AlloxanNinhydrin: 2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Trigonella: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Shallots: Mildly aromatic herb in the Allium genus used in SPICES.Tradescantia: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)KetonesPyruvatesGastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma: A serious complication of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA; DEHYDRATION; serum hyperosmolarity; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA in the absence of KETOSIS and ACIDOSIS.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.ArchivesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Accelerated intimal hyperplasia and increased endogenous inhibitors for NO synthesis in rabbits with alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia. (1/243)

1. We examined whether endogenous inhibitors of NO synthesis are involved in the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits with hyperglycaemia induced by alloxan. 2. Four weeks after the endothelial denudation of carotid artery which had been performed 12 weeks after alloxan, the intimal hyperplasia was greatly augmented with hyperglycaemia. The degree of hyperplasia was assessed using three different parameters of histopathological findings as well as changes in luminal area and intima: media ratio. 3. There were positive and significant correlations between intima:media ratio, plasma glucose, and concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and N(G), N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) in endothelial cells, that is, the intima:media ratio became greater as plasma glucose and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased. Furthermore, endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased in proportion to the increase in plasma glucose. 4. In contrast, there were inverse and significant correlations between cyclic GMP production by carotid artery strips with endothelium and plasma glucose, between cyclic GMP production and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA, and between the intima:media ratio and cyclic GMP production. 5. Exogenously applied L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited cyclic GMP production in a concentration-dependent manner. IC50 values were determined to be 12.1 microM for the former and 26.2 microM for the latter. The cyclic GMP production was abolished after the deliberate removal of endothelium from the artery strips. 6. These results suggest that the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia with hyperglycaemia is closely related to increased accumulation of L-NMMA and ADMA with hyperglycaemia, which would result in an accelerated reduction in NO production/release by endothelial cells.  (+info)

Alloxan in vivo does not only exert deleterious effects on pancreatic B cells. (2/243)

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the mechanism of harmful alloxan action in vivo. 75 mg/kg b.w. of this diabetogenic agent were administered to fasting rats. Two minutes later the animals were decapitated. It was observed that alloxan caused a distinct rise in blood insulin and glucose levels with a concomitant drop of free fatty acids. The amount of sulfhydryl groups in the liver of alloxan-treated rats was decreased and glutathione peroxidase activity was substantially higher. These results indicate that some changes observed in alloxan-induced diabetes can not only be the consequence of B cells damage by alloxan but may also be the result of its direct influence on other tissues. It was also observed that glucose given 20 min before alloxan injection only partially protected against the deleterious effects of alloxan.  (+info)

Intercalated duct cells in the chicken pancreatic islet with special reference to the alloxan administration. (3/243)

The intercalated duct cells were observed in the A and B islets of the chicken pancreas. These cells adhered with each other by intercellular junctional complexes at the apical side. They had many microvilli projecting into the lumen. Abluminally, they displayed extended slender cytoplasmic processes between islet endocrine cells. Administration of alloxan resulted to denser cytoplasm and a more prominent thickening of cytoplasmic processes of the intercalated duct cells, although the blood glucose levels did not show appreciable changes by the treatment. The intercalated duct epithelial cells appeared clearly as stellate cells. The lysosomes increased in size and number with passage of time after alloxan administration. The present findings may suggest that intercalated ducts are not only anatomically important as a structure passing through the islet but also play physiologically by protecting the islet endocrine cells.  (+info)

Reduced coronary NO production in conscious dogs after the development of alloxan-induced diabetes. (4/243)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the control of coronary blood flow (CBF) during the development of diabetes is unknown. To study this, mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented using sterile techniques for measurements of systemic hemodynamics and CBF. With heart rate controlled (150 beats/min), veratrine (1-10 micrograms/kg) caused dose-dependent increases in CBF; e.g., 5 mirograms/kg of veratrine increased CBF by 57 +/- 7% from 41 +/- 1.3 ml/min (P < 0.05). The dogs developed diabetes 4-5 wk after injection of alloxan (40-60 mg/kg iv, blood glucose levels were 384 +/- 18 mg/dl). After diabetes the same doses of veratrine caused smaller increases in CBF; i.e., 5 micrograms/kg of veratrine increased CBF by 32 +/- 2% (P < 0.05 compared with control) from 28 +/- 4 ml/min. ACh- and adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation were reduced after diabetes as well. In anesthetized dogs after diabetes, vagal stimulation caused smaller increases in CBF. ACh and bradykinin caused smaller increases in NO(-)(2) production in coronary microvessels from diabetic dogs. Furthermore, despite the fact that mRNA for endothelial cell NO synthase from the aorta was increased twofold with the use of Northern blotting, the protein for aortic endothelial constitutive NO synthase was reduced by 66% after diabetes, as determined by Western blotting. Our results indicate that the NO-dependent coronary vasodilation by the Bezold-Jarisch reflex is impaired in conscious dogs after diabetes. The mechanism responsible for the impaired endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation is most likely the decreased release of NO from the endothelium.  (+info)

Supplementation of N-acetylcysteine inhibits NFkappaB activation and protects against alloxan-induced diabetes in CD-1 mice. (5/243)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells and the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). However, the cellular mechanism responsible for beta cell death is still unclear. We hypothesize that activation of NFkappaB by ROS is the key cellular signal in initiating a cascade of events leading to beta cell death. Thus, enhancement of pancreatic GSH, a known antioxidant and key regulator of NF-kappaB, should protect against IDDM. Weanling CD1 mice (n=5) were injected with alloxan (50 mg/kg i.v.) to induce IDDM. Using EPR spin trapping techniques, we demonstrated that alloxan generated ROS in the pancreas 15 min after administration. Activation of NFkappaB in pancreatic nuclear extracts was observed 30 min after alloxan injection, as assessed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Fasting blood glucose levels were monitored for 14 days. Supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 500 mg/kg), a GSH precursor, inhibited alloxan-induced NFkappaB activation and reduced hyperglycemia. Thus, NFkappaB activation by ROS may initiate a sequence of events leading to IDDM. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by NAC attenuated the severity of IDDM. This research will contribute to the understanding of the etiology of IDDM and may lead to the development of better strategies for disease prevention.  (+info)

Lipolysis induced by alloxan in rat adipocytes is not inhibited by insulin. (6/243)

Isolated rat adipocytes were incubated with adrenaline, adrenaline plus insulin, alloxan or alloxan plus insulin. Glycerol release was taken as a measure of lipolysis. It was observed that alloxan in the concentration of 3, 10 and 20 mmol/l intensifies lipolysis in adipocytes in the absence of adrenaline. Insulin (10(-6) mol/l) treatment of cells did not inhibit lipolysis caused by this compound, but significantly restricted lipolysis induced by adrenaline (10(-6) mol/l). It was also shown that alloxan in the concentration of 3 and 10 mmol/l intensified lipolysis stimulated by adrenaline (10(-6) mol/l). Addition of 20 mmol/l of alloxan strongly inhibited glycerol release in the presence of adrenaline. The results presented here clearly indicate that the action of alloxan concerns cells of the white adipose tissue.  (+info)

Resistance of ALR/Lt islets to free radical-mediated diabetogenic stress is inherited as a dominant trait. (7/243)

ALS/Lt and ALR/Lt are inbred mouse strains selected for susceptibility and resistance to alloxan (AL)-induced diabetes. Within 24-h after AL administration in vivo, ALS/Lt islets were distinguished from ALR/Lt islets by more extensive necrotic changes. Within 7 days post-AL, ALS/Lt mice exhibited hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, whereas ALR/Lt mice maintained normal plasma insulin and glucose levels. We have recently shown that resistance in ALR/Lt correlated with constitutively elevated systemic (and pancreatic) free radical defense status. In the present report, we examined whether ability to detoxify free radical stress extended to the level of ALR/Lt pancreatic islets. Cultured ALS/Lt islets exposed for 5 min to increasing (0-3 mmol/l) AL concentrations in vitro exhibited an 80% decline in numbers of intact islets after a subsequent 6-day culture period, as well as a 75% reduction in islet insulin content and a 94% decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretory capacity. In contrast, ALR/Lt islets remained viable and retained glucose-stimulated insulin secretory capacity as well as normal insulin content. This ALR/Lt islet resistance extended to hydrogen peroxide, a free radical generator whose entry into beta-cells is not dependent on glucose transporters. The elevated antioxidant defenses previously found in ALR/Lt pancreas were extended to isolated islets, which exhibited significantly higher glutathione and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 levels compared with ALS/Lt islets. A dominant genetic trait from ALR/Lt controlling this unusual AL resistance was indicated by the finding that reciprocal F1 mice of both sexes were resistant to AL administration in vivo. A backcross to ALS/Lt showed 1:1 segregation for susceptibility/resistance, indicative of a single gene controlling the phenotype. In conclusion, the ALR/Lt mouse may provide important insight into genetic mechanisms capable of rendering islets strongly resistant to free radical-mediated damage.  (+info)

Protective mechanism of glucose against alloxan-induced beta-cell damage: pivotal role of ATP. (8/243)

Glucose prevents the development of diabetes induced by alloxan. In the present study, the protective mechanism of glucose against alloxan-induced beta-cell damage was investigated using HIT-T 15 cell, a Syrian hamster transformed beta-cell line. Alloxan caused beta-cell damages with DNA fragmentation, inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release, and decrease of cellular ATP level, but all of these beta-cell damages by alloxan were prevented by the presence of 20 mM glucose. Oligomycin, a specific inhibitor of ATP synthase, completely abolished the protective effects of glucose against alloxan-induced cell damage. Furthermore, treatment of nuclei isolated from HIT-T15 cells with ATP significantly prevented the DNA fragmentation induced by Ca2+. The results indicate that ATP produced during glucose metabolism plays a pivotal role in the protection of glucose against alloxan-induced beta-cell damage.  (+info)

Cytochrome c was reduced when superoxide was generated from xanthine oxidase in the presence of alloxan, and by the reaction of alloxan and with reduced glutathione. In each case, most of the reduction was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, but considerably more enzyme was required than with superoxide alone. This indicates that the superoxide dismutase-inhibitible cytochrome c reduction was mainly due to a direct reaction with the alloxan radical, and implies that other reactions that are inhibited by superoxide dismutase could be due to either alloxan radicals or superoxide.. ...
Effects of Diabetes Mellitus Induced by Alloxan on the Pharmacokinetics of Metformin in Rats: Restoration of Pharmacokinetic Parameters to the Control State by Insulin Treatment
Hearts from normal and alloxan diabetic rats were perfused in vitro with a bicarbonate-buffered medium containing glucose. Transport of glucose through the cell membrane was stimulated with insulin or by induction of anaerobiosis. The organs were rapidly fixed and examined by electron microscopy. Transport stimulation was not associated with any increase in the number of sarcolemmal invaginations or subsarcolemmal cytoplasmic vesicles. It was concluded that glucose transport and the effects of insulin or anoxia do not involve pinocytosis. The relationship of pinocytosis to glucose transport is discussed. The appearance of numerous lipid inclusions at the Z line level of the sarcomeres in the diabetic and anoxic myocardia is described. ...
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Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Postoperative changes in the lipid content of the liver, placenta and embryo of normal, alloxan diabetic and insulin-treated rats]. by W Haude et al.
Abstract: Fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation in rat brain microsomes were studied under conditions of alloxan diabetes. The data obtained indicate significant differences in the content of unsaturated fatty acids and also a slight activation of lipid peroxidation in the pathological state studied ...
The present work has detected the antidiabetic effect of the MLE in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan causes a massive reduction in insulin release, by the destruction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans and inducing hyperglycemia [17]. MLE lowered the blood glucose levels in normal rats within and in glucose loaded animals, in which the pancreatic cells are still fully intact. Hydroethanolic extract of the drug might be able to stimulate insulin secretion in normal rats, as did glibenclamide. Thus the results obtained show that oral administration of MLE produces a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic rats on both acute and long term administration. In contrast, the significant increase in plasma glucose levels of untreated diabetic rats may be due to progressive severity of untreated diabetes. The most common lipid abnormalities in diabetes are hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia [18]. Hypertriglyceridemia is also associated in metabolic ...
Archives issue of International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences which aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by ineffectivene...
Free Online Library: The use of alloxan and streptozotocin in experimental diabetes models by Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism; Health, general Diabetes Diabetes mellitus Pyrimidines Streptozocin
Abstract Alloxan and streptozotocin are widely used to induce experimental diabetes in animals. The mechanism of their action in B cells of the pancreas has been intensively invest..
J Food Sci. 2012 Nov;77(11):H246-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02950.x. Epub 2012 Oct 11.. Oral administration of puerh tea polysaccharides lowers blood glucose levels and enhances antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.. By Xu P, Chen H, Wang Y, Hochstetter D, Zhou T, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Author information. Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Rd., Hangzhou 310058, China.. Abstract. The polysaccharides, named puerh tea polysaccharides (PTPS), were isolated from puerh tea. Physicochemical characteristics, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of PTPS in alloxan-induced diabetic mice were investigated. PTPS was found to be a kind of acid heteropolysaccharides conjugate, but the physicochemical characteristics of which were different from the polysaccharides from other kinds of teas in literature. Meanwhile, daily administration of PTPS (40 mg/kg BW) could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, which was not different (P , 0.05) from the effects ...
Administration of propolis to diabetic mice resulted in a significant increase of body weight, haematological and immunological parameters of blood as well as 100% survival of diabetic mice. Alloxan-injected mice showed a marked increase in oxidative stress in liver and kidney homogenate, as determined by lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation of the liver sections of alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed several lesions including cellular vacuolization, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltrations, but with individual variability.Treatment of diabetic mice with propolis extracts results in decreased number of vacuolized cells and degree of vacuolization; propolis treatment improve the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in diabetes. Renal histology showed corpuscular, tubular and interstitial changes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Test components did not improve renal histopathology in diabetic mice ...
Abstract The antihyperglycaemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (ALENL) was evaluated in rats. Twenty-five rats of both sexes (120 - 160 g) were divided into five groups (A-E) of 5 animals each. Group A (control) rats were administered 0.5 ml of distilled water (DW) orally while those in group B received 100 mg/kg body weight of ALENL. Animals in groups C, D and E which induced into hyperglycaemia (intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan) were also administered DW, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of ALENL respectively, once daily for 14 days. Blood glucose levels (BGL) were determined at an interval of two days. Alloxan significantly (p,0.05) increased BGL in the DW treated hyper-glycaemic animals (DWTHA) from 48.00 ± 1.79 to 142.80 ± 2.35 mg/dl after 24 h. After two days, administration of the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight increased blood glucose level, but this increase was not statistically significant (p,0.05) when compared with the ...
It is known that the development of diabetic complications in human pregnancy is directly related to the severity and the duration of this pathology. In this study, we developed a model of long-term type 1 diabetes to investigate its effects on the cytoarchitecture, extracellular matrix and cell proliferation during the first adaptation phase of the myometrium for pregnancy. A single dose of alloxan was used to induce diabetes in mice prior to pregnancy. To identify the temporal effects of diabetes the mice were divided into two groups: Group D1 (females that became pregnant 90-100 days after alloxan); Group D2 (females that became pregnant 100-110 days after alloxan). Uterine samples were collected after 168 h of pregnancy and processed for light and electron microscopy. In both groups the histomorphometric evaluation showed that diabetes promoted narrowing of the myometrial muscle layers which was correlated with decreased cell proliferation demonstrated by PCNA immunodetection. In D1, diabetes
The starchy flour is then given a chlorine gas bath in order to bleach it and make it white. Chlorine gas is a flour bleaching and oxidising agent that is a powerful irritant that is dangerous to inhale. The chlorine gas reacts with the flour to oxidise it and make it white. But it also converts a dough additive called xanthine into a toxic substance called alloxan. The latter is a toxin which destroys pancreatic islet cells resulting in diabetes. Alloxan has been used in lab tests to deliberately induce diabetes in rats. Trace elements of alloxan are left in the end product. ...
The reticulocytes and the ageing red blood cells (RBCs) namely young (Y), middle-aged (M) and old RBCs (O) of female Wistar rats from different groups such as control animals (C), controls treated with vanadate (C + V), alloxan-induced diabetic (D), diabetic-treated with insulin (D + I) and vanadate (D + V), were fractionated on a percoll/BSA gradient. The following enzymes were measured-hexokinase (HK), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), alanine aminotransferase ΜlaAT), aspartate aminotransferase ΜsAT) and arginase in the hemolysates of all the RBCs fractions. Decreases in the activity of HK and AsAT by about 70%, arginase and GSH-Px by 30% in old RBCs were observed in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Increases in the activity of GSSG-R by 86%, AlaAT by more than 400% and GST by 70% were observed in old RBCs in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals.. Alloxan diabetic animals showed a further decrease in the ...
The relationship between concentrations of blood glucose and nonenzymatically glucosylated serum proteins was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes of varying severity. Fasting serum glucose correlated strongly with both glucosylated albumin (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001) and glucosylated serum protein (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001). The relative rates of response of serum protein and hemoglobin glycosylation to changes in blood glucose were also compared. Following withdrawal of insulin from diabetic rats, the half-times to reach new steady state levels of blood glucose, glucosylated serum proteins, and glycohemoglobins were about 2, 3, and 8 days, respectively. Similarly, on reinstitution of insulin therapy, the half-times for these same indices to return to baseline values were 2, 3.5, and 15 days, respectively. Changes in glucosylated albumin were more sensitive than glycohemoglobins to changes in serum glucose, consistent with the observation that albumin was glucosylated at about 10 times
Background & Objectives: Alloxan & streptozotocin are used for inducing diabetic models. Their combination has been used to reduce the individual chemical dosage and minimize the side effects. Present investigation was aimed at studying pre-diabetic clinical changes induced by low doses of Alloxan-STZ cocktail in rabbits. Methods: New Zealand White rabbits, 1-1.5 kg body weight, were administered alloxan (@50 mg/kg b.w.) and STZ (@ 35mg/kg b.w.) cocktail, as single intravenous dose. Blood glucose levels were monitored (0 h, 20 min, 1 h, and then hourly up to 9 h) and clinical signs noted. Rabbits surviving up to 9 hours were given glucose therapy. Results: The cocktail caused immediate transient hypoglycaemia, followed by hyperglycaemia, and then progressively severe hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia caused characteristic behavioural alterations from lethargy, through aesthesia, muscular weakness to recumbency. Severely affected rabbits revealed intermittent convulsions and died in coma. Conclusion: Low
2. Chlorine dioxide, one of the chemicals used to bleach flour, combines with residual protein in most of these foods to form alloxan. In the lab, researchers use alloxan to induce diabetes in rats. Enriched or white anything, is dangerous, period ...
According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes ...
In the experiment, we used a technique for administering special material (alloxan) and causing diabetes in healthy mice and, by analyzing and comparing the blood glucose level of mice that been irradiated by a low dose of radiation and mice that were not irradiated, we examined whether low dose irradiation controlled the incidence of diabetes ...
This study was aimed to determine antihyperglycaemic effect of Azadirachta indica J extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rat, active compound indentification, and tablet formulation This study used 18 mice Spraque Dawley ...
Effect of ficus relegiosa on blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. - Noreen Wadood, Abdul Wadood, Mohammed Nisar
ABSTRACT. Currently available drugs for diabetes mellitus pose considerable side effects. This necessitates the development of new products, particularly herbal preparations which are known to have lesser side effects. Several herbal products are used to treat diabetes; but their hypoglycemic effects are complex and few anti-diabetic plants have received proper scientific validation. The present study was undertaken to validate the use of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis plant as anti-diabetic agent. This study was conducted on thirty healthy albino rabbits of either sex; the effect of the Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaf extract (NALE) at doses 200mg/kg body weight and 400mg/kg body weight was evaluated for a period of 14 days on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. The hypoglycemic effect of the leaf extract was compared with the standard Glibenclamide at dose 2.5mg/kg body weight. Results revealed that the hypoglycemic effect of the Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaf extract at 200mg/kg body ...
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in all societies including Iran. One of its important complications is the neuropathic pain, which can be relieved by opioid drugs such as morphine. Opioid therapy is restricted due to development of tolerance and physical or mental dependence. In this study, the effect of diabetes on morphine analgesia and development of morphine tolerance and dependence was investigated. Experimental diabetes was induced by alloxan (120 mg/kg, s.c.) in rats. Morphine sulfate (7 mg/kg, i.p.) application for 5 days developed tolerance in animals. On 5th day, 30 min after the injection of morphine, the acute and chronic pain was evaluated in diabetic and non-diabetic animals using hot plate and formalin test. In addition, withdrawal signs (jumping, chewing, urine and feces) were recorded for ten minutes using naloxone (2 mg/kg, s.c.). The results showed that the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine for acute pain markedly reduced, but slightly enhanced for chronic pain model.
Background/Aim. The mechanism of impaired bone healing in diabetes mellitus includes different tissue and cellular level activities due to micro- and macrovascular changes. As a chronic metabolic disease with vascular complications, diabetes affects a process of bone regeneration as well. The therapeutic approach in bone regeneration is based on the use of osteoinductive autogenous grafts as well as osteoconductive synthetic material, like a β-tricalcium phosphate. The aim of the study was to determine the quality and quantity of new bone formation after the use of autogenous bone and β-tricalcium phosphate in the model of calvarial critical-sized defect in rabbits with induced diabetes mellitus type I. Methods. The study included eight 4-month-old Chincilla rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus type I. In all animals, there were surgically created two calvarial bilateral defects (diameter 12 mm), which were grafted with autogenous bone and β-tricalcium phosphate (n = 4) or served as ...
Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to
Using calcium imaging as a marker of neuronal excitability, we detected glucose-excited, glucose-inhibited, and nonresponsive neurons in primary hypothalamic cell cultures, in proportions similar to those described previously (1,23). Thus, ∼30% of neurons were excited by raising the glucose concentration from 3 to 15 mmol/l, ∼6% were inhibited, and the remainder were nonresponsive over the same concentration range. The mechanism of glucose sensing in the glucose-excited neurons could not be attributed solely to KATP channel closure because tolbutamide only increased intracellular Ca2+ in ∼10% of glucose-excited neurons in the presence of 3 mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, the nonmetabolizable sugars αMDG and 3-O-MDG mimicked the action of glucose in glucose-excited neurons, indicating that metabolic generation of ATP is not a prerequisite for the sensing of glucose analogs. The sensitivity of the glucose-sensing machinery to αMDG, its dependence on extracellular Na+, and its inhibition by ...
The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti diabetic activity of polyherbal formulation containing some bitter plant constituents like neem, methi, karela fruit, amla , jamun seeds, kavat fruit in
Mushrooms are a low calorie food with very little fat and are highly suitable for obese persons. The objective of the present investigation was to study the interaction of aqueous extract of P. pulmonarius (called PP-aqu) with acarbose on serum glucose levels, and on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in alloxan induced diabetic mice. PP-aqu (500 mg/kg), acarbose (50 mg/kg) and their combination were administered orally in alloxan (70 mg/kg i.v.) induced diabetic mice. In the acute study, the serum glucose level was estimated at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after drug administration. The subacute study involved repeated administration of the drugs for 28 days, a serum glucose level estimation at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and recording of the body weights of the mice. In the OGTT, D-glucose (2.5 g/kg) was administered in diabetic mice half an hour after pre-treatment with PP-aqu (500 mg/kg), acarbose (50 mg/kg) and their combination. Serum glucose levels were estimated 30 min prior to glucose ...
Organic hyperinsulinism has been recognized with increasing frequency in the last few years. It is most commonly due to adenomata of the islands of Langerhans. More and more case reports appear of successful surgical removal of these tumors with consequent alleviation of symptoms. At times there seems to be a general hypersecretion of insulin by the islet cells without discernible tumor in which resection of varying amounts of pancreatic tissue has been found effective. Carcinoma of islet cells occurs much less frequently. In these cases the tumor is often slow to grow and slow to metastasize. In a few instances ...
Al*loxan (#), n. [Allantoin + oxalic, as containing the elements of allantion and oxalic acid.] Chemistry|Chem. An oxidation produ...
Free radicals contribute to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) autoimmune responses. We recently demonstrated that superoxide-deficient CD4 T cells exhibited increased effector responses and diabetogenicity, but the redox-dependent mechanism(s) mediating T cell activation were unclear. We hypothesized that during T1D progression, CD4 T cells with a reduced cell surface state would exhibit a concomitant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses. To test this, alexa fluor 647-conjugated maleimide (ALM)-labeling of cell surface reduced thiols on diabetogenic mouse and human CD4 T cells was performed. We observed an increase in ALM percentage and gMFI from peripheral Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse CD4 T cells during progression to overt diabetes. Cognate autoantigen stimulation elicited a 2- and 20-fold increase in CD4 ALM T cell percentage and gMFI, respectively. In addition to serving as a T cell activation marker, ALM gMFI of reduced CD4 T cell surface thiols was enhanced (1.2-fold) with ...
The association of L-type Ca(2+) channels to the secretory granules and its functional significance to secretion was investigated in mouse pancreatic B cells. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis showed that the B cell is equipped with |500 alpha1(C) L-type Ca(2+) channels, corresponding to a Ca(2+) channel density of 0.9 channels per microm(2). Analysis of the kinetics of exocytosis during voltage-clamp depolarizations revealed an early component that reached a peak rate of 1.1 pFs(-1) (approximately 650 granules/s) 25 ms after onset of the pulse and is completed within approximately 100 ms. This component represents a subset of approximately 60 granules situated in the immediate vicinity of the L-type Ca(2+) channels, corresponding to approximately 10% of the readily releasable pool of granules. Experiments involving photorelease of caged Ca(2+) revealed that the rate of exocytosis was half-maximal at a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration of 17 microM, and concentrations |25 microM are required to attain
AJ Krentz, PM Clark, CN Hales, AC Williams, M Nattrass; Pancreatic B Cell Function in Motor Neurone Disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 July 1992; 83 (s27): 5P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs083005P. Download citation file:. ...
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 Pharmacokinetic parameters of insulin after IV, SC and IN administration to diabetic rabbits IV* SC IN IV* SC IN PK parameter 0.5 IU/kg 0.5 IU/kg 1 IU/kg 0.5 IU/kg 0.5 IU/kg 1 IU/kg Diabetic Rabbit #1 Diabetic Rabbit #2 Cmax (mIU/L) 253.7 148.4 106.5 183.1 71.6 167.3 tmax (min) 2 15 15 5 30 15 ?z (min-1) .0113 0.0263 0.0189 0.03 0.0047 0.0026 Elimination t1/2 61.1 26.3 36.7 23.1 149.0 271.1 (min) AUC0-∞ 6638.6 12192.7 5473.1 6145.1 16772.0 8675.1 (mIU min L-1) AUC0-∞/dose 13277.2 24385.5 5473.1 12290.2 33544.1 8675.1 (mIU min L-1 D-1) FRa (%) 100 100 22.4 100 100 25.9 FAb (%) 100 100 41.2 100 100 70.6 Diabetic Rabbit #3 Diabetic Rabbit #4 Cmax (mIU/L) 268.3 121.5 79.5 267.2 72.5 89.8 tmax (min) 15 15 15 5 45 15 ?z (min-1) 0.0097 0.0164 0.0235 0.0148 0.0119 0.0218 Elimination t1/2 71.7 42.3 29.4 46.8 58.4 31.9 (min) AUC0-∞ 6628.2 12798.8 3644.5 5816.2 9130.1 3845.4 (mIU min L-1) AUC0-∞/dose 13256.4 25597.7 3644.5 11632.4 18260.2 3845.4 (mIU min L-1 D-1) FRa (%) 100 ...
Compartmentalization of PDGF on extracellular binding sites dependent on exon-6-encoded sequences. Inclusion of methionine-S35 into liver slices of rats with alloxan diabetes in a medium containing glucose generic cialis or fructose Hence, fluopyram has a harmful effect on overall soil microbial activity, and tadalafil 20 mg rezeptfrei bestellen changed soil microbial community structure and function. Six males with type 2 diabetes mellitus and eight healthy controls were included.. Long sleep duration: a nonconventional indicator of arterial stiffness in Japanese at high risk of cardiovascular disease: side effects of cialis the J-HOP study. How does the number of susceptible cells influence the growth potential of the virus?. The presence of an osseous spur on the dorsoproximal aspect of MtIII in the absence of other radiological abnormalities may be an incidental finding. AfsR recruits tadalafil 5mg RNA polymerase to the afsS promoter: a model for transcriptional activation by SARPs. The ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Rat pancreatic islets have been studied following successive daily administration of dehydroascrobic acid (DHA) and during the recovery phase following 3 daily injections. One injection of DHA produces degranulation of B cells seen in the light microscope as a loss of aldehyde fuchsin positivity. In the electron microscope the B cells appear to have secretory granules accumulated subjacent to the plasma membranes. Following 2 and 3 daily injections, B cells evidence alterations in the organization of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and secretory granules are scant but when present are subjacent to the plasma membrane. After 5 to 7 days recovery few secretory granules remain in B cell cytoplasm, but the cells have prominent granular ER and a Golgi apparatus with numerous prosecretory granules. The primary effect of DHA is an exaggerated secretory response of B cells, which is intensified with subsequent injections. Necrosis of B cells as produced by alloxan is not ...
Maida is made from wheat flour after removing the fiber rich bran. Then it is bleached with the chemical alloxan to make it white and fine. This chemical is toxic to Pancreas in our body. Pancreas is responsible for regulation of glucose and sugar in our body and blood. Pancreas is producing insulin in our body. Actually Insulin is responsible for the control of blood sugar. Once Pancreas is damaged, one will become diabetic. Pancreas can be damaged in many ways. Our genes and heredity also have a role in making Pancreas susceptible to injury by noxious agents. Maida or white wheat flour is used in many food stuffs world wide. The big corporate lobby world wide has succeeded in hiding the harmful effect of Maida and disseminating the information. The food industry was able to prevent any research to rule out the causation of DIABETES by Maida. The incidence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and India and Kerala is going to get the number one place in this regard. May be our food ...
In vivo antidiabetic efficacy of red algae Portieria hornemannii and Spyridia fusiformis methanol extract on alloxan stimulated hyperglycemic activity in Wistar albino rats ...
Advanced Glycation End Products, Alloxan, Antigen, Apoptosis, Behavior, Cell, Cell Number, Cell Numbers, Cells, Family, Fluorescence, Fructosamine, Histamine, Histamine Release, Injection, Intravenous Injection, Mast Cell, Mast Cells, Plasma, Pleural Cavity
Affiliation:Gifu University School of Medicine,Second Department of Internal Medicine,Assistant Professor of Medicine,医学部・附属病院,講師, Research Field:循環器内科学, Keywords:対側肺傷害,アラキドン酸代謝産物,Intravenous injection,Intratracheal instillation,二重指示薬希釈法,Alloxan-induced lung injury,アロキサン肺水腫,血管外肺水分量,成人呼吸窮迫症候群,Antiprotease, # of Research Projects:1, # of Research Products:0
Later on while in the program from the disease there exists enhanced expression of your transforming growth element b, which may perhaps result, in aspect, in the elevated production of MCP 1. Each the MCP 1 and also the TGF b1 genes have CpG situated from the vicinity of transcription begin website. The OVE26 mice on FVB background overexpress cal modulin gene in pancreatic b cells, leading to hyper glycemia and early onset of kind 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The leptin deficient insulin resis tant C57BL/6J ob/ob mice are mildly hyperglycemic and do not build kidney lesions resembling human dia betes. We utilized chromatin through the kidneys of those strains and their respective controls inside the com bined ChIP MeDIP assay. Blood glucose levels in these strains had been as follows C57BL/6J 65 4, C57BL/6 ob/ob 112 13, FVB 197 15, and FVB OVE26 649 22. Matrix ChIP MeDIP analysis uncovered reduced 5mC ranges in the MCP 1 gene in the diabetic OVE26 mice when compared with the usual FVB ...
Fulltext - An Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentials of Onion (Allium cepa L.) on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rabbits
Polysaccharide isolated from Hovenia dulcis Thunb.(HDP) was tested on mice to evaluate its antidiabetic activity. Diabetic mice were ig given different dosages of HDP(50, 100 and 200 mg·kg-1)once daily for 6 weeks. The results showed that the activities were related to the dose of HDP. The fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice was decreased by 47.46% in 200 mg·kg-1 group compared with that of before giving HDP. Compared with that of diabetic control group, in 200 mg·kg-1 group fasting blood glucose level (decreased by 64.50%), liver and kidney coefficients(decreased by 18.12% and 30.36% respectively), the content of malondialdehyde(MDA) in liver, kidney(decreased by 44.00% and 51.27% respectively), the content of triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)in serum(decreased by 26.32%, 26.53% and 35.71% respectively) were significantly decreased; Weight(increased by 16.73%), the content of blood insulin, high density lipoprotein ...
The juice of M. charantia fruit, administered orally in different doses produced hypoglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. When th
Author for correspondence: Email: [email protected] Shubashini K. Sripathi, Poongothai G./ Bioassay- Guided Fractionation… Table 1 Anti-fungal screening result (Zone of inhibition in mm)Sample Concentrated pet-etherresidueConcentrated Table 2 Anti-fungal screening result for column fractions and for isolated compounds against Monascus purpureus Table 2 shows anti-fungal screening result for column Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International journal fractions against Monascus purpureus and column of Applied Research in natural products. 2009; fractions 4, 5,6,7,8 and 11 showed a higher zone of inhibition than the standard Clotrimazole. The Minimum Radha R, Arokiyaraj S, Agastian P, Balaraju K, Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of these column Mohan Kumar R, Bula P. Phytochemical analysis fractions were also shown in Table 2. This study also and anti-inflammatory activity of Pisonia grandis revealed the potentially active fractions from which the R.Br. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmacology ...
Diabetes induced cardiac dysfunction and lesions are nowadays confirmed. In fact, Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease, which is associated with oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia which have direct toxic effects on cardio-myocytes. Olive leaves extract compounds, such as Oleuropein, have been used in many therapeutic and preventive cases. The present study is designed to evaluate the effect of Oleuropein as antioxidant on the heart histological and oxidative features in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan at 180 mg/kg b.w by intra-peritoneal method once. Four weeks Oleuropein rich olive leaves administration restore significantly the heart histological alteration established by diabetes and enhanced the cardiac antioxidant potential.
Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats". J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 3 (2): 242-8. doi:10.4103/0975-7406.80779. PMC 3103919 . ...
Fruit powder in alloxan-diabetic rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 67 (1): 103-109. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00004-5. PMID ...
Szkudelski T (2001). "The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas". Physiol Res. 50 (6): ... Streptozotocin is now marketed by the generic drug company Sicor (Teva). Alloxan Brentjens R, Saltz L (2001). "Islet cell ... "Comparison of metabolic abnormalities in diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin or by alloxan". Lancet. 1 (7544): 670-1. ...
Fruit in alloxan-induced diabetic Rats". South African Journal of Botany. 88: 56-61. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.04.010. ... Vivo antioxidant activities in alloxan-induced oxidative stress". Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 6: 249 ...
with Glyburide in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 5 (2): 159-164. doi: ... and reduced the mortality of alloxan induced diabetic mice by approximately 50%. It showed a synergistic effect with the ...
Menten, ML.; Janouch, M. (1946). "Changes in alkaline phosphatase of kidney following renal damage with alloxan". Proceedings ...
... antioxidative and nephroprotective effects of taurine in alloxan diabetic rabbits". Biochimie. 91 (2): 261-270. doi:10.1016/j. ...
On blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 50 (1): 13-7. doi:10.1016/ ... fed hyperglycemic and alloxan-treated rabbits and rats. Davana oil is used in making perfumes of sweet and fruity fragrances. ...
Venkatesh, S., Reddy, G. D., & Reddy, B. M. (2003). Antihyperglycemic activity of Helicteres isora roots in alloxan-induced ...
Streptozotocin or alloxan may be administered to induce chronic diabetes in hamsters. Atherosclerosis may be studied with ...
"Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Scoparia dulcis in alloxan induced albino mice" (PDF). International Journal of ...
Strecker, A (1862). "Notiz über eine eigenthümliche Oxydation durch Alloxan" [Notice of a curious oxidation by alloxan]. ... The original observation by Strecker involved the use of alloxan as the oxidant in the first step, followed by hydrolysis: The ...
"Importance of glucagon in the control of futile cycling as studied in alloxan-diabetic dogs". Diabetologia. 30: 175-182. doi: ... reduction in pancreatic glucagon with normalization of somatostatin and decrease in insulin in normoglycemic alloxan-diabetic ...
Anti‑hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Med Med Sci ... Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum improves hematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats via its ... Effect of aqueous leave extract of Ocimum gratissimum on alloxan induced diabetic rat. PHCOG MAG Vol 1, Issue 2, 62-64 Ayinla ...
It may also be prepared by digesting alloxan with alcoholic ammonia at about 78 °C; the purple solid so formed is easily ...
Later, in 1948, while conducting experiments on alloxan effects on rats, Gyorge and Rose noted rats receiving tocopherol ... "Effect of dietary factors on early mortality and hemoglobinuria in rats following administration of alloxan". Science. 108 ( ...
Omotade, OI (2009). "Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in selected rabbit tissues of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rabbit". ...
Bartosíková, L (2007). "Examination of the antioxidative and antidiabetic effect of pomiferin in alloxan-induced diabetes ...
Although pyrimidine derivatives such as uric acid and alloxan were known in the early 19th century, a laboratory synthesis of a ... Grimaux, E. (1879). "Synthèse des dérivés uriques de la série de l'alloxane" [Synthesis of urea derivatives of the alloxan ... and alloxan. It is also found in many synthetic compounds such as barbiturates and the HIV drug, zidovudine. ...
... blood lipid and antioxidation of hyperglycemic mice induced by Alloxan,"". Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin. pp. 237-240. ...
Brömme HJ, Mörke W, Peschke E (November 2002). "Transformation of barbituric acid into alloxan by hydroxyl radicals: ...
Diabetes mellitus can be experimentally induced for research purposes by streptozotocin or alloxan, which are specifically ...
... molybdate of ammonia and alloxan. In 1843, with mineralogist Johann Reinhard Blum, he proposed the name "leonhardite" for ...
... cando estaban facendo experimentos sobre os efectos do alloxan en ratas, Gyorge e Rose notaron que as ratas que recibían ... "Effect of dietary factors on early mortality and hemoglobinuria in rats following administration of alloxan". Science 108 (2817 ...
An aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant has shown a hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and mice. ...
Alloxan, sometimes referred to as alloxan hydrate, refers to the organic compound with the formula OC(N(H)CO)2C(OH)2. It is ... The name "Alloxan" emerged from an amalgamation of the words "allantoin" and "Oxalsäure" (oxalic acid). The alloxan model of ... Studies suggests that alloxan does not cause diabetes in humans. Others found a significant difference in alloxan plasma levels ... A dimeric derivative alloxantin can be prepared by partial reduction of alloxan with hydrogen sulfide. Alloxan is a toxic ...
5TG 14d post-Alloxan) after 3v alloxan. Data are means ± SEM. *P ≤ 0.05 vs. 5TG responses prior to 3v alloxan injection. ... 7-day post-3v alloxan-treated (B), and 14-day post-3v alloxan-treated (C) rats. Seven days following 3v alloxan injection, GFAP ... Experiment 2: 4v alloxan: feeding and blood glucose responses.. There were no effects of 4v alloxan on systemic 2DG-induced ... alloxan: 436 ± 8 g) nor body weight gain (saline: 101 ± 6 vs. alloxan: 95 ± 9 g) differed at the termination of the experiment ...
... suggesting that alloxan indeed was inhibiting (OGT). In order to show definitively that alloxan was inhibiting OGT activity, ... Alloxan is an inhibitor of the enzyme O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase.. Konrad RJ1, Zhang F, Hale JE, Knierman MD, ... Alloxan, another beta-cell toxin is a uracil analog. Since the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) uses UDP-GlcNAc as a substrate, we ... Together, these data demonstrate that alloxan is an inhibitor of OGT, and as such, is the first OGT inhibitor described. ...
Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of,i, Z. chalybeum ,/i,was administered to ... Induction of diabetes with alloxan resulted in severe damage to the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans (Figure 2(a)). A month ... The induction of diabetes using alloxan resulted in severe damage of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans (Figure 2(b)). However ... Since alloxan caused fatal hypoglycemia due to massive insulin release by the pancreas, the rats were in addition orally given ...
... ethanol extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Forty-eight albino rats (300 g) were used in this experiment... ... Alloxan Diabetes A. absinthium Blood glucose Antihyperglycemic effect Biochemical markers This is a preview of subscription ... Lenzen S (2008) The mechanisms of alloxan and streptozotocin induced diabetes. Diabetologica 51:216-226CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Artemisia absinthium (A. absinthium) ethanol extract on alloxan-induced ...
Alloxan is most commonly used to induce diabetes in animals.. Alloxan is a β-cytotoxin and induces diabetes mellitusby damaging ... alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight i.p.); Group III: diabetic control (B) (alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight i.p.) + C (Momordica ... In this study significant hyperglycemia was achieved after alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) injection. Alloxan induced diabetic ... In alloxan treated diabetic group, the mean value was mg/dL with individual level variations ranging from 1.11 to 1.55 mg/dL, ...
As expected in alloxan treated rats, there was significant increase in blood glucose, CHL and TGL levels. Oral treatment with ... Alloxan, antidiabetic activity, Clerodendron phlomoidis, ethanol extract. Diabetes has been known to medical sciences longer ... Effect of Vinca rosea extracts in treatment of alloxan diabetic rats in male albino rats Indian J Exp Biol 2001;39:748. ... The extract was screened for hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg, i.p.) at two dose levels, viz ...
Therapeutic effect of vitamin B3 on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and DNA damage in alloxan induced diabetic rat model.. ... This study reports the effects of niacin supplementation in alloxan induced diabetic rats divided into five groups. Diabetes ...
Abstract Alloxan and streptozotocin are widely used to induce experimental diabetes in animals. The mechanism of their action ... the source of their generation is different in the case of alloxan and streptozotocin. Alloxan and the product of its reduction ... Abstract Alloxan and streptozotocin are widely used to induce experimental diabetes in animals. The mechanism of their action ... The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas.. ...
... http ... Alloxan-induced Pancreatic Damage This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all comments or additions to: Frankp ... METHODS: Alloxan-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats per group) and treated ... In addition, rat islets were isolated, cultured, and exposed to alloxan in the presence or absence of genistein. The survival ...
Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with S. lehmbachii stem bark extract showed significant (p<0.01) reduction ... lehmbachii ethanol stem bark extract was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 ... Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with S. lehmbachii stem bark extract showed significant (p,0.01) reduction in blood ... Liu Z, Li J, Zeng Z, Liu M, Wang M. The antidiabetic effects of cysteinyl metformin, a newly synthesized agent, in alloxan- and ...
The use of alloxan and streptozotocin in experimental diabetes models by Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism; ... Selective uptake of alloxan by pancreatic B-cells. Biochem J 1982;208:513-5. (11.) Lenzen S, Mirzaie-Petri M. Inhibition of ... Role of Ca2+ in alloxan-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994;1227:87-91. (15.) Golfman L, Dixon IM, ... The use of alloxan and streptozotocin in experimental diabetes models / Deneysel Diyabet Modellerinde Alloksan ve ...
Reversal of D- and A-Cell Insensitivity to Glucose in Alloxan-diabetic Dogs by Treatment with the Artificial Beta Cell ( ... In contrast, treatment of alloxan-diabetic dogs (N = 3) by a GCIIS for 24 h revived some responsiveness of the glucagon, ... Reversal of D- and A-Cell Insensitivity to Glucose in Alloxan-diabetic Dogs by Treatment with the Artificial Beta Cell ( ... Reversal of D- and A-Cell Insensitivity to Glucose in Alloxan-diabetic Dogs by Treatment with the Artificial Beta Cell ( ...
2) Alloxan diabetic rats (DB rats);. 3) Alloxan diabetics rats in which silica granulomatous inflammation was induced 8 days ... Adrenocortical system activity in alloxan-resistant and alloxan-susceptible Wistar rats. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2, 165- ... Seven days after alloxan injection, daily urine was collected individually from each animal with special urine collectors, its ... As a result, the daily excretion of glucose in the group of alloxan diabetic rats selected for further study was 4.8 ± 0.5 g/ ...
Post-Heparin Lipolytic Activity and Tissue Lipoprotein Lipase Activity in the Alloxan-Diabetic Rat. R. S. Elkeles, E. Williams ... 1. Alloxan-diabetic rats showed raised plasma triglyceride levels and low adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity compared ... Post-Heparin Lipolytic Activity and Tissue Lipoprotein Lipase Activity in the Alloxan-Diabetic Rat ... Post-Heparin Lipolytic Activity and Tissue Lipoprotein Lipase Activity in the Alloxan-Diabetic Rat ...
Methods: Alloxan-induced diabetic rats? model was conducted to demonstrate the effects of the oral administration of Allium ... Furthermore, it?s clinical improvement and/or increased survival rates in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were evident and it was ... Hypoglycemic activity and regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells produced by Allium cepa in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ...
Hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic Mus musculus (mouse) assessed as blood glucose level at 10 mg/kg, qd for 14 ...
Antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic Rattus norvegicus albino Wistar (rat) model assessed as reduction in HDL ...
Alloxan cytotoxicity in vitro . Inhibition of rubidium ion pumping in pancreatic β -cells Biochem J (January, 1977) ... Contrasting effects of alloxan on islets and single mouse pancreatic β-cells Biochem J (November, 2000) ... Alloxan-induced luminol luminescence as a tool for investigating mechanisms of radical-mediated diabetogenicity Biochem J ( ... Except for the protection by NADH and NADPH, which may be due to a direct reaction with alloxan in the medium, the results ...
Administration of ethanol (95%) extract (45 mg/kg body wt/day for 28 days) of garlic (A.sativum) to alloxan induced diabetic ( ... Reduced nociceptive responses in mice with alloxan induced hyperglycemia after garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) treatment. ...
Corneal Lymphatics in Alloxan Vascularized Rabbit Eyes You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, ... Alloxan monohydrate was injected into the anterior chamber of normal rabbit eyes and resulted in extensive vascularization of ... H. BARRY COLLIN; Corneal Lymphatics in Alloxan Vascularized Rabbit Eyes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1966;5(1):1-13. ...
alloxan induced diabetic rats. Am. J. Drug Discov. Dev., 2: 135-142.. CrossRef , Direct Link , Kim, J.S., J.B. Ju, C.W. Choi ... leaf extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Iran. J. Pharmacol. Ther., 4: 36-39.. Direct Link , Ahmida, M., 2011. ... Then after 5 days, 100 mg kg-1 of Alloxan monohydrate (Sigma®) was injected (IV). A week later, the second IVGTT was done and ... Alloxan monohydrate with 100 mg kg-1 in was injected intravenously for experimental group. After weighting, the blood samples ...
Superoxide dismutase-inhibitible reduction of cytochrome c by the alloxan radical. Implications for alloxan cytotoxicity. C C ... Superoxide dismutase-inhibitible reduction of cytochrome c by the alloxan radical. Implications for alloxan cytotoxicity ... Superoxide dismutase-inhibitible reduction of cytochrome c by the alloxan radical. Implications for alloxan cytotoxicity ... Superoxide dismutase-inhibitible reduction of cytochrome c by the alloxan radical. Implications for alloxan cytotoxicity ...
Sorbitol Pathway in the Ciliary Body in Relation to Accumulation of Amino Acids in the Aqueous Humor of Alloxan-Diabetic ... Sorbitol Pathway in the Ciliary Body in Relation to Accumulation of Amino Acids in the Aqueous Humor of Alloxan-Diabetic ... Corneal hydration control in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.. Transport of Amino Acids into Intraocular Fluids and ... The Influence of Alloxan-Induced Diabetes on Müller Cell Contraction-Promoting Activities in Vitreous ...
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR2 during the development of experimental deep dermatophytosis in normal mice and mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus, an experimental model of diabetes that exhibits a delay in the clearance of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Tm). (frontiersin.org)
  • Alloxan is, however, toxic to the liver and the kidneys in high doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • To do this, we used alloxan, which pharmacologically inhibits GK activity at low doses ( 19 , 20 ), but induces cell death at higher concentrations, presumably through the production of reactive oxygen radicals ( 21 , 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These were noted with both low and high doses of alloxan in rats. (ipicture.mobi)
  • Quail eggs were administered to thirty six (36) alloxan induced diabetic rats, which were divided into nine (9) different groups of four (4) rats each per group at varied doses for a duration of seven (7), fourteen (14) and twenty one (21) days. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The effects of different doses (200 mg/bw, and 300/bw) of both water and methanol extracts of P. americana seed on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, insulin. (who.int)
  • Cytochrome c was reduced when superoxide was generated from xanthine oxidase in the presence of alloxan, and by the reaction of alloxan and with reduced glutathione. (biochemj.org)
  • Results: Alloxan, which was a drug that caused diabetes mellitus, mostly generated hydrogen peroxide by the reaction of alloxan and reduced glutathione, in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Hyperglycaemia was induced by administration of a single dose (150 mg/kg i.p) of alloxan. (projecttopics.org)
  • Liraglutide improves pancreatic Beta cell mass and function in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Here we clarify the effects of the human GLP-1 analog liraglutide on beta cell fate and function by using an inducible Cre/loxP-based pancreatic beta cell tracing system and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Drugs and chemicals used such as Alloxan, metformin, Tris-HCl buffer and sodium chloride were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Forty male albino rats were used in this work, ten rats were left without any treatment and kept as a control, the remaining thirty rats were injected with alloxan to induce diabetes and then divided into three equal groups, the first group was kept without any treatment during period of the experiment, the second one treated with metformin (300 mg/kg B.Wt. (bibliomed.org)
  • In addition, alloxan has a high affinity to SH-containing cellular compounds and, as a result, reduces glutathione content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, this work showed that the inhibition of hepatic δ-ALA-D activity can be obtained in vitro at low micromolar levels of alloxan, and can also be prevented by reducing agents. (springer.com)
  • Superoxide dismutase-inhibitible reduction of cytochrome c by the alloxan radical. (biochemj.org)
  • This indicates that the superoxide dismutase-inhibitible cytochrome c reduction was mainly due to a direct reaction with the alloxan radical, and implies that other reactions that are inhibited by superoxide dismutase could be due to either alloxan radicals or superoxide. (biochemj.org)