Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Picryl Chloride: A hapten that generates suppressor cells capable of down-regulating the efferent phase of trinitrophenol-specific contact hypersensitivity. (Arthritis Rheum 1991 Feb;34(2):180).Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Oxazolone: Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Latex Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Patch Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Exanthema: Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Dentin SensitivityAllergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Carbazilquinone: An alkylating agent structurally similar to MITOMYCIN and found to be effective in the treatment of leukemia and various other neoplasms in mice. It causes leukemia and thrombocytopenia in almost all human patients.Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Mice, Inbred C57BLAntivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Petrolatum: A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
  • Whether local or systemic reactions develop depends on the route of antigen exposure, type, quantity and site of mediator release, the response of the individual to mediators, and the activation requirements of the antigen. (vetstream.com)
  • 1,2 This syndrome was renamed anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in 1988, after observation of its occurrence with other anticonvulsants. (scielo.br)
  • The original description of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome included occurrence of fever, cutaneous eruptions, leukocytosis and eosinophilia. (scielo.br)
  • In this chapter, emphasis has been placed on the core mechanisms underlying the broad categories of hypersensitivity responses distinguished on the basis of the Gell and Coombs classification and based on differences in the immune reactants (antibodies or cells), the form of the presented antigen, and the effector mechanisms involved. (springer.com)
  • The B-cells of an allergic person -- 'misinformed' at the genetic level -- cause the production of large quantities of IgE antibodies that attach themselves to mast cells and basophils throughout the body. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Classic anaphylactic hypersensitivity is associated with the production of IgE antibodies synthesized by Beta cells upon exposure to appropriate antigen. (vetstream.com)
  • Examples of cytotoxic reaction are the Rh incompatibility of a newborn, blood transfusion reactions, and autoimmune diseases like Pemphigus Vulgaris, Bullous Pemphigoid, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Goodpasture's syndrome to name a few. (dentalcare.com)
  • The phenytoin (hydantoin) hypersensitivity syndrome is rare but potentially fatal. (bmj.com)
  • Dose-dependent side-effects (neurological impairment, gingival hyperplasia and megaloblastic anaemia) soon became apparent but an idiosyncratic hypersensitivity syndrome to phenytoin (and other hydantoins) was first described in 1959. (bmj.com)
  • We report a case of unrecognised, fatal, phenytoin hypersensitivity syndrome with characteristic pathological changes in the heart, liver, skin and lymph nodes at autopsy. (bmj.com)
  • While vancomycin is relatively a safe agent adverse events include the "red man" syndrome, allergic reactions, and various bone marrow effects as well as nephrotoxicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kounis syndrome has been established as a hypersensitivity coronary disorder induced by various conditions, drugs, environmental exposures, foods and coronary stents. (degruyter.com)
  • Vasospastic allergic angina, allergic myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis with occluding thrombus infiltrated by eosinophils and/or mast cells constitute are the three reported, so far, variants of this syndrome. (degruyter.com)
  • Kounis syndrome seems to be not a rare disease but an infrequently diagnosed clinical entity which has revealed that the same mediators released from the same inflammatory cells are also present and in acute coronary events of non allergic etiology. (degruyter.com)
  • However, the detailed description of the "allergic angina syndrome" as coronary spasm, which represents a manifestation of endothelial dysfunction or microvascular angina and progresses to allergic acute myocardial infarction, was not described until 1991 [ 7 ]. (degruyter.com)
  • This is the first case of Kounis syndrome with optical coherence tomography imaging and proven IgE wasp venom hypersensitivity. (bmj.com)
  • Acute allergic reactions have been reported. (intekom.com)
  • examined specimens of coronary arteries from 20 patients who did not suffer from any kind of allergic disease but they had died of acute myocardial infarction and found that the degree of mast cell degranulation was much higher (200:1) at the sites of plaque erosion or rupture than in adjacent areas or in the more distant unaffected areas [ 8 ]. (degruyter.com)
  • Drugs provide good examples of types II (immune hemolytic anemia, drug-induced thrombocytopenia) and III (serum sickness-like) hypersensitivities. (springer.com)
  • Diagnostic work-ups for such reactions include skin tests, serum-specific IgE assays, flow cytometric basophil activation tests and, in case of negative responses to these in vivo and in vitro tests, controlled administrations of suspect antibiotics. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • They would seem to predispose to the severity of the drugs remain stable over a headaches, giant cell reaction, and depersonalisation which may contain toxic amounts of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer have it. (yogachicago.com)
  • Mary Ann Lila and colleagues note that of the 170 foods that cause allergic reactions, peanuts can be the most dangerous. (phys.org)
  • 7 A report from the National Academies of Sciences recommends that these nuts be removed from this list since there are little data on them and they uncommonly cause allergic reactions. (dovepress.com)
  • Leukocyte degranulation is an important mechanism of host defense against invading microorganisms and a major contributing factor for allergic reaction. (jimmunol.org)
  • An understanding of the regulatory mechanism of degranulation will help to promote innate immunity and reduce unwanted allergic reactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • In mast cells, a mechanism of degranulation induced by FcεRI cross-linking involves recruitment and activation of the tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk, phosphorylation of several tyrosine residues in FcεRI, activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ), and generation of the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate ( 1 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The exact mechanism for this reaction is unknown. (bpac.org.nz)
  • An experimental treatment that involves giving minute quantities of the trigger food to patients over a period of time in a clinic is successful for some patients who are allergic to peanuts. (phys.org)