Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Animals, ZooDinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.TurtlesSkeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.HornsBoidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)

Temperature-dependent sex determination: upregulation of SOX9 expression after commitment to male development. (1/262)

In mammals, birds and reptiles the morphological development of the gonads appear to be conserved. This conservation is evident despite the different sex determining switches employed by these vertebrate groups. Mammals exhibit chromosomal sex determination (CSD) where the key sex determining switch is the Y-linked gene, SRY. Although SRY is the trigger for testis determination in mammals, it is not conserved in other vertebrate groups. However, a gene closely related to SRY, the highly conserved transcription factor, SOX9, plays an important role in the testis pathway of mammals and birds. In contrast to the CSD mechanism evident in mammals and birds, many reptiles exhibit temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) where the egg incubation temperature triggers sex determination. Here we examine the expression of SOX9 during gonadogenesis in the American alligator, (Alligator mississippiensis), a reptile that exhibits TSD. Alligator SOX9 is expressed in the embryonic testis but not in the ovary. However, the timing of SOX9 upregulation in the developing testis is not consistent with a role for this gene in the early stages of alligator sex determination. Since SOX9 upregulation in male embryos coincides with the structural organisation of the testis, SOX9 may operate farther downstream in the vertebrate sex differentiation pathway than previously postulated.  (+info)

The existence of Merkel cells in the lingual connective tissue of the Surinam caiman, Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (order Crocodilia). (2/262)

The tongue of the Surinam caiman (a reptilian species) was studied by light microscopy including immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), and transmission electron microscopy. The connective tissue immediately under taste buds housed a cluster of cells immunoreactive for PGP 9.5. These cells synapsed on nerves, and their cytoplasm contained characteristic granules of 90 nm in the mean diameter, glycogen particles, and bundles of intermediate filaments. In light of these ultrastructural features, they were identified as Merkel cells. The Merkel cells were also surrounded by Schwann cells. These findings indicate that the present Merkel cell-neurite-Schwann cell complex is comparable to the avian Merkel corpuscle. On the basis of the granule localization in the cytoplasm, the caiman Merkel cell was presumed to be involved in not only mechanoreception but also endocrine or paracrine functions.  (+info)

Origin of gene overlap: the case of TCP1 and ACAT2. (3/262)

The human acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 gene, ACAT2, codes for a thiolase, an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. The human T-complex protein 1 gene, TCP1, encodes a molecular chaperone of the chaperonin family. The two genes overlap by their 3'-untranslated regions, their coding sequences being located on opposite DNA strands in a tail-to-tail orientation. To find out how the overlap might have arisen in evolution, the homologous genes of the zebrafish, the African toad, caiman, platypus, opossum, and wallaby were identified. In each species, standard or long polymerase chain reactions were used to determine whether the ACAT2 and TCP1 homologs are closely linked and, if so, whether they overlap. The results reveal that the overlap apparently arose during the transition from therapsid reptiles to mammals and has been retained for >200 million years. Part of the overlapping untranslated region shows remarkable sequence conservation. The overlap presumably arose during the chromosomal rearrangement that brought the two unrelated and previously separated genes together. One or both of the transposed genes found by chance signals that are necessary for the processing of their transcripts to be present on the noncoding strand of the partner gene.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of proteins synthesized de novo and secreted by the reproductive tract of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. (4/262)

The objectives of this study were to identify, characterize and examine differences in proteins synthesized de novo and secreted by different regions of the reproductive tract of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, during three reproductive (vitellogenic, gravid, post-clutch) and one non-reproductive state. After capture, alligators from lakes in north central Florida were anaesthetized, the reproductive tract excised aseptically, the size of any follicle determined, and different functional regions of the tract dissected out and partitioned for explant culture. Analysis of the biosynthetic activity indicated regional variations within the tract, differences among reproductive groups and region by status interactions. When oviductal regions were considered regardless of reproductive status, the greatest incorporation of [3H]Leu into secreted nondialysable macromolecules was by the anterior and posterior infundibulum and oviductal tube compared with the transition zone and the uterus. When status was included, the biosynthetic activity of the anterior and posterior portion of the tract in non-reproductive alligators was not different, whereas that of the posterior region of the reproductive group (vitellogenic, gravid, post-clutch) was significantly lower than that of the anterior region. This finding indicates that regulation of protein synthesis and secretion by the non-reproductive alligator tract is different from that in the tract of the reproductive group. Explant-conditioned media were analysed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Sixteen major proteins in culture media were identified as de novo synthesized, by relative molecular weight, by isoelectric point and by differences in distribution determined for reproductive status and oviductal region. Six proteins were examined by N-terminal amino acid microsequence analysis. On the basis of a 29 amino acid sequence, the major oviductal protein, alligator protein 1 (aP1: M(r) 55,000, basic), found in the infundibulum and tube of vitellogenic alligators, was identical to the major protein isolated from alligator egg albumen. Four proteins (aP4-aP7) were sequenced and shown to be significantly related to immunoglobulin heavy chains from several species. This study demonstrated that a large number of proteins are synthesized de novo and released by the female alligator reproductive tract and that there are biosynthetic activity differences by reproductive status and region. Six proteins have been identified, several of which may be incorporated into alligator egg albumen and some of which appear to be different from proteins found in the egg albumens of other species.  (+info)

What determines the bending strength of compact bone? (5/262)

The bending strength of a wide variety of bony types is shown to be nearly linearly proportional to Young's modulus of elasticity/100. A somewhat closer and more satisfactory fit is obtained if account is taken of the variation of yield strain with Young's modulus. This finding strongly suggests that bending strength is determined by the yield strain. The yield stress in tension, which might be expected to predict the bending strength, underestimates the true bending strength by approximately 40 %. This may be explained by two phenomena. (1) The post-yield deformation of the bone material allows a greater bending moment to be exerted after the yield point has been reached, thereby increasing the strength as calculated from beam formulae. (2) Loading in bending results in a much smaller proportion of the volume of the specimens being raised to high stresses than is the case in tension, and this reduces the likelihood of a weak part of the specimen being loaded to failure.  (+info)

Evolution of the ventricles. (6/262)

We studied the evolution of ventricles by macroscopic examination of the hearts of marine cartilaginous and bony fish, and by angiocardiography and gross examination of the hearts of air-breathing freshwater fish, frogs, turtles, snakes, and crocodiles. A right-sided, thin-walled ventricular lumen is seen in the fish, frog, turtle, and snake. In fish, there is external symmetry of the ventricle, internal asymmetry, and a thick-walled left ventricle with a small inlet chamber. In animals such as frogs, turtles, and snakes, the left ventricle exists as a small-cavitied contractile sponge. The high pressure generated by this spongy left ventricle, the direction of the jet, the ventriculoarterial orientation, and the bulbar spiral valve in the frog help to separate the systemic and pulmonary circulations. In the crocodile, the right aorta is connected to the left ventricle, and there is a complete interventricular septum and an improved left ventricular lumen when compared with turtles and snakes. The heart is housed in a rigid pericardial cavity in the shark, possibly to protect it from changing underwater pressure. The pericardial cavity in various species permits movements of the heart-which vary depending on the ventriculoarterial orientation and need for the ventricle to generate torque or spin on the ejected blood- that favor run-off into the appropriate arteries and their branches. In the lower species, it is not clear whether the spongy myocardium contributes to myocardial oxygenation. In human beings, spongy myocardium constitutes a rare form of congenital heart disease.  (+info)

Reptilian chemistry: characterization of dianeackerone, a secretory product from a crocodile. (7/262)

The major volatile component in the paracloacal glandular secretion of the adult African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) was isolated and characterized as a 19-carbon aromatic ketone, dianeackerone (3,7-diethyl-9-phenyl-2-nonanone). This ketone is absent from the secretion of immatures. Careful examination of dianeackerone samples isolated from individual adults revealed that this ketone occurs as both the (3S, 7S) and (3S, 7R) stereoisomers, with different individuals presenting strikingly different ratios of the isomeric forms. Our initial suspicion that the stereoisomeric dianeackerones might be indicators of gender proved untenable, leaving the role of these glandular constituents a challenge for future study.  (+info)

Reptilian chemistry: characterization of a family of dianeackerone-related steroidal esters from a crocodile secretion. (8/262)

The African dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis (Crocodilidae, Reptilia), possesses a pair of skin glands, the paracloacal glands, the secretion of which is thought to be used to mark nest sites or attract mates. Ten aromatic steroidal esters were isolated from this secretion and characterized on the basis of NMR spectroscopic investigations, electrospray ionization-MS analyses, and chemical degradation. These esters, which account for more than 90% of the paracloacal glandular secretion, are derived from either cholesterol or cholestanol, esterified with a C-20 or C-22 acid closely related to dianeackerone, the only significant volatile compound found in this secretion.  (+info)

*Mycoplasma alligatoris

Experimental inoculation of American alligators (Alligator mississippienis), Siamese crocodiles (Crocdylus siamensis), and ... However, the infected Siamese crocodiles showed no symptoms of disease as seen in alligators and caimans. The commensal ... Three of the experimental alligators died within three weeks of inoculation. The surviving alligator tested free of M. ... The various ecological roles of the alligator also include providing shelter for various animals with their abandoned gator ...

*Physiology of dinosaurs

After studying saltwater crocodiles, Seymour found that even if their large sizes could provide stable and high body ... ISBN 0-521-81172-4. E.H., Cowles, R.B. and Bogert, C.M. (June 1947). "Temperature Tolerances in the American Alligator and ... ISBN 0-674-20769-6. "Secret of the crocodile heart". Summers, A.P. (2005). "Evolution: Warm-hearted crocs". Nature. 434 (7035 ... Seymour Roger S. (5 July 2013). "Maximal Aerobic and Anaerobic Power Generation in Large Crocodiles versus Mammals: ...

*Gaur

Penny, Malcolm (1991-01-01). Alligators and Crocodiles. Crescent Books. ISBN 978-0-517-07012-3. Hunter, L. (2011). Carnivores ... But the habitat of gaurs and saltwater crocodiles seldom overlaps in recent times due to the decreasing range of both species, ... Guggisberg, C. A. W. (1972). Crocodiles. Their Natural History, Folklore and Conservation: David and Charles (Publishers) ... and a crocodile needs to be a grown adult (more than 3.7 m and 300 kg) to make a successful attack on healthy bulls. Tigers ...

*Sarcosuchus

Grenard, S. (1991). Handbook of Alligators and Crocodiles. Malabar, Florida: Kreiger. Choi, C. Q. (2014-05-04). "Spinning ... A common method to estimate the size of crocodiles and crocodile-like reptiles is the use of the length of the skull measured ... 20 (1). Woodward, A. R.; White, J. H.; Linda, S. B. (1995). "Maximum size of the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)". J. ... the clade containing living crocodiles, alligators and gharials). Within this group it is most closely related to the North ...

*Gizzard

Alligators and crocodiles also have gizzards. All birds have gizzards. The gizzards of emus, turkeys, chickens and ducks are ... crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans. This ...

*Protorosauria

Nicolae Sfetcu (13 May 2014). Reptiles: Crocodiles, Alligators, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles. Nicolae Sfetcu. pp. 114-. GGKEY: ...

*Crocodile Zoo, Falster

It provides a good opportunity to see the difference between crocodiles, alligators and all the other species. Crocodiles are ... Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park). This includes the only Orinoco crocodiles outside the Americas, which are part of a ... There are red lories, green iguanas, and marmosets as well as small terrariums for baby crocodiles and alligators. Folketidende ... All crocodiles in the zoo come from prior captivity. All the larger crocodiles are housed in well designed surroundings with ...

*Mouth

1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 48-51. ISBN 978-1-85391-092-0. Robertshaw, David (2006). "Mechanisms for the ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Nuwer, Rachel (13 May 2013). "Solving an alligator mystery may help humans ...

*Broad-snouted caiman

Lang, J.W. "Sex Determination."Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr. Facts on File, New York. 1989. 120. ... Crocodile Specialist Group (1996). "Caiman latirostris". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T46585A11062418 ...

*Cuvier's dwarf caiman

1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. p. 220. ISBN 9781853910920. Britton, Adam. "Captive care". Crocodilian.com. Retrieved ... 1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 62, 119. ISBN 9781853910920. Choi, H. (2004). "Paleosuchus palpebrosus: Dwarf ... Alligator) palpebrosus (Merrem, 1820), Jacaretinga moschifer (Spix, 1825), Champsa palpebrosa (Wagler, 1830), Alligator ... Crocodile Specialist Group (1996). "Paleosuchus palpebrosus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e. ...

*Smooth-fronted caiman

Ross, Charles A. (ed.) (1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 62, 121-124. ISBN 9781853910920. CS1 maint: Extra text: ... Crocodile Specialist Group 1996. Paleosuchus trigonatus 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species., IUCN Downloaded on 29 July ... The genus name Paleosuchus is derived from the Greek palaios meaning "ancient" and soukhos meaning "crocodile". This refers to ... the belief that this crocodile comes from an ancient lineage that diverged from other species of caimans some 30 million years ...

*Spectacled caiman

Crocodiles and Alligators of the World. Facts on File, Inc. 1998. 131-135. Ross, C.A. and Magnusson, W. E. "Living Crocodilians ... Magnusson, W.E. Vliet, K.A. Pooley, A.C. and Whitaker, R. "Reproduction." Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr ... Lang, J.W. "Sex Determination."Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr. Facts on File, New York. 1989. 120. Life ... "Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr. Facts on File, New York. 1989.58-73. ...

*List of kanji by concept

... 鰐 alligator or crocodile 魚 fish; 貝 shellfish; 鯉 carp; 鮒 crucian carp; 鮠 minnow; 鱒 trout; 鮭 salmon; 鱸 sea bass; 鯛 sea bream; 鰌 ...

*MirGeneDB

Alligators and Crocodiles) • American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) Testudines (Turtles) • Western painted turtle ( ...

*Brevard Zoo

River otters, alligators, crocodiles, and bobcats are just some of the animals on exhibit. This loop also contains a pack of ... Brevard Zoo Sign on Murrell Road American Alligators Visayan warty pig piglet in Australia/Asia. White rhinos in Expedition ... Africa Giraffes in Expedition Africa Giant Anteater African Spurred Tortoise American Crocodile Bald Eagle Blue and Yellow ...

*Great white pelican

1989). Crocodiles and Alligators. Checkmark Books. ISBN 978-0-8160-2174-1. Anonymous. "Proposal for Inclusion of Species on the ... Additionally, crocodiles, especially Nile crocodiles in Africa, readily kill and eat swimming pelicans. Since 1998, the great ...

*List of U.S. state reptiles

King, F. W. (1989). "Conservation and management". In Ross, C. A.; Garnett, S. Crocodiles and alligators. New York: Checkmark ... "Florida's alligator management program, an update - 1987-1995". Proceedings of the thirteenth working meeting of crocodile ... In that year, a printer made a spur-of-the-moment decision to print an alligator emblem on a shipment of the schools football ... The American Alligator to be designated as the Mississippi State Reptile; provide...02/21 Approved by Governor "State symbols ...

*Chinese alligator

"Alligator sinensis". Arkive.org. Jiang, H.X. (2010). Chinese Alligator Alligator sinensis. Pp. 5-9 in Crocodiles. Status Survey ... Alligator drum Wildlife of China "Fossilworks: Alligatoridae". paleodb.org. Crocodile Specialist Group (1996). "Alligator ... Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin. Crocodilians: Alligator sinensis. Retrieved 23 April 2017. "Ten Threatened and Endangered ... It also received alligator eggs collected by the area's residents or ARCCAR's own staff in the nests of wild alligators. The ...

*Babar's Kingdom

In some episode, Badou and his friends occasionally join Tersh on his visits to the slogs of the Crocodile and Alligator ... Crocodylus - Ambassador of the Alligator and Crocodile kingdom. Dilash and Tersh - Crocodylus's nephews, brought over to make ... Minorities include monkeys, lions, crocodiles, hippos and at least one human. Though they are minority populations, they are ...

*Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge

"Crocodiles and Alligator Farms". Americana Alligator. Retrieved 7 November 2013. "Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge". Louisiana ... Much research is undertaken into marshland management and alligator ranching, and the income from the sale of alligators ... In the 1960s, the commission used these funds for a pioneering program of alligator management with the whole area becoming, in ... Fur-bearing mammals, waterfowl and alligators could be cropped on a sustainable basis and these and the oil available ...

*Wetland

Alligators are found in fresh water along with the fresh water species of the crocodile. The saltwater crocodile is found in ... The Florida Everglades is the only place in the world where both crocodiles and alligators coexist. Snakes, lizards and turtles ... Reptiles such as alligators and crocodiles are common reptilian species. ...

*List of ecoregions in North America (CEC)

"Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of everglades ecosystems". Ecological Indicators. 9 (6): S137-S149. doi ... "Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of everglades ecosystems". Ecological Indicators. 9 (6): S137-S149. doi ... American crocodiles create habitat for many creatures through their water holes and the paths they create. Their diet consists ... The two main keystone species of the Tropical Wet Forest ecoregion are the American crocodile and the Mexican jaguar. They are ...

*Paleosuchus

Alderton, D. (1991). Crocodiles and Alligators of the World. New York: Facts on File Publications. Media related to Paleosuchus ...

*Pliocene

Alligators and crocodiles died out in Europe as the climate cooled. Venomous snake genera continued to increase as more rodents ... The modern species Alligator mississippiensis, having evolved in the Miocene, continued into the Pliocene, except with a more ...

*New Guinea crocodile

1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 71-81, 104. ISBN 9781853910920. Zhang Man; Wang Yishu; Yan Peng; Wu Xiaobing (2011 ... The New Guinea crocodile bears a physical similarity to the nearby Philippine crocodile (C. mindorensis) and Siamese crocodile ... The New Guinea crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae) is a small species of crocodile found on the island of New Guinea where ... Among their two samples for the New Guinea crocodile, one was part of the Philippine crocodile clade and the other was separate ...

*Dastar bunga

Nihang has various meanings including 'sword', 'without care for life or death', and 'alligator'. All Sikhs who were willing to ... immortal crocodiles). As an essential part of their faith the warriors used the turban as a store for their expansive range of ...

*Tool use by animals

Alligators and crocodiles collect sticks to use as bait to catch birds. The crocodilian positions itself near a rookery, ... Tool use by American alligators and mugger crocodiles has been documented. During the breeding season, birds such as herons and ... "Crocodiles and their ilk may be smarter than they look". Washington Post. December 9, 2013 "Crocodiles are cleverer than ... previously thought: Some crocodiles use lures to hunt their prey". ScienceDaily. December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013. ...
The apparent absence of salt glands in marine and estuarine Crocodilia has long been a puzzle. However, we have identified glands in the tongue of Crocodylus porosus which exude a concentrated secretion of sodium chloride. The glands are similar in ultrastructure to other reptilian salt glands and undoubtedly play a major role in electrolyte regulation.. ...
We examined indices of salt gland function both in vivo and in vitro and the ultrastructual morphology of the salt secreting tissue of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus to determine its long-term adaptive capacity and phenotypic plasticity following chronic exposure to hypo- and hyperosmotic environmental conditions. As previously established, salt glands play a pivotal role in the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis in C. porosus living in hyperosmotic conditions. However, little was known about long-term effects of prolonged exposure to hyperosmotic environments on the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis. All haematological values measured in this study for SW-acclimated animals were within the ranges reported for wild-caught C. porosus living in water bodies of varying salinities (Grigg, 1981; Wells et al., 1991), suggesting that SW-acclimated crocodiles were able to successfully maintain osmotic homeostasis despite extended exposure to hyperosmotic conditions. Moreover, extended ...
Floridas fearsome lord of the swamps, the American alligator, ranks sixth in the world in the power of its bite.The strongest bite belongs to the saltwater crocodile, a Pacific ocean species
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status: Least concern. Once on the verge of extinction, the American alligator has made a remarkable recovery. Due to strict conservation measures and extensive research, it is no longer endangered except in scattered areas of its range. However, the American alligator is listed as threatened on the U.S. Endangered Species List because it is very similar in appearance to the American crocodile, which is endangered, and hunters are likely to confuse the two species. Hunting is allowed in some states, but it is heavily controlled. The greatest threat is currently destruction of habitat; this includes water management systems and increased levels of mercury and dioxins in the water.. ...
The saltwater crocodile is most commonly found on the coasts of northern Australia, and the islands of New Guinea and Indonesia. It ranges west as far as the shores of Sri Lanka and eastern India, all
American Alligator by Mink at Zappos.com - FREE Shipping. Read Mink American Alligator product reviews, or select the size, width, and color of your choice.
The cartilago transiliens is a fibrocartilaginous structure within the jaw muscles of crocodylians. The cartilago transiliens slides between the pterygoid buttress and coronoid region of the lower jaw and connects two muscles historically identified as m. pseudotemporalis superficialis and m. intramandibularis. However, the position of cartilago transiliens, and its anatomical similarities to tendon organs suggest the structure may be a sesamoid linking a single muscle. Incompressible sesamoids often form inside tendons that wrap around bone. However, such structures rarely ossify in reptiles and have thus far received scant attention. We tested the hypothesis that the cartilago transiliens is a sesamoid developed within in one muscle by investigating its structure in an ontogenetic series of Alligator mississippiensis using dissection, 3D imaging, and polarizing and standard light microscopy. In all animals studied, the cartilago transiliens receives collagen fibers and tendon insertions from its two
Alligators experience large but variable increases in LES pressure during bouts of ventilation compared with apnea. The increase in pressure generally ranged from 200% to 3000%. However, on rare occasions, no pressure increase was seen coincident with ventilation. Fluctuations in LES pressure during apnea and ventilation have also been observed in anesthetized piglets (Kiatchoosakun et al., 2002). Kiatchoosakun et al. (2002) used hypoxia to stimulate respiratory rate and found a peak increase in LES pressure of 49% (from a baseline of 0.65±0.09kPa to 1.0±0.12kPa). This increase in LES pressure was blocked by atropine, indicating cholinergic control of LES tone. A decline in LES pressure accompanied the development of apnea during a subsequent hyperoxic exposure. These authors suggest that a loss of respiratory neural output might contribute to the loss of LES tone. A cholinergic-dependent neuromuscular control of the LES is also observed in humans. Thus, the changes in pressure observed within ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n = 4) occupied an area|1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d−1; n = 8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14
To explore CR1 distribution in C. porosus, macroarrays were screened with CR1b-derived overgos or a combination of CR1a and CR1b overgos. Comparison of the CR1b- and CR1a/b-probed macroarrays revealed that the CR1a and CR1b subfamilies are not distinguishable in our assay, i.e., virtually no differences in hybridization pattern and intensity were observed when comparing the CR1b and CR1a/CR1b filters (data not shown). It was clear, however, that elements similar to CR1a and b are fairly abundant in C. porosus. Examination of one-quarter of the CR1a/b-probed macroarray (Figure 3A) indicates that 8.9% of clones show hybridization to the CR1a/b overgos while CR1b overgo hybridization to a filter stamped with the contents of a single 384-well plate from the BAC library suggests that 12.8% of clones (49 of 384) are positive for the CR1b overgo (Figure 4). Densitometric analysis of the macroarray reveals that there is a six-fold variation in positive clone hybridization intensity. If the lightest, but ...
Define Archosauria. Archosauria synonyms, Archosauria pronunciation, Archosauria translation, English dictionary definition of Archosauria. Noun 1. Archosauria - a large subclass of diapsid reptiles including: crocodiles; alligators; dinosaurs; pterosaurs; plesiosaurs; ichthyosaurs; thecodonts...
American Alligator - Beware of this fast swimmer and powerful biter in the Southeast rivers and fresh waters. It can grow to be 14 ft or perhaps more!
Seems like nothing is more fascinating to a second grader than crocodiles and other semi-monsters. Usually, kids wonder about the difference between alligators and crocodiles. This book, part of the "Which Animal is Which?" series, gives definitive answers for that difference in a way that second graders can understand.. Alligators live in fresh water. Crocodiles can live in salt water. The reptiles snouts are shaped differently. Alligators have a wider jaw and are a darker color. Only a few of an alligators top teeth show when its mouth is closed. Crocodiles show most of their teeth with their mouths closed. Alligator mothers make mounds for their eggs. Crocodile mothers dig holes. Alligator mothers stay with the babies for up to a year. Crocodiles leave the young once they reach the water. All these ideas are easily accessible and memorable for kids.. The photographs included provide wonderful illustrations of the concepts discussed. Who can resist the smile of a crocodile? And its amazing ...
A crocodile farm or alligator farm is an establishment for breeding and raising of crocodilians in order to produce crocodile and alligator meat, leather, and other goods. Many species of both alligators and crocodiles are farmed internationally. In Louisiana alone, alligator farming is a $60 to $70 million industry. Though not truly domesticated, alligators and crocodiles have been bred in farms since at least the early 20th century. Most of these early businesses, such as St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, established in 1893, were farms in name only, primarily keeping alligators and crocodiles as a tourist attraction. Only in the 1960s did commercial operations that either harvested eggs from the wild or bred alligators on-site begin to appear. This was largely driven by diminishing stocks of wild alligators, which had been hunted nearly to extinction by that time. As the American alligator was placed under official protection in 1967 (under a law preceding the 1973 Endangered ...
All About Alligators." Enchanted Learning. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/Alligator.shtml (accessed on September 21, 2004).. "Alligator." Everglades National Park. http://www.nps.gov/ever/eco/gator.htm (accessed on September 21, 2004).. "Alligator." World Almanac for Kids. http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/explore/animals/alligator.html (accessed on September 21, 2004).. "Alligators and Crocodiles." San Diego Zoo. http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-crocodile.html (accessed on September 21, 2004).. "American Crocodile." Kids Planet, Defenders of Wildlife. http://www.kidsplanet.org/factsheets/american_crocodile.html (accessed on September 21, 2004).. "Fathers and Sons." Florida Museum of Natural History. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/cnhc/potm-oct00.html (accessed on September 21, 2004).. "Gharial." Smithsonian National Zoological Park. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/ReptilesAmphibians/Facts/FactSheets/Gharial.cfm (accessed on September 21, 2004).. "Nile Crocodiles." National ...
Using our CAMP discovery process and only 100 μl of alligator plasma, we have previously identified five novel antimicrobial peptides from A. mississippiensis that exhibit antibacterial activity [8]. Our bioprospecting-based process provides a unique access to the antimicrobial peptidome, and is a significant advance in the effort to identify novel antimicrobial peptides in nature. In this study, we present detailed characterization of the structure and function of three alligator plasma-derived peptides: Apo5, Apo6, and A1P. We demonstrated that Apo5, Apo6, and A1P are potent antimicrobial peptides that extend their efficacy against multi-drug resistant and clinically relevant pathogens, such as A. baumannii. The two peptides Apo5 and Apo6 are both derived from a predicted apolipoprotein C-1 in A. mississippiensis. Apolipoproteins bind lipids; apolipoprotein C-1 in particular is known to bind phospholipids and is a marker of apoptosis [11, 12, 43, 44]. Apo6 is a smaller derivative of Apo5; ...
The name alligator comes from the Portuguese word lagarto (lat. Lacerta, t. E. A lizard) and commonly used in South America from the British and Dutch colonists, as well as in North America; The name of this animal caiman give negros Guiana and French colonists. True alligators come from Australia. They are named in honor of the Alligator River. Chinese and American alligators belong to the family of crocodiles and bear the name of a completely undeserved. Crocodiles are in the language of the salt gland. If they swallow too much salt water, excess salts are recovered through them into the environment ...
Ecology. Habitat. Fresh Water swamps and waterways only.. Distribution. Diet. Carnivorous, Fish, snakes, frogs, turtles, birds, and mammals.. Ecological Web. Activity and Behavior. Activity Pattern. Alligators are active durring the day and at night, this is considered cathemeral. Durring the day alligators thermoregulate and bask in the sun. Alligators hunt and feed primarily at night.. Behavior. Social Behavior. Young alligators stay near their hatchling site and form a tight social group. This behavior aids in survival and protection from predators. As adults, alligators do have loose social contact. Reproductive Behavior. Offspring. Between 30-50 eggs are laid in a ground litter nest for their incubation period. The eggs are then covered so that the temperature can rise. Warmer temperatures produce males, cooler temperatures produce females.. Conservation. Status. Historical. Current Threats. Our Role. ...
Posted on 05/18/2013 2:08:28 PM PDT by LibWhacker. An international team of scientists led by Prof Cheng-Ming Chuong from the University of Southern California has discovered unique cellular and molecular mechanisms behind tooth renewal in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).. Their findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pave the way for tooth regeneration in people. Humans naturally only have two sets of teeth baby teeth and adult teeth. Ultimately, we want to identify stem cells that can be used as a resource to stimulate tooth renewal in adult humans who have lost teeth. But, to do that, we must first understand how they renew in other animals and why they stop in people, Prof Chuong said. Whereas most vertebrates can replace teeth throughout their lives, human teeth are naturally replaced only once, despite the lingering presence of a band of epithelial tissue called the dental lamina, which is crucial to tooth development. Because alligators ...
ID A0A151MF56_ALLMI Unreviewed; 2363 AA. AC A0A151MF56; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 11. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0005596 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA Burgess S.C., Cooksey A.M., Castoe T.A., Crawford N.G., ...
ID A0A151M8E8_ALLMI Unreviewed; 1151 AA. AC A0A151M8E8; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 5. DE SubName: Full=Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6 isoform B {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; GN Name=TRPM6 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0012636 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA ...
Illegal hunting has been a major threat for the survival of wildlife fauna, including the three crocodile species that India harbours: Crocodylus palustris, Crocodylus porosus and Gavialis gangeticus. Although law prevents trade on these species, illicit hunting for trade continues to threaten the survival of these endangered species; conservation strategies therefore require a rapid molecular identification technique for Indian crocodiles. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with species-specific primers, considered as one of the most effective molecular techniques, is described herein. The primers were designed to yield species-specific sized amplicons. The assay discriminates the three Indian crocodile species unambiguously within a short time period using only simple agarose gel electrophoresis. We recommend this multiplex PCR assay to be used in the identification of Indian crocodile species. ...
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General Information: Alligators do not truely hibernate, but they do undergo periods of dormancy in cold weather. They are known to search out caves in the banks of waterways and use them as dens. Females usually have a small range, while males occupy areas of greater than two miles. Both sexes become more active and extend their territory during the breeding months of April and May.. Special Anatomical, Physiological, or Behavioral Adaptations: Modern Alligators have many adaptations that make them well suited to their wetland envirnment. Their eyes, ears, and nose are positioned to peek out just above the waterline so they can locate prey without being easily identified. Their eyes and nostrils close by reflex when the animal goes underwater, and they have a transparent third eyelid, or nictitating membrane, that covers the eye as the animal moves through the water.. Reproduction: Sexual maturity is based upon the size of the Alligator. Both sexes are usually considered mature when they reach ...
Mycoplasma alligatoris is a species of bacteria in the Mycoplasma genus. It is classified in the Bacteria domain, Firmicutes phylum, Mollicutes class, Mycoplasma order, and Mycoplasmataceae family. Many organisms of the Mycoplasma genus are known pathogens in humans and animal species. Mycoplasma alligatoris is known to elicit a fatal disease with inflammatory characteristics that can cause rapid death of alligators and caimans. Mycoplasma alligatoris was first isolated in a study led by D. R. Brown of six captive alligators showing signs of pneumonia, polyserositis (inflammation of serous membranes), and multifocal arthritis. The isolates were obtained from various organs, blood, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid and subject to various experimental tests for identification purposes. Primary isolates were cultured in ATCC medium 98 agar containing 105 U penicillin G 1−1, 10 5 U polymyin B 1 −1, 65 mg cefoperazone 1 −1 and 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum in 5% CO2 atmosphere or in ...
Average weight: between 600 and 2,000 pounds., Nile crocs are characterized by their lizard-shaped bodies and scaly hides., Coloring: ranges from drab green or brownish to a blackish tone on the dorsa
Caiman c. crocodilus constructed nests on small elevations in swamps during the long rainy season (May-July). Eggs were buried just beneath ground level and in addition covered by a small mound of dry leaves. This nest type is intermediate between the hole-type and the mound-type nest. Hatching occurred from the beginning until midway into the long dry season. One of two egg-containing nests studied was destroyed by predators. In the other nest 18 of 28 eggs hatched, which coincides with estimates based on pod sizes and estimated mean clutch sizes. Hatchlings stayed together (sometimes associated with second year caimans) for up to 18 months. Most of these pods were attended by an adult caiman for about seven months, until the beginning of the long rainy season. The sex ratio of newborn young was 0.5, but some pods seemed to consist of one sex only (sex ratio being 0 or 1). These results are compared with data on other populations of C. crocodilus and other crocodilians. In general there is a
Snap!: A Book about Alligators and Crocodiles. Melvin Berger. Publisher: ScholasticFormat: Paperback. What is the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? How are they born? Find out the answers to these questions and many more in this Level 3 Hello Reader Science bookDid you know that a crocodile is usually longer, weighs more, and can outswim alligators? Children will learn all about these aquatic creatures-everything from where they live, what they eat, and how they survive-in this non-fiction easy reader.Renowned authors Melvin and Gilda Berger have created yet another fascinating science book. With simple, accessible text and brilliant photographs, SNAP A BOOK ABOUT ALLIGATORS AND CROCODILES is sure to be a big hit with parents and teachers alike. GST Note: GST is included in the price of this item. GST is included in the freight.. ...
Quietly sneak upon this Crocodile. I was about 30 yards away and ending up closer to just about 15 feet. I had to walk behind trees of course and when as i got closer it notice me and open its jaws. So what you think? gaping or lunch. After all, one jump and it swam away. …
Attaining a length of six to eight feet at adulthood, the American alligator is North Americas largest flesh-eating reptile. The alligators thick and powerful tail, used for propulsion and defense, accounts for half its body length. Similar in appearance to the endangered American crocodile, the American alligator has a stockier build and broader head and snout; unlike crocodiles, alligators teeth are not visible when their jaws are closed. [Read more…]. ...
Come see alligators on display with your kids at the Key West Aquarium. Year after year the Aquarium is rated as one of the top Key West Florida Attractions.
In the spirit of Halloween, find out which scary animals are most likely to give us the heebie-jeebies and what you should do if you encounter your worst animal nightmare.
This new knowledge could assist in the conservation and breeding strategy of Australian freshwater and saltwater crocodiles.. Dr Jaime Gongora, research project leader from the University of Sydneys Faculty of Veterinary Science said "Alligators and crocodiles occupy an evolutionary mid-point between mammals and birds so they provide a unique link. Our research helps address fundamental questions about how evolution drives and maintains genetic diversity of the immune genes.. "The study looked at the diversity and evolutionary mechanisms of two primary gene classes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), key components of the immune system. The study investigated 20 species of crocodilians including the two Australian crocodile species; freshwater and saltwater crocodiles.. "This research helps to close a gap in our knowledge of immune gene evolution particularly since the crocodilian families (crocodiles and alligators) diverged from a common ancestor 90 million years ago.". The MHC is ...
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In November, two American alligators were flown from the Poconos to Wisconsin to undergo surgery. The story took a sad turn Tuesday morning when one of the alligators died unexpectedly. The alligators had been recovering in their own personalized enclosures built in the basement of the veterinary hospital.
On Friday, October 25, I completed the aerial challenge course at the Alligator Farm in St Augustine, Florida! It took me about an hour and half as I walked across swinging elements and bridges. There were several ziplines, also. Underneath me were a lot of alligators...I must say that was very interesting. I also saw lemurs and several species of birds. There were many different species of alligators and crocodiles. I met Scott Brown the manager of the course. I got a workout, but it was an enjoyable workout! - at Alligator Farm. ...
Where Pv is the new percentage value, Iv is the initial value on the specific day and D0 represents the value on Day 0. Data were log transformed (log10[x+1]) and analysis of variance (IBM SPSS Statistics 19) was used to compare results from the different groups. Non-parametric, bivariate correlation (Spearmans rho) analyses (IBM SPSS Statistics 19) were conducted in order to determine relationships between biochemical parameters and infection dose.. Results. Blood glucose. The mean concentration of blood glucose for the three experimental groups is shown in Table 2. In the high-infection and medium-infection groups, initial peaks in blood glucose values were observed on Day 14 PI and Day 7 PI, respectively. This was followed by a slight decrease the following week. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in blood glucose concentrations on Day 28 PI between the high-infection and low-infection groups and between the medium-infection and low-infection groups (p , 0.05). No ...
Ethical considerations. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee (AEC) of the University of Pretoria. The AEC approval numbers for the anatomy and diagnostic imaging projects are V041/05 and V006/09, respectively.. Discussion. Although the post-occipital neck region has been described as a venipuncture site (Jacobson 1984; Lloyd & Morris 1999; Sykes & Klaphake 2008) and is regularly used for blood sample collection from crocodilians by scientists (Boggs et al. 2011; Hamlin et al. 2011; Lovely et al. 2007; Millan et al. 1997; Rossini et al. 2011; Zayas et al. 2011), very little has been published on the anatomy of the neck οf crocodilians, in general, and on the Nile crocodile in particular. As the blood vessel is completely surrounded by the cervical vertebrae, the only way to access the spinal venous sinus is to use the opening between the atlas and axis. To blindly find this opening and the spinal venous sinus beneath, external landmarks become important and essential. The ...
Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the ...
The Cayman branch, which has no local staff or customers, is operated from Mexico by HSBC subsidiary HBMX. Its services are not related to HSBC Premier, the retail arm of HSBC in the Cayman Islands. HSBC had acquired the Cayman branch through its purchase of Mexican bank Bital in November 2002, which in turn had received authorisation from Cayman banking regulators in 1980 to offer Cayman US dollar accounts to its customers. At its peak in 2008, HBMX maintained over 60,000 accounts with assets of $2.1 billion in its Cayman branch. Any HMBX branch across Mexico had the authority to open a Cayman account for clients. HBMX offered US dollar services through its correspondent account with HSBC in the US. The report said it had no evidence that HSBC US was ever informed of the use of the correspondent account in this way. The accounts allowed HSBC in Mexico to circumvent local regulations which prohibit Mexican residents from maintaining US dollar accounts in Mexico. The Subcommittee report, which ...
Hansen, Anne; Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis; BMC Neuroscience 2007 8:64 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-8-64 ...
Do you know how to tell the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? My third graders do! In Art class, the third graders have been learning the similarities and differences between alligators and crocodiles. They learned what it means to be cold-blooded, what a habitat is, and what the characteristics of a reptile are. Third graders worked on many art skills when creating their reptiles such as; drawing, cutting, gluing, weaving, stamping, and painting! Students put forth great effort in creating these giant works of art! Thank you Paintedpaper blog for this idea ...
Of course Im just having a bit of fun. None of those possibilities are true, youll be pleased to hear. Actually, its been known for a long time that crocodilians (or crocodylians if you want to be pedantic) can climb out of the water onto floating logs and low branches. We didnt publish a paper to point this out, but rather we wanted to explore how widespread this was, and look into the reasons why crocodiles might do this, and even allow us to speculate on how extinct crocodyliforms may have behaved. After all, if you look at a modern crocodile and think theres no way it could climb a tree, youre not going to assume a fossil crocodyliform with a similar morphology is going to be able to do it either. Well, heres a cool thing, some modern species can climb trees, and they can do so remarkably well, often getting several metres off the ground up relatively steep trunks and branches. The modern crocodilian limb is more adaptable than you might have thought ...
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Alligators and Crocodiles (Book) : Royston, Angela : An introduction to the physical features of alligators and crocodiles, their habitats, life cycles, relationships with other animals, threats they face, and related facts.
Two delicious tales for newly independent readers. Crocodile and Alligator are playing jungle hide-and-seek. But will their long, floppy tails give the game away? Next, Crocodile is trying to bake a lovely cake, but Alligator isnt helping much - he drops the flour, smashes the sugar bowl, and tries to juggle the eggs! This fabulous read-alone treat from a popular series bridges the gap between picture books and chapter books. With glowing colour illustrations and an audio CD to read along to, its a really satisfying story for little learners to devour!
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Alligators often engage in violent fights over territories and mates, and scientists have puzzled over why their wounds rarely get infected. Now researchers think the secret lies in the reptiles blood. Chemists in Louisiana found that blood from the American alligator can successfully destroy 23 strains of bacteria, including strains known to be resistant to antibiotics. In addition, the blood was able to deplete and destroy a significant amount of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.. Study co-author Lancia Darville at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge believes that peptides-fragments of proteins-within alligator blood help the animals stave off fatal infections. Such peptides are also found in the skin of frogs and toads, as well as in Komodo dragons and crocodiles. The scientists think that these peptides could one day lead to medicines that would provide humans with the same antibiotic protection.. "We are in the process of separating and identifying the specific peptides in alligator ...
See American alligators & invasive spectacled caimans. Learn how wetland & coastal habitats are vital to native species like the American crocodile.
Freshwater Crocodiles can be found throughout the coastal and inland regions of northern Australia, from Western Australia to Queensland.. They are usually found upstream in rivers but can tolerate some saltwater. Their main habitats include wetlands, rivers, creeks and swamps, and they do not mind still water, fast flowing, muddy, shallow or deep water.. At the end of the wet season freshwater crocodiles usually move to more permanent water.. Mating occurs in the dry season during July, and nesting occurs over a two or three week period during August.. Freshwater crocodiles dig hole nests in sandy river banks. As the eggs are close to the ground water table, they are more susceptible to flooding at the start of the wet season.. Females tend to return to the same nesting sites year after year.. The female crocodile is not a good defender of her eggs. Almost 80% of nests are destroyed by predators such as monitor lizards and pigs.. The average size of the clutch is around 13 eggs. The largest ...
The sex ratio of alligators and crocodiles is strongly biased towards females, often as high as 10 females to 1 male. Skewed sex ratios (that is, ratios other than 1:1) are commonly found in species exhibiting environmental sex determination. In crocodilians the temperature of egg incubation is the environmental factor determining sex. If the temperature is cool, around 30 °C, the hatchlings are all female. Warmer temperatures, around 34 °C, hatch all males. The probability that any particular individual female will successfully reproduce herself is low due to high mortalities of eggs, hatchlings and immatures. However, the crocodilia have great survivorship: no (classified) species of alligator or crocodile has become extinct despite extensive hunting and loss of habitat. We develop a nonlinear age-structured model for the population dynamics of alligators and crocodiles based on key life-history data. From our modelling we conclude that: (i) sex ratio is constrained by survivorship ...
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GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
An average American alligators weight and length is 800 lbs. and 13 feet long. According to the Everglades National Park website, the largest alligator ever recorded in Florida was 17 feet 5 inches long (5.3 meters). The largest alligator ever recorded measured 19 feet 2 inches (5.8 meters) and was found on Marsh Island, Louisiana. Few of the giant specimens were weighed, but the larger ones could have exceeded a ton in weight. The Chinese Alligator is smaller, rarely exceeding 7 feet (2 meters) in length ...
This is a SEM micrograph of American alligator nasal epithelia. Fracture showing the apical portion of olfactory epithelium in zone 4. The olfactory knob of an OSN (olfactory receptor neuron) bears cilia and microvilli whereas the apical surfaces of the supporting cells (SC) are covered by microvilli ...
With below average temperatures hitting the East Coast and the recent bomb cyclone storm, people and animals are trying to adjust to the colder weather. The Swamp Park in Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina captured some amazing videos and photos of American alligators sticking their heads above the ice in order to breathe.
Sutures and synchondroses, the fibrous and cartilaginous articulations found in the skulls of vertebrates, have been studied for many biological applications at the morphological scale. However, little is known about these articulations at the microscopic scale in non-mammalian vertebrates, including extant archosaurs (birds and crocodilians). The major goals of this paper were to: (i) document the microstructure of some sutures and synchondroses through ontogeny in archosaurs; (ii) compare these microstructures with previously published sutural histology (i.e. that of mammals); and (iii) document how these articulations with different morphological degrees of closure (open or obliterated) appear histologically. This was performed with histological analyses of skulls of emus, American alligators, a fossil crocodilian and ornithischian dinosaurs (hadrosaurids, pachycephalosaurids and ceratopsids). Emus and mammals possess a sutural periosteum until sutural fusion, but it disappears rapidly during ...
How can you tell an alligator from a crocodile? If you want to, that is! Its not very difficult. First, look at the shape of the snout and the visibility of the teeth when the jaws are shut.
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For a fuller, more detailed version of this article read How to tell if your handbag is made of genuine crocodile leather on our Gleni website.. A crocodile handbag is the ultimate in luxury. The gorgeous soft leather is much in demand by top designers, and genuine, top quality crocodile and alligator skin is very expensive. So its not surprising that there are cheaper alternatives about that. ...
Fridays incident would be the second alligator attack in the region this week. Sunday, a 13-year-old boy and his father were attacked by an alligator at Mac Pond in Chambers Countys Cedar Hill Park. Authorities said an alligator bit 13-year-old Kaleb Hurley on the arm and took him underwater near the bank of the pond, just off Lake Charlotte Road. His father, 42-year-old James Hurley, was also hurt when he ran into the water to save his son.The alligator bit him on the leg, but he was able to kick it until it let him go.. ...
First, the team tested how sound travelled around an alligators head to investigate whether the animal somehow channels sound, listening for tiny time and volume differences in the sounds arrival at the two ears to help locate the origin. But the team found no evidence that the animals body alters sound transmission sufficiently for the animal to be able to detect the difference. And when the team measured alligators brainstem responses to sounds, they were too fast for the animals to sense these small time differences.. Next, the team looked for internal structures in the alligators heads that might propagate sound between the two eardrums. Viewing slices through the heads of young alligators, the team could clearly see two channels linking the two middle ears that could transmit sound between the two eardrums.. Sound reaches both sides of the eardrum-travelling externally to reach the outer side and through head structures to the internal side-to amplify the vibration at some frequencies ...
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The Cerrejón crocodile the scientists unearthed came out to be about 28 feet, which is bigger than any crocodile that we have alive today. More importantly, it was of a size to match the croc from the dinosaur era, Sarcosuchus. Now that we know how large the croc was, Dr. Greg Erickson can finally estimate the power of its monstrous bite. It is of a magnitude equal to that of a T. rex. Watch online: S15 Ep5: Bite force of the Cerrejón crocodile from Secrets of the Dead. On demand, streaming video from KQED
Crocodiles are large, fierce reptiles that live in rivers, salt marshes, and swamps in warm parts of the world. They have long , scaly bodies and strong jaws full of sharp teeth. They catch fish, frogs, birds, pigs, antelopes, and even other crocodiles to eat. They use their powerful tails to push themselves through the water when they swim. On land, crocodiles can move quickly on their short legs. ...
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Just two months ago, a temporary teacher was killed by a crocodile in Limbang, Sarawak when she went to the river to collect ablution water to perform prayers. She was attacked and dragged as far as 100 meters while her family and other villagers witnessed in horror. Several villagers risked and dived into the water to look for her but the attempt went futile. About 20 minutes later, the crocodile released her but she was already dead by then. Her legs appeared but were pulled back by the crocodile into the water. ...
Just recently, a little boy has suffered an unbelievably tragic misfortune after he was dragged away and eaten up by a crocodile in Zimbabwe.. An 8-year-old boy has died a really tragic death after a crocodile attacked him recently. However, Citizen Reports that the boy was attacked by the crocodile on the Hunyani river in Mushumbi, Mashonaland Central, Zimbabwe ...
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Crocodile Ejected From Cheapy Jet Plane : A crocodile has been ejected from a flight to Egypt The Crocodile said he was just trying to go on holiday when he was picked up by the tail and thrown out of a window He then tried to go on holiday on a boat but the captain of the ship threw
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Interesting facts about species of alligators, crocodiles, gharials, and caimans are presented in this photo-illustrated text. An index and a list of additional
Alligator & Crocodile Rescue Changing the Future for Endangered Wildlife (Book) : Snyder, Trish : Provides information about crocodilians from around the world, their endangerment and a range of conservation programs to save them, including profiles of individual conservationists.
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What gives? Do these observations indicate that extant crocodilians are not strict carnivores, and that fruits and even leaves are a normal supplement to their diet? We dont know, field observations are needed. There is another, equally interesting possibility however: this being that the captive animals that weve been looking at have been mimicking other species. At least some of the alligators at the St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park are kept with tortoises, and have been eating the food put out for the tortoises. And as for the fruit-eating Brazilian caimans, Brito et al. (2002) drew attention to the fact that they were kept together with tegus Tupinambis merianae, and tegus are well known for eating fruit. Might the caimans therefore have seen the tegus eating fruit, and therefore "acquired frugivory behaviour from the tegus" (Brito et al. 2002, p. 96)); or, in other words, copied them. It seems to me to be quite a sophisticated thing for an individual of species 1 to watch a ...
Clearly this new fossil would have been part of the food-chain, both as predator and prey," said Bloch, who co-led the fossil-hunting expeditions to Cerrejon with Smithsonian paleobotanist Carlos Jaramillo. "Giant snakes today are known to eat crocodylians, and it is not much of a reach to say Cerrejonisuchus would have been a frequent meal for Titanoboa. Fossils of the two are often found side-by-side.". The concept of ancient crocodyliforms as snake food has its parallel in the modern world, as anacondas have been documented consuming caimans in the Amazon. Given the ancient reptiles size, it would have been no competition for Titanoboa, Hastings said.. Cerrejonisuchus improcerus is the smallest member of Dyrosauridae, a family of now-extinct crocodyliforms. Dyrosaurids typically grew to about 18 feet and had long tweezer-like snouts for eating fish. By contrast, the Cerrejon species had a much shorter snout, indicating a more generalized diet that likely included frogs, lizards, small snakes ...
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On the skin of the head of a crocodile protuberances are located in pronounced rows 4-2 . Designers locate this part of the skin in the most prominent place of the product. But as in the case of alligator skin, abdominal part of the skin is the most valuable and expensive part. Here, the pattern of scales is more geometric, and the lines that pass through them is almost parallel to each other. At each squares in the center is little point (Osteoderms ...
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The state Senate on Thursday approved a five-year extension allowing the sale of products made with crocodile and alligator skin, which often are used in luxury goods.
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Chromosome locations Select an organism by typing or scrolling Adelie penguin African clawed frog African savanna elephant Ailuropoda melanoleuca Alligator mississippiensis Alligator sinensis alpaca American alligator American beaver American crow American pika Anas platyrhynchos Aotus nancymaae Aptenodytes forsteri Arabian camel Australian saltwater crocodile Bactrian camel black flying fox black snub-nosed monkey Bolivian squirrel monkey Bos taurus bottlenose cfh symbol Brandts bat budgerigar Callithrix jacchus Callorhinchus milii Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camelus ferus Canis lupus familiaris Capra hircus Castor canadensis cattle Cavia porcellus Cercocebus atys Chaetura pelagica chicken chimney swift chimpanzee Chinchilla lanigera Chinese alligator Chinese hamster Chlorocebus sabaeus Chrysemys picta collared flycatcher Columba livia common starling Condylura cristata Corvus brachyrhynchos Coturnix japonica crab-eating macaque crested ibis Cricetulus griseus Crocodylus porosus ...
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It combines the strengths of two pre-eminent collections--the Goldsmiths Library of Economic Literature at the University of London, and the Kress Collection of Business and Economics at the Harvard Business School--plus supplementary materials from the Seligman Collection at Columbia University and the Sterling Library at Yale. It provides full-text searching capability for thousands of primary source materials documenting the emergence of modern economics and other social sciences, as well as the expansion of world trade, the Industrial Revolution, and the development of modern capitalism. Writings of major economists, as well as pamphlets and broadsides, government publications, and hundreds of serials, are included ...
Winship and Georgia Tech researchers have developed gold nanoparticles small enough to enter cells and smart enough to home in on head and neck cancer cells. Then, when exposed to a laser beam of a specific wavelength, these nanoparticles convert the energy to heat, killing the cancer cells while sparing healthy ones. In another study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles developed at Winship are loaded with chemotherapeutic agents, which they release near or inside pancreatic tumors, one of the most deadly of all cancers. In a third study, a team in Emorys Brain Tumor Nanotechnology Laboratory use iron oxide nanoparticles in mice to bind to and kill implanted cells of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans, without toxicity to normal brain cells.. Winship brain tumor researchers developed a method using nanoparticles embedded with different antibodies to find proteins secreted by brain tumors in the cerebrospinal fluid, a much less invasive ...
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The location is brilliant, the people are great and the wildlife is fantastic. So far Ive seen green turtles, two-toed and three-toed sloths, coral snakes, a vine snake, green iguanas, basilisk lizards, a Neotropical river otter, caiman, crocodiles, strawberry poison-dart frogs, howler monkeys, spider monkeys and white-faced capuchin monkeys to name just a few ...
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Saltwater crocodile trumps American alligator in bite force - tribunedigital-sunsentinelSaltwater crocodile trumps American alligator in bite force - tribunedigital-sunsentinel

... the American alligator, ranks sixth in the world in the power of its bite.The strongest bite belongs to the saltwater crocodile ... and the American alligator was 13 feet. He said the immense power exerted by all alligators and crocodiles allows them to crush ... whose team strapped down 83 alligators and crocodiles and placed measuring devices between their teeth. ... The American alligator bit with a force of 2,980 pounds. Although this ranked fifth among the species tested, Erickson said it ...
more infohttp://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2012-03-15/news/sfl-saltwater-crocodile-trumps-american-alligator-in-bite-force-20120315_1_crocodile-alligator-trumps

Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) / Crocodiles & Alligators Pictures, Breeds, Habitats, Photos - Crocodylus Niloticus,...Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) / Crocodiles & Alligators Pictures, Breeds, Habitats, Photos - Crocodylus Niloticus,...

The saltwater crocodile is most commonly found on the coasts of northern Australia, and the islands of New Guinea and Indonesia ... American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis). A member of the crocodile family, alligators are living fossils that can be ... Location: Crocodiles & Alligators. Tags: crocodile / reptile / crocodilia / crocodylidae / australia / new guinea / indonesia ... Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin. Crocodile Hunter: Most Embarrassing Moments. Cobra Bite. Funny Cats movies. ...
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Functional and morphological plasticity of crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) salt glands | Journal of Experimental BiologyFunctional and morphological plasticity of crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) salt glands | Journal of Experimental Biology

Lingual salt glands in Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus johnstoni and their absence from Alligator mississipiensis and Caiman ... Crocodiles (N=4 per treatment) were euthanased and salt glands dissected out as described previously. Small pieces (circa 2 mm2 ... Taplin, L. E. and Grigg, G. C. (1981). Salt glands in the tongue of the estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus.Science 212,1045 ... A basking area was supplied with a standard 40 W globe, turned on daily from 09:00 h until 16:00 h. The crocodiles were fed ad ...
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Dark Brown Alligator Crocodile Stomach BeltDark Brown Alligator Crocodile Stomach Belt

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Unique Bargains 6Pair 20cm Cable Power Test Probe Alligator Crocodile Clamp ClipUnique Bargains 6Pair 20cm Cable Power Test Probe Alligator Crocodile Clamp Clip

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Buy Snap!: A Book about Alligators & Crocodiles | GraysOnline AustraliaBuy Snap!: A Book about Alligators & Crocodiles | GraysOnline Australia

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3d morelli crocodile - alligator model3d morelli crocodile - alligator model

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A Newly Discovered Difference Between Alligators and Crocodiles - The New York TimesA Newly Discovered Difference Between Alligators and Crocodiles - The New York Times

The most obvious way to tell a crocodile, left, from an alligator, is from their snouts: Those of alligators are wider and ... When an alligator closes its mouth, you tend to see only its upper teeth. Crocodiles on the other hand flash a toothy grin with ... Alligators have U-shaped faces that are wide and short, while crocodiles have slender almost V-shaped muzzles. And if youre ... How do you tell an alligator from a crocodile? And no, dad joke enthusiasts, the answer isnt that you see one later and the ...
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Bill extends sale of crocodile, alligator products - Washington TimesBill extends sale of crocodile, alligator products - Washington Times

The state Senate on Thursday approved a five-year extension allowing the sale of products made with crocodile and alligator ... The Humane Society of the United States opposed the bill, saying that all 23 species of large crocodiles and alligators have ... California banned importation of products made from alligators and crocodiles for commercial use, but lawmakers passed a ... The state Senate on Thursday approved a five-year extension allowing the sale of products made with crocodile and alligator ...
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Crikey! Crocodiles and Alligators Snack on Fruit | Live ScienceCrikey! Crocodiles and Alligators Snack on Fruit | Live Science

... alligators and crocodiles sometimes eat fruit, a new study finds. The animals may play a key role in dispersing seeds in ... Crikey! Crocodiles and Alligators Snack on Fruit. By Charles Q. Choi 2013-08-27T15:16:34Z. Animals ... Crocodiles and alligators are infamous carnivores, but it turns out they do not live on meat alone - scientists have ... Alligators vs. Crocodiles: Photos Reveal Whos Who]. Although, at times, the reptiles ate the fruit accidentally - for instance ...
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Alligators And Crocodiles / Vintage-Advertisements Art Prints - Global GalleryAlligators And Crocodiles / Vintage-Advertisements Art Prints - Global Gallery

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Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of Everglades ecosystemsAlligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of Everglades ecosystems

The alligator component uses relative density (reported as an encounter rate), body condition, and occupancy rates of alligator ... holes; the crocodile component uses juvenile growth and hatchling survival. We hypothesize that these parameters are correlated ... Alligators and crocodiles integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations, affecting them at all life stages through ... Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of Everglades ecosystems. Ecological Indicators By:. Frank J. Mazzotti ...
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Alligator & Crocodile Hunting | Jesses Hunting & Outdoors Forum | California Hunting, Fishing & MoreAlligator & Crocodile Hunting | Jesse's Hunting & Outdoors Forum | California Hunting, Fishing & More

800-pound, 12-foot gator caught by Hobe Sound FL teen Tim Stroh. Alligator ... Record number of alligator hunt applications filed for SC. Deadline June 15th 2011 ... Dallas lawyer who bagged giant gator in Central Texas faces state poaching charge. Levi McCathern II ... Father, son plead guilty in illegal LA gator-hunting case. Larry Dees Sr. ...
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68A-25.001 : Feeding or Enticement of Alligators or Crocodiles Unlawful - Florida Administrative Rules, Law, Code, Register -...68A-25.001 : Feeding or Enticement of Alligators or Crocodiles Unlawful - Florida Administrative Rules, Law, Code, Register -...

Rule Title: Feeding or Enticement of Alligators or Crocodiles Unlawful Department:. FISH AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION COMMISSION. ... Feeding or Enticement of Alligators or Crocodiles Unlawful. 2598259 Effective:. 05/18/2006 ... for taking and possessing alligators and other reptiles that will ensure conservation of alligator ..... 15507310 1/8/2015. Vol ... for taking and possessing alligators and other reptiles that will ensure conservation of alligator ..... 14003616 1/8/2014. Vol ...
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Shop Boots - Alligator Boots - Crocodile Boots - Caiman & Nile - Tims BootsShop Boots - Alligator Boots - Crocodile Boots - Caiman & Nile - Tim's Boots

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Alligator or Crocodile Swimming Sticker - Car StickersAlligator or Crocodile Swimming Sticker - Car Stickers

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CROCODILE. ALLIGATOR | Kids Stop PressCROCODILE. ALLIGATOR | Kids Stop Press

Difference between a Crocodile & an Alligator. Posted by Mansi Zaveri on July 8, 2011 ...
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Alligators And CrocodilesAlligators And Crocodiles

... are both reptiles from the same order of animals (Crocodylia). But there are many important ...
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Hydraulic Alligator Shears And Crocodile Shears - Henan Tongli Machinery Manufacturing Co.,Ltd - ecplaza.netHydraulic Alligator Shears And Crocodile Shears - Henan Tongli Machinery Manufacturing Co.,Ltd - ecplaza.net

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Alligator & Crocodile Rescue (Book) | Orangeville Public Library | BiblioCommonsAlligator & Crocodile Rescue (Book) | Orangeville Public Library | BiblioCommons

Crocodile Rescue Changing the Future for Endangered Wildlife (Book) : Snyder, Trish : Provides information about crocodilians ...
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Thousands of 14 Kt Gold ALLIGATORS crocodiles, 14 Kt Gold ALLIGATORS crocodiles earrings, 14 Kt Gold ALLIGATORS crocodiles...Thousands of 14 Kt Gold ALLIGATORS crocodiles, 14 Kt Gold ALLIGATORS crocodiles earrings, 14 Kt Gold ALLIGATORS crocodiles...

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Whats the difference between alligators and crocodiles?What's the difference between alligators and crocodiles?

Its not that difficult to tell alligators and crocodiles apart, one will see you later, the other will see you in a while. ... Whats the difference between alligators and crocodiles?. by LOL Zombie · September 20, 2016. ...
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ANIMALS OF PLANET EARTH: ALLIGATORS AND CROCODILESANIMALS OF PLANET EARTH: ALLIGATORS AND CROCODILES

Crocodile Cracks Its Shell. Photograph by Steve Winter. Female crocs lay their eggs in clutches of 20 to 60. After the eggs ...
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  • I had found seeds in crocodiles before, but I had just assumed they were not important - and when I talked with other crocodilian biologists, everyone had the same experience," Platt told LiveScience. (livescience.com)
  • meaning "flesh crocodile") is an extinct genus of crocodyliform and distant relative of living crocodylians that lived 112 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alligator is found primarily in the waters of South America, especially in Brazil and Guyana, it feeds mostly on fish, the upper part of a dark olive green, bottom - green-yellow-white, and on the back of it four indistinct, blackish lateral stripes. (blogspot.com)
  • Meanwhile, a crocodile on the edge of the upper jaw, near the snout has a wrinkle, which includes sticking up fourth tooth of the lower jaw, an alligator that tooth enters into the groove located on the edge of the upper jaw. (blogspot.com)
  • This is a crocodile-shaped tree that has grown from the ground with splashing water shown as blades of grass and a bird that has grown at the top of the tree but is trying to 'get away' from the jaws of the crocodile. (artpal.com)
  • Sarcosuchus was a giant relative of crocodiles, with fully grown individuals estimated to have reached up to 11-12 m (36-39 ft) in total length and 8 tonnes (8.8 short tons) in weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) - The state Senate on Thursday approved a five-year extension allowing the sale of products made with crocodile and alligator skin, which often are used in luxury goods. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Masaya Iijima, a vertebrate paleontologist from Hokkaido University in Japan and lead author on the study, measured more than 120 alligator and crocodile skeletons from nearly a dozen museums across the world. (nytimes.com)
  • The Everglades is the only place in the world where both alligators and crocodiles exist. (usgs.gov)
  • This information could help explain differences in their ecology and locomotion, including the strange fact that, while small crocodiles have been observed to bound and gallop , alligators have not," Julia Molnar an evolutionary biologist from the New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine who was not involved in the study. (nytimes.com)
  • Dr. Iijima said the next steps are to study living alligators and crocodiles in order to determine whether the differences in their limbs correspond to differences in how they move. (nytimes.com)
  • However, a Vanderbilt University study shows that alligators and crocodiles' sense of touch is vastly more sensitive than ours. (conicl.com)
  • It is also helpful for the manipulation of non-food objects in their jaws, such as when carrying their young and may be necessary for female alligators and crocodiles, as part of their parental behavior includes "delicately" breaking open their eggs when they are ready to hatch. (conicl.com)
  • Find out the answers to these questions and many more in this Level 3 Hello Reader Science bookDid you know that a crocodile is usually longer, weighs more, and can outswim alligators? (graysonline.com)
  • Alligator clips are frequently used in school physics laboratories to quickly and cheaply assemble circuits. (walmart.ca)