Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Phl p 4 allergen.
An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.
Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.
A major class of water-soluble seed storage proteins. Many proteins from this class are major PLANT ALLERGENS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.
The contamination of indoor air.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Allergic reaction to wheat that is triggered by the immune system.
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is considered a lawn grass by some and a weed by others. It contains allergen Cyn d 7.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
Living facilities for humans.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE known for the edible nuts.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
Family of MITES, in the superfamily Acaroidea, order Astigmata. They are frequently found in cereal-based foodstuffs including GRAIN and FLOUR.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.
Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
'Laboratory animals' are non-human creatures that are intentionally used in scientific research, testing, and education settings to investigate physiological processes, evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs or medical devices, and teach anatomy, surgical techniques, and other healthcare-related skills.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. Cypress ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (1/3663)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3. (2/3663)

Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man. (3/3663)

A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (4/3663)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Compliance and stability of the bronchial wall in a model of allergen-induced lung inflammation. (5/3663)

Airway wall remodeling in response to inflammation might alter load on airway smooth muscle and/or change airway wall stability. We therefore determined airway wall compliance and closing pressures in an animal model. Weanling pigs were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; ip and sc, n = 6) and were subsequently challenged three times with OVA aerosol. Control pigs received 0.9% NaCl (n = 4) in place of OVA aerosol. Bronchoconstriction in vivo was assessed from lung resistance and dynamic compliance. Semistatic airway compliance was recorded ex vivo in isolated segments of bronchus, after the final OVA aerosol or 0.9% NaCl challenge. Internally or externally applied pressure needed to close bronchial segments was determined in the absence or presence of carbachol (1 microM). Sensitized pig lungs exhibited immediate bronchoconstriction to OVA aerosol and also peribronchial accumulations of monocytes and granulocytes. Compliance was reduced in sensitized bronchi in vitro (P < 0.01), and closing pressures were increased (P < 0.05). In the presence of carbachol, closing pressures of control and sensitized bronchi were not different. We conclude that sensitization and/or inflammation increases airway load and airway stability.  (+info)

A genome-wide screen for asthma-associated quantitative trait loci in a mouse model of allergic asthma. (6/3663)

Asthma is the most common illness of childhood, affecting one child in seven in the UK. Asthma has a genetic basis, but genetic studies of asthma in humans are confounded by uncontrolled environmental factors, varying penetrance and phenotypic pleiotropy. An animal model of asthma would offer controlled exposure, limited and consistent genetic variation, and unlimited size of sibships. Following immunization and subsequent challenge with ovalbumin, the Biozzi BP2 mouse shows features of asthma, including airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration and non-specific bronchial responsiveness. In order to identify genetic loci influencing these traits, a cross was made between BP2 and BALB/c mice, and a genome-wide screen carried out in the F2progeny of the F1intercross. Five potentially linked loci were identified, four of which corresponded to human regions of syntenic homology that previously have shown linkage to asthma-associated traits.  (+info)

Strain-dependent induction of allergic sensitization caused by peanut allergen DNA immunization in mice. (7/3663)

To investigate the potential application of allergen gene immunization in the modulation of food allergy, C3H/HeSn (C3H) mice received i.m. injections of pAra h2 plasmid DNA encoding one of the major peanut allergens, Ara h2. Three weeks following pDNA immunization, serum Ara h2-specific IgG2a, IgG1, but not IgE, were increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. IgG1 was 30-fold higher in multiply compared with singly immunized mice. Ara h2 or peanut protein injection of immunized mice induced anaphylactic reactions, which were more severe in multiply immunized mice. Heat-inactivated immune serum induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, suggesting that anaphylaxis in C3H mice was mediated by IgG1. IgG1 responses were also induced by intradermal injection of pAra h2, and by i.m. injection of pOMC, the plasmid DNA encoding the major egg allergen protein, ovomucoid. To elucidate whether the pDNA immunization-induced anaphylaxis was a strain-dependent phenomenon, AKR/J and BALB/c mice also received multiple i.m. pAra h2 immunizations. Injection of peanut protein into these strains at weeks 3 or 5 following immunization did not induce reactions. Although IgG2a was increased significantly from week 2 in AKR/J mice and from week 4 in BALB/c mice and remained elevated for at least 6 wk, no IgG1 or IgE was detected. These results indicate that the type of immune responses to pDNA immunization in mice is strain dependent. Consequently, models for studying human allergen gene immunization require careful selection of suitable strains. In addition, this suggests that similar interindividual variation is likely in humans.  (+info)

Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan. (8/3663)

This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria.  (+info)

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of immune cells. In plants, antigens are typically found on the surface of plant cells and may be derived from various sources such as:

1. Pathogens: Plant pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes have unique molecules on their surfaces that can serve as antigens for the plant's immune system. These antigens are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and trigger an immune response.
2. Endogenous proteins: Some plant proteins, when expressed in abnormal locations or quantities, can be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system and elicit an immune response. These proteins may serve as antigens and are involved in self/non-self recognition.
3. Glycoproteins: Plant cell surface glycoproteins, which contain carbohydrate moieties, can also act as antigens. They play a role in plant-microbe interactions and may be recognized by both the plant's immune system and pathogens.
4. Allergens: Certain plant proteins can cause allergic reactions in humans and animals when ingested or inhaled. These proteins, known as allergens, can also serve as antigens for the human immune system, leading to the production of IgE antibodies and triggering an allergic response.
5. Transgenic proteins: In genetically modified plants, new proteins introduced through genetic engineering may be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system or even by the human immune system in some cases. These transgenic proteins can serve as antigens and have been a subject of concern in relation to food safety and potential allergies.

Understanding plant antigens is crucial for developing effective strategies for plant disease management, vaccine development, and improving food safety and allergy prevention.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Mites are tiny arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida, which also includes spiders and ticks. They are characterized by their small size, usually measuring less than 1 mm in length, and their lack of obvious segmentation on their bodies. Many mites are parasitic, feeding on the skin cells, blood, or fluids of plants and animals, including humans. Some common mite infestations in humans include scabies, caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), and dust mites (e.g., Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae), which are commonly found in household dust and can cause allergic reactions in some people. It's worth noting that the majority of mites are not harmful to humans and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers and predators.

Dermatophagoides are a group of mites that are commonly found in house dust. They are a common cause of allergies and can be found in bedding, carpets, and upholstered furniture. Dermatophagoides mites feed on human skin cells and dander, and their feces and bodies contain proteins that can act as antigens. These antigens can trigger an immune response in some people, leading to the production of antibodies and the release of chemicals such as histamine, which can cause allergic symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes.

There are several species of Dermatophagoides mites that are known to cause allergies, including D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. These mites are very small, measuring only about 0.3 millimeters in length, and are not visible to the naked eye. They thrive in warm, humid environments and are most active at night.

Exposure to Dermatophagoides antigens can occur through inhalation or skin contact. In people with allergies to these mites, symptoms can be triggered by activities such as making the bed, vacuuming, or sleeping on a mattress that is infested with mites. Allergy testing, such as a skin prick test or a blood test, can be used to diagnose an allergy to Dermatophagoides mites. Treatment options for allergies to these mites may include avoidance measures, medications, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Arthropods are a phylum of animals that includes insects, spiders, crustaceans, and other creatures with jointed appendages. Arthropod proteins, therefore, refer to the proteins that are found in these organisms. These proteins play various roles in the structure, function, and regulation of arthropod cells, tissues, and organs.

Arthropod proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions, such as structural proteins, enzymes, signaling proteins, and defense proteins. Structural proteins provide support and protection to the arthropod exoskeleton, which is composed mainly of chitin and proteins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in arthropod metabolism, while signaling proteins regulate various physiological processes, including growth, development, and reproduction. Defense proteins protect arthropods from pathogens, parasites, and environmental stressors.

Arthropod proteins have attracted significant interest in biomedical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery, vaccine development, and diagnostic tools. For example, some arthropod proteins have been identified as promising targets for the development of new insecticides and antiparasitic drugs. Additionally, arthropod-derived proteins have been used in the production of recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases such as Lyme disease and malaria.

Understanding the structure and function of arthropod proteins is essential for advancing our knowledge of arthropod biology, evolution, and ecology. It also has important implications for human health, agriculture, and environmental conservation.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyroglyphidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a family of small arthropods, specifically mites, that are often found in houses and other buildings. These mites are commonly known as dust mites or storage mites, and some species are associated with allergies and asthma symptoms in humans. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'll be happy to help!

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Food hypersensitivity is an umbrella term that encompasses both immunologic and non-immunologic adverse reactions to food. It is also known as "food allergy" or "food intolerance." Food hypersensitivity occurs when the body's immune system or digestive system reacts negatively to a particular food or food component.

Immunologic food hypersensitivity, commonly referred to as a food allergy, involves an immune response mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Upon ingestion of the offending food, IgE antibodies bind to the food antigens and trigger the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils, leading to symptoms such as hives, swelling, itching, difficulty breathing, or anaphylaxis.

Non-immunologic food hypersensitivity, on the other hand, does not involve the immune system. Instead, it is caused by various mechanisms, including enzyme deficiencies, pharmacological reactions, and metabolic disorders. Examples of non-immunologic food hypersensitivities include lactose intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and histamine intolerance.

It's important to note that the term "food hypersensitivity" is often used interchangeably with "food allergy," but it has a broader definition that includes both immunologic and non-immunologic reactions.

Desensitization, Immunologic is a medical procedure that aims to decrease the immune system's response to an allergen. This is achieved through the controlled exposure of the patient to gradually increasing amounts of the allergen, ultimately leading to a reduction in the severity of allergic reactions upon subsequent exposures. The process typically involves administering carefully measured and incrementally larger doses of the allergen, either orally, sublingually (under the tongue), or by injection, under medical supervision. Over time, this repeated exposure can help the immune system become less sensitive to the allergen, thereby alleviating allergic symptoms.

The specific desensitization protocol and administration method may vary depending on the type of allergen and individual patient factors. Immunologic desensitization is most commonly used for environmental allergens like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, as well as insect venoms such as bee or wasp stings. It is important to note that this procedure should only be performed under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as there are potential risks involved, including anaphylaxis (a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction).

Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Also known as Type I hypersensitivity, it is an exaggerated and abnormal immune response that occurs within minutes to a few hours after exposure to a second dose of an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction). This type of hypersensitivity is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which are produced by the immune system in response to the first exposure to the allergen. Upon subsequent exposures, these IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, leading to their degranulation and the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. These mediators cause a variety of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain at the site of exposure, as well as systemic symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, and hypotension (low blood pressure). Examples of immediate hypersensitivity reactions include allergic asthma, hay fever, anaphylaxis, and some forms of food allergy.

Allergic rhinitis, seasonal (also known as hay fever) is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when an individual breathes in allergens such as pollen or mold spores. The immune system identifies these substances as harmful and releases histamine and other chemicals, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, red, watery, and itchy eyes, cough, and fatigue. Unlike perennial allergic rhinitis, seasonal allergic rhinitis is worse during specific times of the year when certain plants pollinate.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

'Betula' is the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as birches. These trees belong to the family Betulaceae and are native to the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. There are around 30-60 species in this genus, depending on the classification system used.

Birch trees are known for their distinctive bark, which is often white and peels away in thin layers. They also have simple, ovate leaves that are usually toothed or serrated along the edges. Many birches produce catkins, which are long, slender flowering structures that contain either male or female flowers.

Birch trees have a number of uses, both practical and cultural. The wood is lightweight and easy to work with, making it popular for uses such as furniture-making, paper production, and fuel. Birch bark has also been used historically for a variety of purposes, including canoe construction, writing surfaces, and medicinal remedies.

In addition to their practical uses, birch trees have cultural significance in many regions where they grow. For example, they are often associated with renewal and rebirth due to their ability to regrow from stumps or roots after being cut down. In some cultures, birch trees are also believed to have spiritual or mystical properties.

In medical terms, "dust" is not defined as a specific medical condition or disease. However, generally speaking, dust refers to small particles of solid matter that can be found in the air and can come from various sources, such as soil, pollen, hair, textiles, paper, or plastic.

Exposure to certain types of dust, such as those containing allergens, chemicals, or harmful pathogens, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues like asthma, allergies, and lung diseases. Prolonged exposure to certain types of dust, such as silica or asbestos, can even lead to serious conditions like silicosis or mesothelioma.

Therefore, it is important for individuals who work in environments with high levels of dust to take appropriate precautions, such as wearing masks and respirators, to minimize their exposure and reduce the risk of health problems.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

"Phleum" is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as Timothy-grass or Cat's-tail. It is a type of grass that is widely used in agriculture and gardening. I believe you might be looking for a medical term related to "phleum," so let me clarify:

In medical terminology, the term "phleum" is not commonly used. However, if you are referring to "phlebothrombosis," it is a term that could be relevant. Phlebothrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a vein, which can occur due to various medical conditions or situations, such as immobility, surgery, or certain diseases. The term "phlebo-" means vein, and "-thrombosis" refers to the formation of a thrombus or blood clot.

If this is not the term you were looking for, please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give you a more accurate answer.

A Radioallergosorbent Test (RAST) is a type of blood test used in the diagnosis of allergies. It measures the presence and levels of specific antibodies, called immunoglobulin E (IgE), produced by the immune system in response to certain allergens. In this test, a small amount of blood is taken from the patient and then mixed with various allergens. If the patient has developed IgE antibodies against any of these allergens, they will bind to them, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The mixture is then passed over a solid phase, such as a paper or plastic surface, which has been coated with allergen-specific antibodies. These antibodies will capture the antigen-antibody complexes formed in the previous step. A radioactive label is attached to a different type of antibody (called anti-IgE), which then binds to the IgE antibodies captured on the solid phase. The amount of radioactivity detected is proportional to the quantity of IgE antibodies present, providing an indication of the patient's sensitivity to that specific allergen.

While RAST tests have been largely replaced by more modern and sensitive techniques, such as fluorescence enzyme immunoassays (FEIA), they still provide valuable information in diagnosing allergies and guiding treatment plans.

Allergic rhinitis, perennial type, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergic response to environmental allergens that are present throughout the year. Unlike seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is triggered by specific pollens or molds during certain times of the year, perennial allergic rhinitis is a persistent condition that occurs year-round.

Common allergens responsible for perennial allergic rhinitis include dust mites, cockroaches, pet dander, and indoor mold spores. Symptoms may include sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, ears, throat, or roof of the mouth. Treatment options typically involve avoiding exposure to the offending allergens, if possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists to manage symptoms. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended for long-term management in some cases.

Dermatophagoides farinae is a species of mite that belongs to the family Pyroglyphidae. These mites are commonly known as house dust mites, and they are found in household environments all over the world. Dermatophagoides farinae mites feed on human skin cells and other organic debris, and they are often found in bedding, upholstered furniture, and carpeting.

House dust mites, including Dermatophagoides farinae, are a common cause of allergies. The proteins present in the mite's feces and body parts can trigger an immune response in some people, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and skin irritation. Dermatophagoides farinae is one of the most prevalent species of house dust mite found in North America.

It's worth noting that while house dust mites are often associated with poor hygiene or dirty environments, they can be found even in the cleanest homes. Regular cleaning and vacuuming, as well as the use of allergen-proof covers on bedding, can help reduce the number of house dust mites in the home and alleviate symptoms for those who are allergic to them.

'Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus' is a species of mite that belongs to the family Pyroglyphidae. These mites are commonly known as house dust mites, and they are found in various environments, particularly in households. They thrive in warm and humid conditions, and their primary food source consists of human skin scales.

House dust mites like 'Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus' are associated with allergic reactions in humans, such as asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Their feces and body parts contain protease enzymes that can trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals, leading to the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. These allergens can become airborne and inhaled or come into contact with the skin, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and difficulty breathing.

It is essential to maintain a clean living environment, particularly in bedding and upholstered furniture, to reduce the population of house dust mites and minimize allergen exposure. Measures such as using allergen-impermeable covers for mattresses and pillows, washing bedding in hot water, and reducing humidity levels can help control dust mite populations and alleviate allergic symptoms.

2S albumins are a type of protein found in plants. They are part of the larger family of storage proteins, which are abundant in seeds and provide nutrients to the developing plant embryo. 2S albumins are characterized by their small size, stable structure, and ability to resist digestion in the gut, making them important allergens in some plants.

The name "2S albumins" refers to their sedimentation coefficient, which is a measure of their size and shape in an ultracentrifuge. These proteins typically have a molecular weight of around 8-16 kDa and consist of two subunits held together by disulfide bonds. They are found in a wide variety of plant species, including legumes, cereals, and nuts.

In addition to their role as allergens, 2S albumins have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some studies suggest that they may have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, although more research is needed to confirm these effects and understand their mechanisms of action.

'Ambrosia' is a term that does not have a specific medical definition. In general, it refers to the food or drink of the Greek gods, said to confer immortality upon them. It has been used in various contexts outside of its mythological origins, such as in botany to refer to certain types of plants, and in popular culture to name a genus of weed pollen that can cause severe allergic reactions. However, it does not have a technical medical meaning.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Bronchial provocation tests are a group of medical tests used to assess the airway responsiveness of the lungs by challenging them with increasing doses of a specific stimulus, such as methacholine or histamine, which can cause bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways) in susceptible individuals. These tests are often performed to diagnose and monitor asthma and other respiratory conditions that may be associated with heightened airway responsiveness.

The most common type of bronchial provocation test is the methacholine challenge test, which involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine aerosol via a nebulizer. The dose response is measured by monitoring lung function (usually through spirometry) before and after each exposure. A positive test is indicated when there is a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or other measures of airflow, which suggests bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Other types of bronchial provocation tests include histamine challenges, exercise challenges, and mannitol challenges. These tests have specific indications, contraindications, and protocols that should be followed to ensure accurate results and patient safety. Bronchial provocation tests are typically conducted in a controlled clinical setting under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals.

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

'Arachis hypogaea' is the scientific name for the peanut plant. It is a legume crop that grows underground, which is why it is also known as a groundnut. The peanut plant produces flowers above ground, and when the flowers are pollinated, the ovary of the flower elongates and grows downwards into the soil where the peanut eventually forms and matures.

The peanut is not only an important food crop worldwide but also has various industrial uses, including the production of biodiesel, plastics, and animal feed. The plant is native to South America and was domesticated by indigenous peoples in what is now Brazil and Peru thousands of years ago. Today, peanuts are grown in many countries around the world, with China, India, and the United States being the largest producers.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Allergic contact dermatitis is a type of inflammatory skin reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with a substance (allergen) that the immune system recognizes as foreign and triggers an allergic response. This condition is characterized by redness, itching, swelling, blistering, and cracking of the skin, which usually develops within 24-48 hours after exposure to the allergen. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics. It is important to note that a person must first be sensitized to the allergen before developing an allergic response upon subsequent exposures.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Intradermal tests are a type of allergy test that involves the injection of a small amount of allergen extract directly into the skin, usually the forearm or back. This is different from other types of allergy tests such as scratch tests or blood tests, which measure immune system responses to allergens in other ways.

During an intradermal test, a healthcare professional uses a fine needle to inject a small amount of allergen extract just beneath the surface of the skin. This creates a small wheal or bubble, and the area is then observed for signs of a reaction such as redness, swelling, or itching. These reactions indicate that the person has antibodies to the allergen and may be allergic to it.

Intradermal tests are often used when other types of allergy tests have been inconclusive or when a healthcare professional wants to confirm the results of a previous test. They can be used to diagnose a variety of allergies, including those to insect venom, medications, and environmental allergens such as pollen or mold.

It's important to note that intradermal tests carry a higher risk of causing a severe allergic reaction than other types of allergy tests, so they should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals in a medical setting where appropriate treatments are available.

Latex hypersensitivity is an immune-mediated reaction to proteins found in natural rubber latex, which can cause allergic symptoms ranging from mild skin irritation to life-threatening anaphylaxis. It is a form of type I (immediate) hypersensitivity, mediated by IgE antibodies that bind to mast cells and basophils, leading to the release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation upon re-exposure to latex proteins.

The symptoms of latex hypersensitivity can include skin rashes, hives, itching, nasal congestion, sneezing, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and in severe cases, anaphylaxis characterized by a rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, loss of consciousness, and even death.

Healthcare workers, patients with spina bifida, and those who have undergone multiple surgeries are at increased risk for developing latex hypersensitivity due to repeated exposure to latex products. Prevention measures include using non-latex medical supplies and devices, wearing non-powdered latex gloves, and implementing strict hand hygiene practices.

Basophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are granulocytes, which means they contain granules filled with chemicals that can be released in response to an infection or inflammation. Basophils are relatively rare, making up less than 1% of all white blood cells.

When basophils become activated, they release histamine and other chemical mediators that can contribute to allergic reactions, such as itching, swelling, and redness. They also play a role in inflammation, helping to recruit other immune cells to the site of an infection or injury.

Basophils can be identified under a microscope based on their characteristic staining properties. They are typically smaller than other granulocytes, such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and have a multi-lobed nucleus with dark purple-staining granules in the cytoplasm.

While basophils play an important role in the immune response, abnormal levels of basophils can be associated with various medical conditions, such as allergies, infections, and certain types of leukemia.

Peanut hypersensitivity, also known as peanut allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in peanuts. It is a type of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorder. The body's immune system recognizes the peanut proteins as harmful and produces antibodies (IgE) against them. When the person comes into contact with peanuts again, these antibodies trigger the release of histamine and other chemicals, leading to a range of symptoms that can be mild or severe, including skin reactions, digestive problems, respiratory difficulties, and in some cases, anaphylaxis, which is a life-threatening emergency. It's important to note that peanut hypersensitivity should be diagnosed and managed by a medical professional.

Artemisia is a genus of plants in the Asteraceae family, also known as the daisy family. It includes several species that are commonly known as mugworts, wormwoods, and sagebrushes. Some Artemisia species have been used in traditional medicine for their medicinal properties. For example, Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, contains artemisinin, a compound that has been found to be effective against the malaria parasite. However, it's important to note that some Artemisia species can be toxic and should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

An Animal Technician, also known as a Laboratory Animal Technician, is a professional who cares for and handles animals in a research or testing facility. They are responsible for ensuring the welfare and well-being of the animals, which includes providing them with proper housing, feeding, and medical care. They also assist researchers and veterinarians with procedures and experiments involving animals, and help to maintain accurate records of animal health and behavior.

Animal Technicians must have a strong understanding of animal biology, husbandry, and ethology, as well as knowledge of relevant regulations and guidelines governing the use of animals in research. They may work with a variety of species, including rodents, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and farm animals.

In addition to their technical skills, Animal Technicians must also have excellent observational and communication skills, as they are often responsible for monitoring animal behavior and reporting any changes or concerns to researchers or veterinarians. They must be able to work independently and as part of a team, and may need to work flexible hours, including evenings and weekends, to meet the needs of the animals in their care.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that occurs suddenly after exposure to an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction) to which the person has previously been sensitized. The symptoms of anaphylaxis include rapid onset of symptoms such as itching, hives, swelling of the throat and tongue, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cough, chest tightness, rapid heartbeat, hypotension (low blood pressure), shock, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness and death. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment with epinephrine (adrenaline) and other supportive measures to stabilize the patient's condition.

"Periplaneta" is a genus name that refers to a group of large, winged insects commonly known as cockroaches. The two most common species in this genus are the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and the German cockroach (Periplaneta germantica). These insects are typically found in warm, humid environments and can often be seen scurrying across floors or walls in homes, restaurants, and other buildings. They are known to carry diseases and can cause allergies and asthma attacks in some people.

Wheat hypersensitivity is a general term that refers to adverse reactions to wheat proteins. It can be divided into two main types: food allergies and non-celiac gluten or wheat sensitivity (NCGWS).

1. Food Allergy: This is an immune-mediated reaction to one or more wheat proteins, such as gliadin, glutenin, albumin, and globulin. In this case, the body's immune system mistakenly identifies these proteins as harmful and produces antibodies (IgE) against them. This can lead to symptoms like hives, swelling, itching, difficulty breathing, or anaphylaxis shortly after ingesting wheat.

2. Non-Celiac Gluten or Wheat Sensitivity: This is a non-immune mediated reaction to wheat proteins, where the body does not produce IgE antibodies. The exact mechanisms are not fully understood, but it's believed that other components of wheat, such as fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) or amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), may contribute to the symptoms. These can include gastrointestinal issues like bloating, diarrhea, and stomach pain, as well as non-gastrointestinal symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, and joint pain. Unlike celiac disease, NCGWS does not cause damage to the small intestine.

Allergic conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids) caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is often characterized by redness, itching, watering, and swelling of the eyes. In some cases, the eyes may also become sensitive to light. Allergic conjunctivitis is not contagious and can be treated with medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, or mast cell stabilizers.

Nasal provocation tests are a type of diagnostic procedure used in allergy testing to determine the specific allergens that cause a person's nasal symptoms. In this test, a small amount of an allergen is introduced into the patient's nostril using a spray or drops. The patient's response is then observed and measured for any signs of an allergic reaction, such as sneezing, runny nose, or congestion.

The test may be performed with a single allergen or with a series of allergens to identify which specific substances the patient is allergic to. The results of the test can help guide treatment decisions and management strategies for allergies, including immunotherapy (allergy shots) and avoidance measures.

It's important to note that nasal provocation tests should only be performed under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as there is a small risk of inducing a severe allergic reaction.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

"Cynodon" is a term used in the field of veterinary medicine, specifically in the identification and classification of various species. It refers to a genus of warm-season, perennial grasses that are native to tropical and temperate regions around the world. The name "Cynodon" comes from the Greek words "kyon," meaning dog, and "odous," meaning tooth, which is a reference to the sharp, tooth-like spikes found on some of the species' leaves.

One of the most well-known species in this genus is Cynodon dactylon, also known as Bermuda grass. This hardy and adaptable grass is commonly used for lawns, golf courses, and other landscaping purposes due to its ability to withstand heavy foot traffic and maintain a lush, green appearance even in hot and dry conditions.

While "Cynodon" itself is not a medical term, it is important for veterinarians and other animal health professionals to be familiar with this genus of grasses, as they can have an impact on the health and well-being of animals that come into contact with them. For example, some species of Cynodon can cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in certain animals, while others may contain toxic compounds that can be harmful if ingested.

Overall, "Cynodon" is a term that is primarily used by veterinarians and other professionals in the field of animal health and care, rather than by medical doctors who treat humans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flour" is not a medical term. It is a powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds. The most common type is wheat flour, which is made from grinding wheat grains. Flour is a primary ingredient in many foods such as bread, pasta, and baked goods. I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help.

Egg hypersensitivity, also known as egg allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in eggs. This reaction can occur when someone with a heightened sensitivity to these proteins comes into contact with them, either by ingesting eggs or being exposed to them through inhalation or skin contact.

The symptoms of egg hypersensitivity can vary widely, ranging from mild reactions such as hives, itching, and stomach discomfort to more severe reactions like anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening. Anaphylaxis is a sudden and severe allergic reaction that can cause difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a drop in blood pressure.

If you suspect that you or someone else may have an egg allergy, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. This may include avoiding eggs altogether, carrying an epinephrine auto-injector in case of a severe reaction, and wearing a medical alert bracelet to notify others of the allergy in case of an emergency.

Anisakis is a genus of parasitic nematode (roundworm) that can infect marine mammals, fish, and squid. Humans can become accidentally infected when they consume raw or undercooked seafood that contains Anisakis larvae. This type of infection is known as "anisakiasis" or "herring worm disease."

The infection can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the larvae may penetrate the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to more severe symptoms such as allergic reactions, eosinophilic granulomas, or intestinal obstruction.

Preventing anisakiasis involves cooking or freezing fish and seafood thoroughly before consumption. Freezing fish at -20°C (-4°F) for at least 7 days can kill the larvae, making it safe to eat raw. Proper handling and storage of seafood can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Methacholine chloride is a medication that is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and assess the severity of asthma or other respiratory conditions that cause airway hyperresponsiveness. It is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that causes smooth muscle contraction in the body.

When methacholine chloride is inhaled, it stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the airways, causing them to constrict or narrow. This response is measured and used to determine the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can help diagnose asthma and assess its severity.

The methacholine challenge test involves inhaling progressively higher doses of methacholine chloride until a significant decrease in lung function is observed or until a maximum dose is reached. The test results are then used to guide treatment decisions and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It's important to note that this test should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it carries some risks, including bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phthalic Anhydrides" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O. Phthalic anhydride is a white crystalline powder used in the industrial synthesis of plasticizers, resins, and dyes.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

Rhinitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the nasal passages, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, and postnasal drip. It can be caused by various factors, including allergies (such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander), infections (viral or bacterial), environmental irritants (such as smoke or pollution), and hormonal changes. Depending on the cause, rhinitis can be classified as allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis, infectious rhinitis, or hormonal rhinitis. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, nasal sprays, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Nut hypersensitivity, also known as nut allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in certain nuts (such as peanuts, tree nuts like walnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, etc.). This reaction can range from mild symptoms (like itching of the mouth or skin) to severe and potentially life-threatening reactions (known as anaphylaxis), which may include difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a sudden drop in blood pressure. It's important to note that nut hypersensitivity is not typically outgrown and requires strict avoidance of the offending nuts and often carries the risk of cross-reactivity with other related nuts.

Histamine release is the process by which mast cells and basophils (types of white blood cells) release histamine, a type of chemical messenger or mediator, into the surrounding tissue fluid in response to an antigen-antibody reaction. This process is a key part of the body's immune response to foreign substances, such as allergens, and helps to initiate local inflammation, increase blood flow, and recruit other immune cells to the site of the reaction.

Histamine release can also occur in response to certain medications, physical trauma, or other stimuli. When histamine is released in large amounts, it can cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, and hives. In severe cases, it can lead to anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention.

"Lolium" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually the genus name for a group of plants that are more commonly known as ryegrasses. These plants belong to the family Poaceae and include several species that are widely used as pasture, hay, or lawn grasses.

While not directly related to human health, these plants can have indirect effects on health, particularly in agricultural settings. For example, certain ryegrass species can host a parasitic nematode called "Haemonchus contortus," which can infect and cause disease in livestock that graze on the grass.

However, without further context, it's challenging to provide a specific medical definition for "Lolium." If you have more information or if this term is being used in a specific medical context, please provide those details so I can give a more accurate response.

'Corylus' is the medical term for the genus of plants that includes hazelnuts and filberts. These trees and shrubs are part of the Betulaceae family, which also includes birch and alder trees. The nuts produced by Corylus species are a valuable food source for both humans and wildlife.

The most commonly cultivated species of Corylus is the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana), which is native to Europe and western Asia. This species is grown commercially in many parts of the world for its sweet, edible nuts. The North American beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) and the North American round-leaf hazelnut (Corylus americana) are also cultivated to a lesser extent for their nuts.

In addition to their nutritional value, Corylus species have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. The bark, leaves, and nuts of these plants contain various compounds that have been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of Corylus species and their active constituents.

Anti-allergic agents, also known as antihistamines, are a class of medications used to treat allergies. They work by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that is released during an allergic reaction and causes symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.

There are two main types of antihistamines: first-generation and second-generation. First-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), can cause drowsiness and other side effects, such as dry mouth and blurred vision. They are typically used for the treatment of short-term symptoms, such as those caused by seasonal allergies or a mild reaction to an insect bite.

Second-generation antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec), are less likely to cause drowsiness and other side effects. They are often used for the long-term treatment of chronic allergies, such as those caused by dust mites or pet dander.

In addition to their use in treating allergies, antihistamines may also be used to treat symptoms of motion sickness, insomnia, and anxiety. It is important to follow the instructions on the label when taking antihistamines and to talk to a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using these medications.

Acaridae is a family of mites, also known as "grain mites" or "flour mites." These mites are tiny arthropods that are commonly found in stored food products such as grains, cereals, and dried fruits. Some species of Acaridae can cause allergic reactions in humans, and they have been known to contaminate food and cause spoilage. They are also capable of carrying and transmitting various diseases.

Here is a medical definition for Acaridae:

"A family of mites that includes several species commonly found in stored food products such as grains, cereals, and dried fruits. These mites can cause allergic reactions in humans and contaminate food, leading to spoilage. Some species are capable of carrying and transmitting diseases."

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein that mediates and regulates immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. IL-5 is primarily produced by activated T cells, especially Th2 cells, as well as mast cells, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

The primary function of IL-5 is to regulate the growth, differentiation, activation, and survival of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response against parasitic infections. IL-5 also enhances the ability of eosinophils to migrate from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then into tissues, where they can participate in immune responses.

In addition to its effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been shown to have a role in the regulation of B cell function, including promoting the survival and differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Dysregulation of IL-5 production and activity has been implicated in several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain parasitic infections.

"Cryptomeria" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually the scientific name for a type of evergreen tree, also known as Japanese cedar. In some cases, Cryptomeria pollen may cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes. However, it is not a medical condition itself.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Medical definitions for "milk hypersensitivity" include:

1. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) defines milk hypersensitivity as an abnormal immune response to one or more proteins found in cow's milk. This reaction can be either an immediate immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or a non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI).
2. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), milk hypersensitivity is an adverse reaction to milk proteins, which can be either an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or a non-IgE-mediated immune response, causing gastrointestinal symptoms.
3. The Merck Manual defines milk hypersensitivity as an abnormal reaction to one or more proteins in cow's milk, which can manifest as immediate IgE-mediated allergic reactions or delayed non-IgE-mediated reactions, causing various gastrointestinal and skin symptoms.

In summary, milk hypersensitivity is a broad term that encompasses both immune-mediated allergic reactions (IgE and non-IgE) to cow's milk proteins, leading to various clinical manifestations affecting the gastrointestinal system, skin, or respiratory tract.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Occupational dermatitis is a specific type of contact dermatitis that results from exposure to certain substances or conditions in the workplace. It can be caused by direct contact with chemicals, irritants, or allergens present in the work environment. This condition typically affects the skin on the hands and forearms but can also involve other areas of the body, depending on the nature of the exposure.

There are two main types of occupational dermatitis:

1. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD): This type occurs when the skin comes into direct contact with an irritating substance, leading to redness, swelling, itching, and sometimes blistering. Common irritants include solvents, detergents, oils, and other industrial chemicals.
2. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD): This type is a result of an allergic reaction to a specific substance. The immune system identifies the allergen as harmful and mounts a response, causing skin inflammation. Common allergens include latex, metals (such as nickel), and certain plants (like poison ivy).

Prevention measures for occupational dermatitis include using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) like gloves, masks, and aprons, as well as practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding touching the face with contaminated hands. If you suspect you have developed occupational dermatitis, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal disease caused by the accidental consumption and infection with larvae of nematode parasites belonging to the genus Anisakis. The life cycle of these parasites typically involves marine animals such as fish and squid, which serve as intermediate or paratenic hosts. Human infections usually occur when people eat raw or undercooked seafood that contains infective larvae.

After ingestion, the larvae can penetrate the gastrointestinal mucosa, causing an inflammatory reaction and potentially leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. In some cases, the larvae may invade deeper tissues, resulting in more severe complications like allergic reactions, intestinal obstruction, or perforation.

Diagnosis of anisakiasis is often based on clinical presentation, epidemiological data, and detection of parasite larvae in biopsy samples, stool specimens, or vomitus. Treatment typically involves endoscopic removal of the larvae, supportive care for symptoms, and sometimes anti-parasitic medication. Preventive measures include thoroughly cooking seafood, freezing it at temperatures below -20°C (-4°F) for at least 7 days, or practicing proper hygiene during food preparation to minimize the risk of infection.

Bee venom is a poisonous substance that a honeybee (Apis mellifera) injects into the skin of a person or animal when it stings. It's produced in the venom gland and stored in the venom sac of the bee. Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, and other compounds. The main active components of bee venom include melittin, apamin, and phospholipase A2.

Melittin is a toxic peptide that causes pain, redness, and swelling at the site of the sting. It also has hemolytic (red blood cell-destroying) properties. Apamin is a neurotoxin that can affect the nervous system and cause neurological symptoms in severe cases. Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that can damage cell membranes and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Bee venom has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, particularly in China and other parts of Asia. It's believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and immunomodulatory effects. Some studies suggest that bee venom may have therapeutic potential for a variety of medical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the safety and efficacy of bee venom therapy.

It's important to note that bee stings can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in some people, which can be life-threatening. If you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, or hives after being stung by a bee, seek medical attention immediately.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Floors and Floorcoverings" is not a medical term. It refers to the physical structures and materials used to cover floors in buildings or homes. If you have any medical terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

A Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is a scientific test used to determine the skin-sensitizing potential of chemical substances. It is a standardized method developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The assay measures the ability of a test substance to induce a immune response in the lymph nodes draining the site of application, which indicates that the substance has the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis.

In this test, the chemical is applied to the skin of mice for three consecutive days, and then the lymph nodes are removed and assessed for immune cell activation. The amount of immune cells (lymphocytes) proliferation in response to the chemical is measured and compared to a control group. A substance is considered a skin sensitizer if it induces a three-fold or greater increase in lymph node cell proliferation compared to the control group.

The LLNA is considered to be a more accurate and reliable method for determining the skin-sensitizing potential of chemicals than previous methods, such as guinea pig maximization tests and Buehler tests, which were found to have high rates of false positive and false negative results. The LLNA has been widely adopted by regulatory agencies and industry as a standard test for assessing the safety of chemical substances.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Wasp venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules produced by wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to defend themselves and paralyze prey. The main components include:

1. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2): Enzymes that can cause pain, inflammation, and damage to cell membranes.
2. Hyaluronidase: An enzyme that helps spread the venom by breaking down connective tissues.
3. Proteases: Enzymes that break down proteins and contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.
4. Antigen 5: A major allergen that can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in sensitive individuals.
5. Mastoparan: A peptide that induces histamine release, leading to localized inflammation and pain.
6. Neurotoxins: Some wasp venoms contain neurotoxins that can cause paralysis or neurological symptoms.

The composition of wasp venoms may vary among species, and individual sensitivity to the components can result in different reactions ranging from localized pain, swelling, and redness to systemic allergic responses.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Pulmonary eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs or pulmonary tissues. Eosinophils play a role in the body's immune response to parasites and allergens, but an overabundance can contribute to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The condition may be associated with various underlying causes, such as:

1. Asthma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
2. Eosinophilic lung diseases, like eosinophilic pneumonia or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome
3. Parasitic infections, such as ascariasis or strongyloidiasis
4. Drug reactions, including certain antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs
5. Connective tissue disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis or Churg-Strauss syndrome
6. Malignancies, such as lymphoma or leukemia
7. Other less common conditions, like tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Symptoms of pulmonary eosinophilia can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as complete blood count (CBC) with differential, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), or lung biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include corticosteroids, antibiotics, or antiparasitic medications.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of eosinophils in the circulating blood. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in fighting off parasitic infections and regulating allergic reactions. However, when their numbers become excessively high, they can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Eosinophilia is typically defined as a count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood. Mild eosinophilia (up to 1,500 cells/μL) may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during routine blood tests. However, higher levels of eosinophilia can lead to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, skin rashes, and organ damage, depending on the underlying cause.

The causes of eosinophilia are varied and can include allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, and some types of cancer. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilia require identification and management of the underlying cause.

Medical Laboratory Personnel are professionals who perform and interpret various laboratory tests to assist physicians in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating diseases and other medical conditions. They work in different areas of the clinical laboratory such as chemistry, hematology, immunology, microbiology, and transfusion medicine.

Their responsibilities may include collecting and processing specimens, operating and maintaining laboratory equipment, performing tests and procedures, analyzing results, conducting quality control, maintaining records, and reporting findings to healthcare providers. Medical Laboratory Personnel play a critical role in ensuring the accuracy and timeliness of diagnostic information, which is essential for providing effective medical care.

Medical Laboratory Personnel may hold various job titles, including Medical Laboratory Technologist (MLT), Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS), Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CLS), Medical Technologist (MT), Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT), and Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT). The specific duties and educational requirements for these positions may vary depending on the laboratory setting, state regulations, and professional certification.

Bronchoconstrictor agents are substances that cause narrowing or constriction of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchoconstrictor agents include certain medications (such as some beta-blockers and prostaglandin F2alpha), environmental pollutants (such as tobacco smoke and air pollution particles), and allergens (such as dust mites and pollen).

In contrast to bronchodilator agents, which are medications that widen the airways and improve breathing, bronchoconstrictor agents can make it more difficult for a person to breathe. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be particularly sensitive to bronchoconstrictor agents and may experience severe symptoms when exposed to them.

In a medical context, "latex" refers to the natural rubber milk-like substance that is tapped from the incisions made in the bark of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). This sap is then processed to create various products such as gloves, catheters, and balloons. It's important to note that some people may have a latex allergy, which can cause mild to severe reactions when they come into contact with latex products.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Sublingual administration refers to a route of delivering medication or other substances through placement under the tongue, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes located there. This method can allow for quick onset of action and avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver that may occur with oral administration. Common examples of sublingual medications include nitroglycerin for angina pectoris and certain forms of hormone replacement therapy.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

"Cupressus" is a genus of evergreen trees that belong to the family Cupressaceae. This genus includes several species of cypress trees, which are native to different parts of the world. Some common examples of trees in this genus include the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), the Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), and the Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa). These trees are known for their tall, slender trunks and their small, scale-like leaves that are arranged in opposite pairs. They are often used as ornamental plants and for timber production.

'Bedding and linens' is a term that refers to the items used to cover, clean, and maintain beds and other furniture in medical and residential settings. These items include:

1. Sheets: These are flat pieces of cloth that are placed on top of the mattress and beneath the blankets or comforters. They come in various sizes (twin, full, queen, king) to fit different mattress sizes.
2. Blankets/Comforters: These are thicker, often quilted or filled, pieces of fabric that provide warmth and comfort to the user.
3. Pillows and pillowcases: Pillows are used to support the head and neck during sleep, while pillowcases are the removable covers that protect the pillows from dirt, sweat, and stains.
4. Mattress pads/protectors: These are additional layers placed between the mattress and the sheets to provide extra protection against spills, stains, or allergens.
5. Bed skirts: These are decorative pieces of fabric that cover the space between the box spring and the floor, hiding any storage area or providing a more finished look to the bed.
6. Towels and washcloths: While not directly related to the bed, these linens are often included in the 'bedding and linens' category as they share similar cleaning and maintenance requirements.

In medical settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, strict infection control protocols are followed for handling, washing, and storing bedding and linens to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a cytokine that plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the development of allergic inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. It is primarily produced by activated Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. IL-13 mediates its effects through binding to the IL-13 receptor complex, which consists of the IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα chains.

IL-13 has several functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of IgE production by B cells
* Induction of eosinophil differentiation and activation
* Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages
* Promotion of mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness in the lungs, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma.

Dysregulation of IL-13 has been implicated in various diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Therefore, targeting IL-13 with biologic therapies has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

'Alternaria' is a genus of widely distributed saprophytic fungi that are often found in soil, plant debris, and water. They produce darkly pigmented, septate hyphae and conidia (asexual spores) that are characterized by their distinctive beak-like projections.

Alternaria species can cause various types of plant diseases, including leaf spots, blights, and rots, which can result in significant crop losses. They also produce a variety of mycotoxins, which can have harmful effects on human and animal health.

In humans, Alternaria species can cause allergic reactions, such as hay fever and asthma, as well as skin and respiratory tract infections. Exposure to Alternaria spores is also a known risk factor for the development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a condition characterized by inflammation and scarring of the lungs.

It's important to note that medical definitions can vary depending on the context, so it may be helpful to consult a reliable medical or scientific source for more specific information about Alternaria and its potential health effects.

Eczema is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the skin, which leads to symptoms such as redness, itching, scaling, and blistering. It is often used to describe atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing form of eczema, although there are several other types of eczema with different causes and characteristics.

Atopic dermatitis is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and it often affects people with a family history of allergic conditions such as asthma or hay fever. The condition typically begins in infancy or childhood and can persist into adulthood, although it may improve over time.

Eczema can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly found on the hands, feet, behind the knees, inside the elbows, and on the face. The rash of eczema is often accompanied by dry, scaly skin, and people with the condition may experience periods of flare-ups and remissions.

Treatment for eczema typically involves a combination of moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated, topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and antihistamines to relieve itching. In severe cases, systemic immunosuppressive drugs may be necessary. It is also important for people with eczema to avoid triggers that can worsen their symptoms, such as harsh soaps, scratchy fabrics, and stress.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Cysteine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins. They are also known as cysteine proteases or cysteine proteinases. These enzymes contain a catalytic triad consisting of three amino acids: cysteine, histidine, and aspartate. The thiol group (-SH) of the cysteine residue acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, leading to its cleavage.

Cysteine endopeptidases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. Some examples of cysteine endopeptidases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains.

It is important to note that these enzymes require a reducing environment to maintain the reduced state of their active site cysteine residue. Therefore, they are sensitive to oxidizing agents and inhibitors that target the thiol group. Understanding the structure and function of cysteine endopeptidases is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies that target these enzymes in various diseases.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a medical condition characterized by an hypersensitivity reaction to the fungus Aspergillus species, most commonly A. fumigatus. It primarily affects the airways and lung tissue. The immune system overreacts to the presence of the fungus, leading to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The main symptoms of ABPA include wheezing, coughing, production of thick mucus, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms are similar to those seen in asthma and other respiratory conditions. Some people with ABPA may also experience fever, weight loss, and fatigue.

Diagnosis of ABPA typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as chest X-rays or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as blood tests or sputum cultures) to detect the presence of Aspergillus species and elevated levels of certain antibodies.

Treatment for ABPA usually involves a combination of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and antifungal medications to eradicate the Aspergillus infection. In some cases, immunomodulatory therapies may also be used to help regulate the immune system's response to the fungus.

It is important to note that ABPA can lead to serious complications if left untreated, including bronchiectasis (permanent enlargement of the airways), pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of the lung tissue), and respiratory failure. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing this condition.

Arginine kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of arginine, a basic amino acid, to form phosphoarginine. This reaction plays a crucial role in energy metabolism in various organisms, including invertebrates and microorganisms. Phosphoarginine serves as an energy storage molecule, similar to how phosphocreatine is used in vertebrate muscle tissue. Arginine kinase is not typically found in mammals, but it is present in other animals such as insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. The enzyme helps facilitate rapid energy transfer during high-intensity activities, supporting the organism's physiological functions.

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CDC Allergen Resources:. *Asthma - guidance on asthma symptoms, triggers, and management. *Asthma and Allergies in the ... If you have allergic rhinitis, your body then responds to the allergen by releasing chemicals that can cause symptoms in the ... Symptoms of allergic rhinitis can occur during certain seasons or year-round, depending on the allergen, and affect as many as ... Allergic conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the lining of the eye (conjunctiva) due to exposure to allergens like those in ...
"Why Mustard Added to Top Allergen List in Canada". Allergic Living. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2021. "Allergens in ... "List of 14 Allergens , Food Information , Food Legislation , Legislation , The Food Safety Authority of Ireland". www.fsai.ie. ... Kelso JM, Cockrell GE, Helm RM, Burks AW (July 1999). "Common allergens in avian meats". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical ... This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where ...
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Our study shows that household cleaning products in Italian market contain several allergens, particularly preservatives and ... Contact allergens and irritants in household washing and cleaning products Contact Dermatitis. 2009 Dec;61(6):337-41. doi: ... Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of irritants and allergens as indicated on the labels or on ... Background: Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from ...
MARIA allergen: (ng allergen/mL)*(1mL/45mg dust) *(1000 mg dust/1 g dust) = ng allergen/g dust [multiply by factor of 22.22] ... Status of Dust Allergen Data. English Text: Status of Dust Allergen Data. Target: Both males and females 1 YEARS - 150 YEARS. ... Cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) dust allergen, comment code. Target: Both males and females 1 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code ... WTAL2YR - Dust Allergen Subsample 2-Year Weight. Variable Name: WTAL2YR. SAS Label: Dust Allergen Subsample 2-Year Weight. ...
Tags: allergen, ice cream, Kroger, mislabeled food, pecans. Print:. Email this postTweet this postLike this postShare this post ... Kroger Ice Cream May Contain Undeclared Allergen. By News Desk on November 7, 2012. ... a known allergen that is not listed on the label. The recalled product, labeled as Kroger Deluxe French Vanilla Ice Cream, was ...
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Aluminum-Allergen of the Year 2022. *Mark. Bruze, Magnus LU ; Netterlid, Eva LU and Siemund, Ingrid LU (2022) In Dermatitis 33( ... Aluminum in vaccines and preparations for allergen-specific immunotherapy are the major sensitization sources. The predominent ... Aluminum in vaccines and preparations for allergen-specific immunotherapy are the major sensitization sources. The predominent ... Aluminum in vaccines and preparations for allergen-specific immunotherapy are the major sensitization sources. The predominent ...
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  • Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Aluminum in vaccines and preparations for allergen-specific immunotherapy are the major sensitization sources. (lu.se)
  • Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) can be given as SCIT or as one of the four sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (house dust mite, 5-grass, Timothy grass, and ragweed) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for allergic rhinitis. (medscape.com)
  • Allergen immunotherapy has been utilized for years, and we are now getting more and more information about how it works, its efficacy, and the pros and cons of SCIT vs. SLIT and the best patients for which it is indicated," said Dr. Lockey, was not involved in the review. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Antonella Muraro, chair of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Allergen Immunotherapy Guidelines from the University of Padua, Italy, said, "AIT can represent an effective treatment at an early stage in allergic asthmatic children using validated symptoms scores to monitor outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical care pathways should include allergen immunotherapy as a treatment option in pediatric allergic asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Now, these children have a risk of developing a food allergy before the age of 5.5 years that is two times greater than that of children in whom the four major allergens were introduced before the age of 10 months. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Delayed Introduction of Allergens Increases Allergy Risk - Medscape - Aug 22, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • The primary purpose of the NHANES 2005-2006 allergy component was to investigate the effects of common indoor allergens on allergic sensitization and disease in the non-institutionalized U.S. population. (cdc.gov)
  • Laws and regulations, such as the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA) , and the Food Allergy Safety, Treatment, Education and Research Act (FASTER) make it easier for people to identify potential food allergies in food products. (cdc.gov)
  • In people who have sensitive airways, allergy and asthma symptoms can be triggered by breathing in substances called allergens, or triggers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Allergic conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the lining of the eye (conjunctiva) due to exposure to allergens like those in pollen. (cdc.gov)
  • These sampling sites were chosen because it is generally believed that the bedroom is the relevant site for exposure to indoor allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • Over the past 4 decades the prevalence of asthma has increased worldwide, and the debate about the causes of this have focussed on environmental exposure to pollutants and allergens in modern society [1]. (who.int)
  • Since route of allergen exposure can influence mechanistic pathways, mice were sensitized by identical routes with a high molecular weight occupational allergen ovalbumin and a low molecular weight occupational allergen trimellitic anhydride (TMA). (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to Harmful Substances (10%) predominantly involved inhalation injuries from exposure to pesticides (8) and allergens including cannabis dust and mold (7). (cdc.gov)
  • First, a nationally representative sample of household dust was collected to measure the amounts of 10 indoor allergens and endotoxin that were present. (cdc.gov)
  • The allergens in dust dataset (ALDUST_D), contains results for 10 common indoor allergens and endotoxin from the collected dust sample extract. (cdc.gov)
  • Dust endotoxin was also measured with the dust allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • The most important predictors for detectable levels of house-dust mite allergen Der p 1 were Arabic-style houses (OR 3.21) and newer houses (OR 1.56). (who.int)
  • Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from these products in general consumers is rarely reported in the literature. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of irritants and allergens as indicated on the labels or on the product information found on the website of household cleaning products marketed in Italy. (nih.gov)
  • It is characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways in reaction to allergens or irritants that are inhaled into the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. (cdc.gov)
  • Cipriani F, Calamelli E, Ricci G. Allergen avoidance in allergic asthma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Climate change will potentially lead to both higher pollen concentrations and longer pollen seasons, causing more people to suffer more health effects from pollen and other allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • Pollen is an airborne allergen that can affect our health. (cdc.gov)
  • Hay fever, also known as allergic rhinitis, occurs when allergens like pollen enter your body and your immune system mistakenly identifies them as a threat. (cdc.gov)
  • Higher pollen concentrations and longer pollen seasons can also make you more sensitive to allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • Pollen isn't the only allergen that can set off hay fever, indoor allergens such as dust mites, dead skin and animal fur can cause an allergic response too. (idealhome.co.uk)
  • If you have allergic rhinitis, your body then responds to the allergen by releasing chemicals that can cause symptoms in the nose. (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms of allergic rhinitis can occur during certain seasons or year-round, depending on the allergen, and affect as many as 60 million people per year in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Second, a blood sample was also drawn at the NHANES examination site for allergen specific immunoglobin E (IgE) antibody testing to these same allergens (AL_IGE_D). Third, data on self-reported allergic symptoms and conditions and household characteristics was collected during household interview questionnaires (AGQ_D, RDQ_D, MCQ_D, HOQ_D). (cdc.gov)
  • The ALDUST_D dataset was developed to provide data relevant to examining the relationship between specific indoor allergen concentrations and the risk of allergic sensitization, symptoms, and disease. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that mechanistic pathways leading to asthma symptoms in the effector phase of the disorder differ with the inciting allergen. (cdc.gov)
  • The lack of validated symptoms scores, the heterogeneity of the outcomes, and the difference for single allergen versus polysensitization are the main gaps that should be urgently and properly addressed in adequately powered research trials," she told Reuters Health by email. (medscape.com)
  • They saw that for 1 in 10 children, at least two major allergens, from eggs, fish, wheat, and dairy products, had still not been introduced into the diet of infants by the age of 10 months. (medscape.com)
  • Test for 15 common food allergens and up to 25 common indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens. (thermofisher.com)
  • From the participant's perspective, demonstrating a quantitative relationship between allergen concentrations and allergic outcomes could possibly be used to determine if action is needed to reduce allergen exposures, and hence, subsequently reduce risks to health. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterization of Linear IgE-Binding Epitopes in Food Allergens. (bvsalud.org)
  • An IgE epitope is a part of an allergen that is capable of binding to IgE antibodies and eliciting an immune response . (bvsalud.org)
  • Avoiding or restricting contact with recognized allergens is recommended to lessen or prevent asthma episodes. (ultramedsglobal.com)
  • Food labels must start to identify sesame as an allergen beginning January 1, 2023. (cdc.gov)
  • Rat n 1 is an allergen from rats which have a similar habitat to mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of high molecular environmental factors are known to influence the development weight occupational allergens include proteases used in the and expression of asthma, and a vast array of triggers of asthma detergent industry, laboratory animal allergens, and ovalbumin have been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • This allergen occurs on particulates that are readily transportable, and can be found throughout the home environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Preservatives and fragrances are the main allergens declared in the label of household cleaning products with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) listed in 35.7% and limonene in 43.6% of the products. (nih.gov)
  • Our study shows that household cleaning products in Italian market contain several allergens, particularly preservatives and fragrances. (nih.gov)
  • The household dust sample collection procedure is described in detail in the NHANES Allergen Dust Collection Procedures Manual. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact allergens in registered cleaning agents for industrial and household use. (bmj.com)
  • Many studies in different settings have demonstrated a relationship between household characteristics and allergen levels in houses. (who.int)
  • Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 are allergens from German cockroach, typically found in a household's kitchen and/or bathrooms. (cdc.gov)
  • The methodology developed in this study could potentially be useful to monitor and verify allergen reduction efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • Tillamook Greek Yogurt does not contain any major allergens other than milk, but please note that the equipment occasionally processes eggs and coconut. (tillamook.com)
  • Genomic allergen rapid detection (GARD) is an in vitro assay for the prediction of skin sensitizing capacity of chemicals. (lu.se)
  • There are simple cleaning tasks we can do to reduce the levels of allergens in the home. (idealhome.co.uk)
  • Since pigs are often fed soybeans, a low-allergen soybean could reduce their own allergic response. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Knowing how to read food labels is a practical skill that can help you avoid food allergens, reduce sodium and sugar in your diet, reduce food waste, and better manage your emergency food supply. (cdc.gov)
  • Use furniture polish to help reduce dust and other allergens. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our Tillamook Farmstyle Cream Cheese Spreads do not contain any major allergens other than milk. (tillamook.com)
  • Tillamook Cheese does not contain any major allergens beside milk, and the cheesemaking equipment never processes any major allergens other than milk. (tillamook.com)
  • Our Tillamook Good and Creamy Yogurt does not contain any major allergens other than milk, and is produced in a facility which does not contain any major allergens other than milk. (tillamook.com)
  • Our Tillamook Extra Creamy Butter does not contain any major allergens other than milk, and is produced in a facility that does not contain major allergens besides milk. (tillamook.com)
  • Using the allergens common name in the ingredient list (e.g., milk). (cdc.gov)
  • The Kroger Co., a Cincinnati-based grocery store chain, announced Tuesday that it was recalling its house brand of french vanilla ice cream - sold in 11 states - because the product may contain pecan, a known allergen that is not listed on the label. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Both genetics and environmental factors influence the expression of asthma, and not all asthma is the result of a specific immune response to allergen. (cdc.gov)
  • Some patients might gain from a procedure that teaches your body to tolerate allergens more readily. (ultramedsglobal.com)
  • ABSTRACT Few data are available from Eastern Mediterranean countries about levels of domestic allergens and endotoxins. (who.int)
  • This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have any allergies, take a look at our allergen table to be sure the menu items calling your name are safe for your consumption. (beggarspizza.com)
  • These findings therefore confirm the importance of not delaying the introduction of major food allergens to prevent the occurrence of childhood allergic diseases. (medscape.com)
  • WASHINGTON, March 14, 2015 Bear Creek Smokehouse, a Marshall, Texas establishment, is recalling approximately 3,700 pounds of beef products due to misbranding and an undeclared allergen, the U.S. Department of Agricultures Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today. (usda.gov)
  • THE FOOD SAFETY Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has said all batches of a beverage from supermarket chain Lidl are being recalled due to an undeclared allergen. (thejournal.ie)
  • FALCPA requires labeling for the eight most common food allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • FASTER identifies sesame as a major food allergen. (cdc.gov)
  • Reading labels each time you shop to avoid food allergens will ensure your emergency food supply is ready when you need it. (cdc.gov)
  • This chapter describes the protocol for manual synthesis of overlapping peptides on a cellulose membrane and subsequent dot blotting of the peptides with allergic patients ' IgE to map the linear IgE -binding epitopes in food allergens . (bvsalud.org)
  • For all Tillamook products, there are strict GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) in place which are designed to mitigate the risk of any cross-contamination of major allergens on shared equipment. (tillamook.com)
  • Array studies provide candidate genes to identify common mechanistic pathways in the effector phase, as well as mechanistic pathways unique to individual allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • Can f 1 is an allergen from dogs. (cdc.gov)
  • 6) when an individual is unresponsive to medical management where identification of offending allergens may be beneficial. (labcorp.com)
  • The hypersensitive pigs can now be used to test if these low-allergen soybeans are safe enough for allergic individuals. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In our review, we did not find studies in which researchers evaluated the effect of single versus multiple allergen AIT in patients who are polysensitized, which is an important clinical question to address in future trials," the researchers write. (medscape.com)
  • Easily browse through the categories below to find the allergen information you are searching for. (thermofisher.com)
  • Find out more about indoor allergens. (aaaai.org)