A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Thiones are organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms, often found in certain drugs and naturally occurring substances, which possess various pharmacological activities.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
The process of reuniting or replacing broken or worn parts of a denture.
The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Chemical reaction that occurs when saliva comes into contact with the metals in dental fillings. This reaction can send electric currents through the brain causing negative symptoms.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
Welding is not typically considered a medical term, but rather refers to a process in manufacturing and construction involving the joining of metal components through heat or pressure, which isn't directly related to medicine or healthcare.
Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.

Transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects with the new self-centering Amplatzer Septal Occluder. (1/452)

AIMS: The study was set up to find out whether a new self-centering prosthesis for transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects could overcome the disadvantages of previously described devices. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-two consecutive patients with a significant atrial septal defect were considered for transcatheter closure with the Amplatzer Septal Occluder. The device, made of a Nitinol and polyester fabric mesh, provides a different approach to defect occlusion by stenting the atrial septal defect up to a stretched diameter of 26 mm. Three infants whose large defects were demonstrated on a transthoracic echocardiogram were excluded from transcatheter treatment. On transoesophageal echocardiography, 49 defects ranged from 6-26 mm, in one adult the defect measured 28 mm and this patient was excluded from attempted transcatheter closure. At cardiac catheterization in five further patients, devices were not implanted, in two because the stretched diameter exceeded 26 mm and in three the device was withdrawn because it was unstable or compromised the mitral valve. Thus, device closure was performed in 43 patients. At follow-up after 3 months the complete closure rate was 97%. CONCLUSION: The self-centering Amplatzer Septal Occluder is very efficient and user-friendly and offers interventional closure in 83% of an unselected group of patients presented with an atrial septal defect.  (+info)

New device for closure of muscular ventricular septal defects in a canine model. (2/452)

BACKGROUND: Repair of muscular ventricular septal defects (MVSDs) has always been challenging to the surgeon. Long-term morbidity and mortality are significantly increased if the defects are closed via left ventriculotomy or if they are associated with other complex congenital anomalies. The purpose of this study was to close MVSDs with the Amplatz ventricular septal defect device. This device is constructed from 0.004-in nitinol wire mesh filled with polyester fibers. It is retrievable, repositionable, self-centering, and of low profile. METHODS AND RESULTS: MVSDs were created with the help of a sharp punch in 10 dogs. The location of the defects was anterior muscular (n=3), midmuscular (n=3), apical (n=3), and inlet muscular (n=1). The diameter of the defects ranged from 6 to 14 mm. All defects were closed in the catheterization laboratory. The device was placed with the help of transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy. A 7F sheath was used to deploy the device from the right ventricular side in 8 and the left ventricular side in 2 dogs. Placement was successful in all animals. The complete closure rate was 30% (3/10) immediately after placement and 100% at 1-week follow-up. Pathological examination of the heart revealed complete endothelialization of the device in dogs killed after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The Amplatz ventricular septal defect device appears highly efficacious in closing MVSDs. The advantages include a small delivery sheath, complete retrievability before release, and the fact that it is self-centering and self-expanding, thereby making it an attractive option in smaller children.  (+info)

Origin of graphitic carbon and pentlandite in matrix olivines in the Allende meteorite. (3/452)

Matrix olivines in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite are believed to have formed by condensation processes in the primitive solar nebula. However, transmission electron microscope observations of numerous matrix olivines show that they contain abundant, previously unrecognized, nanometer-sized inclusions of pentlandite and poorly graphitized carbon. Neither of these phases would have been stable at the high-temperature conditions required to condense iron-rich olivine in the solar nebula. The presence of these inclusions is consistent with formation of the olivines by parent body processes that involved overgrowth of fine-grained organic materials and sulfides in the precursor matrix materials.  (+info)

Further experience with transcatheter closure of the patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer duct occluder. (4/452)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report further experience with transcatheter closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) using the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO). BACKGROUND: The design of previously used devices is not ideal for this purpose, and their use has been associated with several drawbacks, especially in large PDAs. METHODS: Forty-three patients, aged 0.3 to 33 years (mean 6.4+/-6.7 years), with a moderate to large, type A to E PDA, underwent attempted transcatheter closure using the ADO. The device is a plug-shaped repositionable occluder made of 0.004-in. nitinol wire mesh. It is delivered through a 5F to 6F long sheath. The mean PDA diameter (at the pulmonary end) was 3.9+/-1.2 mm (range 2.2 to 8 mm). All patients had color flow echocardiographic follow-up (6 to 24 months) at 24 h, 1 and 3 months after closure, and at 6-month intervals thereafter. RESULTS: The mean ADO diameter was 6.1+/-1.4 mm (range 4 to 10 mm). Complete angiographic closure was seen in 40 of 43 patients (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 85.4% to 100%). The remaining three patients had a trivial angiographic shunt through the ADO. At 24 h, color flow mapping revealed no shunt in all patients. A 9F long sheath was required for repositioning of a misplaced 8-mm device into the pulmonary artery. The mean fluoroscopy time was 7.9+/-1.6 min (range 4.6 to 12 min). There were no complications. No obstruction of the descending aorta or the pulmonary artery branches was noted on Doppler follow-up studies. Neither thromboembolization nor hemolysis or device failure was encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter closure using the ADO is an effective and safe therapy for the majority of patients with patency of the arterial duct. Further studies are required to establish long-term results in a larger patient population.  (+info)

Successful percutaneous endovascular treatment of a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm. (5/452)

A rupture of the popliteal artery is a rare but dangerous complication of aneurysmal disease. It accounts for 4% of all popliteal artery aneurysms encountered and threatens the loss of the extremity and, infrequently, is also life-threatening.(1) when this clinical entity is confronted, a prompt operative intervention is indispensable for increasing the chances of limb salvage. We report the first, to our knowledge, successful endovascular treatment of a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm with a new polytetrafluoroethylene stent-graft in a patient who was unfit for a conventional surgical approach because of his severe pulmonary disease.  (+info)

Hard metal alveolitis accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis. (6/452)

Hard metal lung diseases (HML) are rare, and complex to diagnose. We describe the case of a patient with allergic alveolitis accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis. A sharpener of hard metal by trade, our patient was a 45-year-old, nonsmoking Caucasian female who experienced symptoms of cough and phlegm, and dyspnea on exertion. Preliminary lung findings were inspiratory rales in both basal areas, decreased diffusion capacity and a radiological picture resembling sarcoidosis. A high-resolution computed tomography scan indicated patchy alveolitis as well. An open lung biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas consisting of epitheloid cells and surrounded by lymphocytes, plasma cells and a few eosinophils. These cells also occupied the thickened alveolar interstitium. Macrophages in the alveolar spaces, some of them multinuclear, contained dust particles. Hard metal alveolitis is clinically well known and, in this patient, has been described histologically. After the patient had quit working with hard metal and following corticosteroid therapy, pulmonary symptoms and signs were relieved. During this recovery period, however, she contracted rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Endovascular stenting for carotid artery stenosis: preliminary experience using the shape-memory- alloy-recoverable-technology (SMART) stent. (7/452)

We describe our initial clinical experience using the newly available self-expanding, Nitinol, shape-memory-, alloy-recoverable-technology (SMART) stent in treating carotid artery occlusive disease. Five stents were used in four carotid arteries in four consecutive patients with carotid stenosis of at least 70%. Technical success (<20% residual stenosis) was achieved in all cases. No procedural complications specifically related to use of the SMART stent were encountered. All patients remained symptom-free, with no evidence of transient ischemic attacks or new strokes during an average follow-up period of 6 months. Excellent performance of the SMART stent for the endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis has been shown based on our early experience. Validation with greater numbers and longer-term follow-up is required. The specific technical characteristics, potential advantages, and disadvantages of this stent are discussed and compared with other currently used carotid artery stents.  (+info)

Nitinol - its use in vascular surgery and other applications. (8/452)

OBJECTIVES: to describe the physical properties of shape-memory alloys and the surgical, scientific and commercial applications of nitinol, in particular. DESIGN AND METHODS: a Medline, Internet and library search with contributions from commerce to describe the alloy's structure, behaviour and biocompatibility, and design for devices constructed from nitinol. RESULTS: nitinol has the properties of thermal shape memory and superelasticity that make it ideal for many vascular and general surgical prostheses and disposables, and for various commercial applications. CONCLUSIONS: further research into shape-memory alloys from scientific and commercial groups should widen their use in vascular and endovascular surgery.  (+info)

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Gold alloys are not strictly a medical term, but they are often used in medical applications, particularly in the field of dentistry. Therefore, I will provide both a general definition and a dental-specific definition for clarity.

A gold alloy is a mixture of different metals, where gold is the primary component. The other metals are added to modify the properties of gold, such as its hardness, melting point, or color. These alloys can contain varying amounts of gold, ranging from 30% to 75%, depending on their intended use.

In dentistry, gold alloys refer to a specific type of alloy used for dental restorations like crowns, inlays, and onlays. These alloys typically contain between 60% and 90% gold, along with other metals such as silver, copper, and sometimes palladium or zinc. The high gold content ensures excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and durability, making these alloys a popular choice for dental applications. Additionally, their malleability allows for precise shaping and adjustment during the fabrication process.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Metal Ceramic Alloys" is not a recognized medical term. It is, however, a term used in the field of materials science and engineering. Metal ceramic alloys, also known as cermets, are materials that combine properties of both metals and ceramics. They are typically composed of a metal or alloy matrix with embedded ceramic particles.

In the context of medical devices or dental restorations, the term you might be looking for is "porcelain-fused-to-metal" (PFM). PFM restorations are a type of dental crown or bridge that combines a metal substructure with a ceramic outer layer. The metal provides strength and durability, while the ceramic layer mimics the appearance of natural teeth.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or definitions, please don't hesitate to ask!

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dental casting investment is a material used in the production of dental restorations, such as crowns and bridges, through the process of lost-wax casting. It is typically made of a gypsum-based substance that is poured into a mold containing a wax pattern of the desired restoration. Once the investment hardens, the mold is heated in a furnace to melt out the wax, leaving behind a cavity in the shape of the restoration. The molten metal alloy is then introduced into this cavity, and after it cools and solidifies, the investment is removed, revealing the finished restoration.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Palladium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. It's used in various applications, including jewelry, dental work, electronics, and chemical reactions. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tin" does not have a medical definition. Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a malleable, ductile, silvery-white post-transition metal. It is found in nature mainly as tin oxides and is obtained from the mineral cassiterite through mining and processing.

Tin has no known biological role in humans, animals, or plants, and it is not considered an essential nutrient. Small amounts of tin can be found in some foods and drinking water, but these levels are generally low and not considered harmful. High levels of tin can be toxic to the human body, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) is a technique used in thermoanalysis to study the physical and chemical changes that occur in a material as it is heated or cooled. It measures the difference in temperature between a sample and a reference material, both of which are subjected to the same temperature program.

In DTA, the sample and reference material are placed in separate but identical holders, and the temperature of the reference material is kept constant while the temperature of the sample is increased or decreased at a controlled rate. As the sample undergoes physical or chemical changes, such as phase transitions or chemical reactions, it absorbs or releases heat, causing its temperature to change relative to the reference material.

The DTA curve plots the temperature difference between the sample and the reference material against time or temperature. The resulting curve provides information about the thermal behavior of the sample, including any endothermic or exothermic reactions that occur as it is heated or cooled. Endothermic reactions, which require heat input, are indicated by a negative deflection in the DTA curve, while exothermic reactions, which release heat, are indicated by a positive deflection.

DTA is widely used in materials science, chemistry, and physics to study the thermal properties of materials, including their phase transitions, melting points, crystallization behavior, and chemical stability. It can also be used to identify unknown materials or to characterize the purity of a sample.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

Gallium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is a soft, silvery-blue metal that melts at a temperature just above room temperature. In medicine, gallium compounds such as gallium nitrate and gallium citrate are used as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine imaging studies, particularly in the detection of inflammation, infection, and some types of cancer.

For example, Gallium-67 is a radioactive isotope that can be injected into the body to produce images of various diseases such as abscesses, osteomyelitis (bone infection), and tumors using a gamma camera. The way gallium distributes in the body can provide valuable information about the presence and extent of disease.

Therefore, while gallium is not a medical term itself, it has important medical applications as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Niobium" is not a medical term. Niobium is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, crystalline metal that is naturally found in minerals such as columbite and pyrochlore.

Niobium has some applications in the medical field, particularly in the production of implants and medical devices. For instance, niobium alloys are used in orthopedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility properties. However, niobium itself is not a medical term or concept.

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Dental etching is a dental procedure that involves the use of a chemical agent, such as phosphoric or maleic acid, to create microscopic roughness on the surface of teeth. This process is typically used to prepare the tooth enamel for the application of bonding agents, such as dental adhesives and composite resins, which are used in various restorative and cosmetic dental procedures, such as fillings, veneers, and crowns.

During dental etching, the chemical agent is applied to the tooth surface for a specific amount of time, usually between 15-60 seconds, depending on the strength of the acid and the desired level of etching. The acid dissolves the minerals in the enamel, creating small pores or irregularities that increase the surface area and improve the bonding of the restorative material to the tooth. After etching, the tooth is rinsed with water and dried, and the bonding agent is applied and cured to create a strong and durable bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Dental etching is a safe and effective procedure when performed by a trained dental professional. However, over-etching or improper use of the acid can weaken the tooth structure and lead to sensitivity or other complications. Therefore, it is important to follow proper techniques and guidelines for dental etching to ensure optimal outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Thiouracil is not typically used as a medical treatment in current clinical practice. It is an anti-thyroid medication that was historically used to manage hyperthyroidism, particularly in cases of Graves' disease. However, due to its adverse effect profile and the availability of safer and more effective treatment options, thiouracil has largely been replaced by other medications such as methimazole and propylthiouracil.

Thiouracil works by inhibiting the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the body. By blocking this enzyme, thiouracil reduces the amount of thyroid hormones produced and can help to control symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as rapid heart rate, tremors, and weight loss.

While thiouracil is still available for use in some cases, its use is generally reserved for patients who cannot tolerate or have failed other treatments. The medication can cause serious side effects, including liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and allergic reactions, and requires careful monitoring during treatment.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Indium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a soft, silvery-white, post-transition metal that is rarely found in its pure form in nature. It is primarily used in the production of electronics, such as flat panel displays, and in nuclear medicine as a radiation source for medical imaging.

In nuclear medicine, indium-111 is used in the labeling of white blood cells to diagnose and locate abscesses, inflammation, and infection. The indium-111 labeled white blood cells are injected into the patient's body, and then a gamma camera is used to track their movement and identify areas of infection or inflammation.

Therefore, while indium itself is not a medical term, it does have important medical applications in diagnostic imaging.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Platinum" is not a medical term. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.

However, in the field of oncology, platinum-based compounds are used as chemotherapeutic drugs. These include:

1. Cisplatin: This is a platinum-containing drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, and others. It works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, which disrupts their function and leads to cell death.

2. Carboplatin: This is another platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and others. It is less toxic than cisplatin but has similar mechanisms of action.

3. Oxaliplatin: This is a third platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer. Like the other two drugs, it forms crosslinks with DNA and disrupts cell function leading to cell death.

These drugs are not made of pure platinum but contain platinum compounds that have been synthesized for medical use.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "metallurgy" is not a term that has a medical definition. Metallurgy is a branch of materials science that deals with the properties, physical and chemical behavior, and production of metals. It involves studying the techniques and processes used to isolate, alloy, and fabricate various types of metal products. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Carbon inorganic compounds are chemical substances that contain carbon combined with one or more elements other than hydrogen. These compounds include oxides of carbon such as carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), metal carbides like calcium carbide (CaC2) and silicon carbide (SiC), and carbonates like calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3).

Unlike organic compounds, which are based on carbon-hydrogen bonds, inorganic carbon compounds do not contain hydrocarbon structures. Instead, they feature carbon bonded to elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or halogens. Inorganic carbon compounds have diverse physical and chemical properties and play important roles in various industrial applications, as well as in biological systems.

Dental prosthesis retention refers to the means by which a dental prosthesis, such as a denture, is held in place in the mouth. The retention can be achieved through several methods, including:

1. Suction: This is the most common method of retention for lower dentures, where the shape and fit of the denture base create suction against the gums to hold it in place.
2. Mechanical retention: This involves the use of mechanical components such as clasps or attachments that hook onto remaining natural teeth or dental implants to hold the prosthesis in place.
3. Adhesive retention: Dental adhesives can be used to help secure the denture to the gums, providing additional retention and stability.
4. Implant retention: Dental implants can be used to provide a more secure and stable retention of the dental prosthesis. The implant is surgically placed in the jawbone and acts as an anchor for the prosthesis.

Proper retention of a dental prosthesis is essential for optimal function, comfort, and speech. A well-retained prosthesis can help prevent sore spots, improve chewing efficiency, and enhance overall quality of life.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Dental porcelain is a type of biocompatible ceramic material that is commonly used in restorative and cosmetic dentistry to create tooth-colored restorations such as crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, and bridges. It is made from a mixture of powdered porcelain and water, which is heated to high temperatures to form a hard, glass-like substance. Dental porcelain has several desirable properties for dental restorations, including:

1. High strength and durability: Dental porcelain is strong enough to withstand the forces of biting and chewing, making it suitable for use in load-bearing restorations such as crowns and bridges.
2. Natural appearance: Dental porcelain can be matched closely to the color, translucency, and texture of natural teeth, allowing for highly aesthetic restorations that blend seamlessly with the surrounding dentition.
3. Biocompatibility: Dental porcelain is biologically inert and does not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body, making it a safe choice for dental restorations.
4. Chemical resistance: Dental porcelain is resistant to staining and chemical attack from substances such as coffee, tea, red wine, and acidic foods and drinks.
5. Low thermal conductivity: Dental porcelain has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not transmit heat or cold readily, reducing the risk of temperature sensitivity in dental restorations.

Overall, dental porcelain is a versatile and reliable material for creating high-quality, natural-looking, and durable dental restorations.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

Silicon compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element silicon (Si) combined with other elements. Silicon is a Group 14 semimetal in the periodic table, and it often forms compounds through covalent bonding. The most common silicon compound is silicon dioxide (SiO2), also known as silica, which is found in nature as quartz, sand, and other minerals.

Silicon can form compounds with many other elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, halogens, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. For example:

* Silanes (SiHn) are a series of silicon-hydrogen compounds where n ranges from 1 to 6.
* Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.
* Silicates are a class of minerals that contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metal cations. They have a wide range of structures and uses, including as building materials, ceramics, and glass.
* Siloxanes are a group of compounds containing alternating silicon-oxygen bonds with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.

Silicon compounds have various applications in industry, medicine, and daily life. For instance, silicones are used in medical devices such as breast implants, contact lenses, and catheters due to their biocompatibility and flexibility. Silicates are found in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food additives. Silicon-based materials are also used in dental restorations, bone cement, and drug delivery systems.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thiones" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in physiology, pharmacology, or clinical medicine. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your question. If you meant "thiols," I can provide a definition for that. Thiols are organic compounds containing a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. Thiols are important in biological systems and can be found in some proteins and enzymes, where they play a crucial role in their structure and function. If you meant something else, please clarify so I can provide the most accurate information.

Boron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element boron (symbol: B) combined with one or more other elements. Boron is a naturally occurring, non-metallic element found in various minerals and ores. It is relatively rare, making up only about 0.001% of the Earth's crust by weight.

Boron compounds can take many forms, including salts, acids, and complex molecules. Some common boron compounds include:

* Boric acid (H3BO3) - a weak acid used as an antiseptic, preservative, and insecticide
* Sodium borate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) - also known as borax, a mineral used in detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes
* Boron carbide (B4C) - an extremely hard material used in abrasives, ceramics, and nuclear reactors
* Boron nitride (BN) - a compound with properties similar to graphite, used as a lubricant and heat shield

Boron compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, and drugs for the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiation therapy that uses boron-containing compounds to selectively target and destroy cancer cells.

It's important to note that some boron compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or otherwise exposed to the body in large quantities. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained medical professional.

Silanes are a group of chemical compounds that contain silicon and hydrogen. The general formula for silanes is Si_xH_(2x+2), where x is a positive integer. Silanes are named after their parent compound, silane (SiH4), which contains one silicon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

Silanes are colorless and highly flammable gases at room temperature. They are typically prepared by the reaction of metal silicides with acids or by the reduction of halogenated silanes. Silanes have a variety of industrial applications, including as intermediates in the production of silicon-based materials such as semiconductors and polymers.

In medical contexts, silanes are not typically used directly. However, some silane-containing compounds have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some organosilanes have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful as disinfectants or in the development of medical devices. Other silane-containing materials have been studied for their potential use in drug delivery systems or as imaging agents in diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that some silanes can be hazardous if not handled properly, and they should only be used by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Exposure to silanes can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

Dental clasps are a component of dental restorations, such as removable partial dentures (RPDs), that help to retain and stabilize the appliance in the mouth. They are typically made of metal wires or plastic materials and are designed to fit around specific teeth to hold the denture securely in place.

There are several types of dental clasps, including:

1. Adams clasp: A wire clasp that wraps around a tooth and has a circular loop that fits over the crown of the tooth.
2. Akers clasp: A wire clasp that hooks around the back of a molar tooth and has a flexible arm that extends forward to engage with another tooth.
3. C-clasp: A wire clasp that forms a "C" shape and wraps around the side of a tooth, with the open end facing away from the RPD.
4. I-bar clasp: A plastic or metal clasp that is shaped like an "I" and fits over the front of a tooth, with the two ends extending backward to engage with other teeth.
5. Ring clasp: A wire clasp that forms a complete circle around a tooth and has a small gap where it can be hooked onto the RPD.

Dental clasps are designed to be strong enough to hold the RPD in place, but flexible enough to allow for easy removal when necessary. They should fit comfortably and securely without causing damage to the teeth or gums. Regular dental check-ups and adjustments can help ensure that dental clasps continue to function properly over time.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth or parts of teeth and restores their function and appearance. The design of a dental prosthesis refers to the plan and specifications used to create it, including the materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the artificial teeth and any supporting structures.

The design of a dental prosthesis is typically based on a variety of factors, including:

* The number and location of missing teeth
* The condition of the remaining teeth and gums
* The patient's bite and jaw alignment
* The patient's aesthetic preferences
* The patient's ability to chew and speak properly

There are several types of dental prostheses, including:

* Dentures: A removable appliance that replaces all or most of the upper or lower teeth.
* Fixed partial denture (FPD): Also known as a bridge, this is a fixed (non-removable) appliance that replaces one or more missing teeth by attaching artificial teeth to the remaining natural teeth on either side of the gap.
* Removable partial denture (RPD): A removable appliance that replaces some but not all of the upper or lower teeth.
* Implant-supported prosthesis: An artificial tooth or set of teeth that is supported by dental implants, which are surgically placed in the jawbone.

The design of a dental prosthesis must be carefully planned and executed to ensure a good fit, proper function, and natural appearance. It may involve several appointments with a dentist or dental specialist, such as a prosthodontist, to take impressions, make measurements, and try in the finished prosthesis.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

A partial denture, removable is a type of dental prosthesis used when one or more natural teeth remain in the upper or lower jaw. It is designed to replace the missing teeth and rest on the remaining teeth and gums for support. This type of denture can be removed by the patient for cleaning and while sleeping. It is typically made of acrylic resin, metal, or a combination of both, and is custom-fabricated to fit the individual's mouth for comfort and functionality.

X-ray emission spectrometry is a technique used to analyze the elements present in a sample by measuring the characteristic X-rays that are emitted when the sample is bombarded with high-energy X-rays or charged particles. The sample is excited to emit X-rays, which have specific energies (wavelengths) that correspond to the energy levels of the electrons in the atoms of the elements present in the sample. These X-ray emissions are then detected and analyzed using a spectrometer, which separates and measures the intensity of the different X-ray energies. The resulting spectrum provides information about the identity and quantity of the elements present in the sample. This technique is widely used in materials analysis, particularly for the identification and quantification of heavy metals and other elements in a variety of samples, including geological, biological, and industrial materials.

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, silver-white, lustrous, and brittle metal that is found naturally only in chemically combined form, except for small amounts found in meteorites. Cobalt is used primarily in the production of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys, as well as in the manufacture of batteries, magnets, and pigments.

In a medical context, cobalt is sometimes used in the form of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope, for cancer treatment through radiation therapy. Cobalt-60 emits gamma rays that can be directed at tumors to destroy cancer cells. Additionally, small amounts of cobalt are present in some vitamin B12 supplements and fortified foods, as cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12. However, exposure to high levels of cobalt can be harmful and may cause health effects such as allergic reactions, lung damage, heart problems, and neurological issues.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Dielectric spectroscopy is a type of material characterization technique that measures the dielectric properties of a material as a function of frequency. The dielectric property of a material refers to its ability to store electrical energy in the form of polarization when an external electric field is applied. In dielectric spectroscopy, the material's response to an alternating electric field is measured, and the resulting complex permittivity (which includes both real and imaginary components) is used to characterize the material's dielectric behavior.

The technique involves applying a small amplitude AC voltage to the material while measuring the current flow through it. The frequency of the applied voltage can be varied over a wide range, typically from millihertz to gigahertz. By analyzing the phase shift and amplitude of the resulting current, the complex permittivity of the material can be determined as a function of frequency.

Dielectric spectroscopy is widely used in materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology to study the structure, dynamics, and composition of various materials, including polymers, ceramics, glasses, colloids, and biological tissues. The technique can provide valuable information about the material's molecular mobility, relaxation processes, conductivity, and other dielectric properties, which can be used for quality control, process monitoring, and fundamental research.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

Zirconium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a gray-white, strong, corrosion-resistant transition metal that is used primarily in nuclear reactors, as an opacifier in glazes for ceramic cookware, and in surgical implants such as artificial joints due to its biocompatibility.

In the context of medical devices or implants, zirconium alloys may be used for their mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion. For example, zirconia (a form of zirconium dioxide) is a popular material for dental crowns and implants due to its durability, strength, and natural appearance.

However, it's important to note that while zirconium itself is not considered a medical term, there are various medical applications and devices that utilize zirconium-based materials.

Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. Therefore, I will provide you with a general definition and some of its medical uses.

Methyl methacrylate (C5H8O2) is an organic compound, specifically an ester of methacrylic acid and methanol. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, with a characteristic sweet odor. MMA is primarily used in the production of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic often referred to as acrylic glass or plexiglass.

In the medical field, PMMA has several applications:

1. Intraocular lenses: PMMA is used to create artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs) that replace natural lenses during cataract surgery. These IOLs are biocompatible and provide excellent optical clarity.
2. Bone cement: MMA is mixed with a powdered polymer to form polymethyl methacrylate bone cement, which is used in orthopedic and trauma surgeries for fixation of prosthetic joint replacements, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty.
3. Dental applications: PMMA is used in the fabrication of dental crowns, bridges, and dentures due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.
4. Surgical implants: PMMA is also used in various surgical implants, such as cranial plates and reconstructive surgery, because of its transparency and ability to be molded into specific shapes.

Dental veneers, also known as dental porcelain laminates or just veneers, are thin custom-made shells of tooth-colored materials designed to cover the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. These shells are bonded to the front of the teeth, changing their color, shape, size, or length.

Dental veneers can be made from porcelain or resin composite materials. Porcelain veneers are more stain-resistant and generally last longer than resin veneers. They also better mimic the light-reflecting properties of natural teeth. Resin veneers, on the other hand, are thinner and require less removal of the tooth's surface before placement.

Dental veneers are often used to treat dental conditions like discolored teeth, worn down teeth, chipped or broken teeth, misaligned teeth, irregularly shaped teeth, or gaps between teeth. The procedure usually requires three visits to the dentist: one for consultation and treatment planning, another to prepare the tooth and take an impression for the veneer, and a final visit to bond the veneer to the tooth.

It is important to note that while dental veneers can greatly improve the appearance of your teeth, they are not suitable for everyone. Your dentist will evaluate your oral health and discuss whether dental veneers are the right option for you.

Air abrasion, dental, is a method of removing decay and minor defects from teeth using a stream of air and fine particles. This technique is an alternative to the traditional drilling method and is often used in preventative dentistry and for preparing teeth for fillings or sealants. The process is generally considered to be more comfortable for patients as it typically does not require anesthesia, and it can be more precise and less invasive than drilling. However, air abrasion may not be suitable for all types of dental work and its use is determined by the dentist on a case-by-case basis.

Potentiometry is a method used in analytical chemistry to measure the potential (or voltage) difference between two electrodes, which reflects the concentration of an ion or a particular molecule in a solution. It involves setting up an electrochemical cell with two electrodes: a working electrode and a reference electrode. The working electrode is immersed in the test solution and its potential is measured against the stable potential of the reference electrode.

The Nernst equation can be used to relate the potential difference to the concentration of the analyte, allowing for quantitative analysis. Potentiometry is often used to measure the activity or concentration of ions such as H+, Na+, K+, and Cl-, as well as other redox-active species.

In medical testing, potentiometry can be used to measure the concentration of certain ions in biological fluids such as blood, urine, or sweat. For example, it can be used to measure the pH of a solution (the concentration of H+ ions) or the concentration of glucose in blood using a glucometer.

In the context of medicine, particularly in physical therapy and rehabilitation, "pliability" refers to the quality or state of being flexible or supple. It describes the ability of tissues, such as muscles or fascia (connective tissue), to stretch, deform, and adapt to forces applied upon them without resistance or injury. Improving pliability can help enhance range of motion, reduce muscle stiffness, promote circulation, and alleviate pain. Techniques like soft tissue mobilization, myofascial release, and stretching are often used to increase pliability in clinical settings.

A dental abutment is a component of a dental implant restoration that connects the implant to the replacement tooth or teeth. It serves as a support structure and is attached to the implant, which is surgically placed in the jawbone. The abutment provides a stable foundation for the placement of a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Dental abutments can be made from various materials such as titanium, zirconia, or other biocompatible materials. They come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate the specific requirements of each implant case. The selection of an appropriate dental abutment is crucial for ensuring a successful and long-lasting dental implant restoration.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgO. It is a white, odorless solid that is highly basic and stable. Medically, magnesium oxide is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood. It is also used as a antacid to neutralize stomach acid and as a laxative to relieve constipation.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Electrolysis is a medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to permanently remove hair growth. It works by passing a thin, solid metal electrode (called a probe) into the natural opening of the hair follicle and applying an electrical charge to destroy the hair root. This process can be used to remove hair from any part of the body, including the face, legs, arms, underarms, and bikini area.

During electrolysis, a trained professional called an electrologist inserts a small needle into the hair follicle and applies a mild electrical current. The current heats up and destroys the hair root, preventing future growth. Multiple treatments are usually necessary to achieve permanent hair removal, as only one or two hairs can be treated at a time.

Electrolysis is considered a safe and effective method for permanent hair removal, but it can cause some discomfort during and after treatment. Common side effects include redness, swelling, and tenderness in the treated area. These side effects typically resolve within a few hours to a few days after treatment.

It's important to note that electrolysis should only be performed by a licensed and trained electrologist. Improper technique can cause scarring, infection, or other complications. Before undergoing electrolysis, it's recommended to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider to discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "oxides" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Oxides are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one oxygen atom and one other element. They can be formed through the process of oxidation, which involves the combination of oxygen with another substance.

In a broader sense, you might encounter the term "oxide" in a medical context when discussing various materials or substances used in medical devices, treatments, or research. For instance, titanium dioxide is a common ingredient in medical-grade sunscreens due to its ability to block and scatter UV light. However, it's important to note that the term "oxides" itself doesn't have a direct connection to medicine or human health.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mechanical phenomena" is not a standard medical term. The term "mechanical phenomenon" is more commonly used in the fields of physics and engineering to refer to events or processes that involve physical forces and movements, such as the movement of a lever or the flow of a fluid due to pressure differences.

If you have any questions about a specific medical concept or condition, I would be happy to try to help you with that instead!

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Denture repair is the process of fixing or mending broken, damaged, or ill-fitting dentures to restore their functionality, comfort, and appearance. This may involve repairing fractured denture bases or teeth, rebasing or relining dentures to ensure a better fit, or adding new teeth to replace those that have been lost due to decay or breakage. Denture repairs are typically performed by dental professionals, such as dentists or prosthodontists, who have the necessary training and expertise to provide high-quality and safe repairs. It is essential to have damaged dentures repaired promptly to prevent further damage and potential harm to the oral tissues.

In the context of medicine, "mechanics" is not typically used as a standalone term with a widely accepted or specific definition. However, in certain areas such as biomechanics or orthopedic mechanics, it generally refers to the application of mechanical principles and laws to biological systems, tissues, or organs. This can include studying the forces, movements, and deformations that occur within these systems, as well as designing medical devices or treatments based on an understanding of these mechanical properties.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

Polarography is a type of electrochemical analysis technique used to determine the concentration of an ion or electron-transferring species in a solution. It involves measuring the current that flows through an electrode as the voltage is varied, which can provide information about the redox potential and the number of electrons transferred during a reaction. The technique is particularly useful for analyzing complex mixtures and for detecting trace amounts of substances.

In polarography, a dropping mercury electrode (DME) is typically used as the working electrode. As the mercury droplets fall from the electrode, they create fresh surfaces for analysis, which helps to minimize interference from surface-adsorbed species. The DME is immersed in a solution containing the analyte along with a supporting electrolyte, and a potential is applied between the DME and a reference electrode.

As the potential is scanned, reduction or oxidation of the analyte occurs at the DME surface, leading to a current that can be measured. The resulting polarogram (a plot of current vs. voltage) shows peaks or waves corresponding to the redox potentials of the analyte, which can be used to identify and quantify the species present in the solution.

Polarography is a sensitive and selective technique that has been widely used in fields such as environmental analysis, pharmaceuticals, and biochemistry. However, it has largely been replaced by more modern electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, which offer higher sensitivity and better resolution of complex mixtures.

Denture design refers to the plan and configuration of a removable dental prosthesis, which is created to replace missing teeth and surrounding tissues in the mouth. The design process involves several factors such as:

1. The number and position of artificial teeth (pontics) used to restore the functional occlusion and aesthetics.
2. The type and arrangement of the denture base material that supports the artificial teeth and conforms to the oral tissues.
3. The selection and placement of various rests, clasps, or attachments to improve retention, stability, and support of the denture.
4. The choice of materials used for the construction of the denture, including the type of acrylic resin, metal alloys, or other components.
5. Consideration of the patient's individual needs, preferences, and oral conditions to ensure optimal fit, comfort, and functionality.

The design process is typically carried out by a dental professional, such as a prosthodontist or denturist, in close collaboration with the patient to achieve a custom-made solution that meets their specific requirements.

Calcium sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in alcohol but soluble in water. Calcium sulfate is commonly found in nature as the mineral gypsum, which is used in various industrial applications such as plaster, wallboard, and cement.

In the medical field, calcium sulfate may be used as a component of some pharmaceutical products or as a surgical material. For example, it can be used as a bone void filler to promote healing after bone fractures or surgeries. Calcium sulfate is also used in some dental materials and medical devices.

It's important to note that while calcium sulfate has various industrial and medical uses, it should not be taken as a dietary supplement or medication without the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

Electrochemical techniques are a group of analytical methods used in chemistry and biochemistry that involve the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. These techniques use an electrochemical cell, which consists of two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) immersed in an electrolyte solution. An electrical potential is applied between the electrodes, which drives redox reactions to occur at the electrode surfaces. The resulting current that flows through the cell can be measured and related to the concentration of analytes in the solution.

There are several types of electrochemical techniques, including:

1. Voltammetry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell as a function of the applied potential. There are several types of voltammetry, including cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and square wave voltammetry.
2. Amperometry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell at a constant potential.
3. Potentiometry: This technique measures the potential difference between the working electrode and a reference electrode at zero current flow.
4. Impedance spectroscopy: This technique measures the impedance of the electrical circuit formed by the electrochemical cell as a function of frequency.

Electrochemical techniques are widely used in various fields, such as environmental monitoring, pharmaceuticals, food analysis, and biomedical research. They offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity, making them a powerful tool for chemical analysis.

In the context of medical terminology, 'color' is not defined specifically with a unique meaning. Instead, it generally refers to the characteristic or appearance of something, particularly in relation to the color that a person may observe visually. For instance, doctors may describe the color of a patient's skin, eyes, hair, or bodily fluids to help diagnose medical conditions or monitor their progression.

For example, jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes that can indicate liver problems, while cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood. Similarly, doctors may describe the color of stool or urine to help diagnose digestive or kidney issues.

Therefore, 'color' is not a medical term with a specific definition but rather a general term used to describe various visual characteristics of the body and bodily fluids that can provide important diagnostic clues for healthcare professionals.

Intraoral electrogalvanism is a rare oral condition that occurs due to the presence of two or more dissimilar dental restorative materials in the mouth, which generate electrical potentials when in contact with saliva. This phenomenon is also known as "oral galvanic electricity" or simply "galvanism."

The electrical currents generated by these dissimilar materials can cause various symptoms, such as a metallic taste, tongue and lip tingling or burning sensations, and pain or discomfort in the affected area. The severity of the symptoms may vary depending on factors like the number of dissimilar materials present, the distance between them, and the individual's sensitivity to electrical currents.

To diagnose intraoral electrogalvanism, dental professionals typically perform a thorough examination of the oral cavity, including checking for any existing restorations made from different metals. They may also use specialized equipment, such as a galvanic cell tester or a potentiometer, to measure and compare the electrical potentials between various dental materials in the mouth.

Treatment usually involves replacing the dissimilar dental restorations with materials that have similar electrochemical properties, thus minimizing or eliminating the generation of electrical currents. In some cases, simply removing one of the offending restorations may be sufficient to alleviate the symptoms. However, if multiple restorations are involved, a more comprehensive treatment plan may be necessary to address all contributing factors and ensure long-term relief.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "friction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Friction is a physical concept that describes the force that resists the sliding of one surface over another. It is commonly described as the "roughness" between two surfaces. While friction can have effects on various biological processes and medical devices, it does not have a unique medical meaning in and of itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plasma Gases" is not a recognized medical term or concept. Plasma is a state of matter, like solid, liquid, or gas, and it is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. It consists of ionized particles, or particles that have been stripped of some of their electrons.

In the context of medicine, plasma is most commonly discussed in relation to blood plasma, which is the yellowish fluid in which blood cells are suspended. Plasma carries cells, hormones, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help further if I can!

A dental prosthesis known as an "overlay denture" is a type of removable restoration that covers and restores only the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the natural teeth, while leaving the remaining tooth structure and surrounding soft tissues intact. This type of denture is typically used when there are still sufficient healthy tooth structures present to provide support and stability for the prosthesis.

Overlay dentures can be made from various materials such as acrylic resin or metal alloys, and they can be fabricated to fit over the natural teeth with precision, ensuring optimal comfort and functionality. These dentures are designed to improve the patient's ability to chew and speak properly, while also enhancing their smile and overall oral esthetics.

It is important to note that proper dental hygiene and regular check-ups with a dental professional are essential for maintaining good oral health and ensuring the longevity of an overlay denture.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

Tooth preparation in prosthodontics refers to the process of altering the clinical crown of a tooth or teeth to receive a restoration, such as a crown, veneer, or bridge. This procedure involves removing a portion of the enamel and dentin to create a suitable foundation for the prosthetic device. The preparation aims to achieve proper retention, resistance form, and marginal fit, ensuring the successful integration and longevity of the restoration. The process may also include the management of tooth structure loss due to decay, trauma, or wear, and the establishment of harmonious occlusion with the opposing teeth.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

A dental prosthesis that is supported by dental implants is an artificial replacement for one or more missing teeth. It is a type of dental restoration that is anchored to the jawbone using one or more titanium implant posts, which are surgically placed into the bone. The prosthesis is then attached to the implants, providing a stable and secure fit that closely mimics the function and appearance of natural teeth.

There are several types of implant-supported dental prostheses, including crowns, bridges, and dentures. A single crown may be used to replace a single missing tooth, while a bridge or denture can be used to replace multiple missing teeth. The specific type of prosthesis used will depend on the number and location of the missing teeth, as well as the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Implant-supported dental prostheses offer several advantages over traditional removable dentures, including improved stability, comfort, and functionality. They also help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing. However, they do require a surgical procedure to place the implants, and may not be suitable for all patients due to factors such as bone density or overall health status.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

I believe you are asking for a medical explanation or definition of the term "diamond" in a medical context. However, I should clarify that "diamond" is not a commonly used medical term for a specific disease, condition, or diagnostic feature. It's essential to provide more information if it relates to a particular medical concept or usage.

In general, the term "diamond" refers to a clear and colorless form of carbon with a crystalline structure in which each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms, forming a tetrahedral shape. It's widely known for its use as a valuable gemstone due to its exceptional hardness, brilliance, and fire.

However, there are some tangential medical connections to the term "diamond." For example:

1. Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare congenital bone marrow failure disorder characterized by a decrease in red blood cell production. It is named after Drs. Louis Diamond and Kenneth Blackfan, who first described it.
2. Turner syndrome with XY sex chromosomes: A rare genetic condition where an individual has only one functional X chromosome instead of the typical pair (XX) found in females. Occasionally, these individuals may have a Y chromosome fragment, often referred to as "mosaic Turner syndrome with XY cells" or "XY gonadal dysgenesis." In this context, the term "XY" is sometimes metaphorically described as a "genetic male's 'diamond in the rough'" due to its rarity and unique characteristics.

If you have more information about how the term "diamond" is being used in your specific medical context, I would be happy to help further clarify or provide additional details.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Photomicrography is not a medical term per se, but it is a technique often used in the field of medicine and pathology. It refers to the process of taking photographs through a microscope, using specialized equipment and techniques to capture detailed images of specimens or structures that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. These images can be used for various purposes, such as medical research, diagnosis, education, and publication.

In summary, photomicrography is the photography of microscopic subjects, which can have many applications in the medical field.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be placed inside the body during a surgical procedure, where they provide support, stabilization, or other functions, and then gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. These implants are typically made from materials such as polymers, proteins, or ceramics that have been engineered to degrade at a controlled rate, allowing them to be resorbed and eliminated from the body without the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

Absorbable implants are often used in orthopedic, dental, and plastic surgery applications, where they can help promote healing and support tissue regeneration. For example, absorbable screws or pins may be used to stabilize fractured bones during the healing process, after which they will gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the body. Similarly, absorbable membranes may be used in dental surgery to help guide the growth of new bone and gum tissue around an implant, and then be resorbed over time.

It's important to note that while absorbable implants offer several advantages over non-absorbable materials, such as reduced risk of infection and improved patient comfort, they may also have some limitations. For example, the mechanical properties of absorbable materials may not be as strong as those of non-absorbable materials, which could affect their performance in certain applications. Additionally, the degradation products of absorbable implants may cause local inflammation or other adverse reactions in some patients. As with any medical device, the use of absorbable implants should be carefully considered and discussed with a qualified healthcare professional.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

Yttrium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol "Y" and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition element that is found in rare earth minerals.

In the field of medicine, yttrium is used in the production of some medical devices and treatments. For example, yttrium-90 is a radioactive isotope that is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer and lymphoma. Yttrium-90 is often combined with other substances to form tiny beads or particles that can be injected directly into tumors, where they release radiation that helps to destroy cancer cells.

Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers are also used in medical procedures such as eye surgery and dental work. These lasers emit a highly concentrated beam of light that can be used to cut or coagulate tissue with great precision.

Overall, while yttrium is not a medical term itself, it does have important applications in the field of medicine.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to create and manage designs in a variety of fields, such as architecture, engineering, and manufacturing. It allows designers to visualize their ideas in 2D or 3D, simulate how the design will function, and make changes quickly and easily. This can help to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the design process, and can also facilitate collaboration and communication among team members.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. Gold is typically a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions.

However, if you are referring to "Gold" in the context of medical terminology, it may refer to:

1. Gold salts: These are a group of compounds that contain gold and are used in medicine for their anti-inflammatory properties. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, although they have largely been replaced by newer drugs with fewer side effects.
2. Gold implants: In some cases, a small amount of gold may be surgically implanted into the eye to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. The gold helps to hold the retina in place and can improve vision in some patients.
3. Gold thread embedment: This is an alternative therapy used in traditional Chinese medicine, where gold threads are embedded into the skin or acupuncture points for therapeutic purposes. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness.

I hope this information helps! If you have any further questions, please let me know.

Inlays are a type of dental restoration used to repair and restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are custom-made fillings made in a laboratory, typically from materials such as gold, porcelain, or composite resin. Inlays are designed to fit precisely into the cavity or damaged area of a tooth, restoring its strength, function, and appearance. Unlike traditional fillings, which are molded directly onto the tooth, inlays are created outside of the mouth and then bonded or cemented into place during a separate dental appointment. This makes them a more durable and long-lasting solution for repairing damaged teeth. Inlays can also be used to replace old or failing fillings, providing a stronger and more aesthetically pleasing alternative.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Molybdenum" is not a medical term. It is an element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 on the periodic table. Molybdenum is used in various industries, including medicine, for example in the production of surgical instruments and some prosthetics due to its strength and resistance to corrosion. However, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or bodily process. If you have any questions related to elements and their uses in medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

"Prosthesis coloring" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of prosthetics. However, I can provide you with some context that might help clarify what you are looking for.

In the context of artificial limbs (prostheses), patients may want their devices to match their skin tone as closely as possible to make them less noticeable and more aesthetically appealing. This process is called "prosthetic covering" or "cosmesis," which involves applying custom-made covers, sleeves, or skins over the prosthesis to mimic the appearance of natural skin color and texture.

Prosthetic covering materials can be painted, printed, or dyed to achieve the desired color match. This process is often referred to as "coloring" or "painting the prosthesis." The coloring technique may involve using various shades, tones, and textures to create a natural-looking appearance that blends well with the user's remaining limb or body.

In summary, while there is no formal medical definition for "prosthesis coloring," it likely refers to the process of applying custom colors, shading, or patterns to an artificial limb (prosthesis) to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance that matches the user's skin tone.

I must apologize, but "welding" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. Welding is a process that is commonly used in manufacturing and construction to join two pieces of metal together by melting them and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten metal (the weld puddle) that cools to become a strong joint.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Beryllium is a chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a steel-gray, hard, brittle alkaline earth metal that is difficult to fabricate because of its high reactivity and toxicity. Beryllium is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, such as beryllium copper, and as a moderator and reflector in nuclear reactors due to its ability to efficiently slow down neutrons.

In the medical field, beryllium is most well-known for its potential to cause a chronic allergic lung disease called berylliosis. This condition can occur after prolonged exposure to beryllium-containing dusts or fumes, and can lead to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can cause scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, leading to respiratory failure.

Healthcare professionals should take appropriate precautions when handling beryllium-containing materials, including using protective equipment and following proper disposal procedures to minimize exposure.

Experimental implants refer to medical devices that are not yet approved by regulatory authorities for general use in medical practice. These are typically being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The purpose of experimental implants is to determine whether they can be used as a viable treatment option for various medical conditions. They may include, but are not limited to, devices such as artificial joints, heart valves, or spinal cord stimulators that are still in the developmental or testing stage. Participation in clinical trials involving experimental implants is voluntary and usually requires informed consent from the patient.

Chromium compounds refer to combinations of the metallic element chromium with other chemical elements. Chromium is a transition metal that can form compounds in various oxidation states, but the most common ones are +3 (trivalent) and +6 (hexavalent).

Trivalent chromium compounds, such as chromium(III) chloride or chromium(III) sulfate, are essential micronutrients for human health, playing a role in insulin function and glucose metabolism. They are generally considered to be less toxic than hexavalent chromium compounds.

Hexavalent chromium compounds, such as chromium(VI) oxide or sodium dichromate, are much more toxic and carcinogenic than trivalent chromium compounds. They can cause damage to the respiratory system, skin, and eyes, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer.

It is important to note that while some chromium compounds have beneficial effects on human health, others can be highly toxic and should be handled with care. Exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds, in particular, should be minimized or avoided whenever possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Tungsten' is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth, and it has many industrial uses due to its hardness, high density, and high melting point.

In the context of medicine or healthcare, tungsten may be encountered in certain medical devices, such as X-ray tubes and electrodes, where its properties are utilized for their durability and heat resistance. However, it is not a term that would typically have a formal medical definition.

Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive noble gas that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere. It is chemically inert and is extracted from air by fractional distillation. Argon is used in various applications such as illumination, welding, and as a shielding gas in manufacturing processes.

In medical terms, argon is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent or medication. However, it has been used in some medical procedures such as argon laser therapy for the treatment of certain eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. In these procedures, an argon laser is used to seal off leaking blood vessels or destroy abnormal tissue in the eye.

Overall, while argon has important uses in medical procedures, it is not a medication or therapeutic agent that is commonly administered directly to patients.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) is not a naturally occurring substance, but rather a synthetic compound that is used in medical and scientific research. It is a colorless, crystalline solid that is soluble in water.

In a medical context, PAA is an inhibitor of certain enzymes that are involved in the replication of viruses, including HIV. It works by binding to the active site of these enzymes and preventing them from carrying out their normal functions. As a result, PAA has been studied as a potential antiviral agent, although it is not currently used as a medication.

It's important to note that while PAA has shown promise in laboratory studies, its safety and efficacy have not been established in clinical trials, and it is not approved for use as a drug by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Mercury compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element mercury (Hg) combined with other elements. These compounds can be inorganic or organic, and they have been used in various applications such as medicines, dental fillings, and industrial processes. However, exposure to mercury compounds can be toxic and harmful to human health, causing neurological and kidney problems, among other health issues. Therefore, their use is regulated and limited to specific applications where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

I cannot provide a medical definition for "equipment reuse" as it is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field. However, I can give you some general information about equipment reuse in healthcare settings.

Equipment reuse refers to the practice of using previously owned or disposable medical equipment and supplies multiple times after they have been sterilized or disinfected according to established protocols. This practice is often adopted by healthcare facilities as a way to reduce costs, conserve resources, and minimize waste.

Examples of medical equipment that may be reused include anesthesia breathing circuits, blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, and electronic thermometers. It's important to note that any reprocessed or reused medical equipment must undergo strict cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures to ensure the safety of patients and healthcare workers.

Reusing medical equipment can have benefits such as reducing costs and waste, but it also carries risks if not done properly. Proper training and adherence to established protocols are crucial to ensuring that reused equipment is safe for use.

... and B10 alloys. Meinl cymbals are well known for employing both alloys. There is some evidence that a similar sheet alloy was ... Nickel silver as used in cymbal making is an alloy of copper and nickel, and an alloy with about 12% nickel is used for some ... Using this alloy allows for greater consistency between blanks compared to traditional cymbal alloy, and is more applicable to ... Malleable bronze is an alloy of tin and copper containing typically 8% tin. It is a single-phase alloy and can be cold rolled ...
Newer alloys are Ni-free, including Zircaloy-4, ZIRLO and M5 (with 1% niobium). Zirconium alloys readily react with oxygen, ... The composition and the main applications of common reactor-grade alloys are summarized below. These alloys contain less than ... Nuclear-grade zirconium alloys contain more than 95% Zr, and therefore most of their properties are similar to those of pure ... Zirconium alloys are used in the nuclear industry as fuel rod cladding due to zirconium's high strength and low neutron ...
... was founded in 1953 on the introduction of wrought RA330 alloy as a replacement for cast HT alloy. Prior to 1953 ... In 2012, Rolled Alloys expanded to Richburg, South Carolina with a new bar facility. Rolled Alloys also built a new facility ... Rolled Alloys is a private company headquartered in Temperance, Michigan, in the United States. Rolled Alloys is a supplier in ... Rolled Alloys Canada also deals in the Pulp / Paper and Mining markets. Rolled Alloys has expanded through acquisitions of ...
Various fusible alloys can be used as solders with very low melting points; examples include Field's metal, Lipowitz's alloy, ... "KappFree". Kapp Alloy & Wire, Inc. Retrieved 2 March 2015. Kapp Alloy. "Kapp Eco Babbitt". Retrieved 4 April 2013. Charles A. ... "KappTec". Kapp Alloy & Wire, Inc. Retrieved 23 October 2012. "Kapp Cad/Zinc". Kapp Alloy & Wire, Inc. Retrieved 23 October 2012 ... "KappTecZ". Kapp Alloy & Wire, Inc. Retrieved 25 October 2012. "KappRad". Kapp Alloy & Wire, Inc. Retrieved 25 October 2012. ...
Wallace Akers, who oversaw the project, chose the deliberately misleading code name "Tube Alloys". His Tube Alloys Directorate ... The Tube Alloys programme in Britain and Canada was the first nuclear weapons project. Due to the high costs and the fact that ... Tube Alloys, therefore, fell behind in the race with the Manhattan Project. On 30 July 1942, Anderson advised Churchill: "We ... Tube Alloys was subsumed into the Manhattan Project. In a section of the Quebec Agreement formally entitled "Articles of ...
"This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to ... Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile ... Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed ... Titanium alloys are generally classified into four main categories: Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements (such ...
"Maithan Alloys - BSE India". BSE India. "Maithan Alloys recommends dividend". MoneyControl.com. "Maithan Alloys hits 20% upper ... "Maithan Alloys Limited". Business Line - The Hindu. "Company Overview of Maithan Alloys Limited". Bloomberg. "Maithan Alloys". ... "Maithan Alloys FY17 profit more than doubles to Rs 191 crore". Economic Times. Patherya, Mudar. "Maithan Alloys stands out in ... Maithan Alloys Limited is a publicly listed company at NSE which manufactures, sells manganese and ferro-alloys within India ...
... (AJ52 and AJ62) are die castable alloys of magnesium that have good creep resistance at high temperature. They ... Alloy Mg Al% Sr% Mn% AJ62 Balance 6 2 0.34 AJ52 Balance 5 2 0.4 AJ52 has higher creep resistance, and AJ62 has better ... ISBN 978-3-7949-0754-0. v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Alloys, All stub articles ... Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Magnesium Alloys and Their Applications. Wiley-VCH. p. 252. ISBN 978-3-527- ...
FACOR.::Ferro Alloys Corporation Ltd". "FERROALL History , Ferro Alloys Corporation Ltd Company History & Profile". ... The Ferro Alloys Corporation Limited (FACOR) was floated in 1955 by the house of Sarafs and Mors to become the first major ... The Ferro Alloys produced are High Carbon Ferro Chrome, Low Carbon Ferro Chrome, Silicochrome, Silicomanganese, and Magnesium ... FACOR.::Ferro Alloys Corporation Ltd". Facorgroup.in. 19 March 2009. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved ...
... (AlSc) are aluminum alloys that consist largely of aluminium (Al) and traces of scandium (Sc) as the ... These shells are dictated by the diffusivity of the alloying element and lower the cost of the alloy due to less Sc being ... These have made Al3Sc somewhat competitive with titanium alloys along with a wide array of applications. The alloy ... But Al-Sc alloys contain a much lower volume fraction of precipitates, and the inter-precipitate distance is much smaller than ...
The alloys have medium to high strength and can be age-hardened. They are both wrought alloy [de]. Also available as cast alloy ... As with almost all aluminum alloys, a distinction is made between wrought alloys [de] for rolling and forging and cast alloys [ ... alloys. Aluminium-copper alloys were standardised in the 2000 series by the international alloy designation system (IADS) which ... All AlCu alloys are based on the system of pure AlCu alloys. Aluminum forms a eutectic with copper at 547 °C and 33 mass ...
5000 series are alloyed with magnesium. 5083 alloy has the highest strength of non-heat-treated alloys. Most 5000 series alloys ... alloys. Other AlMg alloys are aluminium-magnesium-copper alloys (AlMgCu) and aluminium-magnesium-silicon alloys (AlMgSi, 6000 ... Most standardised alloys also contain small additives of manganese (AlMg(Mn)). Pure AlMg alloys and the AlMg(Mn) alloys belong ... phase occurs with pure AlMg alloys after a four-stage process. With technically used alloys with other alloying elements and ...
Little is known about its early life, but from around 1970, it worked at Wabash Alloys, a producer of aluminum alloys, at ... "Wabash Alloys". Arkansas Trains (TrainWeb). Retrieved 8 February 2010. "Wabash Alloys Locomotive, Pine Bluff, Jefferson County ... The Wabash Alloys Locomotive is a GE 25-ton diesel-electric locomotive built in 1940-43. ...
Wrought alloys Cast Alloys 4000 series are alloyed with silicon. Variations of aluminium-silicon alloys intended for casting ( ... Hypereutectic alloys have very low thermal expansion and are very wear resistant. In contrast to many other alloys, AlSi alloys ... Aluminium-silicon alloys or Silumin is a general name for a group of lightweight, high-strength aluminium alloys based on an ... Considered to not be a heat-treatable alloy, but the addition of Mg & Cu can allow it to be heat treated, e.g. AΠ4 alloys. ...
... (AlMn alloys) are aluminium alloys that contain manganese (Mn) as the main alloying element. They ... These alloys are corrosion-resistant, have low strengths for aluminium alloys, and are not hardenable (by heat treatment). They ... Aluminium-manganese alloys are used in applications with low strength requirements and also in chemical and food-related ... 3000 series are alloyed with manganese and can be work hardened. Ostermann, S. 100. Totten, MacKenzie, S. 160. Totten, ...
This alloy is less ductile than the other alloys and exhibits less plasticity. Applications include high-temperature, high- ... Alloy Phase Diagrams. V.3. USA: ASM International, 1990, p. 1453. (Metallurgy, Tungsten alloys, Tantalum, Refractory metals). ... The difference from this alloy to the others is that this alloy represents a high resilience modulus while maintaining its ... The alloy also has a high melting point and can reach high elastic modulus and high tensile strength. The equilibrium phase ...
... alloy 1445 aluminium alloy V-1461 aluminium alloy V-1464 aluminium alloy V-1469 aluminium alloy V-1470 aluminium alloy 2094 ... 2097 aluminium alloy 2197 aluminium alloy 8025 aluminium alloy 8091 aluminium alloy 8093 aluminium alloy CP 276 Key world ... Aluminium-lithium alloys (Al-Li alloys) are a set of alloys of aluminium and lithium, often also including copper and zirconium ... Consisting of alloys that were meant to replace the popular 2024 and 7075 alloys directly, the second generation of Al-Li had ...
7000 series are alloyed with zinc, and can be precipitation hardened to the highest strengths of any aluminium alloy. Most 7000 ... "Aluminum alloy 7065" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2023-02-25. "Aluminum alloy 7085 High ... Sahamit machinery 7022 RSP alloys datasheet "7055 Alloy -T7751 Plate and -T77511 EXTRUSIONS" (PDF). Archived from the original ... In addition to the already mentioned elements of iron and manganese, lead, nickel and silicon can also be found as alloy ...
Additionally, the alloy powder may also be 3D-printed into self-cannibalizing drone components that could recharge the drone's ... Aluminum based nanogalvanic alloys were initially discovered by researchers of the Metals Branch of ARL's Weapons and Materials ... Aluminum based nanogalvanic alloys are characterized by the size of their galvanic microstructure and consist of particles with ... Aluminum based nanogalvanic alloys refer to a class of nanostructured metal powders that spontaneously and rapidly produce ...
... are alloys that are designed to resist microstructural coarsening under various ... Another reviewer describes the coarsening of the W-Ti alloy to be a 2 nm size increase from the original 22 nm. The authors ... One method used to reduce coarsening, is by employing an alloy in which one component has good solubility with another. Since ... Experimental data reported that the alloy coarsened to 28 nm from its original grain size of 20 nm after 30 minutes of exposure ...
The alloy powder was later repurposed for energy applications. A patent was filed for the invention in June 2018 in order to ... Aluminium-based nanogalvanic alloys can be manufactured by means of low energy ball milling at room temperature or at lower ... These alloys produce hydrogen gas when the cathodic disperse phase forms galvanic couples with the anodic matrix and the ... Aluminium-based nanogalvanic alloys were discovered by researchers of the Metals Branch of ARL's Weapons and Materials Research ...
Copper alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their principal component. They have high resistance against corrosion. The ... The following table outlines the chemical composition of various grades of copper alloys. A brass is an alloy of copper with ... and special alloys. The following table lists the principal alloying element for four of the more common types used in modern ... Copper Alloy Data Cast copper alloy C83600 (Ounce Metal) substech.com Industrial Investment Castings - Franklin Bronze, ...
... (AlMgSi) are aluminium alloys-alloys that are mainly made of aluminium-that contain both ... 6061 alloy is one of the most commonly used general-purpose aluminium alloys. to the grain boundaries prefer silicon to be ... Alloys containing Mn or Cr must therefore be cooled faster than those without these elements. 6000 series are alloyed with ... Alloys with higher copper content (alloyings 6061, 6056, 6013) are mainly used in aviation. Iron occurs in all aluminium alloys ...
Phosphorus Alloy Silvaloy 2M Brazing Alloy Silvalite Brazing Alloy Silvabraze 33830 Brazing Alloy Silvaloy 0 Brazing Alloy " ... Alloy Silvaloy A25T Brazing Alloy Silvaloy 35 Brazing Alloy EASY FLO 3 Carbide Brazing Alloy F Bronze High Temperature Alloy ... Silvaloy 18M Brazing Alloy Matti-sil 18Si Cadmium Free Brazing Alloy SIL-FOS 18 Silver/ Copper/ Phosphorus Alloy Silvaloy 6 ... Silvacap 35490 Brazing Alloy FOS FLO 670 Copper Phosphorus Tin Braze Filler Metal "Copper Phosphorus Alloys , BCuP Alloy , ...
The Magna Alloys case changed the law and has settled the divisions of opinion on the issue of the restraint of trade. by ... Magna Alloys & Research (S.A.) (Pty) Ltd. v Ellis is an important case in South African law, particularly contract. It ... the leading case on restraint of trade is Magna Alloys and Research ( SA) (PTY) Ltd Vs Ellis 1984 (4) 874 ( A). The Law on ... Prior to the Magna Alloys case, South African courts have accepted that an agreement in restraint of trade is contrary to ...
Electroplated zinc alloys Complex metallic alloys Heusler alloy, a range of ferromagnetic alloys (66% copper, cobalt, iron, ... An alloy which is 14 parts gold to 10 parts alloy is 14 karat gold, 18 parts gold to 6 parts alloy is 18 karat, etc. This is ... Devarda's alloy (45% Al, 50% Cu, 5% Zn): chemical reducing agent. Duralumin (copper) Hiduminium or R.R. alloys (2% copper, iron ... Some of the main alloying elements are optionally listed after the alloy names. AA-8000: used for electrical building wire in ...
What sets copper alloys apart from the other materials used in fish farming is that copper alloys are antimicrobial, that is, ... Copper-nickel alloys were developed specifically for seawater applications over five decades ago. Today, these alloys are being ... Environmental Performance of Copper Alloy Mesh in Marine Fish Farming: The Case for Using Solid Copper Alloy Mesh "Welcome to ... are currently being implemented on two other copper alloys: copper-nickel and copper-silicon. Each of these alloy types has an ...
Precipitation hardening alloys, such as certain alloys of aluminium, titanium, and copper, are heat-treatable alloys that ... to exotic titanium alloys used in the aerospace industry, to beryllium-copper alloys for non-sparking tools. An alloy is a ... most heat-treatable alloys are precipitation hardening alloys, that depend on the diffusion of alloying elements to achieve ... producing soft alloys like mild steel or hard alloys like spring steel. Alloy steels can be made by adding other elements, such ...
... was a United States corporation that ran a shipbreaking operation. In the 1960s and 1970s ...
"Source details: Journal of Alloys and Compounds". Scopus preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 2019-02-12. "Journal of Alloys and ... The Journal of Alloys and Compounds is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering experimental and theoretical approaches to ... The papers presented at the symposium "The study of metals and alloys above 1200°C" were published as volume 1 of the journal. ... The journal developed out of an international symposium on metals and alloys above 1200 °C which Hume-Rothery organized at ...
Metal alloys made by combining titanium with other elements. Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and ... "This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to ... Titanium alloys are generally classified into four main categories:[1] *Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements ( ... Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed ...
... and B10 alloys. Meinl cymbals are well known for employing both alloys. There is some evidence that a similar sheet alloy was ... Nickel silver as used in cymbal making is an alloy of copper and nickel, and an alloy with about 12% nickel is used for some ... Using this alloy allows for greater consistency between blanks compared to traditional cymbal alloy, and is more applicable to ... Malleable bronze is an alloy of tin and copper containing typically 8% tin. It is a single-phase alloy and can be cold rolled ...
Also known as: Humphreys Gold Co., Titanium Alloys Mfg. Co., Div. Of National Lead, Titanium Alloy Metals, Titanium Pigment Co. ... Public Comments on Titanium Alloys Manufacturing Documents. How to Submit Comments. Comments on Titanium Alloys Manufacturing ... All employees who worked in any area or building at Titanium Alloys Manufacturing from January 1, 1955, through December 31, ... To date, there are no open/active SEC petitions from Titanium Alloys Manufacturing. ...
The alloy, which combines aluminum with cerium and other metals, was printed using a laser powder bed system that deposits one ... ORNL researchers used a laser power bed manufacturing technique to 3D print a lightweight aluminum and cerium-based alloy that ... ORNL researchers used a laser power bed manufacturing technique to 3D print a lightweight aluminum and cerium-based alloy that ... ORNL researchers used a laser power bed manufacturing technique to 3D print a lightweight aluminum and cerium-based alloy that ...
... image of 6-4 Ti alloy (hexagonal, or beta phase) one of the first super alloys. Being light-weight, high-strength, and ...
This SAE Standard covers the most common magnesium alloys used in wrought forms, and lists chemical composition and minimum ... Magnesium Wrought Alloys(STABILIZED Jan 2018) J466_201801 This SAE Standard covers the most common magnesium alloys used in ... Aluminum Alloy, Die Forgings, 5.6zn 2.5mg 1.6cu 0.23cr Solution and Precipitation Heat Treated ... Aluminum Alloy, Die Forgings, 5.6zn 2.5mg 1.6cu 0.23cr Solution and Precipitation Heat Treated ...
Lincoln Electric has products to meet the base material and process requirements of many stainless steel and high alloy welding ... Stainless Alloys Products to meet the process requirements of many stainless steel and high alloy welding applications. ... Special Alloys Special alloy products meet the stringent specs for the offshore, power gen, petrochemical and nuclear ... Stainless Alloys. Products to meet the process requirements of many stainless steel and high alloy welding applications. ...
Londons Tube Alloys play post-punk, but not like some of the more prominent UK bands of recent vintage played post-punk. Their ...
... some of which are Aluminum alloys, Titanium alloys and more recently Magnesium alloys. Most of these alloys possess some ... E.g. Titanium alloys have better specific strength, however they are lot more expensive than steel. Aluminum alloys are ... Magnesium alloys have better specific strength and are not very expensive, but they are beset by low formability. Research at ... High-strength-low-alloy (HSLA) is one particular type of steel which provides better mechanical properties and better corrosion ...
Lincoln Electric features a variety of nickel alloy products to meet the base material and process requirements such as ... Used for welding of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys as well as for overlay cladding on carbon, low alloy or stainless steels ... Used for welding nickel-chromium-iron alloys to themselves. *Used for dissimilar welding between nickel-chromium-iron alloys to ... A nickel based alloy with chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten as the principal alloying elements ...
... a semiconductor junction used in some junction transistors and formed by alloying metal contacts, functioning as emitter and ... a semiconductor junction used in some junction transistors and formed by alloying metal contacts, functioning as emitter and ...
This specification covers flash welded rings made of aluminum and aluminum alloys. ... RINGS, FLASH WELDED Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys AMS7488A RINGS, FLASH WELDED Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys AMS7488A - available ...
Aluminum and its alloys, due to the characteristic features of aluminum like low density, good strength, ductility, corrosion ... In this paper, 2024 aluminum alloy was friction stir welded. In the ambient mixed solution of 0.2 mol/L NaHSO 3 and 0.6 mol/L ... Aluminum and its alloys, due to the characteristic features of aluminum like low density, good strength, ductility, corrosion ... Aluminium alloys are well established as engineering materials for a wide range of applications because they offer a ...
Thats why youll find that our Demo 8 I Alloy was constructed from it in order to make your next shred-sesh that much more fun ... M5 alloy, S3 Geometry, carbon seatstay, BB30, full internal cable routing, 135mm dropouts, lipped and sealed cartridge bearing ... Specialized DH, 7050 alloy, 8-degree backsweep, 6-degree upsweep, 27mm rise, 800mm, 31.8mm clamp ... Specialized disc, alloy flange & disc mount, sealed cartridge bearings, 20mm thru-axle, 32h ...
Complexity in metallic alloys can manifest itself in various forms, e.g. by a large number of atoms per unit cell, in the ... Metallic alloys and crystal growth. Overview. The primary scientific interest of the group is the investigation of the ... The group focuses on two main lines of work - the preparation of high-quality metallic alloys and the investigation of ...
Thus, the alloy meets the current challenges for the global industry to reduce fuel consumption and air emissions. ... To date, alloy 1580 has successfully passed industrial tests and certification at production facilities of the space industry ... Scandium is one of the best modifiers for aluminium alloys, but its cost significantly increases the cost of end products. UC ... As a further development of the line, an alloy containing only 0.03% scandium, has been developed, having a 20% higher strength ...
About Alloy. * Who We Are. About Us Press Work at Alloy Jobs ... The many faces of Alloy. Say hello to the folks who make Alloy ... We all make our Alloy stronger. Creating a world where anyone can belong starts within the workplace. At Alloy, we are building ... Richard was the first member of Alloys sales team when he joined in 2019. Since then, hes built the sales team out to 29 ... For our first Employee Spotlight of 2022, we chat with Casey Hekker to discuss what it is like being a CSM at Alloy. ...
Effect of Irradiation on Bend Transition Temperatures of Molybdenum- and Columbium-Base Alloys ... Low-Temperature Embrittlement of Iron, Iron Alloys, and Steels by Neutron Irradiations ...
Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.
Copper-Nickel Alloys - Marine Supreme: Types of Copper-Nickel Alloy. *Copper-Nickel Alloys - Marine Supreme: Resistance to ... Copper-Nickel Alloys - Marine Supreme: Other References. Copper Applications in Metallurgy of Copper & Copper Alloys. By Vin ... Copper-Nickel Alloys for seawater corrosion resistance and antifouling - a state of the art review, C.A. Powell and H.T. ... W.R. Barger, L.D. Downer, J.E. Brown and T.R. Gaul, Economic Evaluation - Use of Copper-Nickel Alloy for Sheathing of Offshore ...
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Steel and Ferro-Alloys in the UK was 37109969 Euros. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does United Kingdom rank in Sold Production of Iron, Steel and Ferro-Alloys?. #. 24 Countries. Euros. Last. YoY. 5‑years ... United Kingdom - Sold Production of Iron, Steel and Ferro-Alloys Euros - 1995 to 2019 ... Steel and Ferro-Alloys. United Kingdom is overtaken by Croatia, which was ranked number 17 with €104,780,584.57 and is followed ...
... to quantify the dependence of generalized stacking fault energies on the degree of chemical disorder in multicomponent alloys. ... Nanostructured high-entropy alloys with multiple principal elements: novel alloy design concepts and outcomes. Adv. Eng. Mater. ... The Vα are determined by the chemistry of the alloy. In most alloys, chemical interactions decay beyond a maximum length and ... Experimental and computational studies of complex-concentrated alloys, also referred to as "high-entropy alloys"4,5,6, have ...
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  • Also known as: Humphreys Gold Co., Titanium Alloys Mfg. Co., Div. Of National Lead, Titanium Alloy Metals, Titanium Pigment Co. (cdc.gov)
  • The alloy, which combines aluminum with cerium and other metals, was printed using a laser powder bed system that deposits one thin layer of material at a time for precise results. (ornl.gov)
  • The extensive use in modern times of metallic alloys is related to the availability and success at the beginning of the 20th century of several different alloys made of the noble metals. (medscape.com)
  • Major magnesium alloys manufacturers profiled in this report include Magnesium Elektron (UK), Ka Shui International Holdings Ltd. (China), Magontec (Australia), US Magnesium LLC (US), Nanjing Yunhai Special Metals Co. Ltd., and Meridian Lightweight Technologies (US). (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • These alloys, or "plastic crystals," freeze or solidify the same way metals do and form the same microstructures in the process. (spacedaily.com)
  • Wire - A single or multiple flexible strand in a range of pure metals or alloys and a variety of diameters. (goodfellow.com)
  • mixed with other metals to make alloys. (cdc.gov)
  • Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness (even at extreme temperatures). (wikipedia.org)
  • The group focuses on two main lines of work - the preparation of high-quality metallic alloys and the investigation of mechanical properties, e.g. macroscopic tensile testing and microstructural characterization of deformed materials. (fz-juelich.de)
  • The hemming performances of two AA6xxx series aluminum automotive closure panel alloys were evaluated, with and without a 10 % tensile pre-strain, in a simulated three-point bend test that bent samples to a 180 ° angle. (nist.gov)
  • The surface maps were strikingly different even though the results of metallographic, tensile and micro-hardness analyses all indicated that the two alloys were relatively similar. (nist.gov)
  • This distinction in the nitrogen distribution between interstitial nitrogen and metal nitrides is important because tensile strengths of iron alloys are proportional to both interstitial nitrogen and nitride concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • Complexity in metallic alloys can manifest itself in various forms, e.g. by a large number of atoms per unit cell, in the presence of short-range order in nonperiodic structures, and by a high number of atomic species in a topologically ordered lattice. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Alloys are generally considered to be metallic in nature i.e. they have good thermal and electrical conductivities). (goodfellow.com)
  • Metallic alloys. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated that such metallic alloys can be used safely and effectively in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants that are left in vivo for extended periods. (medscape.com)
  • By combining several metallic elements in alloys, improved properties can be achieved beyond those of a single element. (medscape.com)
  • Observing these processes in a microgravity environment also helps scientists refine theoretical models and numerical simulations of metallic alloys. (spacedaily.com)
  • Several metallic alloy compositions, including ruthenium and rhenium, and the additions of the refractory metal carbides, such as vanadium carbide (VC), chromium carbide (Cr 3 C 2 ), titanium carbide (TiC), and tantalum carbide (TaC), increase corrosion resistance of cemented carbides [ 2 , 9 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants , for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminium and vanadium , typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • This SAE Standard covers the most common magnesium alloys used in wrought forms, and lists chemical composition and minimum mechanical properties for the various forms. (sae.org)
  • High-strength-low-alloy (HSLA) is one particular type of steel which provides better mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance than normal steel. (iitk.ac.in)
  • Models that are able to link the properties of a dislocation to the degree of long-range and short-range chemical ordering in multicomponent alloys are therefore necessary to provide fundamental insights about the role of chemistry on mechanical properties. (nature.com)
  • Alloys that provide for a long-term stable implant need to have a high level of corrosion resistance as well as certain mechanical properties (see Immune Response to Implants ). (medscape.com)
  • Ru additions to these alloys can refine and improve selected mechanical properties, but its influence on the corrosion resistance is unknown. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of shape memory alloys wires in three-point bending in different manufacturers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apart from steel, several non-ferrous alloys have also gained prominence in recent past, some of which are Aluminum alloys, Titanium alloys and more recently Magnesium alloys. (iitk.ac.in)
  • Magnesium alloys have better specific strength and are not very expensive, but they are beset by low formability. (iitk.ac.in)
  • Magnesium alloys-based products are used in various applications due to their versatile properties. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Products made from magnesium alloys are also aesthetically pleasing. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • In the past few years, the use of magnesium alloys-based products has increased in body structure and computer as well as cellphone chassis applications in the automotive & transportation and electronics end-use industries. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The magnesium alloys market is projected to reach USD 2.37 Billion by 2023, at a CAGR of 12.7% between 2018 and 2023. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Key players offering magnesium alloys adopted new product launches and partnerships & agreements as the key strategies to strengthen their position in the market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Partnerships & agreements accounted for 37.5% of all the growth strategies adopted by major players in the magnesium alloys market between 2015 and 2017. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Key players also adopted the strategy of investments & expansions to strengthen their position in the magnesium alloys market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • New product launches accounted for 20.0% of all the developments in the magnesium alloys market between 2015 and 2017. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • With these strategies, leading players in the magnesium alloys market were able to expand their product reach globally and take advantage of competencies of other companies to compete in the market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Magnesium Elektron is a leading company in the global magnesium alloys market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • As a part of its growth strategy, Magnesium Elektron focuses on new product developments, partnerships, and joint ventures & agreements to cater to the increasing demand for magnesium alloys and gain a competitive edge in the market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Ka Shui International Holdings Ltd. is one of the world s largest manufacturers of magnesium alloys and magnesium alloy products. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The company offers magnesium alloy products through its magnesium alloys and die-casting business segment. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements (such as tin ) and/ or alpha stabilisers (such as aluminium or oxygen ) only. (wikipedia.org)
  • A unique line of non-heat-hardened wrought materials with a high corrosion resistance, weldability and increased strength compared to traditional aluminium alloys. (rusal.ru)
  • Scandium is one of the best modifiers for aluminium alloys, but its cost significantly increases the cost of end products. (rusal.ru)
  • During the last 5-10 years we have studied the electro chemical anodization (electro-oxidation) of aluminium and aluminium alloys [1], an industrial process to increase the corrosion resistance and color of aluminium, using Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GISXRD), X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS). (lu.se)
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers have additively manufactured a lightweight aluminum alloy and demonstrated its ability to resist creep or deformation at 300 degrees Celsius. (ornl.gov)
  • This type of alloy replaced stainless steel for certain uses, as stainless steel had dominated orthodontics since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Products to meet the process requirements of many stainless steel and high alloy welding applications. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • The nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys are used in the manufacture of orthodontic wires mainly due to its greater resilience and low modulus of elasticity when compared to other alloys, particularly stainless steel. (bvsalud.org)
  • Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed with 1-2% of beta phase stabilizers such as molybdenum , silicon or vanadium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta and near beta alloys, which are metastable and which contain sufficient beta stabilisers (such as molybdenum, silicon and vanadium) to allow them to maintain the beta phase when quenched , and which can also be solution treated and aged to improve strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cymbals are made from four main alloys, all of them copper-based. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bell bronze is a two-phase alloy, meaning some of the tin is not dissolved in the copper grains but exists between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malleable bronze is an alloy of tin and copper containing typically 8% tin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat Exchangers and Piping Systems from Copper Alloys - Commissioning, Operating and Shutdown , M. Jasner, M. Hecht and W. Beckman, published by KM-Europa Metal AG, Osnabruck. (copper.org)
  • Copper Nickel Alloys - Properties and Applications , Joint Publication of the Copper Development Association (UK) and the Nickel Development Institute, TN 30. (copper.org)
  • K.P. Efird and D. Anderson, Seawater Corrosion of 90-10 and 70-30 Copper Nickel Alloys - 14 Year Exposure , Materials Performance, (141) (1975). (copper.org)
  • W.W. Kirk, T.S. Lee and R.O. Lewis, Corrosion and Marine Fouling Characteristics of Copper Nickel -Alloys , CDA Conference Copper in Marine Environments, Paper 16, April 1985. (copper.org)
  • A.H. Tuthill, Guidelines for the Use of Copper Alloys in Seawater , Materials Performance, 26 9 (1987) pp 12-22. (copper.org)
  • P.T. Gilbert, Corrosion Resisting Properties of 90/10 Copper-Nickel-Iron Alloys with Particular Reference to Offshore Oil and Gas Applications , British Corrosion Journal, 14 1 (1979) pp 20-25. (copper.org)
  • R. Carruthers, The Use of 90/10 Copper-Nickel Alloy as a Splash Zone Cladding , Paper 6, Proceedings of CDA Conference on Copper-Alloys in Marine Environments, (Birmingham, England) April 1985. (copper.org)
  • A nickel-titanium-copper composition is typical for shape memory alloys. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Nickel-titanium-copper alloys typically have titanium equal to 50% and form a single-phase material. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Raman analyses indicated the presence of tungsten oxide, hydrated tungsten oxide compounds, and CoO and Co 3 O 4 formed on the alloy surfaces during the corrosion process. (hindawi.com)
  • This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of nine agents: cobalt metal (without tungsten carbide or other metal alloys), soluble cobalt(II) salts, cobalt(II) oxide, cobalt(II,III) oxide, cobalt(II) sulfide, other cobalt(II) compounds, trivalent antimony, pentavalent antimony, and weapons-grade tungsten (with nickel and cobalt) alloy. (who.int)
  • Weapons-grade tungsten (with nickel and cobalt) alloy is used in armour-penetrating munitions. (who.int)
  • Tungsten metal and metal alloys occur in consumer products ` If you get tungsten dust on your clothes, shower and such as electronics, light bulb filaments, cemented tungsten change your clothes before leaving your job and returning carbide grinding wheels and carbide tipped tools. (cdc.gov)
  • Some authors [ 4 , 7 , 8 , 10 ] observed that WC-Co alloys typically displayed pseudopassivation behaviour and do not give the active-passive transition one associates with alloys having the ability to undergo passivation when polarised in a corrosive liquid medium. (hindawi.com)
  • Lincoln Electric features a variety of nickel alloy products to meet the base material and process requirements such as corrosion and high temperature applications. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • The formalism is broadly applicable to arbitrary crystal structures and alloy chemistries and will enable the development of rigorous models for deformation mechanisms in high-entropy alloys. (nature.com)
  • The researchers see potential to discover more shape memory alloy chemistries with desired characteristics for various other applications. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The trouble is that when you try to make a traditional alloy with more than a couple of elements, the elements tend to separate from each other and clump together," said David Morris, a PhD student in the Department of Chemistry at the Dalhousie University. (lightsources.org)
  • This makes the metal harder and more brittle than a single-phase alloy, and also affects the way the metal responds to hardening by hammering and lathing, and greatly restricts the use of mechanised techniques of manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a time, Paiste produced no bell metal cymbals, but now produces high-end cymbals of both this alloy and bell bronze. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, other manufactures followed the lead and implemented lines of high tin sheet metal alloy. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alloy is a metal that contains two or three different elements. (lightsources.org)
  • Alloys are mixtures of a metal with other elements, the precise combination being governed by the required properties. (goodfellow.com)
  • Biofilm formation on metal alloys and coatings, zirconia, and hydroxyapatite as implant materials in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Less biofilm mass and CFU were found on noble metal alloys (AgPt, AgAuPd, and PA). (bvsalud.org)
  • ORNL researchers used a laser power bed manufacturing technique to 3D print a lightweight aluminum and cerium-based alloy that can withstand temperatures up to 300 degrees Celsius, proving high strength and durability for automotive, aerospace and defense applications. (ornl.gov)
  • Shape memory alloys are utilized in various fields where compact, lightweight and solid-state actuations are needed, replacing hydraulic or pneumatic actuators because they can deform when cold and then return to their original shape when heated. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This helped the company develop magnesium alloy technology for lightweight man portable devices & optics. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • MARSHALLTOWN's Magnesium Alloy Screeds are rust-resistant, lightweight, and durable. (marshalltown.com)
  • Magnesium and its alloys have been the subject of interest and appear promising as biodegradable implant materials, though their fast corrosion rate in biologic environments has limited their clinical application. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers at Rice University (Houston) have discovered a titanium-gold (TiAu3) alloy that is harder than most steels and may be an optimal choice for use in orthopedic joint replacement surgery. (sme.org)
  • Famous examples of alloys exhibiting passivity are stainless steels. (lu.se)
  • This was also coupled with the use of optical microscopy to provide a full-field view of the surface in situ.It was found that the passive film on the studied Ni-Cr-Mo alloys mainly contains Cr oxides and Mo oxides, while Ni does not participate in the oxide film. (lu.se)
  • 1] Anodization of Al (100), Al (111) and Al Alloy 6063 studied in situ with X-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (lu.se)
  • UC RUSAL scientists have managed to reduce the content of this expensive element three-fold (to 0.1%) compared to commercial analogues, while maintaining a 30-50% higher strength compared to alloys without scandium. (rusal.ru)
  • Disclaimer: The information presented on the Alloy Partner Center site may include content provided by third parties, and is made available solely for general information purposes. (alloy.com)
  • Alloy manages a diverse array of assets and services in interactive, display, direct mail, content production and educational programming. (nbcnews.com)
  • It was found that the passive film on the studied Ni-Cr-Mo alloys mainly contains Cr oxides and Mo oxides, while Ni does not participate in the oxide film. (lu.se)
  • Aluminum alloys are corrosion resistant, however, their specific strength are not comparable to that of steel. (iitk.ac.in)
  • Using this alloy allows for greater consistency between blanks compared to traditional cymbal alloy, and is more applicable to Paiste's 2002 production methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paiste refer to their 8% tin bronze as 2002 alloy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The titanium alloys have excellent formability and can be easily welded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these alloys possess some properties which are superior to steel. (iitk.ac.in)
  • Research at IIT Kanpur focuses on alloy development, process modeling as well as physical metallurgy of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys, in order to improve properties and performance of the components fabricated from them. (iitk.ac.in)
  • These properties, however, were not found in the five-element alloy, indicating the properties of these special alloys are highly dependent on their compositions. (lightsources.org)
  • Composite stems combine the physical properties of alloys with those of other biomaterials. (medscape.com)
  • Alloy is a unique business, with a proven ability to foster hit intellectual properties such as Gossip Girl, The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants, The Vampire Diaries and Pretty Little Liars , as well as distribution channels that have unparalleled reach into the tween, teen and college-age markets. (nbcnews.com)
  • To date, there are no open/active SEC petitions from Titanium Alloys Manufacturing. (cdc.gov)
  • All employees who worked in any area or building at Titanium Alloys Manufacturing from January 1, 1955, through December 31, 1956. (cdc.gov)
  • Alloy Steel manufactures and distributes Arcoplate, a technically superior and market leading 'alloy overlay' wear plate, servicing the global market place from its modern manufacturing facilities in Perth , Australia. (prnewswire.com)
  • Some of the beta titanium alloys can convert to hard and brittle hexagonal omega-titanium at cryogenic temperatures [6] or under influence of ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enter Alloy UPOSR2 into the search box above and then submit. (driverguide.com)
  • Titanium alloys have better specific strength, however they are lot more expensive than steel. (iitk.ac.in)
  • At €37,109,968.54 in 2019, the country was ranked number 18 among other countries in Sold Production of Iron, Steel and Ferro-Alloys. (nationmaster.com)
  • Steel, for instance, is an alloy of iron and carbon that offers increased strength as a building material. (lightsources.org)
  • Since 2014, Belgium Basic Iron, Steel and Ferro-Alloys Turnover Per Employee was up 7.5% year on year. (nationmaster.com)
  • At €943.7 Thousand in 2019, the country was number 2 comparing other countries in Basic Iron, Steel and Ferro-Alloys Turnover Per Employee. (nationmaster.com)
  • PERTH, Australia , Aug. 18, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Alloy Steel International, Inc. (OTC: AYSI) advises that its 2016 financial year Third Quarter Report for the nine months ended June 30, 2016 is now available on www.otcmarkets.com website by searching for AYSI then choosing "Filings and Disclosure. (prnewswire.com)
  • Alloy or Steel? (exploroz.com)
  • My question is, should i go with a substantial alloy one from somone like ECB, or do i go Steel and put up with the weight? (exploroz.com)
  • The only advantage with alloy is weight but If your fitting the car out for touring then the chances are your going to put aftermarket suspension on which will cure the weight issue of a steel bar. (exploroz.com)
  • Try lifting a steel one off the floor then go lift an alloy one the difference is huge. (exploroz.com)
  • Using powder-bed 3D printing allowed the alloy to rapidly solidify into fine, stable strengthening particles in the microstructure, resulting in the remarkable high-temp creep resistance we measured," ORNL's Ryan Dehoff said. (ornl.gov)
  • Researchers printed pistons made of the alloy for deployment inside of a full-scale engine. (ornl.gov)
  • At Alloy, we are building a company made up of folks from all genders, races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. (alloy.com)
  • Morris and his colleagues, including Liangbing Hu's group from the University of Maryland who synthesized the samples using a special carbothermal shock method, are investigating two alloy samples, one made of five elements and another with fifteen. (lightsources.org)
  • The corrosion rate of some alloys can be made negligible by the presence of a spontaneously forming oxide film on the surface, a so-called passive film. (lu.se)
  • Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some evidence that a similar sheet alloy was used by the Hammerax company (though with added iron and nickel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of mechanical alloying of iron alloys in a gaseous nitrogen atmosphere. (cdc.gov)
  • The alliance gives Alloy clients access to distribution via 130 member papers around the country, adding to Alloy's existing relationships with 2,400 college publications nationwide. (mediapost.com)
  • A series of WC-Co-Ru alloys was evaluated in different chloride containing media to investigate their corrosion resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • Beta titanium alloys exhibit the BCC allotropic form of titanium (called beta). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also found that Ni-Cr-Mo alloys exhibit a transpassive breakdown mechanism that is different from that of typical Cr-containing alloys. (lu.se)
  • While fracture was not observed in either alloy, the more concentrated surface displacements suggest that the higher particle density increased the propensity for cracking in the apex region. (nist.gov)
  • This heat treatment process is carried out after the alloy has been worked into its final shape but before it is put to use, allowing much easier fabrication of a high-strength product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers used an Artificial Intelligence Materials Selection framework (AIMS) to discover a new shape memory alloy. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The shape memory alloy showed the highest efficiency during operation achieved thus far for nickel-titanium-based materials. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Funded by the National Science Foundation's Designing Materials to Revolutionize Our Engineering Future (DMREF) Program, researchers from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Texas A&M University used an Artificial Intelligence Materials Selection framework (AIMS) to discover a new shape memory alloy. (sciencedaily.com)
  • There have been many advancements in shape memory alloys since their beginnings in the mid-1960s, but at a cost. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Understanding and discovering new shape memory alloys has required extensive research through experimentation and ad-hoc trial and error. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Despite many of which have been documented to help further shape memory alloy applications, new alloy discoveries have occurred in a decadal fashion. (sciencedaily.com)
  • About every 10 years, a significant shape memory alloy composition or system has been discovered. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Moreover, even with advances in shape memory alloys, they are hindered by their low energy efficiency caused by incompatibilities in their microstructure during the large shape change. (sciencedaily.com)
  • To address these shortcomings, Texas A&M researchers have combined experimental data to create an AIMS computational framework capable of determining optimal materials compositions and processing these materials, which led to the discovery of a new shape memory alloy composition. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The shape memory alloy found during the study using AIMS was predicted and proven to achieve the narrowest hysteresis ever recorded. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In particular, this high-efficiency shape memory alloy lends itself to thermal energy harvesting, which requires materials that can capture waste energy produced by machines and put it to use, and thermal energy storage, which is used for cooling electronic devices. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Early experiments suggested that the five-element alloy has high catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition, a process used to make hydrogen fuel, but they potentially have all kinds of applications," he said. (lightsources.org)
  • Hardmetals possess excellent wear resistance, making them suitable alloys in several industrial applications. (hindawi.com)
  • These materials are very hard and possess excellent wear resistance, and this make them suitable alloys in several industrial applications, such as cutting tools or seal rings, linings, valves, jet nozzles, saw blades, fluid mixers, and conveyor belt scrapers [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The researchers discovered that the fifteen-element alloy had some elements that showed oxidation and the length of some of the bonds between them increased. (lightsources.org)
  • We expected notable improvements, but were surprised by how strong and stable these alloys proved to be. (ornl.gov)
  • Due to its unique combination of cost and performance parameters, alloy 1580 is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in the rocket, space and shipbuilding industries. (rusal.ru)
  • Noble alloys are considered as beneficial materials for the transmucosal part of oral implants, as less biofilm mass, lower bacterial counts , and greater cell viability were detected than on titanium - or zirconia-based materials. (bvsalud.org)
  • As announced in June 2010, Geraldine Laybourne has been named Chairman of Alloy. (nbcnews.com)
  • Alloy - launcher and automator' is suitable for any user. (apple.com)

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