Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Gout Suppressants: Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Oxypurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Hyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Uricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Tumor Lysis Syndrome: A syndrome resulting from cytotoxic therapy, occurring generally in aggressive, rapidly proliferating lymphoproliferative disorders. It is characterized by combinations of hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia.Lumicolchicines: Three, alpha, beta, and gamma isomers of ultraviolet degradation products of colchicine that lack many of the physiological actions of the parent; used as experimental control for colchicine actions.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Tropolone: A seven-membered aromatic ring compound. It is structurally related to a number of naturally occurring antifungal compounds (ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS).Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Familial Mediterranean Fever: A group of HEREDITARY AUTOINFLAMMATION DISEASES, characterized by recurrent fever, abdominal pain, headache, rash, PLEURISY; and ARTHRITIS. ORCHITIS; benign MENINGITIS; and AMYLOIDOSIS may also occur. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in marenostrin gene result in autosomal recessive transmission; simple heterozygous, autosomal dominant form of the disease.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Benzbromarone: Uricosuric that acts by increasing uric acid clearance. It is used in the treatment of gout.Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.ThiazolesStevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.
Allopurinol blocks uric acid production, and is the most commonly used agent. Long term therapy is safe and well tolerated, and ... Colchicine is an alternative for those unable to tolerate NSAIDs. At high doses, side effects (primarily gastrointestinal upset ... They are often used in combination with either an NSAID or colchicine for the first three to six months. Urate-lowering ... Colchicine may interact with other commonly prescribed drugs, such as atorvastatin and erythromycin, among others. ...
In 2008, an article in the European Journal of Pediatrics discussed treatment of colchicine-resistant Familial Mediterranean ... "Gout:Treatment Reaction to Allopurinol- - What Next?". Medscape Rheumatology. Calligaris, Lorenzo; Federico Marchetti; Alberto ... Tommasini; Alessandro Ventura (2008-06-01). "The efficacy of anakinra in an adolescent with colchicine-resistant familial ...
... and urate levels are managed with allopurinol. Allopurinol, which weakly inhibits xanthine oxidase, is an analog of ... Today, inflammation during attacks is more commonly treated with NSAIDs, colchicine, or corticosteroids, ... or allopurinol to inhibit purine catabolism from adding to uric acid levels. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, a rare inherited disorder, ... Renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol". Pharmacological Reviews. 58 (1): 87-114. doi:10.1124/pr.58.1.6 ...
M04AA01 Allopurinol M04AA02 Tisopurine M04AA03 Febuxostat M04AA51 Allopurinol, combinations M04AB01 Probenecid M04AB02 ... Sulfinpyrazone M04AB03 Benzbromarone M04AB04 Isobromindione M04AB05 Lesinurad M04AC01 Colchicine M04AC02 Cinchophen M04AX01 ...
In the 1960s, Yu further developed studies of gout's mechanisms and soon discovered allopurinol, a drug that helps to prevent ... She later conducted a five- year study in which she discovered colchicine, an anti-inflammatory drug that prevents recurring ...
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InChI=1S/C48H74O14.C47H72O14/c1-11-25(2)43-28(5)17-18-47(62-43)23-34-20-33(61-47)16-15-27(4)42(26(3)13-12-14-32-24-55-45-40(49)29(6)19-35(46(51)58-34)48(32,45)52)59-39-22-37(54-10)44(31(8)57-39)60-38-21-36(53-9)41(50)30(7)56-38;1-24(2)41-27(5)16-17-46(61-41)22-33-19-32(60-46)15-14-26(4)42(25(3)12-11-13-31-23-54-44-39(48)28(6)18-34(45(50)57-33)47(31,44)51)58-38-21-36(53-10)43(30(8)56-38)59-37-20-35(52-9)40(49)29(7)55-37/h12-15,19,25-26,28,30-31,33-45,49-50,52H,11,16-18,20-24H2,1-10H3;11-14,18,24-25,27,29-30,32-44,48-49,51H,15-17,19-23H2,1-10H3/b13-12+,27-15+,32-14+;12-11+,26-14+,31-13+/t25-,26-,28-,30-,31-,33+,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39-,40+,41-,42-,43+,44-,45+,47+,48+;25-,27-,29-,30-,32+,33-,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39+,40-,41+,42-,43-,44+,46+,47+/m00/s1 ...
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  • Because it often takes six to 12 months even after the uric acid level is suppressed below 6.0 mg/dl for the symptoms of gout to stop, it is important that you take indomethacin or colchicine once or twice daily to help minimize or eliminate your flares. (arthritis.org)
  • Colchicine is an antiinflammatory agent that affects macrophages, neutrophils, and endothelial cells, all of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. (jrheum.org)
  • With allopurinol, if you get a rash with fever or fatigue, stop it immediately and see a doctor because this may be a hypersensitivity reaction which is sometimes fatal. (honoluluadvertiser.com)
  • Most commonly, rash due to allopurinol is a pruritic and maculopapular, although on occasion it can have an element of angioedema, and in rarer cases can be a true vasculitis. (hss.edu)
  • Achievement and maintenance of goal-range serum urate did not occur in many gout patients treated with allopurinol at the most commonly used dose of 300 mg/day in general practice in both the U.S. and Europe," Becker said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Peak plasma levels generally occur at 1.5 hours and 4.5 hours for allopurinol and oxipurinol respectively, and after a single oral dose of 300 mg allopurinol tablets, maximum plasma levels of about 3 mcg/mL of allopurinol and 6.5 mcg/mL of oxipurinol are produced. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic renal failure in conjunction with elevated liver function tests appear to increase the possibility of colchicine-induced toxicity, specifically, rhabdomyolysis. (nih.gov)