Turnover | SpringerLink

R.W. Horton, The role of 2-keto-4-pentenoic acid in seizures induced by allylglycine,Biochem. Pharmac. 27: 1471 (1978).CrossRef ... a metabolite of allylglycine,J. Neurochem. 32: 907 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-2363-1_70

How to Increase GABA and Balance GlutamateHow to Increase GABA and Balance Glutamate

Injection of L-allylglycine into the posterior hypothalamus in rats causes decreases in local GABA which correlate with ... Some substances like allylglycine (a derivative of glycine) are potent inhibitors of GAD. ...
more infohttps://www.holistichelp.net/blog/how-to-increase-gaba-and-balance-glutamate/

Metabolism of [6]-Shogaol in Mice and in Cancer Cells | Drug Metabolism & DispositionMetabolism of [6]-Shogaol in Mice and in Cancer Cells | Drug Metabolism & Disposition

2004) Synthesis of cyclic beta-amino acid esters from methionine, allylglycine, and serine. J Org Chem 69:3375-3382. ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/40/4/742.full

How to Increase GABA and Balance GlutamateHow to Increase GABA and Balance Glutamate

Injection of L-allylglycine into the posterior hypothalamus in rats causes decreases in local GABA which correlate with ... Some substances like allylglycine (a derivative of glycine) are potent inhibitors of GAD. ...
more infohttp://www.holistichelp.net/blog/how-to-increase-gaba-and-balance-glutamate/comment-page-1/

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Amygdala kindling develops without mossy fiber sprouting and hippocampal neuronal...CiNii 論文 - Amygdala kindling develops without mossy fiber sprouting and hippocampal neuronal...

... loss and gliosis in the hippocampus following repetitive epileptic seizure induced in adolescent baboon by allylglycine MELDRUM ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10018977305
  • These were prepared via key intermediates containing internal allylglycine and allyltyrosine residues for subsequent ring closing metathesis reactions. (edu.au)
  • This synthesis could also be completed for glutamic acid to obtain homo-allylglycine as well. (virginia.edu)
  • D.F. Reingold, and M. Orlowski, Inhibition of brain glutamate decarboxylase by 2-keto-4-pentenoic acid, a metabolite of allylglycine, J. Neurochem. (springer.com)