Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Animals, ZooDinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.TurtlesSkeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.HornsBoidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)WashingtonHinduism: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)ArtPosters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.BooksCrassulaceae: The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.Aloe: A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).FloridaBite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Bites and StingsPacific OceanShoesHeel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Bandages, Hydrocolloid: Dressings comprised of a self-adhesive matrix to which hydrophilic absorbent particles are embedded. The particles consist of CELLULOSE derivatives; calcium ALGINATES; PECTINS; or GELS. The utility is based on providing a moist environment for WOUND HEALING.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Yang Deficiency: In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, a lack of vital energy (called yangxu in Chinese). It manifests itself in various systemic and organic diseases. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979)Yin Deficiency: In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, an insufficiency of body fluid (called yinxu), manifesting often as irritability, thirst, constipation, etc. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979).Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.SicilyTennesseeIntegumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Temperature-dependent sex determination: upregulation of SOX9 expression after commitment to male development. (1/262)

In mammals, birds and reptiles the morphological development of the gonads appear to be conserved. This conservation is evident despite the different sex determining switches employed by these vertebrate groups. Mammals exhibit chromosomal sex determination (CSD) where the key sex determining switch is the Y-linked gene, SRY. Although SRY is the trigger for testis determination in mammals, it is not conserved in other vertebrate groups. However, a gene closely related to SRY, the highly conserved transcription factor, SOX9, plays an important role in the testis pathway of mammals and birds. In contrast to the CSD mechanism evident in mammals and birds, many reptiles exhibit temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) where the egg incubation temperature triggers sex determination. Here we examine the expression of SOX9 during gonadogenesis in the American alligator, (Alligator mississippiensis), a reptile that exhibits TSD. Alligator SOX9 is expressed in the embryonic testis but not in the ovary. However, the timing of SOX9 upregulation in the developing testis is not consistent with a role for this gene in the early stages of alligator sex determination. Since SOX9 upregulation in male embryos coincides with the structural organisation of the testis, SOX9 may operate farther downstream in the vertebrate sex differentiation pathway than previously postulated.  (+info)

The existence of Merkel cells in the lingual connective tissue of the Surinam caiman, Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (order Crocodilia). (2/262)

The tongue of the Surinam caiman (a reptilian species) was studied by light microscopy including immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), and transmission electron microscopy. The connective tissue immediately under taste buds housed a cluster of cells immunoreactive for PGP 9.5. These cells synapsed on nerves, and their cytoplasm contained characteristic granules of 90 nm in the mean diameter, glycogen particles, and bundles of intermediate filaments. In light of these ultrastructural features, they were identified as Merkel cells. The Merkel cells were also surrounded by Schwann cells. These findings indicate that the present Merkel cell-neurite-Schwann cell complex is comparable to the avian Merkel corpuscle. On the basis of the granule localization in the cytoplasm, the caiman Merkel cell was presumed to be involved in not only mechanoreception but also endocrine or paracrine functions.  (+info)

Origin of gene overlap: the case of TCP1 and ACAT2. (3/262)

The human acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 gene, ACAT2, codes for a thiolase, an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. The human T-complex protein 1 gene, TCP1, encodes a molecular chaperone of the chaperonin family. The two genes overlap by their 3'-untranslated regions, their coding sequences being located on opposite DNA strands in a tail-to-tail orientation. To find out how the overlap might have arisen in evolution, the homologous genes of the zebrafish, the African toad, caiman, platypus, opossum, and wallaby were identified. In each species, standard or long polymerase chain reactions were used to determine whether the ACAT2 and TCP1 homologs are closely linked and, if so, whether they overlap. The results reveal that the overlap apparently arose during the transition from therapsid reptiles to mammals and has been retained for >200 million years. Part of the overlapping untranslated region shows remarkable sequence conservation. The overlap presumably arose during the chromosomal rearrangement that brought the two unrelated and previously separated genes together. One or both of the transposed genes found by chance signals that are necessary for the processing of their transcripts to be present on the noncoding strand of the partner gene.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of proteins synthesized de novo and secreted by the reproductive tract of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. (4/262)

The objectives of this study were to identify, characterize and examine differences in proteins synthesized de novo and secreted by different regions of the reproductive tract of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, during three reproductive (vitellogenic, gravid, post-clutch) and one non-reproductive state. After capture, alligators from lakes in north central Florida were anaesthetized, the reproductive tract excised aseptically, the size of any follicle determined, and different functional regions of the tract dissected out and partitioned for explant culture. Analysis of the biosynthetic activity indicated regional variations within the tract, differences among reproductive groups and region by status interactions. When oviductal regions were considered regardless of reproductive status, the greatest incorporation of [3H]Leu into secreted nondialysable macromolecules was by the anterior and posterior infundibulum and oviductal tube compared with the transition zone and the uterus. When status was included, the biosynthetic activity of the anterior and posterior portion of the tract in non-reproductive alligators was not different, whereas that of the posterior region of the reproductive group (vitellogenic, gravid, post-clutch) was significantly lower than that of the anterior region. This finding indicates that regulation of protein synthesis and secretion by the non-reproductive alligator tract is different from that in the tract of the reproductive group. Explant-conditioned media were analysed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Sixteen major proteins in culture media were identified as de novo synthesized, by relative molecular weight, by isoelectric point and by differences in distribution determined for reproductive status and oviductal region. Six proteins were examined by N-terminal amino acid microsequence analysis. On the basis of a 29 amino acid sequence, the major oviductal protein, alligator protein 1 (aP1: M(r) 55,000, basic), found in the infundibulum and tube of vitellogenic alligators, was identical to the major protein isolated from alligator egg albumen. Four proteins (aP4-aP7) were sequenced and shown to be significantly related to immunoglobulin heavy chains from several species. This study demonstrated that a large number of proteins are synthesized de novo and released by the female alligator reproductive tract and that there are biosynthetic activity differences by reproductive status and region. Six proteins have been identified, several of which may be incorporated into alligator egg albumen and some of which appear to be different from proteins found in the egg albumens of other species.  (+info)

What determines the bending strength of compact bone? (5/262)

The bending strength of a wide variety of bony types is shown to be nearly linearly proportional to Young's modulus of elasticity/100. A somewhat closer and more satisfactory fit is obtained if account is taken of the variation of yield strain with Young's modulus. This finding strongly suggests that bending strength is determined by the yield strain. The yield stress in tension, which might be expected to predict the bending strength, underestimates the true bending strength by approximately 40 %. This may be explained by two phenomena. (1) The post-yield deformation of the bone material allows a greater bending moment to be exerted after the yield point has been reached, thereby increasing the strength as calculated from beam formulae. (2) Loading in bending results in a much smaller proportion of the volume of the specimens being raised to high stresses than is the case in tension, and this reduces the likelihood of a weak part of the specimen being loaded to failure.  (+info)

Evolution of the ventricles. (6/262)

We studied the evolution of ventricles by macroscopic examination of the hearts of marine cartilaginous and bony fish, and by angiocardiography and gross examination of the hearts of air-breathing freshwater fish, frogs, turtles, snakes, and crocodiles. A right-sided, thin-walled ventricular lumen is seen in the fish, frog, turtle, and snake. In fish, there is external symmetry of the ventricle, internal asymmetry, and a thick-walled left ventricle with a small inlet chamber. In animals such as frogs, turtles, and snakes, the left ventricle exists as a small-cavitied contractile sponge. The high pressure generated by this spongy left ventricle, the direction of the jet, the ventriculoarterial orientation, and the bulbar spiral valve in the frog help to separate the systemic and pulmonary circulations. In the crocodile, the right aorta is connected to the left ventricle, and there is a complete interventricular septum and an improved left ventricular lumen when compared with turtles and snakes. The heart is housed in a rigid pericardial cavity in the shark, possibly to protect it from changing underwater pressure. The pericardial cavity in various species permits movements of the heart-which vary depending on the ventriculoarterial orientation and need for the ventricle to generate torque or spin on the ejected blood- that favor run-off into the appropriate arteries and their branches. In the lower species, it is not clear whether the spongy myocardium contributes to myocardial oxygenation. In human beings, spongy myocardium constitutes a rare form of congenital heart disease.  (+info)

Reptilian chemistry: characterization of dianeackerone, a secretory product from a crocodile. (7/262)

The major volatile component in the paracloacal glandular secretion of the adult African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) was isolated and characterized as a 19-carbon aromatic ketone, dianeackerone (3,7-diethyl-9-phenyl-2-nonanone). This ketone is absent from the secretion of immatures. Careful examination of dianeackerone samples isolated from individual adults revealed that this ketone occurs as both the (3S, 7S) and (3S, 7R) stereoisomers, with different individuals presenting strikingly different ratios of the isomeric forms. Our initial suspicion that the stereoisomeric dianeackerones might be indicators of gender proved untenable, leaving the role of these glandular constituents a challenge for future study.  (+info)

Reptilian chemistry: characterization of a family of dianeackerone-related steroidal esters from a crocodile secretion. (8/262)

The African dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis (Crocodilidae, Reptilia), possesses a pair of skin glands, the paracloacal glands, the secretion of which is thought to be used to mark nest sites or attract mates. Ten aromatic steroidal esters were isolated from this secretion and characterized on the basis of NMR spectroscopic investigations, electrospray ionization-MS analyses, and chemical degradation. These esters, which account for more than 90% of the paracloacal glandular secretion, are derived from either cholesterol or cholestanol, esterified with a C-20 or C-22 acid closely related to dianeackerone, the only significant volatile compound found in this secretion.  (+info)

Adult male American alligators measure 3.4 to 4.6 m (11.2 to 15.1 ft) in length, and can weigh up to 453 kg (999 lb). Females are smaller, measuring 2.6 to 3 m (8.5 to 9.8 ft) in length. The American alligator inhabits freshwater wetlands, such as marshes and cypress swamps from Texas to southeastern and coastal North Carolina. It is distinguished from the sympatric American crocodile by its broader snout, with overlapping jaws and darker coloration, and is less tolerant of saltwater but more tolerant of cooler climates than the American crocodile, which is found only in tropical climates. American alligators are apex predators and consume fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Hatchlings feed mostly on invertebrates. They play an important role as ecosystem engineers in wetland ecosystems through the creation of alligator holes, which provide both wet and dry habitats for other organisms. Throughout the year, in particular during the breeding season, American alligators bellow to ...
We examined indices of salt gland function both in vivo and in vitro and the ultrastructual morphology of the salt secreting tissue of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus to determine its long-term adaptive capacity and phenotypic plasticity following chronic exposure to hypo- and hyperosmotic environmental conditions. As previously established, salt glands play a pivotal role in the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis in C. porosus living in hyperosmotic conditions. However, little was known about long-term effects of prolonged exposure to hyperosmotic environments on the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis. All haematological values measured in this study for SW-acclimated animals were within the ranges reported for wild-caught C. porosus living in water bodies of varying salinities (Grigg, 1981; Wells et al., 1991), suggesting that SW-acclimated crocodiles were able to successfully maintain osmotic homeostasis despite extended exposure to hyperosmotic conditions. Moreover, extended ...
Floridas fearsome lord of the swamps, the American alligator, ranks sixth in the world in the power of its bite.The strongest bite belongs to the saltwater crocodile, a Pacific ocean species
The saltwater crocodile is most commonly found on the coasts of northern Australia, and the islands of New Guinea and Indonesia. It ranges west as far as the shores of Sri Lanka and eastern India, all
The (maximal) bite force of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is estimated around 22,000 Newton (refer to YouTube interview with Ofer Kobi, a crocodile conservation ranger and croc farm owner, time 7:50-8:00, Hebrew , where he estimates the bite force as above 2 metric tons). However, I didnt find a proper reference for this. Dr. Gregory Erickson measured the bite forces of a 5.2 meters long Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and obtained a value of about 16,000+ Newton and estimated a 6.7 meters long Saltwater Crocodile can exert a bite twice as strong (about 34,000 Newton). See Paper by Gregory Erickson et al. Interesting to note that Erickson measured small Nile Crocodile (total body length , 3 meters) so it does not represent the bite force of a full adult big crocodile.. Remarks on units of force:. 1 Newton = 1 kg * 1 meter / sec^2. $1 \ \mathrm{Newton} = \frac{\mathrm{kg} \times \mathrm{meter}}{\mathrm{second}^2}$. 1 Newton = 0.224808943 lbf = 0.225 lbf (pound-force). 10,000 ...
Alligators experience large but variable increases in LES pressure during bouts of ventilation compared with apnea. The increase in pressure generally ranged from 200% to 3000%. However, on rare occasions, no pressure increase was seen coincident with ventilation. Fluctuations in LES pressure during apnea and ventilation have also been observed in anesthetized piglets (Kiatchoosakun et al., 2002). Kiatchoosakun et al. (2002) used hypoxia to stimulate respiratory rate and found a peak increase in LES pressure of 49% (from a baseline of 0.65±0.09kPa to 1.0±0.12kPa). This increase in LES pressure was blocked by atropine, indicating cholinergic control of LES tone. A decline in LES pressure accompanied the development of apnea during a subsequent hyperoxic exposure. These authors suggest that a loss of respiratory neural output might contribute to the loss of LES tone. A cholinergic-dependent neuromuscular control of the LES is also observed in humans. Thus, the changes in pressure observed within ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
To explore CR1 distribution in C. porosus, macroarrays were screened with CR1b-derived overgos or a combination of CR1a and CR1b overgos. Comparison of the CR1b- and CR1a/b-probed macroarrays revealed that the CR1a and CR1b subfamilies are not distinguishable in our assay, i.e., virtually no differences in hybridization pattern and intensity were observed when comparing the CR1b and CR1a/CR1b filters (data not shown). It was clear, however, that elements similar to CR1a and b are fairly abundant in C. porosus. Examination of one-quarter of the CR1a/b-probed macroarray (Figure 3A) indicates that 8.9% of clones show hybridization to the CR1a/b overgos while CR1b overgo hybridization to a filter stamped with the contents of a single 384-well plate from the BAC library suggests that 12.8% of clones (49 of 384) are positive for the CR1b overgo (Figure 4). Densitometric analysis of the macroarray reveals that there is a six-fold variation in positive clone hybridization intensity. If the lightest, but ...
Define Archosauria. Archosauria synonyms, Archosauria pronunciation, Archosauria translation, English dictionary definition of Archosauria. Noun 1. Archosauria - a large subclass of diapsid reptiles including: crocodiles; alligators; dinosaurs; pterosaurs; plesiosaurs; ichthyosaurs; thecodonts...
American Alligator - Beware of this fast swimmer and powerful biter in the Southeast rivers and fresh waters. It can grow to be 14 ft or perhaps more!
Seems like nothing is more fascinating to a second grader than crocodiles and other semi-monsters. Usually, kids wonder about the difference between alligators and crocodiles. This book, part of the "Which Animal is Which?" series, gives definitive answers for that difference in a way that second graders can understand.. Alligators live in fresh water. Crocodiles can live in salt water. The reptiles snouts are shaped differently. Alligators have a wider jaw and are a darker color. Only a few of an alligators top teeth show when its mouth is closed. Crocodiles show most of their teeth with their mouths closed. Alligator mothers make mounds for their eggs. Crocodile mothers dig holes. Alligator mothers stay with the babies for up to a year. Crocodiles leave the young once they reach the water. All these ideas are easily accessible and memorable for kids.. The photographs included provide wonderful illustrations of the concepts discussed. Who can resist the smile of a crocodile? And its amazing ...
A crocodile farm or alligator farm is an establishment for breeding and raising of crocodilians in order to produce crocodile and alligator meat, leather, and other goods. Many species of both alligators and crocodiles are farmed internationally. In Louisiana alone, alligator farming is a $60 to $70 million industry. Though not truly domesticated, alligators and crocodiles have been bred in farms since at least the early 20th century. Most of these early businesses, such as St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, established in 1893, were farms in name only, primarily keeping alligators and crocodiles as a tourist attraction. Only in the 1960s did commercial operations that either harvested eggs from the wild or bred alligators on-site begin to appear. This was largely driven by diminishing stocks of wild alligators, which had been hunted nearly to extinction by that time. As the American alligator was placed under official protection in 1967 (under a law preceding the 1973 Endangered ...
An accurate count of annual crocodile attacks on humans is difficult to obtain. Many of the areas in which humans and large crocodiles come into contact are remote, impoverished, or in areas of political unrest. Crocodile attacks are not always reported to local authorities, and some reports are difficult to verify. Nevertheless, some information does exist: for example, it was reported by CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe that in the first ten months of the year in 2005 crocodiles were the number one cause of death in humans where wildlife was involved - with the number of deaths cited as 13. Unlike other "man-eating" crocodiles, such as the saltwater crocodile, the Nile crocodile lives in proximity to human populations, so contact is more frequent. Although most attacks are not reported, the Nile crocodile is estimated to kill hundreds (possibly thousands) of people each year, which is more than all other crocodilian species combined.[2][3] One study posited the number of attacks by Nile crocodiles per ...
Over their monthlong expedition, photographer Trevor Frost and filmmaker Melissa Lesh set out to capture photos and videos of saltwater crocodiles that no one has seen before- the dinners-eye view. They had nine successful deployments, which captured what is likely the first videos ever of a saltwater crocodile attack from the inside of its mouth.When Frost first went to Australia a few years ago, he was shocked to find out that there are still crocodile hunters. He became fascinated with the subculture surrounding saltwater crocodiles, the largest living reptile. Saltwater crocodiles grow to about 20 feet in length and can weigh over 2,200 pounds. And if that doesnt seem like danger enough for a hunter, saltwater crocs have the strongest recorded bite force of any animal on the planet-anywhere between 3,000 and 5,000 pounds per square inch. That kind of force can easily crush a human skull. There were only an estimated 3,000 saltwater crocs left in Australia by 1970, but now some scientists say there
Over their monthlong expedition, photographer Trevor Frost and filmmaker Melissa Lesh set out to capture photos and videos of saltwater crocodiles that no one has seen before- the dinners-eye view. They had nine successful deployments, which captured what is likely the first videos ever of a saltwater crocodile attack from the inside of its mouth.When Frost first went to Australia a few years ago, he was shocked to find out that there are still crocodile hunters. He became fascinated with the subculture surrounding saltwater crocodiles, the largest living reptile. Saltwater crocodiles grow to about 20 feet in length and can weigh over 2,200 pounds. And if that doesnt seem like danger enough for a hunter, saltwater crocs have the strongest recorded bite force of any animal on the planet-anywhere between 3,000 and 5,000 pounds per square inch. That kind of force can easily crush a human skull. There were only an estimated 3,000 saltwater crocs left in Australia by 1970, but now some scientists say there
Using our CAMP discovery process and only 100 μl of alligator plasma, we have previously identified five novel antimicrobial peptides from A. mississippiensis that exhibit antibacterial activity [8]. Our bioprospecting-based process provides a unique access to the antimicrobial peptidome, and is a significant advance in the effort to identify novel antimicrobial peptides in nature. In this study, we present detailed characterization of the structure and function of three alligator plasma-derived peptides: Apo5, Apo6, and A1P. We demonstrated that Apo5, Apo6, and A1P are potent antimicrobial peptides that extend their efficacy against multi-drug resistant and clinically relevant pathogens, such as A. baumannii. The two peptides Apo5 and Apo6 are both derived from a predicted apolipoprotein C-1 in A. mississippiensis. Apolipoproteins bind lipids; apolipoprotein C-1 in particular is known to bind phospholipids and is a marker of apoptosis [11, 12, 43, 44]. Apo6 is a smaller derivative of Apo5; ...
The name alligator comes from the Portuguese word lagarto (lat. Lacerta, t. E. A lizard) and commonly used in South America from the British and Dutch colonists, as well as in North America; The name of this animal caiman give negros Guiana and French colonists. True alligators come from Australia. They are named in honor of the Alligator River. Chinese and American alligators belong to the family of crocodiles and bear the name of a completely undeserved. Crocodiles are in the language of the salt gland. If they swallow too much salt water, excess salts are recovered through them into the environment ...
Background Crocodilians (Order Crocodylia) are an ancient vertebrate group of tremendous ecological, social, and evolutionary importance. They are the only extant reptilian members of Archosauria, a monophyletic group that also includes birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs. Consequently, crocodilian genomes represent a gateway through which the molecular evolution of avian lineages can be explored. To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. This is the first BAC library for a crocodile and only the second BAC resource for a crocodilian. Results The C. porosus BAC library consists of 101,760 individually archived clones stored in 384-well microtiter plates. Not I digestion of random clones indicates an average insert size of 102 kb. Based on a genome size estimate of 2778 Mb, the library affords 3.7 fold (3.7×) coverage of
Ecology. Habitat. Fresh Water swamps and waterways only.. Distribution. Diet. Carnivorous, Fish, snakes, frogs, turtles, birds, and mammals.. Ecological Web. Activity and Behavior. Activity Pattern. Alligators are active durring the day and at night, this is considered cathemeral. Durring the day alligators thermoregulate and bask in the sun. Alligators hunt and feed primarily at night.. Behavior. Social Behavior. Young alligators stay near their hatchling site and form a tight social group. This behavior aids in survival and protection from predators. As adults, alligators do have loose social contact. Reproductive Behavior. Offspring. Between 30-50 eggs are laid in a ground litter nest for their incubation period. The eggs are then covered so that the temperature can rise. Warmer temperatures produce males, cooler temperatures produce females.. Conservation. Status. Historical. Current Threats. Our Role. ...
Posted on 05/18/2013 2:08:28 PM PDT by LibWhacker. An international team of scientists led by Prof Cheng-Ming Chuong from the University of Southern California has discovered unique cellular and molecular mechanisms behind tooth renewal in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).. Their findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pave the way for tooth regeneration in people. Humans naturally only have two sets of teeth baby teeth and adult teeth. Ultimately, we want to identify stem cells that can be used as a resource to stimulate tooth renewal in adult humans who have lost teeth. But, to do that, we must first understand how they renew in other animals and why they stop in people, Prof Chuong said. Whereas most vertebrates can replace teeth throughout their lives, human teeth are naturally replaced only once, despite the lingering presence of a band of epithelial tissue called the dental lamina, which is crucial to tooth development. Because alligators ...
ID A0A151MF56_ALLMI Unreviewed; 2363 AA. AC A0A151MF56; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 11. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0005596 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA Burgess S.C., Cooksey A.M., Castoe T.A., Crawford N.G., ...
ID A0A151M8E8_ALLMI Unreviewed; 1151 AA. AC A0A151M8E8; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 5. DE SubName: Full=Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6 isoform B {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; GN Name=TRPM6 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0012636 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA ...
Yesterday a new study was released in the journal of Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. Researchers from the University of Utah, studied the effects of the well documented right-to-left shunt in crocodylians.Okay, lets get the exposition out of the way first.. Mammals and birds are both characterized by a 4 chambered heart. This heart allows the complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood streams. Less publicized, but equally as important, this separation also allows for a pressure differential to exist between the two ventricular chambers. That way the right - pulmonary side - of the heart can pump deoxygenated blood at low pressure to the delicate walls of the alveoli in the lungs, while the left - systemic side - of the heart, can pump oxygenated blood at much higher pressure (~7 times higher) to the entire body.. Reptiles and amphibians differ from mammals and birds, in that they have a heart divided into 3 chambers (two atria, one ventricle). This allows for mixing of ...
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China Crocodile Clip Clamps Mini Alligator 10/25/30AMP 35/50mm Alligator Clip, Find details about China Alligator Clip, Clamps from Crocodile Clip Clamps Mini Alligator 10/25/30AMP 35/50mm Alligator Clip - DELSON(Ningbo) Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd.
General Information: Alligators do not truely hibernate, but they do undergo periods of dormancy in cold weather. They are known to search out caves in the banks of waterways and use them as dens. Females usually have a small range, while males occupy areas of greater than two miles. Both sexes become more active and extend their territory during the breeding months of April and May.. Special Anatomical, Physiological, or Behavioral Adaptations: Modern Alligators have many adaptations that make them well suited to their wetland envirnment. Their eyes, ears, and nose are positioned to peek out just above the waterline so they can locate prey without being easily identified. Their eyes and nostrils close by reflex when the animal goes underwater, and they have a transparent third eyelid, or nictitating membrane, that covers the eye as the animal moves through the water.. Reproduction: Sexual maturity is based upon the size of the Alligator. Both sexes are usually considered mature when they reach ...
Mycoplasma alligatoris is a species of bacteria in the Mycoplasma genus. It is classified in the Bacteria domain, Firmicutes phylum, Mollicutes class, Mycoplasma order, and Mycoplasmataceae family. Many organisms of the Mycoplasma genus are known pathogens in humans and animal species. Mycoplasma alligatoris is known to elicit a fatal disease with inflammatory characteristics that can cause rapid death of alligators and caimans. Mycoplasma alligatoris was first isolated in a study led by D. R. Brown of six captive alligators showing signs of pneumonia, polyserositis (inflammation of serous membranes), and multifocal arthritis. The isolates were obtained from various organs, blood, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid and subject to various experimental tests for identification purposes. Primary isolates were cultured in ATCC medium 98 agar containing 105 U penicillin G 1−1, 10 5 U polymyin B 1 −1, 65 mg cefoperazone 1 −1 and 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum in 5% CO2 atmosphere or in ...
Average weight: between 600 and 2,000 pounds., Nile crocs are characterized by their lizard-shaped bodies and scaly hides., Coloring: ranges from drab green or brownish to a blackish tone on the dorsa
Snap!: A Book about Alligators and Crocodiles. Melvin Berger. Publisher: ScholasticFormat: Paperback. What is the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? How are they born? Find out the answers to these questions and many more in this Level 3 Hello Reader Science bookDid you know that a crocodile is usually longer, weighs more, and can outswim alligators? Children will learn all about these aquatic creatures-everything from where they live, what they eat, and how they survive-in this non-fiction easy reader.Renowned authors Melvin and Gilda Berger have created yet another fascinating science book. With simple, accessible text and brilliant photographs, SNAP A BOOK ABOUT ALLIGATORS AND CROCODILES is sure to be a big hit with parents and teachers alike. GST Note: GST is included in the price of this item. GST is included in the freight.. ...
Quietly sneak upon this Crocodile. I was about 30 yards away and ending up closer to just about 15 feet. I had to walk behind trees of course and when as i got closer it notice me and open its jaws. So what you think? gaping or lunch. After all, one jump and it swam away. …
Come see alligators on display with your kids at the Key West Aquarium. Year after year the Aquarium is rated as one of the top Key West Florida Attractions.
A resemblance between a long-lost African crocodile and modern American crocs goes beyond the shared bump on their snouts. New analyses of a roughly 7-million-year old skull from the extinct Crocodylus checchiai suggest that crocodiles journeyed from Africa to the Americas millions of years ago, researchers report July 23 in Scientific Reports. Unearthed in the 1930s, the fossil came from whats now Libya and sat for decades in a museum. With CT scanning, scientists have now mapped the skulls structure, revealing hidden anatomical features that tie the animal closely to the four species of American crocodiles alive today.. "It really looks like an American true crocodile, but it comes from Africa," says Massimo Delfino, a paleoherpetologist at the University of Turin in Italy.. Genetic analyses had already linked the Nile crocodile with its American kin. Though scientists suspected that crocs long ago colonized one of the locales before journeying to the other, the fossil record hadnt painted ...
In the spirit of Halloween, find out which scary animals are most likely to give us the heebie-jeebies and what you should do if you encounter your worst animal nightmare.
This new knowledge could assist in the conservation and breeding strategy of Australian freshwater and saltwater crocodiles.. Dr Jaime Gongora, research project leader from the University of Sydneys Faculty of Veterinary Science said "Alligators and crocodiles occupy an evolutionary mid-point between mammals and birds so they provide a unique link. Our research helps address fundamental questions about how evolution drives and maintains genetic diversity of the immune genes.. "The study looked at the diversity and evolutionary mechanisms of two primary gene classes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), key components of the immune system. The study investigated 20 species of crocodilians including the two Australian crocodile species; freshwater and saltwater crocodiles.. "This research helps to close a gap in our knowledge of immune gene evolution particularly since the crocodilian families (crocodiles and alligators) diverged from a common ancestor 90 million years ago.". The MHC is ...
Found Hermes Kelly 28 Black Porosus Crocodile on MALLERIES - Vintage Hermes Kelly 35 Black Crocodile Leather Gold Hardware Sta, Chanel Vintage Crocodile Shoulder Bag, Chanel Vintage Crocodile Shoulder Tote and more.
Alligator Coloring Sheet - Crocodile Coloring Pages. elephant coloring pages. crocodile colour in pictures. panda coloring pages. pictures of crocodiles to colour in. coloring pages of animals.
In November, two American alligators were flown from the Poconos to Wisconsin to undergo surgery. The story took a sad turn Tuesday morning when one of the alligators died unexpectedly. The alligators had been recovering in their own personalized enclosures built in the basement of the veterinary hospital.
On Friday, October 25, I completed the aerial challenge course at the Alligator Farm in St Augustine, Florida! It took me about an hour and half as I walked across swinging elements and bridges. There were several ziplines, also. Underneath me were a lot of alligators...I must say that was very interesting. I also saw lemurs and several species of birds. There were many different species of alligators and crocodiles. I met Scott Brown the manager of the course. I got a workout, but it was an enjoyable workout! - at Alligator Farm. ...
Where Pv is the new percentage value, Iv is the initial value on the specific day and D0 represents the value on Day 0. Data were log transformed (log10[x+1]) and analysis of variance (IBM SPSS Statistics 19) was used to compare results from the different groups. Non-parametric, bivariate correlation (Spearmans rho) analyses (IBM SPSS Statistics 19) were conducted in order to determine relationships between biochemical parameters and infection dose.. Results. Blood glucose. The mean concentration of blood glucose for the three experimental groups is shown in Table 2. In the high-infection and medium-infection groups, initial peaks in blood glucose values were observed on Day 14 PI and Day 7 PI, respectively. This was followed by a slight decrease the following week. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in blood glucose concentrations on Day 28 PI between the high-infection and low-infection groups and between the medium-infection and low-infection groups (p , 0.05). No ...
Discussion. Crocodilians differ from other egg laying archosaurs (dinosaurs and birds) in that they lack medullary bone in the endosteal cavities of the long bones (Schweitzer et al. 2007). The epiphyses of the long bones in crocodiles therefore often appear eroded as more of the remodelling seems to take place on the outside of the bone, as seen in the cases described. Therefore, a certain degree of erosion may have to be considered normal.. In early stages of osteoarthropathy, the periosteal surface of the epiphyses alone appears to be affected and shows deep longitudinal furrows up to and undermining the articular surfaces. In advanced stages, there is collapse of the articular surface, which, in turn, can stimulate an inflammatory reaction in the form of osteoarthritis.. The cases described here originated from routine post-mortem examinations and are therefore random findings without any particular geographical or epidemiological pattern. The wild specimens came from the Limpopo province ...
Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the ...
The Cayman branch, which has no local staff or customers, is operated from Mexico by HSBC subsidiary HBMX. Its services are not related to HSBC Premier, the retail arm of HSBC in the Cayman Islands. HSBC had acquired the Cayman branch through its purchase of Mexican bank Bital in November 2002, which in turn had received authorisation from Cayman banking regulators in 1980 to offer Cayman US dollar accounts to its customers. At its peak in 2008, HBMX maintained over 60,000 accounts with assets of $2.1 billion in its Cayman branch. Any HMBX branch across Mexico had the authority to open a Cayman account for clients. HBMX offered US dollar services through its correspondent account with HSBC in the US. The report said it had no evidence that HSBC US was ever informed of the use of the correspondent account in this way. The accounts allowed HSBC in Mexico to circumvent local regulations which prohibit Mexican residents from maintaining US dollar accounts in Mexico. The Subcommittee report, which ...
Of course Im just having a bit of fun. None of those possibilities are true, youll be pleased to hear. Actually, its been known for a long time that crocodilians (or crocodylians if you want to be pedantic) can climb out of the water onto floating logs and low branches. We didnt publish a paper to point this out, but rather we wanted to explore how widespread this was, and look into the reasons why crocodiles might do this, and even allow us to speculate on how extinct crocodyliforms may have behaved. After all, if you look at a modern crocodile and think theres no way it could climb a tree, youre not going to assume a fossil crocodyliform with a similar morphology is going to be able to do it either. Well, heres a cool thing, some modern species can climb trees, and they can do so remarkably well, often getting several metres off the ground up relatively steep trunks and branches. The modern crocodilian limb is more adaptable than you might have thought ...
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Two delicious tales for newly independent readers. Crocodile and Alligator are playing jungle hide-and-seek. But will their long, floppy tails give the game away? Next, Crocodile is trying to bake a lovely cake, but Alligator isnt helping much - he drops the flour, smashes the sugar bowl, and tries to juggle the eggs! This fabulous read-alone treat from a popular series bridges the gap between picture books and chapter books. With glowing colour illustrations and an audio CD to read along to, its a really satisfying story for little learners to devour!
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We use two names for the freshwater crocodile - "kumoken" and "modjarrki". Kumoken is the long nosed crocodile, different from the short nosed kinga (saltwater crocodile). They dont bite people. We see them in many places, usually open areas rather than dense forest. They are seen in flowing water, and high in the stone country. We see them lying in the sun on logs, on the sand, on rocks or on the banks of creeks or rivers. They eat small prey such as rats, fish, prawns, frogs. In the past the old people used to catch and eat kumoken and cook them in a ground oven and also they would eat the eggs. Kumoken lays its eggs high on the bank in the sand, and buries them, in the same way that the sea turtle, which lays its eggs and buries them in the sand high on the beach.. Kumoken lays about 20 eggs in "Kurrung", the hot dry time of the year.Kumuken ngarringeybun bokenh kunngey, birribuyika kabirri-ngeybun modjarrkki, kumoken - nakka kebyahwurd - minj kinga. Nakka kebdjumbung. Kumoken minj kanbaye - ...
Alligators often engage in violent fights over territories and mates, and scientists have puzzled over why their wounds rarely get infected. Now researchers think the secret lies in the reptiles blood. Chemists in Louisiana found that blood from the American alligator can successfully destroy 23 strains of bacteria, including strains known to be resistant to antibiotics. In addition, the blood was able to deplete and destroy a significant amount of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.. Study co-author Lancia Darville at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge believes that peptides-fragments of proteins-within alligator blood help the animals stave off fatal infections. Such peptides are also found in the skin of frogs and toads, as well as in Komodo dragons and crocodiles. The scientists think that these peptides could one day lead to medicines that would provide humans with the same antibiotic protection.. "We are in the process of separating and identifying the specific peptides in alligator ...
Freshwater Crocodiles can be found throughout the coastal and inland regions of northern Australia, from Western Australia to Queensland.. They are usually found upstream in rivers but can tolerate some saltwater. Their main habitats include wetlands, rivers, creeks and swamps, and they do not mind still water, fast flowing, muddy, shallow or deep water.. At the end of the wet season freshwater crocodiles usually move to more permanent water.. Mating occurs in the dry season during July, and nesting occurs over a two or three week period during August.. Freshwater crocodiles dig hole nests in sandy river banks. As the eggs are close to the ground water table, they are more susceptible to flooding at the start of the wet season.. Females tend to return to the same nesting sites year after year.. The female crocodile is not a good defender of her eggs. Almost 80% of nests are destroyed by predators such as monitor lizards and pigs.. The average size of the clutch is around 13 eggs. The largest ...
Penny, Malcolm (1991-01-01). Alligators and Crocodiles. Crescent Books. ISBN 978-0-517-07012-3. Hunter, L. (2011). Carnivores ... But the habitat of gaurs and saltwater crocodiles seldom overlaps in recent times due to the decreasing range of both species, ... Guggisberg, C. A. W. (1972). Crocodiles. Their Natural History, Folklore and Conservation: David and Charles (Publishers) ... and a crocodile needs to be a grown adult (more than 3.7 m and 300 kg) to make a successful attack on healthy bulls. Tigers ...
1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 48-51. ISBN 978-1-85391-092-0. Robertshaw, David (2006). "Mechanisms for the ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Nuwer, Rachel (13 May 2013). "Solving an alligator mystery may help humans ...
Lang, J.W. "Sex Determination."Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr. Facts on File, New York. 1989. 120. ... Crocodile Specialist Group (1996). "Caiman latirostris". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T46585A11062418 ...
1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. p. 220. ISBN 9781853910920. Britton, Adam. "Captive care". Crocodilian.com. Retrieved ... 1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 62, 119. ISBN 9781853910920. Choi, H. (2004). "Paleosuchus palpebrosus: Dwarf ... Alligator) palpebrosus (Merrem, 1820), Jacaretinga moschifer (Spix, 1825), Champsa palpebrosa (Wagler, 1830), Alligator ... Crocodile Specialist Group (1996). "Paleosuchus palpebrosus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e. ...
Ross, Charles A. (ed.) (1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 62, 121-124. ISBN 9781853910920. CS1 maint: Extra text: ... Crocodile Specialist Group 1996. Paleosuchus trigonatus 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species., IUCN Downloaded on 29 July ... The genus name Paleosuchus is derived from the Greek palaios meaning "ancient" and soukhos meaning "crocodile". This refers to ... the belief that this crocodile comes from an ancient lineage that diverged from other species of caimans some 30 million years ...
Crocodiles and Alligators of the World. Facts on File, Inc. 1998. 131-135. Ross, C.A. and Magnusson, W. E. "Living Crocodilians ... Magnusson, W.E. Vliet, K.A. Pooley, A.C. and Whitaker, R. "Reproduction." Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr ... Lang, J.W. "Sex Determination."Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr. Facts on File, New York. 1989. 120. Life ... "Crocodiles and Alligators. Ross, C.A. Garnett, S. Dr. Facts on File, New York. 1989.58-73. ...
Xing, J.H. (2010). Chinese Alligator Alligator sinensis. Pp. 5-9 in: Manolis, S.C., and Stevenson, C., eds. (2010). Crocodiles ... This is the only other place besides the United States that is native to an alligator and paddlefish species. In 2010, the ... IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin. "The Chinese river dolphin was functionally extinct". baiji.org. 2006-12-13. ... Other animals facing immediate threat of extinction are the Baiji Dolphin, finless porpoise and the Yangtze Alligator. These ...
1989). Crocodiles and Alligators. Checkmark Books. ISBN 978-0-8160-2174-1. Anonymous. "Proposal for Inclusion of Species on the ... Additionally, crocodiles, especially Nile crocodiles in Africa, readily kill and eat swimming pelicans. Since 1998, the great ...
King, F. W. (1989). "Conservation and management". In Ross, C. A.; Garnett, S. Crocodiles and alligators. New York: Checkmark ... "Florida's alligator management program, an update - 1987-1995". Proceedings of the thirteenth working meeting of crocodile ... In that year, a printer made a spur-of-the-moment decision to print an alligator emblem on a shipment of the schools football ... The American Alligator to be designated as the Mississippi State Reptile; provide...02/21 Approved by Governor "State symbols ...
Grenard, S. (1991). Handbook of Alligators and Crocodiles. Malabar, Florida: Kreiger. Choi, C. Q. (2014-05-04). "Spinning ... A common method to estimate the size of crocodiles and crocodile-like reptiles is the use of the length of the skull measured ... 20 (1). Woodward, A. R.; White, J. H.; Linda, S. B. (1995). "Maximum size of the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)". J. ... the clade containing living crocodiles, alligators and gharials). Within this group it is most closely related to the North ...
1992). Crocodiles and Alligators. Blitz. pp. 48-51. ISBN 978-1-85391-092-0. .. ... "Solving an alligator mystery may help humans regrow lost teeth". Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 4 November 2013 ...
Unlike the far-more dangerous saltwater and Nile crocodiles, the majority of alligators avoid contact with humans if possible, ... Crocodiles[edit]. Main article: Crocodile attack. Crocodile attacks on people are common in places where crocodiles are native ... "Body of boy snatched by gator found in Disney lagoon".. *^ "'Aggressive' Gator Kills Burglary Suspect - AOL News". 16 November ... Alligators[edit]. Main article: List of fatal alligator attacks in the United States by decade ...
Alligators and crocodiles also have gizzards. All birds have gizzards. The gizzards of emus, turkeys, chickens and ducks are ... crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans. This ...
Alderton, D. (1991). Crocodiles and Alligators of the World. New York: Facts on File Publications. Media related to Paleosuchus ...
Nicolae Sfetcu (13 May 2014). Reptiles: Crocodiles, Alligators, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles. Nicolae Sfetcu. pp. 114-. GGKEY: ...
In general, crocodiles tend to be more dangerous to humans than alligators. Another recently discovered trait is that of both ... Alligator mefferdi American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis † Alligator olseni † Alligator prenasalis Chinese alligator, ... Alligators differ from crocodiles principally in having wider and shorter heads, with more obtuse snouts; in having the fourth ... Caimans tend to be more agile and crocodile-like in their movements, and have longer, sharper teeth than alligators. C. ...
Crocodiles and Alligators. Sydney: Surrey Beatty and Sons. pp. 273−294.. *^ a b c Lang, J. W. & Kumar, P. (2013). "Behavioral ... In Crocodile Specialist Group (ed.). Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 24th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group in ... In Crocodile Specialist Group (ed.). Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 24th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group in ... In Crocodile Specialist Group (ed.). Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 24th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group ...
"Crocodiles and Alligator Farms". Americana Alligator. Retrieved 7 November 2013. "Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge". Louisiana ... Much research is undertaken into marshland management and alligator ranching, and the income from the sale of alligators ... In the 1960s, the commission used these funds for a pioneering program of alligator management with the whole area becoming, in ... Fur-bearing mammals, waterfowl and alligators could be cropped on a sustainable basis and these and the oil available ...
1806-1807 Crocodile (1806) - broken up 1816. Daphne (1806) - sold 1816. Cossack (1806) - broken up 1816. Cyane (1806) - ... Alligator (1821) - sold 1865. Termagant (1822) - renamed Herald 1824, sold 1862. Samarang (1822) - sold 1883. Andromeda (-) - ... Crocodile (1825) - sold 1861. Alarm (-) - re-ordered as Conway class vessel Daphne (-) - cancelled 1832 Porcupine (-) - ... Crocodile (1781) - wrecked 1784. Siren (1779) - wrecked 1781. Pandora (1779) - wrecked 1791. Champion (1779) - sold 1816. ...
"Oldest captive crocodile dies". The Nation. March 9, 1997. Retrieved July 30, 2010. St. Augustine Alligator Farm. ... By then, he was a very old crocodile, and one of the largest and tamest captive crocodiles in existence. When he died, he was ... crocodile and was the favorite of the alligator farm and people around the nation. After many years, Gomek died of heart ... Augustine Alligator Farm - and probably between 60 and 80 years old. There is a tribute to Gomek near his enclosure, which now ...
The stakes were a suitcase he had seen in a Boston store; it was made of crocodile (or alligator) skin. Later, René Lacoste's ... which had a crocodile (often thought to be an alligator) embroidered on the chest. In 1963 his son Bernard took over the ... He was nicknamed "the Crocodile" because of how he dealt with his opponents ; he is also known worldwide as the creator of the ... Robin Finn (14 October 1996). "Rene Lacoste Dies at 92; Gave Fashion the Alligator". The New York Times. "Davis Cup - 1927 ...
... crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators), 25 species; and Aves (birds), 10,000 species. Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates ... Crocodile leather is made into wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes. Crocodile oil has been used for ... A crocodile needs from a tenth to a fifth of the food necessary for a lion of the same weight and can live half a year without ... Salt water crocodiles also use gastroliths as ballast, stabilizing them in the water or helping them to dive. A dual function ...
Alligators and Crocodiles) • American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) Testudines (Turtles) • Western painted turtle ( ...
He also wrestles crocodiles and alligators for a living. (Ep.12, 13, 16/Joins the team full-time in Season 2) Note: Crew ...
It is absent in the snakes, alligators, and crocodiles. Many turtles, tortoises, and lizards have proportionally very large ...
It is absent in the snakes, alligators, and crocodiles.[96]. Many turtles, tortoises, and lizards have proportionally very ... Crocodile leather is made into wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes. Crocodile oil has been used for ... crocodiles, gharials, caimans, and alligators), 24 species;[5] and Aves (birds), approximately 10,000 species.[7] ... Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, and are farmed commercially. Their hides are tanned and used to make ...
... the American alligator, ranks sixth in the world in the power of its bite.The strongest bite belongs to the saltwater crocodile ... and the American alligator was 13 feet. He said the immense power exerted by all alligators and crocodiles allows them to crush ... whose team strapped down 83 alligators and crocodiles and placed measuring devices between their teeth. ... The American alligator bit with a force of 2,980 pounds. Although this ranked fifth among the species tested, Erickson said it ...
The saltwater crocodile is most commonly found on the coasts of northern Australia, and the islands of New Guinea and Indonesia ... American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis). A member of the crocodile family, alligators are living fossils that can be ... Location: Crocodiles & Alligators. Tags: crocodile / reptile / crocodilia / crocodylidae / australia / new guinea / indonesia ... Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin. Crocodile Hunter: Most Embarrassing Moments. Cobra Bite. Funny Cats movies. ...
Lingual salt glands in Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus johnstoni and their absence from Alligator mississipiensis and Caiman ... Crocodiles (N=4 per treatment) were euthanased and salt glands dissected out as described previously. Small pieces (circa 2 mm2 ... Taplin, L. E. and Grigg, G. C. (1981). Salt glands in the tongue of the estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus.Science 212,1045 ... A basking area was supplied with a standard 40 W globe, turned on daily from 09:00 h until 16:00 h. The crocodiles were fed ad ...
... alligators and crocodiles sometimes eat fruit, a new study finds. The animals may play a key role in dispersing seeds in ... Crikey! Crocodiles and Alligators Snack on Fruit. By Charles Q. Choi 27 August 2013. ... Crocodiles and alligators are infamous carnivores, but it turns out they do not live on meat alone - scientists have ... Alligators vs. Crocodiles: Photos Reveal Whos Who]. Although, at times, the reptiles ate the fruit accidentally - for instance ...
The most obvious way to tell a crocodile, left, from an alligator, is from their snouts: Those of alligators are wider and ... When an alligator closes its mouth, you tend to see only its upper teeth. Crocodiles on the other hand flash a toothy grin with ... Alligators have U-shaped faces that are wide and short, while crocodiles have slender almost V-shaped muzzles. And if youre ... How do you tell an alligator from a crocodile? And no, dad joke enthusiasts, the answer isnt that you see one later and the ...
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The state Senate on Thursday approved a five-year extension allowing the sale of products made with crocodile and alligator ... The Humane Society of the United States opposed the bill, saying that all 23 species of large crocodiles and alligators have ... California banned importation of products made from alligators and crocodiles for commercial use, but lawmakers passed a ... The state Senate on Thursday approved a five-year extension allowing the sale of products made with crocodile and alligator ...
ALLIGATOR 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization, films, ... Crocodile alligator photorealistic aligator animal real realistic reptile 3d model maya xsi c4d lightwave obj morelli russi ... Crocodile - Alligator 3D model. Smoothable polygonal model. Very good topology. High resolution texture ...
science inferring synthesizing venn reading animal crocodile alligator elementary short answer making connections ... A two page reading comp comparing and contrasting alligators and crocodiles with vocabulary exercise, short response questions ...
Explore our collection of Alligators And Crocodiles / Vintage-Advertisements fine art prints, giclees, posters and hand crafted ... Alligators And Crocodiles / Vintage-Advertisements Art Prints. ...
Yet all blood plasma samples drawn from 125 American alligators across 12 sites in Florida and South Carolina contained at ... American alligators and South African crocodiles populate waterways a third of the globe apart, and yet both have detectable ... least six of the 15 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) that were tracked in the alligator study. ... Perfluorinated compounds found in African crocodiles, American alligators. American alligators and South African crocodiles ...
What is the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? How are they born? Find out the answers to these questions and ... Snap!: A Book about Alligators & Crocodiles. Buy Now orders cannot be placed without a valid Australian shipping address. ... With simple, accessible text and brilliant photographs, SNAP A BOOK ABOUT ALLIGATORS AND CROCODILES is sure to be a big hit ... and can outswim alligators? Children will learn all about these aquatic creatures-everything from where they live, what they ...
... the salt water crocodile and the Indian gharial to help researchers from multiple institutions determine the ancestral patterns ... University of Delaware doctoral student Colin Kern has been annotating the genome of the American alligator, ... UD doctoral student Colin Kern has been annotating the genome of the American alligator, the salt water crocodile and the ... For example, Kern said, even though the crocodile and alligator have been separate species for about 80 million years, "theyre ...
The alligator component uses relative density (reported as an encounter rate), body condition, and occupancy rates of alligator ... holes; the crocodile component uses juvenile growth and hatchling survival. We hypothesize that these parameters are correlated ... Alligators and crocodiles integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations, affecting them at all life stages through ... Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of Everglades ecosystems. Ecological Indicators By:. Frank J. Mazzotti ...
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Rule Title: Feeding or Enticement of Alligators or Crocodiles Unlawful Department:. FISH AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION COMMISSION. ... Feeding or Enticement of Alligators or Crocodiles Unlawful. 2598259 Effective:. 05/18/2006 ... for taking and possessing alligators and other reptiles that will ensure conservation of alligator ..... 15507310 1/8/2015. Vol ... for taking and possessing alligators and other reptiles that will ensure conservation of alligator ..... 14003616 1/8/2014. Vol ...
Technical parameters Application: It is mainly used in the field of scrap metal processing, abandoned car dismantlement and casting& smelting. Hydraulic driven, compact structure, low noise, stable operation, strong cutting press and flexible...
... ... Unique Bargains 6Pair 20cm Cable Power Test Probe Alligator Crocodile Clamp Clip ... Alligator clips can be used as miniature clamps to hold parts together for gluing and wires together for soldering. ... Alligator clips are frequently used in school physics laboratories to quickly and cheaply assemble circuits. They are useful ...
800-pound, 12-foot gator caught by Hobe Sound FL teen Tim Stroh. Alligator ... Record number of alligator hunt applications filed for SC. Deadline June 15th 2011 ... Dallas lawyer who bagged giant gator in Central Texas faces state poaching charge. Levi McCathern II ... Father, son plead guilty in illegal LA gator-hunting case. Larry Dees Sr. ...
Do not think that just because you dont see anything, that the crocodiles are not in the area. Crocodiles and alligators dont ... Feeding crocodiles of any size teaches the crocodiles to associate people with food. Nobody wants crocodiles to think that if ... This entry was posted in Animal Trivia and tagged alligator attacks, alligator trivia, Avoid Gator Trivia, crocdile attacks, ... Crocodiles and alligators are often startled into attacking. They may attack in self defense if you startle them. Make noise if ...
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Crocodile, and Iguana Bites - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Alligator and Crocodile Bites Alligator and crocodile bites usually result from handling the animal. However, rarely, people ... may be bitten by alligators and crocodiles in the wild. Although alligator and crocodile bites do not contain venom, they are ... Alligator and crocodile bites are usually serious injuries. Doctors must stop bleeding. Then wounds are cleaned, and severely ...
... are both reptiles from the same order of animals (Crocodylia). But there are many important ...
Monitoring American Alligators and American Crocodiles as Indicators of Everglades Restoration. The American alligator ( ... Funding for the alligator and crocodile monitoring program comes from the following sources:. *The CERP Monitoring and ... The American Alligator: An Indicator Species for Everglades Restoration. American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus An Endangered ... Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of Everglades ecosystems. Ecological Indicators 9(6): S137-S149. ...
  • and growth and survival of crocodiles in North Key Largo, Biscayne Bay, and coastal areas of Everglades National Park. (ufl.edu)
  • Do not bother trying to pry a crocodiles jaws open. (triviachamp.com)
  • It is also helpful for the manipulation of non-food objects in their jaws, such as when carrying their young and may be necessary for female alligators and crocodiles, as part of their parental behavior includes "delicately" breaking open their eggs when they are ready to hatch. (conicl.com)
  • This is a crocodile-shaped tree that has grown from the ground with splashing water shown as blades of grass and a bird that has grown at the top of the tree but is trying to 'get away' from the jaws of the crocodile. (artpal.com)
  • Crocodiles have very strong jaws. (blogspot.com)
  • Crocodiles and alligators are infamous carnivores, but it turns out they do not live on meat alone - scientists have unexpectedly discovered that these predators occasionally snack on fruit as well. (livescience.com)
  • Not only is there the danger that your beloved animal may fall victim to one of these predators, your pet may inadvertently scare a crocodile into attacking or attract a hungry one. (triviachamp.com)
  • Genuine Alligator wallet has a lined pouch for credit cards or money and a magnetic clip for money or business cards. (ebay.com)
  • Check out ALL our Genuine Alligator products! (ebay.com)
  • It has a shiny finish which accentuates the distinctive tile pattern and unique natural markings of Genuine Alligator. (ebay.com)
  • Genuine Alligator is one of the most durable exotic skins. (ebay.com)
  • The item is for one new, never used Handmade Genuine Alligator - Crocodile Premium Leather Bifold Wallet. (ebay.com)
  • Mint Condition and burnished with a lustrous finish, these oxfords are handcrafted from genuine calf leather with genuine alligator accentuating the vamp. (ebay.com)
  • A prepared, structured questionnaire was dispatched to crocodile farmers based on a directory provided by the Fisheries section of the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and National Parks. (springer.com)
  • The crocodile was declared endangered in 1975, and although the population has significantly recovered and was reclassified as threatened in 2007, it continues to face issues related to habitat loss from development and effects of altered freshwater flow into estuaries. (ufl.edu)