Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CRespiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Ambrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Mice, Inbred C57BLCockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Dermatophagoides farinae: Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H): An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Respiratory Tract DiseasesInterleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Rats, Inbred BNAllergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Ligand: A B7 antigen that binds specifically to INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR PROTEIN on T-CELLS. It provides a costimulatory signal for T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Anisakis: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Interleukin-12 Subunit p35: A subunit of interleukin-12. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P40 via a disulfide bond that results in the active cytokine.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.OX40 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member that is expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells such as B-LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES. It signals T-LYMPHOCYTES by binding the OX40 RECEPTOR.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Secretoglobins: A structurally-related family of small, multimeric proteins that are secreted in the mucosa of mammalian epithelial tissues. A variety of proteins are classed under this heading including some secretoglobin subtypes that appear unique to a particular mammalian species, and others whose functions differ between species.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Chronic ESOPHAGITIS characterized by esophageal mucosal EOSINOPHILIA. It is diagnosed when an increase in EOSINOPHILS are present over the entire esophagus. The reflux symptoms fail to respond to PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS treatment, unlike in GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE. The symptoms are associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food or inhalant allergens.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Phleum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Phl p 4 allergen.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Cryptomeria: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Anthroposophy: Knowledge of the nature of man. A spiritual and mystical doctrine that grew out of theosophy and derives mainly from the philosophy of Rudolph Steiner, Austrian social philosopher (1861-1925). (Webster, 3d ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Animal Technicians: Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Gour N, Wills-Karp M (2015). "IL-4 and IL-13 signaling in allergic airway disease". Cytokine. 75 (1): 68-78. doi:10.1016/j.cyto ... IL-4, along with other Th2 cytokines, is involved in the airway inflammation observed in the lungs of patients with allergic ... Izuhara K, Arima K, Yasunaga S (2003). "IL-4 and IL-13: their pathological roles in allergic diseases and their potential in ... Jon Aster, Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas; Nelson Fausto (2009). Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). ...
"Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary fiber influences allergic airway disease and hematopoiesis". Nature Medicine. 20 (2): 159- ...
... other upper airway diseases such as allergic rhinitis and sinusitis should be considered as well as other causes of airway ... Custovic, A; Simpson, A (2012). "The role of inhalant allergens in allergic airways disease". Journal of Investigational ... Unlike these diseases, the airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible; however, if left untreated, the chronic ... After the age of 65, most people with obstructive airway disease will have asthma and COPD. In this setting, COPD can be ...
OPN has been found to play a role in other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune hepatitis, allergic airway disease, and ... In contrast, neutralization of Opn-s during antigenic challenge exacerbates allergic airway disease. These effects of Opn-s are ... "Osteopontin has a crucial role in allergic airway disease through regulation of dendritic cell subsets". Nat. Med. 13 (5): 570- ... Opn expression is also upregulated in lungs of mice with allergic airway inflammation. The secreted form of Opn (Opn-s) plays a ...
"Endogenous relaxin regulates collagen deposition in an animal model of allergic airway disease". Endocrinology. 147 (2): 754-61 ... new drug targets for multiple disease states". Curr Drug Targets. 8 (1): 91-104. doi:10.2174/138945007779315650. PMID 17266534 ...
The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to allergic airway disease, obesity, gastrointestinal diseases and diabetes. ... of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to allergic airway disease. ... But also other mucoide tissues as lung and vagina have been studied in relation to diseases such as asthma, allergy and ... Rosenberg E, Koren O, Reshef L, Efrony R, Zilber-Rosenberg I (2007). "The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and ...
Thus, BLT2 receptors suppress allergic airways disease in mice and may function similarly in humans. These studies also allow ... However, in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease: a) 12-HHT and its companion cyclooxygenase metabolites ... BLT2 receptor could play a similar role in human allergic diseases such as asthma. In response to the oral administration of ... BLT2 receptor knockout mice exhibit attenuated ovalbumen-induced allergic airway eosinophilia and Interleukin 13 (IL-13) ...
"Relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux and airway diseases: the airway reflux paradigm". Archivos de bronconeumologia. ... A cause of nasal congestion may also be due to an allergic reaction caused by hay fever, so avoiding allergens is a common ... Often a doctor's assessment of a perfectly patent nasal airway might differ with a patient's complaint of an obstructed nose. ... Allergies, like hay fever, allergic reaction to pollen or grass Common cold or influenza Deviated septum Reaction to medication ...
Once in the lung and lower airway, the fungus induces can induce an allergic response (IgE hypersensitivity response). Organic ... Aspergillus candidus has been associated with a variety of diseases such as hypersensitivity diseases, and infectious diseases ... If the invasive aspergillosis is kept untreated, the disease can spread from the lungs to any of the organs in the body. ... In addition to humans, there have also been reports of A. candidus disease in pigs and birds. Raper, Kenneth B.; Fennell, ...
The overexpression of IL-13 induces many features of allergic lung disease, including airway hyperresponsiveness, goblet cell ... It is a mediator of allergic inflammation and different diseases including asthma. IL-13 has effects on immune cells that are ... Izuhara K, Arima K, Yasunaga S (2003). "IL-4 and IL-13: their pathological roles in allergic diseases and their potential in ... Although IL-13 is associated primarily with the induction of airway disease, it also has anti-inflammatory properties. IL-13 ...
"Antagonism of microRNA-126 suppresses the effector function of TH2 cells and the development of allergic airways disease". Proc ... Interestingly the decrease of mir-15a, mir-29b, mir-126 and mir-223 proceedes the manifestation of the disease, making these ... non-cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells shows that various miRNAs are differentially regulated in response to the disease. ... mir-126 increases the immune response to certain antigens resulting in overstimulation of the immune system and allergic asthma ...
... s contribute to the expulsion of helminth worms and to the pathology of colitis and allergic airways disease. The ... "Innate IL-13-producing nuocytes arise during allergic lung inflammation and contribute to airways hyperreactivity". The Journal ... 2 immune responses that are induced in response to helminth worm infection or in conditions such as asthma and atopic disease. ...
Potentially serious side effects include urinary retention, worsening spasms of the airways, and a severe allergic reaction. It ... It is used to treat the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. It is used by inhaler or nebulizer. Onset ... Ipratropium is administered by inhalation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma ... Common side effects include dry mouth, cough, and inflammation of the airways. ...
... also known as bronchomalacia is a disease of the airways where cartilage in the bronchi is defective ... This leads to collapse of the airways and bronchiectasis. It acts as one of the differential to Allergic bronchopulmonary ...
... atypical mycobacterial disease, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and asthma. When casts are very large with many ... Bronchial casts can sometimes fill the airways of almost an entire lung, and present as an acute, life-threatening emergency. ... PB is not a single disease with a defined mechanism that explains the cast formation in all conditions. Examples of diseases ... congenital heart disease Pulmonary: asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergillosis, bronchiectasis, cystic ...
Their presence usually indicates an airway disease, such as bronchiectasis. They can also be described as unilateral or ... Bronchophony Egophony Rhonchi Consumption Whooping cough Croup Pulmonary edema Pertussis toxin Allergic asthma Jones, Daniel ( ... Crackles are caused by the "popping open" of small airways and alveoli collapsed by fluid, exudate, or lack of aeration during ... or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs of a human with a respiratory disease during inhalation. They are ...
... secretion of mucus into the airway, and difficulty clearing that mucus out of the airways. Coughing helps clear those ... In healthy children it may be normal in the absence of any disease to cough ten times a day. The most common cause of an acute ... Atopic cough occurs in individuals with a family history of atopy (an allergic condition), abundant eosinophils in the sputum, ... Depending on how severe the asthma is, it can be treated with bronchodilators (medicine which causes the airways to open up) or ...
... an increase in airway hyperreactivity, and mucus hypersecretion. Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway ... IL-17F is clearly expressed in the airway of asthmatics and its expression level is correlated with disease severity. Moreover ... Overexpression of IL-17F gene in the airway of mice is associated with airway neutrophilia, the induction of many cytokines, ... Hu Y, Shen F, Crellin NK, Ouyang W (2011). "The IL-17 pathway as a major therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases". Annals of ...
The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to allergic airway disease, obesity, gastrointestinal diseases and diabetes. ... of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to allergic airway disease. ... Coral bleaching is the most serious of these diseases. In the Mediterranean Sea, the bleaching of Oculina patagonica was first ... Rosenberg E, Koren O, Reshef L, Efrony R, Zilber-Rosenberg I (2007). "The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and ...
Custovic, A; Simpson, A. The role of inhalant allergens in allergic airways disease.. Journal of investigational allergology & ... 職業性肺病(英語:Occupational lung disease). 肺塵病 石棉肺(英語:Asbestosis). 鋇塵肺(英語:Baritosis). 鐵釩土纖維化(英語:Bauxite fibrosis). 鈹肺病(英語:Berylliosis ... 許多其它不同的病症情況也可能引起與氣喘相似的症狀。 在兒童中,其它一些上呼吸道疾病,如過敏性鼻炎和鼻竇炎應該
Calcium-sensing receptor antagonists abrogate airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergic asthma. Science ... a key to halt Alzheimer's disease progression? Neural Regen Res. 2015 Feb;10(2):213-8. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.152373 PMID ... such as hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergic asthma. NPS-2143 ATF-936 AXT-914 Walter F. Boron; Emile L. Boulpaep ( ...
Custovic, A; Simpson, A (2012). "The role of inhalant allergens in allergic airways disease.". Journal of investigational ... Kelly, FJ; Fussell, JC (2011 Aug). "Air pollution and airway disease.". Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the ... Salpeter, S; Ormiston, T; Salpeter, E (2001). "Cardioselective beta-blocker use in patients with reversible airway disease.". ... COPD and bronchitis are just components of airway disease". European Respiratory Journal 28 (2): 264-267. PMID 16880365. doi: ...
This is why basophiles are considered with mast cells to be the key cells in allergic diseases. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a ... lower-airway obstruction and hypotension. ... Allergic symptoms are caused by an initial systemic histamine ... Basophils contain many granules inside the cell, which are filled with a variety of active substance triggering an allergic ...
Mookerjee I. et al (2006). "Endogenous relaxin regulates collagen deposition in an animal model of allergic airway disease". ...
... airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by PDE4 inhibitor and glucocorticoid in a murine model of allergic asthma". Life ... It has been investigated for its applications to the treatment of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ... A study of PDE4 inhibition in a murine model of allergic asthma showed that piclamilast significantly improves the pulmonary ... PDE4 inhibition in an induced chronic lung disease murine model was shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, attenuate ...
In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis is a hypothesis that states a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (such as the gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases susceptibility to allergic diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system. In particular, the lack of exposure is thought to lead to defects in the establishment of immune tolerance. The hygiene hypothesis has also been called the "biome depletion theory" and the "lost friends theory". The original formulation of the hygiene hypothesis dates from 1989 when David Strachan proposed that lower incidence of infection in early childhood could be an explanation for the rapid 20th century rise in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever. It is now also recognised that the "reduced microbial exposure" concept applies to a much broader range of chronic inflammatory ...
Allergic Sensitization - There is an acute response (early stages) and a late-phase response (later stages). In the early stages, the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, sensitization is commonly referring to commencement of allergic responses.[14] Allergic sensitization development varies with age, with younger children at the greatest risk of developing allergic sensitization.[15] There are a variety of tests to diagnose allergic conditions. Tests that are commonly used place potential allergens on the skin of the patient and looking for a reaction to look for an allergen-specific ...
Allergic Sensitization - There is an acute response (early stages) and a late-phase response (later stages). In the early stages, the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, sensitization is commonly referring to commencement of allergic responses.[14] Allergic sensitization development varies with age, with younger children at the greatest risk of developing allergic sensitization.[15] There are a variety of tests to diagnose allergic conditions. Tests that are commonly used place potential allergens on the skin of the patient and looking for a reaction to look for an allergen-specific ...
... (LAA) is an occupational disease of laboratory animal technicians and scientists. It manifests as an allergic response to animal urine, specifically the major urinary proteins (Mups) of rodents, and can lead to the development of asthma. A study of 5641 workers in Japan who were exposed to laboratory animals found 23.1% had one or more allergic symptoms; globally the prevalence among at risk workers is estimated between 11 and 30% According to the National Institutes of Health, prevention of animal allergy depends on the control of allergens in the work environment. This involves a combination of measures to eliminate or control allergen exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment. The protein product of the mouse Mup17 gene, known as Mus m 1, Ag1 or MA1, accounts for much of the allergenic properties of mouse urine. Similarly, the product of the rat Mup13 gene, ...
... ing or Skin prick test is a method for medical diagnosis of allergies that attempts to provoke a small, controlled, allergic response. A microscopic amount of an allergen is introduced to a patient's skin by various means: Skin prick test: pricking the skin with a needle or pin containing a small amount of the allergen. Skin scratch test: a deep dermic scratch is performed with help of the blunt bottom of a lancet. Intradermic test: a tiny quantity of allergen is injected under the dermis with a hypodermic syringe. Skin scrape Test: a superficial scrape is performed with help of the bovel of a needle to remove the superficial layer of the epidermis. Patch test: applying a patch to the skin, where the patch contains the allergen If an immuno-response is seen in the form of a rash, urticaria (hives), or (worse) anaphylaxis it can be concluded that the patient has a hypersensitivity (or allergy) to that allergen. Further testing can be done to identify the particular ...
... is a protein that in cats is encoded by the CH1 (chain 1/Fel d 1-A) and CH2 (chain 2/Fel d 1-B) genes.[2][3] Fel d 1, produced largely in cat saliva and sebaceous glands, is the primary allergen present on cats and kittens.[1] Fel d 1 is also produced by cat skin itself.[4] The protein is of an unknown function to the animal but causes an IgG or IgE reaction in sensitive humans (either as an allergic or asthmatic response). Kittens produce less Fel d 1 than adult cats. Female cats produce a lower level of Fel d 1 than (unneutered) males.[5], while neutered males produce levels similar to those of females; both intact and spayed females produce similar levels. Even though females and neutered males produce Fel d 1 in lower levels, they still produce enough to cause allergic symptoms in sensitive individuals. Removal of soft surfaces in the home (carpet, furniture), frequent washings of bed linens, HEPA filters and even washing cats has ...
The two most commonly used methods of confirming allergen sensitization are skin testing and allergy blood testing. Both methods are recommended by the NIH guidelines and have similar diagnostic value in terms of sensitivity and specificity.[1][2]. Advantages of the allergy blood test range from: excellent reproducibility across the full measuring range of the calibration curve, it has very high specificity as it binds to allergen specific IgE, and extremely sensitive too, when compared with skin prick testing. In general, this method of blood testing (in-vitro, out of body) vs skin-prick testing (in-vivo, in body) has a major advantage: it is not always necessary to remove the patient from an anthihistamine medication regimen, and if the skin conditions (such as eczema) are so widespread that allergy skin testing cannot be done. Allergy blood tests, such as ImmunoCAP, are performed without procedure variations, and the results are of excellent standardization.[3]. Adults and children of any age ...
The two most commonly used methods of confirming allergen sensitization are skin testing and allergy blood testing. Both methods are recommended by the NIH guidelines and have similar diagnostic value in terms of sensitivity and specificity.[1][2] Advantages of the allergy blood test range from: excellent reproducibility across the full measuring range of the calibration curve, it has very high specificity as it binds to allergen specific IgE, and extremely sensitive too, when compared with skin prick testing. In general, this method of blood testing (in-vitro, out of body) vs skin-prick testing (in-vivo, in body) has a major advantage: it is not always necessary to remove the patient from an anthihistamine medication regimen, and if the skin conditions (such as eczema) are so widespread that allergy skin testing cannot be done. Allergy blood tests, such as ImmunoCAP, are performed without procedure variations, and the results are of excellent standardization.[3] Adults and children of any age ...
Allergic symptoms are caused by an initial systemic histamine release by activated basophiles and mast cells, that may lead to shock with laryngeal edema, lower-airway obstruction and hypotension. This is why basophiles are considered with mast cells to be the key cells in allergic diseases. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a class of antibody (or immunoglobulin "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. It plays an important role in allergy, and is especially associated with type 1 hypersensitivity. There are receptors (FcεR) for the constant region of IgE, the Fc region, on several types of cells, including Mast cells and Basophils. Basophils contain many granules inside the cell, which are filled with a variety of active substance triggering an allergic response upon degranulation. The cells get activated and start degranulation when the IgE antibody, bound to an allergen ...
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology: Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. Immunology Branch of Biomedical science Immune system Immunity Classical immunology Clinical immunology Computational immunology Diagnostic immunology Evolutionary immunology Systems immunology Immunomics Immunoproteomics Immunophysics Immunochemistry Ecoimmunology Immunopathology Nutritional immunology Psychoneuroimmunology Reproductive immunology Circadian immunology Immunotoxicology Palaeoimmunology Tissue-based immunology Testicular ...
For example, if a person with diabetes mellitus has a bad allergic reaction to taking a full dose of beef insulin, the person is given a very small amount of the insulin at first, so small that the person has no adverse reaction or very limited symptoms as a result. Over a period of time, larger doses are given until the person is taking the full dose. This is one way to help the body get used to the full dose, and to avoid having the allergic reaction to beef-origin insulin. A temporary desensitization method involves the administration of small doses of an allergen to produces an IgE-mediated response in a setting where an individual can be resuscitated in the event of anaphylaxis; this approach, through uncharacterized mechanisms, eventually overrides the hypersensitive IgE response.[1] Desensitization approaches for food allergies are generally at the research stage. They include:[2] ...
இயோசிநாடிகள் அல்லது இயோசினேற்பிகள் அல்லது இயோசினாஃபில்கள் (Eosinophils) என்று இவை அழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. 0.5-3.0% வெள்ளையணுக்கள் இவ்வகை சார்ந்தவை . இவை நகரும் இயல்புடையவை. உடல் உறுப்புகளின் திசுக்களில் வீக்கம் ஏற்படின் இவை அங்கு நகர்ந்து செல்கின்றன. ஒவ்வாமைத் தன்மையில் (Allergy) இவற்றின் எண்ணிக்கை அதிகரிக்கும். இவை நோய் எதிர்ப்பாற்றல் முறைமையில் முக்கிய பங்களிக்கும். பலகல ஒட்டுண்ணிகள் ...
पाठ क्रिएटिभ कमन्स एट्रिब्युसन/सेयर-अलाइक लाइसेन्सअन्तर्गत उपलब्ध छ; अतिरिक्त सर्तहरू लागू हुन सक्छन्। अधिक जानकारीको लागि उपयोगका सर्तहरू हेर्नुहोला ...
A. fumigatus is responsible for a spectrum of lung diseases known as aspergilloses. ABPA causes airway inflammation, leading to ... Kauffman, HF (1 January 2003). "Immunopathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and airway remodeling". Frontiers ... In people with predisposing lung diseases-such as persistent asthma or cystic fibrosis (or rarer diseases such as chronic ... Hogan, C; Denning, DW (December 2011). "Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and related allergic syndromes". Seminars in ...
... with asthma and other allergic disorders. The observed malignancies in XOLAIR-treated patients were a variety of types, with ... Limitations of Use: XOLAIR is not indicated for treatment of other allergic conditions or other forms of urticaria. XOLAIR is ... Role and interpretation of total serum IgE measurements in the diagnosis of allergic airway disease in adults. Allergy. 2003;58 ... To assess disease severity in patients with CIU, patients record the severity of their itch and the number of hives twice daily ...
... with asthma and other allergic disorders. The observed malignancies in XOLAIR-treated patients were a variety of types, with ... Limitations of Use: XOLAIR is not indicated for treatment of other allergic conditions or other forms of urticaria. XOLAIR is ... Role and interpretation of total serum IgE measurements in the diagnosis of allergic airway disease in adults. Allergy. 2003;58 ... XOLAIR is the only anti-IgE therapy which can limit the release of mediators in both the early and late phases of the allergic ...
Infectious disease , Respiratory infections , Respiratory infections in general. Lungs & airways , Fibrosis: cystic fibrosis , ... Child health , Infectious disease , Respiratory infections: general treatment. Child health , Lungs & airways , Cystic fibrosis ... Lungs & airways , Respiratory infections , Aspergillosis. Lungs & airways , Respiratory infections , Respiratory infections in ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic lung reaction to a type of fungus (usually Aspergillus fumigatus ...
Inhibition of murine allergic airway disease by Bordetella pertussis.. Kim YS1, Kwon KS, Kim DK, Choi IW, Lee HK. ... pertussis strongly inhibited allergic airway reactions such as eosinophil recruitment into the airway, lung inflammation, and ... 1 day before the first airway challenge. (d) Airway responsiveness was measured 2 days after the last airway challenge. *P , 0· ... c) CpG methylase prevents the inhibitory ability of B. pertussis DNA on the allergic airway reactions. Ten µg of DNA was mixed ...
Patients with this disease experience more frequent exacerbations of asthma, are more likely to be hospitalized, and have a ... Mechanisms and treatments for severe, steroid-resistant allergic airway disease and asthma Immunol Rev. 2017 Jul;278(1):41-62. ... Patients with this disease experience more frequent exacerbations of asthma, are more likely to be hospitalized, and have a ... This heterogeneity makes pinpointing processes that drive disease difficult in humans. Clinical studies strongly associate ...
Burden and epidemiology of allergic airways diseases • Anatomy and pathophysiology of airways disease • Drugs used in the ... Interactions between allergic diseases • Genetics of allergic airways diseases • The future for asthma diagnosis and therapy • ... guidelines for management and assessment of allergic airways disease. Upper airways sessions on rhinitis, sinus disease and ... MEDI6077 Allergic Airways Diseases. Module Overview. It is well established that there is "cross talk" between the upper and ...
... are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic ... Over the years our concept of management of allergic airway disease has changed from control of symptoms to prevention of the ... Air Pollution and Allergic Airway Diseases: Social Determinantsand Sustainability in the Control and Prevention. ... are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic ...
... we conducted experimental supplementation of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol isoforms in mice on the outcome of allergic airway ... on asthma and allergic airway disease. ... Interaction of vitamin E isoforms on asthma and allergic airway ...
... human airway epithelial calls, particulate emissions, airway disease, allergic airway disease, children, air pollution, ... on pulmonary airways with pre-existing allergic airway disease. We will test the following hypotheses: 1) that PM exposure ... exacerbates the airway injury associated with allergic airway disease; 2) that the magnitude of PM-induced airway toxicity is ... Effects of Airborne Particles on Allergic Airway Disease. EPA Grant Number: R829216. Title: Effects of Airborne Particles on ...
The "united airway disease hypothesis" proposes that upper and lower airway diseases are both manifestations of a single ... Upper airway · 1: Allergic rhinitis and asthma: united disease through epithelial cells ... Upper airway · 1: Allergic rhinitis and asthma: united disease through epithelial cells ... Allergic rhinitis: not purely a histamine-related disease. Allergy 2000;55(Suppl 64):7-16. ...
... enhancing IgE production and decreasing airway eosinophilia in murine allergic airway disease," The Journal of Allergy and ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways. Anna Bonanno,1 Sebastiano Gangemi,1,2 ... M. Reinholz, T. Ruzicka, and J. Schauber, "Vitamin D and its role in allergic disease," Clinical & Experimental Allergy, vol. ... "The role of vitamin D in the immunopathogenesis of allergic skin diseases," Allergy, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 296-301, 2012. View at ...
Vitamin D deficiency induces Th2 skewing and eosinophilia in neonatal allergic airways disease.. [J E Vasiliou, S Lui, S A ... We investigated the effect of early-life vitamin D deficiency on the development of murine neonatal allergic airways disease ( ... when airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation and remodelling were assessed. Neonatal mice that had in utero and ... but contributes to disease severity with worse eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodelling. Importantly, supplementation ...
Ascaris Larval Infection and Lung Invasion Directly Induce Severe Allergic Airway Disease in Mice. Jill E. Weatherhead, Paul ... Ascaris-infected mice were compared to controls or mice with allergic airway disease induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization ... Our findings indicate that ascariasis may be an important cause of allergic airway disease in regions of endemicity. ... Ascaris Larval Infection and Lung Invasion Directly Induce Severe Allergic Airway Disease in Mice ...
rAsp f 3 and rAsp f 4 are associated with bronchiectasis in allergic fungal airways disease ... rAsp f3 and rAsp f4 are associated with bronchiectasis in allergic fungal airways disease. *. ... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis complicating Swyer-James-Macleods syndrome: case report and review of literature. ...
Cutting Edge: Guinea Pigs with a Natural C3a-Receptor Defect Exhibit Decreased Bronchoconstriction in Allergic Airway Disease: ... Cutting Edge: Guinea Pigs with a Natural C3a-Receptor Defect Exhibit Decreased Bronchoconstriction in Allergic Airway Disease: ... Cutting Edge: Guinea Pigs with a Natural C3a-Receptor Defect Exhibit Decreased Bronchoconstriction in Allergic Airway Disease: ... Cutting Edge: Guinea Pigs with a Natural C3a-Receptor Defect Exhibit Decreased Bronchoconstriction in Allergic Airway Disease: ...
... of European citizens currently living with these diseases. Our mission is to convey their voice and to be actively involved in ... asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients associations representing 30% ... Asthma and allergic rhinitis guide Material: This guide explains what is asthma and allergic rhinitis, what are the symptoms ...
Eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic airway inflammation, and eosinophils represent an integral effector leukocyte through ... Blanchet MR., Gold M., McNagny K.M. (2014) Mutant Mice and Animal Models of Airway Allergic Disease. In: Walsh G. (eds) ... Here, we describe the current models or allergic airway inflammation and outline some of the transgenic mice available to study ... Eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic airway inflammation, and eosinophils represent an integral effector leukocyte through ...
Airway remodeling is absent in CCR1-/- mice during chronic fungal allergic airway disease ... Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling. ... Relaxin reverses airway remodeling and airway dysfunction in allergic airways disease. Endocrinology 150(6): 2692-2699, 2009 ... effects of valproic acid against airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling in a mouse model of allergic airways disease ...
... studies in a glucocorticosteroid resistance model and in allergic airway disease. Larsson, Susanne LU (2000) *Mark ... GM-CSF, cytokine, glucocorticoids, budesonide, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic airway inflammation, ... studies in a glucocorticosteroid resistance model and in allergic airway disease}, year = {2000}, } ... allergic rhinitis,allergic airway inflammation,Respiratory system,Andningsorganen}, language = {eng}, pages = {120}, publisher ...
... or both and allergic airway disease. Results: When compared to non-sensitized children, sensitization to food only at 12 months ... Is there a march from early food sensitization to later childhood allergic airway disease? Results from two prospective birth ... but it is unclear whether early life food sensitization precedes and further increases risk of allergic airway disease. ... atopic march and suggest trials to prevent early onset have the potential to reduce the development of allergic airways disease ...
... Lott, Jeremy M. ... The regulation of allergic airway disease by type V collagen-induced tolerance. Login ... were down regulated on goblet cells in murine allergic airway disease. Conclusions: Anti-col(V) immunity correlates with asthma ... Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to methacholine was measured; and RT-PCR utilized to determine local Il17 transcripts. ...
OBJECTIVE: We studied the proposal that cyclophosphamide may aggravate airway inflammation in allergic mice, and these features ... CONCLUSION: Cyclophosphamide worsened features of allergic pulmonary inflammation in this model, in association with increased ... Allergic asthma is a TH2 cell-driven immunological disease, characterized by eosinophilic inflammation. The cytotoxic agent ... Cyclophosphamide augments inflammation by reducing immunosuppression in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. Abstract. ...
Allergic Airway Disease with Dust Mite Allergen from the Society for Mucosal Immunology, an organization dedicated to research ... Allergic Airway Disease with Dust Mite Allergen. 7/9/2014. Allen, IC. "Induction of Allergic Airway Disease Using House Dust ... including airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and airway remodeling. Here, we describe a highly versatile ... Mouse models of allergic airway inflammation have proven essential in understanding the mechanisms and pathophysiology ...
... to investigate the suggested association between exposure to traffic-derived pollution and increases in symptoms of airway ... diseases, including exacerbation of asthma. Dr. Jack Harkema and colleagues assessed the effects of two pollutant mixtures, ... concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and diesel exhaust, on airway inflammatory and allergic ... Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles and Diesel Engine Exhaust on Allergic Airway Disease in Brown Norway Rats. Jack R ...
  • In people with predisposing lung diseases-such as persistent asthma or cystic fibrosis (or rarer diseases such as chronic granulomatous disease or Hyper-IgE syndrome)-several factors lead to an increased risk of ABPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant neoplasms were observed in 20 of 4127 (0.5%) XOLAIR-treated patients compared with 5 of 2236 (0.2%) control patients in clinical studies of adults and adolescents (≥12 years of age) with asthma and other allergic disorders. (xolairhcp.com)
  • Immune complexes (a type III reaction) and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading to necrosis (tissue death) and eosinophilic infiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice were immunized i.p. with 20 µg of OVA at days 0 and 14 and challenged via the airway with either OVA (50 mg/ml of saline) or saline on days 21 through 23. (nih.gov)
  • Sections were obtained from the lungs of mice receiving saline, an OVA-challenge, and an OVA-challenge and heat-killed B. pertussis (2 × 10 10 cells) 1 day before the first airway challenge. (nih.gov)
  • Ascaris -infected mice were compared to controls or mice with allergic airway disease induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge (OVA/OVA). (asm.org)
  • By histopathology, Ascaris -infected mice demonstrated early airway remodeling similar to, but more profound than, that in OVA/OVA mice. (asm.org)
  • In the new study Dr. Iliev and his team demonstrated that several weeks of treatment with the antifungal drug fluconazole, which leads to the overgrowth of drug-resistant fungal strains in the gut, exacerbates asthma-like allergic response in mice to house dust mites-a classic airway allergen. (cornell.edu)
  • By contrast, mice bred without any gut fungi showed no exacerbation of airway allergy when treated with fluconazole-demonstrating that the effect was indeed mediated by fungi. (cornell.edu)
  • The scientists in the new study found that this same cell type mediates the gut-to-airway effect of fluconazole treatment in mice. (cornell.edu)
  • Ormdl3 knockout mice were found to be protected from developing allergic airways disease and showed a marked decrease in pathophysiology, including lung function and airway eosinophilia induced by Alternaria. (ovid.com)
  • In the knockout mice, reconstitution of Ormdl3 transcript levels specifically in the bronchial epithelium resulted in reinstatement of susceptibility to fungal allergen-induced allergic airways disease. (ovid.com)
  • We found reduced airways hyper-responsiveness and eosinophil recruitment to airways after aerosol challenge of CD103 KO compared to wild-type (WT) mice, although CD103 KO mice showed enhanced serum OVA-specific IgE levels. (edu.au)
  • Following aerosol challenge, total numbers of effector and regulatory CD4+ T-cell subsets were significantly increased in the airways of WT but not CD103 KO mice, as well as a lack of DC recruitment into the airways in the absence of CD103. (edu.au)
  • While total airway DC numbers, and their in vivo allergen capture activity, were essentially normal in steady-state CD103 KO mice, migration of allergen-laden airway DC to draining lymph nodes was disrupted in the absence of CD103 at 24 h after aerosol challenge. (edu.au)
  • In this study we investigated the associations between the intestinal microbiome and allergic airway disease in young and old mice that were sensitized and challenged with house dust mite (HDM). (openrepository.com)
  • Allergic mice had induced serum levels of IL-17A and old mice developed a greater allergic airway response compared to young mice. (openrepository.com)
  • Severity of allergic airway disease due to house dust mite allergen is not increased after clinical recovery of lung infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in mice. (openrepository.com)
  • Iwasaki M, Saito K, Takemura M, Sekikawa K, Fujii H, Yamada Y. TNF-alpha contributes to the development of allergic rhinitis in mice. (medscape.com)
  • An intestinal mucus-dwelling bacterial species can trigger spontaneous colitis in mice lacking genes associated with Crohn's disease. (nature.com)
  • Similarly, athymic mice with no functional peripheral T-cells also lack eosinophilic airway infiltration and increased AHR following allergen sensitisation, unless production of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is restored by systemic administration 9 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Although growing evidence suggests that signaling via TrkA is involved in airway inflammatory diseases, due to the lack of specific methods to interrogate the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway (TrkA gene knock-down in mice is lethal and TrkA inhibitors have limited drug specificity), the mechanism by which TrkA regulates allergic asthma remains poorly understood. (hhs.gov)
  • Preliminary studies with A. alternata-challenged TrkA-KI mice indicate that blockade of TrkA signaling leads to a dramatic inhibition of airway eosinophilia and prevention of allergen-induced loss of the barrier-forming protein occludin in AEC. (hhs.gov)
  • EP pathway in allergic reactions, we subject mice deficient in DP, EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor individually to ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma as a model of type I allergy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Treatment of rGal-1 ameliorates pathologic features of OVA-induced allergic mice. (hindawi.com)
  • a) Experimental protocol of establishment of allergic airway disease model in C57BL/6 mice. (hindawi.com)
  • We have reported that col(V)-induced tolerance down regulates IL-17 and prevents immune-mediated lung diseases. (iupui.edu)
  • We were able to identify gut-resident immune cells that sense fungal community imbalance in the intestines and transmit these immune signals to the lung contributing to aggravated allergy," said senior study author Dr. Iliyan D. Iliev, an assistant professor of immunology in medicine in the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and a researcher in the Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease at Weill Cornell Medicine. (cornell.edu)
  • The use of antifungal drugs is now so common, for example in modern agriculture or to treat patients with compromised immune systems, that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control has expressed concern over rising drug-resistance among fungal species. (cornell.edu)
  • Omalizumab inactivates IgE, a protein our own immune systems make as part of allergic reactions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With advanced age the microbiome and the immune system are changing and, currently, little is known about how these two factors contribute to the development of allergic asthma in the elderly. (openrepository.com)
  • The development of allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, depends upon the initiation and maintenance of T-helper cell type-2-skewed allergen-specific immune reactions. (ersjournals.com)
  • In contrast, Th2 have the capacity to secret greater amounts of IL-4, -5, -9 and IL-13, and are therefore crucial for allergic immune reactions. (ersjournals.com)
  • In vitro IL-31 and IL-17A intracellular levels decreased after BDP treatment, whereas T1/ST2 expression increased in cultured CD3+T-cells obtained from AAR.IL-33/ST2 axis is involved in Th2/IL-31 and Th17 immune response during the progression of allergic airway disease. (unimi.it)
  • In vitro BDP is able to control Th2/IL-31 and Th17 immune response in PBMC from allergic patients. (unimi.it)
  • While the word "allergy" can mean many things to the lay person, the clinician needs to keep in mind that diagnosis of allergies is critically dependent on identifying the immune processes involved in the allergic response. (mja.com.au)
  • Immune complexes (a type III reaction) and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading to necrosis (tissue death) and eosinophilic infiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study , published online Nov. 29 in Cell Host & Microbe, suggests that the enormous modern prevalence of allergic airway diseases may be attributable in part to the widespread use of antimicrobials, including antifungals and other therapies that disrupt the normal balance between bacterial and fungal species in the gut. (cornell.edu)
  • Dr. Iliev and first author Dr. Xin Li, a postdoctoral associate in medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine, now hope to find a method to target CX3CR1+ phagocytes or the molecules they produce so that it might someday be useful clinically to alleviate diseases related to fungal dysbiosis. (cornell.edu)
  • An Ormdl3-deficient mouse was generated and the role of ORMDL3 in the generation of allergic airways disease to the fungal aeroallergen Alternaria alternata was determined. (ovid.com)
  • The research efforts of this investigative team have established that airway- derived proteinases trigger allergic disease and innate immunity against fungal infection. (joessciencescorner.net)
  • In this paper, we describe the use of i.v.-administered nanoparticles as carriers of whole-protein Ag to induce tolerance safely and effectively in the absence of nonspecific immunosuppression for the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of allergic asthma. (pnas.org)
  • People with pre-existing respiratory disease may be at increased risk from the toxic effects of airborne particulate matter (PM). Childhood asthma is currently a major public health problem, especially among urban and minority populations that are exposed to high levels of air pollutants (e.g. (epa.gov)
  • In addition to drugs, other potential inducers of respiratory disease are biomolecules(eg Interferons, Immunoglobulins, anti-thymocyte globulin), stem cell modulators (eg All-trans retinoic acid, Granulocyte-colony stimulating factors), transfusion of blood or blood products, stem-cell transplantation, herbs and dietery supplements. (ispub.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion transporter that regulates mucus hydration, viscosity and acidity of the airway epithelial surface. (ersjournals.com)
  • In addition, CFTR-mediated transport of bicarbonate is co-stimulated by mucus release into the airways [ 6 , 7 ], regulates ASL pH necessary for normal lactoferrin function and other defensins [ 8 ], and aids in mucin post-translational unpacking to impart normal rheologic properties, including viscosity and transportability. (ersjournals.com)
  • Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) is the most common helminth infection globally and a cause of lifelong morbidity that may include allergic airway disease, an asthma phenotype. (asm.org)
  • Lower respiratory sessions will include asthma and small airways disease, as well as associated differential diagnoses (e.g. cystic fibrosis) and the role of viruses and bacteria in exacerbating allergic airways diseases. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The spectrum of CFTR dysfunction, strategies for CFTR modulation, and candidate diseases for CFTR modulation beyond cystic fibrosis will be reviewed in this manuscript. (ersjournals.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder with an estimated incidence of about one in 3000 births [ 1 ] in a North American (USA) cohort, and is the most common monogenetic disease of people of Caucasian descent. (ersjournals.com)