Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune: A condition in newborns caused by immunity of the mother to PLATELET ALLOANTIGENS on the fetal platelets. The PLATELETS, coated with maternal ANTIBODIES, are destroyed and removed by the fetal MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Affected infants may have INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES.Antigens, Human Platelet: Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.HLA-DRB3 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over 50 allelic variants. The HLA-DRB3 beta-chain subtype is associated with HLA-DR52 serological subtype.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Platelet Transfusion: The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Histocompatibility, Maternal-Fetal: The degree of antigenic similarity between tissues of the mother and those of the FETUS. Maternal-fetal histocompatibility can determine the acceptance and health of the fetus.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Rats, Inbred WFPurpura, Thrombocytopenic: Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Mice, Inbred C57BLInfant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Mast-Cell Sarcoma: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Mice, Inbred C3HAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Blood Group Incompatibility: An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Mice, Inbred CBARats, Inbred LewPurpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Inbred DBACD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
"348 cases of fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia". The Lancet. 1 (8634): 363-6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(89)91733-9. PMID 2563515. ...
Based on the alloimmune cause hypothesis, a new treatment involving high-dose immunoglobulin to pregnant mothers who have had a ... Whitington PF (August 2007). "Neonatal hemochromatosis: a congenital alloimmune hepatitis". Semin Liver Dis. 27 (3): 243-250. ... but recent research has led to the hypothesis that it is an alloimmune disease. Evidence supporting this hypothesis includes ... This evidence along with other research indicates that neonatal hemochromatosis could be classified as a congenital alloimmune ...
Wendel, K; Akkök, ÇA; Kutzsche, S (2017). "Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia associated with maternal HLA antibodies". BMJ ...
"The role of hyaluronan degradation products as innate alloimmune agonists". Am. J. Transplant. 6 (11): 2622-2635. doi:10.1111/j ...
Blood transfusion Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia Washington University School of Medicine; Cooper, Daniel E.; J Krainik, ...
"Iron status in infants with alloimmune haemolytic disease in the first three months of life". Vox Sanguinis. 105 (4): 328-33. ... "Inhibition of Erythroid Progenitor Cells by Anti-Kell Antibodies in Fetal Alloimmune Anemia". New England Journal of Medicine. ... antibodies can cause severe anemia by interfering with the early proliferation of red blood cells as well as causing alloimmune ...
It is possible for a newborn with this disease to have neutropenia and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia as well.Hemolysis ... is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced ... "Iron status in infants with alloimmune haemolytic disease in the first three months of life". Vox Sanguinis. 105 (4): 328-33. ... "Inhibition of Erythroid Progenitor Cells by Anti-Kell Antibodies in Fetal Alloimmune Anemia". New England Journal of Medicine. ...
If the fetus is Rhc positive alloimmune hemolysis can occur leading to HDN. This is similar as for Rh disease, which is usually ... "Iron status in infants with alloimmune haemolytic disease in the first three months of life". Vox Sanguinis. 105 (4): 328-33. ...
"Iron status in infants with alloimmune haemolytic disease in the first three months of life". Vox Sanguinis. 105 (4): 328-33. ...
Rath, M. E.; Smits-Wintjens, V. E.; Oepkes, D; Walther, F. J.; Lopriore, E (2013). "Iron status in infants with alloimmune ...
Nelson, JL (1996). "Maternal-fetal immunology and autoimmune disease: is some autoimmune disease auto-alloimmune or allo- ...
Rath, M. E.; Smits-Wintjens, V. E.; Oepkes, D; Walther, F. J.; Lopriore, E (2013). "Iron status in infants with alloimmune ...
Alloimmune response can be enhanced by proinflammatory cytokines and by CD4+ T-lymphocytes that are responsible for APC ... Alloimmune (isoimmune) response results in graft rejection, which is manifested as deterioration or complete loss of graft ... The goal of the future therapies is to suppress the alloimmune response specifically to prevent these risks. The tolerance ... Allograft diseases Allotransplantation Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia Hemolytic disease of the newborn Cellular and ...
These antibodies cause neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and some cases of platelet transfusion ...
Anti HIV and anti-anti-MHC Antibodies in Alloimmune and Autoimmune Mice. Science, 253, 1138-1140 G. W. Hoffmann (1986) A Neural ...
... was first described in a case of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (Lalezari et al., 1971). [supplied by OMIM] Cluster of ...
The administration of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) has had some success in treating neutropenias of alloimmune and ... circulating neutrophil population depleted due to migration into the intestines and peritoneum Alloimmune neonatal neutropenia ...
And immune tolerance in pregnancy is what allows a mother animal to gestate a genetically distinct offspring with an alloimmune ...
Neonatal alloimmune associated. *Aplastic anemia. *Transfusion associated. *Pseudothrombocytopenia. *idiopathic ...
... neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and posttransfusion purpura, is carried by CD109 (Kelton et al., 1990; Lin et al., 2002 ...
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, a disease. *Nucleobase ascorbate transporter (NAT) family, or Nucleobase cation symporter ...
In neutropenia discovered at birth or shortly after birth, a diagnosis of allo-immune neutropenia (from maternal white blood ...
Alloimmune hemolytic transfusion reactions Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia Idiopathic Systemic lupus erythematosus ...
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (P61.1) Polycythaemia neonatorum (P61.2) Anaemia of prematurity (P61.3) Congenital anaemia ...
... nocturnal hemoglobinuria Antiphospholipid syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Post-transfusion purpura Neonatal alloimmune ...
Objective To evaluate the rate and consequences of a late or missed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia ... Delayed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Authors. *. ... DOWNS SYNDROME WITH NEONATAL ALLOIMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIA DUE TO HLA-A2 ANTIBODY, FUKUSHIMA JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE, 2015, ... Delayed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. BJOG 2012; ...
Today we will be discussing fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, also referred to as NAIT, which affects about 1 in ... Delbos F, Bertrand G, Croisille L, Ansart-Pirenne H, Bierling P, Kaplan C. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: ... Bussel J. What do we know about intracranial hemorrhage in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia? Transfusion 2016;56: ... VIDEO: Risk Factors for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia. ...
Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia (NAIT) outcomes from maternal alloimmunisation against foetal platelet. Posted on ... Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia (NAIT) outcomes from maternal alloimmunisation against foetal platelet antigens ... Disease name/synonyms Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FAIT/NAIT) [1] or foeto-maternal alloimmunisation ... alloimmune thrombocytopaenia is known as to end up being the most unfortunate thrombocytopaenia. It could take place extremely ...
Light chain phenotypes of HLA antibodies in cases with suspected neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. S Panzer, W R Mayr, B ... Relevance of the HPA-15 (Gov) polymorphism on CD109 in alloimmune thrombocytopenic syndromes. Katharina Ertel, Milad Al-Tawil, ... Intravenous human immunoglobulin treatment for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-5b with severe previous ... Frequencies of maternal platelet alloantibodies and autoantibodies in suspected fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, ...
Background Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is mostly due to the presence of maternal antibodies against the fetal platelet ... 2008) Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT): past, present, and future. Obstet Gynecol Surv 63(4):239-52. ... 2005) Is there a relationship between anti-HPA-1a concentration and severity of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia? ... Such antibodies may destroy fetal platelets and lead to neonatal/fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT).1 Anti-platelet ...
Extended platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, ...
Progressive air passage injury mediated by ongoing alloimmune and nonalloimmune responses to the lung allograft is usually ...
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia (NAIT) - This IVIG medically indicated disease, also known as fetal alloimmune ...
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAITP, NAIT, NATP or NAT) is a disease that affects babies in which the platelet count is ...
Alloimmune T cells are central mediators of rejection and graft-versus-host disease in both solid organ and hematopoietic stem ...
... occurs early in gestation, is severe, and is more severe in fetuses with an older affected ... Fetal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 3;337(1):22-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199707033370104. ... Conclusions: Fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia occurs early in gestation, is severe, and is more severe in fetuses with an ... Background: Alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a serious fetal disorder resulting from platelet-antigen incompatibility between the ...
The prevalence of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is approximately one case in 200 term pregnancies; for clinically ... Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Br J Haematol. 2013 Apr. 161 (1):3-14. [Medline] ... Most cases of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia are due to platelet antigens HPA-1a observed in mothers who are HPA-1b. ... encoded search term (What is the role of platelet dysfunction in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?) and What is the role of ...
Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a relatively rare condition (1/1000-1/2000) that was granted orphan ... Sachs UJ (2013) Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res 131(Suppl 1):S42-S46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Murphy MF, Bussel JB (2007) Advances in the management of alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 136:366-378CrossRefPubMed ... Kumpel BM, Manoussaka MS (2012) Placental immunology and maternal alloimmune responses. Vox Sang 102:2-12CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
A Trial of Antenatal Treatment of Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... A Trial of Antenatal Treatment of Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Official Title ICMJE A Randomized Multicenter Trial of Antenatal ... Antepartum treatment without early cordocentesis for standard-risk alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a randomized controlled trial. ... Treatment of Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Brief Summary The purposes of this study are to provide medical management by giving ...
Learn more about Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus ... Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: Disease Bioinformatics. Research of Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia has been linked ... Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia is also known as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neonatal ... Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Bioinformatics Tool. Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific ...
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), is the most common cause of severe thrombocytopenia in an otherwise healthy ... Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia - NAIT Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), also referred to as perinatal ... Skogen B, Killie MK, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Ahlen MT, Tiller H, Stuge TB, Husebekk A. Reconsidering fetal and neonatal alloimmune ... Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Br J Haematol. 2013; 161(1): 3-14. PubMed ...
A new low-frequency platelet alloantigen, Vaa, on glycoprotein IIbIIIa associated with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.. ...
... neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read ... Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Jason K Baxter Key Points. Original Title:. TUGAS DR.chriS_BAB 48_neonatal Alloimmune ... NEONATAL ALLOIMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIA Jason K Baxter KEY POINTS Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is a fetal/neonatal ... It is also called alloimmune thrombocytopenia (AlT), or fetal maternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT). ...
Physiologic regulation of alloimmune responses in vivo: the role of CTLA4 and TH1/TH2 cytokines.. Sho M1, Salama AD, Yamada A, ...
Feto-maternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a literature review and statistical analysis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;41:45- ... Alloimmune thrombocytopenia: state of the art 2006. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;195:907-13. *CrossRef , ... Alloimmune thrombocytopenia: fetal and neonatal losses related to cordocentesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:475-9. ... Follow up of children after antenatal treatment for alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Early Hum Dev 2004;80:65-76. *CrossRef , ...
Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase in a Pregnancy Complicated by Gestational Diabetes and Infant with Neonatal Alloimmune ... elevation of alkaline phosphatase in a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes and subsequently by neonatal alloimmune ...
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from ... Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from ... Keywords: neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT); Human Platelet Antigen (HPA); genotyping; buccal swab; DNA extraction ... A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs. ...
Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) is a relatively uncommon disease, but is the leading cause of severe ... Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis and Management Update. By: JP Espinoza , J Caradeux , Errol R. Norwitz ...
Fetomaternal or Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia. Fetomaternal or Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia. Submitted by admin ... Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. British Journal of Haematology. 2013,6:3-14. ... Feto-maternal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT or NAIT) is the platelet equivalent of haemolytic disease of the ... A rare but potentially serious condition that causes bleeding in the newborn is neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). ...
... ... Prenatal management of alloimmune thrombocytopenia of the fetus. Vox Sang. 2003;84(2):142-9. [ Links ]. 3. Goldman M, Trudel E ... CONTEXT: Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (NAITP) is a neonatal disorder characterized by maternal alloimmunization ... Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (NAITP) is a neonatal disorder characterized by maternal alloimmunization against ...
  • Clinical explanation In the foetus, alloimmune thrombocytopaenia is known as to end up being the most unfortunate thrombocytopaenia. (mglur.info)
  • Using an in vitro alloimmune incompatibility model, sCR1 inhibited complement activation and prevented hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Characterization of the mechanism of inhibition of the human alloimmune lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxic reaction by polyspecific anti-lymphotoxin sera in vitro. (escholarship.org)
  • The anti-WS was investigated for its site(s) of inhibition of the alloimmune CTL reaction relative to the calcium-dependent phase. (escholarship.org)
  • These results support the concept that the mechanism of inhibition mediated by the anti-WS was by its capacity to interact with multiple antigenic species of LT molecules, and thus implies that lymphotoxins are involved as a multicomponent system of cytotoxins in the lytic effector mechanism of human alloimmune cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (escholarship.org)
  • In fact, accumulating evidence indicates that at least some of the cases have an alloimmune origin: NH would be caused by the transplacental passage of antifetal liver antigen immunoglobulin G to the fetus in NH-sensitized mothers, leading to liver damage and iron mishandling (8,9) . (lww.com)