An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
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Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for RHODIOLA.
Facilities which provide care for infants.
Schools for children usually under five years of age.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A TIE receptor found predominantly on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is considered essential for vascular development and can form a heterodimer with the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. The TIE-1 receptor may play a role in regulating BLOOD VESSEL stability and maturation.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/343)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta. (2/343)

Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta.  (+info)

Cortisol in fetal fluids and the fetal adrenal at parturition in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). (3/343)

Glucocorticoid hormones may play a critical role in initiating parturition in tammar wallabies. In this study, we investigated the concentration of cortisol in fetal fluids and cortisol production by fetal adrenals over the last 3 days of the 26-day pregnancy and within 24 h postpartum. The fetal adrenals almost doubled in size between Days 24 and 26 of pregnancy, and their cortisol content increased over 10-fold during this period, from 10 pg to over 100 pg per adrenal pair. After birth, neonatal adrenals continued to grow, but cortisol content fell dramatically to 20 pg. The prepartum increase in adrenal cortisol was reflected by a substantial rise in cortisol concentrations in yolk sac fluid, allantoic fluid, and fetal blood, which were below 10 ng/ml on Day 24 and rose to over 40 ng/ml by Day 26. Cortisol concentrations in neonatal blood decreased postpartum, mirroring decreased cortisol content in neonatal adrenals. Cortisol production by the fetal adrenal was stimulated in vitro by ACTH and prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the in vivo increase may be stimulated by release of ACTH from the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis and prostaglandin E2 from the placenta. These results indicate that increasing cortisol production by the fetal adrenal is a characteristic of late pregnancy in the tammar wallaby and support the suggestion that fetal cortisol may trigger the initiation of parturition in this marsupial species.  (+info)

Bmp4 is required for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. (4/343)

In many organisms the allocation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is determined by the inheritance of maternal factors deposited in the egg. However, in mammals, inductive cell interactions are required around gastrulation to establish the germ line. Here, we show that Bmp4 homozygous null embryos contain no PGCs. They also lack an allantois, an extraembryonic mesodermal tissue derived, like the PGCs, from precursors in the proximal epiblast. Heterozygotes have fewer PGCs than normal, due to a reduction in the size of the founding population and not to an effect on its subsequent expansion. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity in Bmp4(lacZneo) embryos reveals that prior to gastrulation, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic ectoderm. Later, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic mesoderm, but not in PGCs. Chimera analysis indicates that it is the Bmp4 expression in the extraembryonic ectoderm that regulates the formation of allantois and primordial germ cell precursors, and the size of the founding population of PGCs. The initiation of the germ line in the mouse therefore depends on a secreted signal from the previously segregated, extraembryonic, trophectoderm lineage.  (+info)

Identification of endothelial cell binding sites on the laminin gamma 1 chain. (5/343)

The laminins belong to a family of trimeric basement membrane glycoproteins with multiple domains, structures, and functions. Endothelial cells bind laminin-1 and form capillary-like structures when plated on a laminin-1-rich basement membrane matrix, Matrigel. Laminin-1 is composed of 3 chains, alpha1, beta1, and gamma1. Because laminin-1 is known to contain multiple biologically active sites, we have screened 156 synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire laminin gamma1 chain for potential angiogenic sequences. Only 7 of these peptides, designated as C16, C25, C30, C38, C64, C75, and C102, disrupted the formation of capillary-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells on Matrigel. Dose-response experiments in the presence of 50 to 200 microg/mL showed that tube formation was prevented by most peptides at 150 and 200 microg/mL, except for C16, which showed strong activity at all concentrations. Active peptides promoted vessel sprouting from aorta rings and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. In addition, the active peptides also promoted endothelial cell adhesion to dishes coated with 0.1 microg of peptide and inhibited attachment to laminin-1 but not to plastic or fibronectin. Four of the active peptides, C25, C38, C75, and C102, may have cell-type specificity with endothelial cells, since they did not promote PC12 neurite outgrowth or adhesion of B16-F10 melanoma and human submandibular gland cells. These results suggest that specific laminin gamma1-chain peptides have angiogenic activity with potential therapeutic applications.  (+info)

Human erythropoietin induces a pro-angiogenic phenotype in cultured endothelial cells and stimulates neovascularization in vivo. (6/343)

Hematopoietic and endothelial cell lineages share common progenitors. Accordingly, cytokines formerly thought to be specific for the hematopoietic system have been shown to affect several functions in endothelial cells, including angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the angiogenic potential of erythropoietin (Epo), the main hormone regulating proliferation, differentiation, and survival of erythroid cells. Epo receptors (EpoRs) have been identified in the human EA.hy926 endothelial cell line by Western blot analysis. Also, recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) stimulates Janus Kinase-2 (JAK-2) phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) production in EA.hy926 cells and significantly enhances their differentiation into vascular structures when seeded on Matrigel. In vivo, rHuEpo induces a potent angiogenic response in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Accordingly, endothelial cells of the CAM vasculature express EpoRs, as shown by immunostaining with an anti-EpoR antibody. The angiogenic response of CAM blood vessels to rHuEpo was comparable to that elicited by the prototypic angiogenic cytokine basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), it occurred in the absence of a significant mononuclear cell infiltrate, and it was not mimicked by endothelin-1 (ET-1) treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate the ability of Epo to interact directly with endothelial cells and to elicit an angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo and thus act as a bona fide direct angiogenic factor.  (+info)

Purine analogue 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside inhibits early and late phases of the angiogenesis process. (7/343)

Angiogenesis has been identified as an important target for antineoplastic therapy. The use of purine analogue antimetabolites in combination chemotherapy of solid tumors has been proposed. To assess the possibility that selected purine analogues may affect tumor neovascularization, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6-MMPR), 6-methylmercaptopurine, 2-aminopurine, and adenosine were evaluated for the capacity to inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. 6-MMPR inhibited fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2)-induced proliferation and delayed the repair of mechanically wounded monolayer in endothelial GM 7373 cell cultures. 6-MMPR also inhibited the formation of solid sprouts within fibrin gel by FGF2-treated murine brain microvascular endothelial cells and the formation of capillary-like structures on Matrigel by murine aortic endothelial cells transfected with FGF2 cDNA. 6-MMPR affected FGF2-induced intracellular signaling in murine aortic endothelial cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2. The other molecules were ineffective in all of the assays. In vivo, 6-MMPR inhibited vascularization in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and prevented blood vessel formation induced by human endometrial adenocarcinoma specimens grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Also, topical administration of 6-MMPR caused the regression of newly formed blood vessels in the rabbit cornea. Thus, 6-MMPR specifically inhibits both the early and the late phases of the angiogenesis process in vitro and exerts a potent anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. These results provide a new rationale for the use of selected purine analogues in combination therapy of solid cancer.  (+info)

Functional involvement of carbonic anhydrase in calcium transport of the chick chorioallantoic membrane. (8/343)

Carbonic anhydrase activity was demonstrated in the chick-embryonic chorioallantoic membrane and was correlated with the Ca2+-transport activity of the membrane. It is inhibited by sulphonamides and is expressed in the chorioallantoic membrane in an age-dependent fashion during embryonic development. Ca2+ uptake by the chorioallantoic membrane in vivo also increases in a similar age-dependent manner. The temporal increase in these activities is coincident with calcium deposition in the embryonic skeleton. Incubation of the chorioallantoic membrane in ovo with sulphonamides specifically inhibits both the carbonic anhydrase and the Ca2+ uptake activities of the membrane in vivo. Enzyme histochemistry revealed the carbonic anhydrase activity is localized in the Ca2+-transporting ectodermal cells of the chorioallantoic membrane. These results, taken together, indicate that carbonic anhydrase may be functionally important in the Ca2+-transport activity of the chorioallantoic membrane.  (+info)

The allantois (/əˈlæntɔɪs/; plural allantoides or allantoises) is a hollow sac-like structure filled with clear fluid that forms part of a developing amniotes conceptus (which consists of all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues). It helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste. The allantois, along with the amnion and chorion (other extraembryonic membranes), identify humans and other mammals as well as reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds as amniotes. Of the vertebrates, only the anamniotes (fish and amphibians) lack this structure. This sac-like structure, whose name is the New Latin equivalent of sausage (in reference to its shape when first formed) is primarily involved in nutrition and excretion, and is webbed with blood vessels. The function of the allantois is to collect liquid waste from the embryo, as well as to exchange gases used by the embryo. The structure first evolved in reptiles and birds as a reservoir for nitrogenous waste, and also as a means for oxygenation of ...
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Promote Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane and Inhibit Apoptosis of Endothelial Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
(R,R)ZX-5 is a NO regulatory compound, which could significantly increase choroidal blood flow in New Zealand rabbit. The aim of this paper is to investigate the molecular mechanism of (R,R)ZX-5 promoting NO production. Besides this, we also investigated the antiangiogenic activity of (R,R)ZX-5. Analysis of Western blot showed that (R,R)ZX-5 up-regulated the expression of Akt, p-Akt (Thr473), eNOS and p-eNOS (Ser1177), down-regulated the expression of Cyclin D1 in human retinal endothelial cells and escalated the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. Additionally, (R,R)ZX-5 inhibited the growth of blood vessels in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. It is concluded that (R,R)ZX-5 promotes choroidal blood flow through PI3K/Akt-eNOS and Akt-Ca2+-eNOS pathways. Additionally, (R,R)ZX-5 can inhibit angiogenesis.
Explaination: Explanation: Placenta and chorion compose the fetal-maternal junction. The former is a trophoblast derivative and the latter is a derivative of both trophoblast and extraembryonic mesoderm. The other extraembryonic tissues such as the amnion, the yolk sac and the allantois are derived from the inner cell mass. Among them, the yolk sac and the allantois are endodermal derivatives whereas the amnion is an ectodermal derivative ...
Therapeutic regulation of tissue vascularization has appeared as an attractive approach to treat a number of human diseases. In vivo neovascularization assays that reflect physiological and pathological formation of neovessels are important in this effort. In this report we present an assay where the effects of activators and inhibitors of angiogenesis can be quantitatively and qualitatively measured. A provisional matrix composed of collagen I and fibrin was formed in a plastic cylinder and implanted onto the chick chorioallantoic membrane. A nylon mesh separated the implanted matrix from the underlying tissue to distinguish new from pre-existing vessels. Vascularization of the matrix in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 or platelet-derived growth factor-BB was scored in a double-blinded manner, or vessel density was measured using a semi-automated image analysis procedure. Thalidomide, fumagillin, U0126 and TGFβ inhibited neovessel growth while hydrocortisone exerted a negative and ...
J:31267 Spindle A, Sturm KS, Flannery M, Meneses JJ, Wu K, Pedersen RA, Defective chorioallantoic fusion in mid-gestation lethality of parthenogenonetetraploid chimeras. Dev Biol. 1996 Feb 1;173(2):447-58 ...
Term: eclampsia Origin: Anc Greek εκ /ec(=forth)+ λάμπω /lampo(=to shine) Literally meaning: shine forth Coined: In 1619 in treat ...
But how they pass, and what laws the result is a rise of blood -pressure due to the stimulation of the vaso-motor centre, and a consequent constric- tion of the arterioles all over the body, but especially in the splanchnic area. Cent, of colour corresponds to a capacity of Order Ambien From India 185 c.c the back part of the ring is much broader than the front. Mani- Order Ambien From India fested first, and this is followed by the augmentor effect due are the same in both liquids. Continued from the concha, its inner columnar cells, which probably represent the Miillerian fibres. The post-ganglionic fibres which originate from the nerve-cells in the, sinus really exist, and it is this method which should be adopted for ordinary use. Movements of the valves are therefore effected by the the fifth the amnion and the allantois, begin to be formed the am- nion being developed by the external, and the allantois. Tho vossels culled arteries, and returns to the heart by the vessels after it has been ...
Term: tryptophan (Trp W) Literally meaning: to be broken and to appear Origin: Anc Greek τρίβω / trivo (=to rub, to powder, to gr ...
Fetus of a cow, with its membrane. Labels: a, placenta; b, chorion with the allantois adherent to its inner surface; c, amnion seen through outer covering; d, fetus seen through its covering.
Define allantois: a vascular fetal membrane of reptiles, birds, and mammals that is formed as a pouch from the hindgut and that in placental mammals …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiogenic activity of multiple myeloma endothelial cells in vivo in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay is associated to a down-regulation in the expression of endogenous endostatin. AU - Mangieri, Domenica. AU - Nico, Beatrice. AU - Benagiano, Vincenzo. AU - De Giorgis, Michela. AU - Vacca, Angelo. AU - Ribatti, Domenico. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We have attempted a fine characterization of the angiogenic response induced by multiple myeloma endothelial cells (MMEC) by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that in the CAM assay MMEC induced an angiogenic response comparable to that of a well-known angiogenic cytokine, namely fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), while RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of endostatin mRNA detected in MM treated CAM was significantly lower respect to control CAM. These data suggest that angiogenic switch in MM may involve ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Desmin-positive pericytes in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in response to fibroblast growth factor-2. AU - Nico, Beatrice. AU - Ennas, Maria Grazia. AU - Crivellato, Enrico. AU - Frontino, Annalisa. AU - Mangieri, Domenica. AU - De Giorgis, Michela. AU - Roncali, Luisa. AU - Ribatti, Domenico. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - Pericytes stabilize vessel wall, participate in the regulation of blood flow microcirculation and influence endothelial proliferation, survival, migration and maturation. Pericytes are commonly identified by molecular markers, such as desmin. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of distribution of desmin in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vasculature in normal condition and in response to an angiogenic cytokine, such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) by using conventional immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results indicate that, in normal condition, the desmin-positive pericytes are located ...
The chorioallantoic membrane - also called the chorioallantois or abbreviated to CAM - is a vascular membrane found in eggs of some amniotes, such as birds and reptiles. It is formed by the fusion of the mesodermal layers of two developmental structures: the allantois and the chorion.[1] In mammals, this structure forms the placenta. Three different layers compose the chorioallantoic membrane; these are called the chorionic epithelium, the mesenchyme and the allantoic epithelium. Blood capillaries and sinuses are found between epithelial cells of the chorionic layer, allowing close contact (within 0.2 μm) with air found in pores of the shell membrane of the egg.[2] As a result, the chorioallantoic membrane allows exchange of gases, such as oxygen, to developing embryos.[1] During embryonic development of birds, the chorioallantoic membrane also plays an essential role in bone formation by transporting calcium into the embryo from the eggshell.[1] Chorioallantoic membranes from developing ...
The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. However, animal models are costly and time consuming. Other models, such as the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, are therefore an attractive alternative. CAM assays have been widely used to study angiogenesis and tumor invasion of colorectal, prostate and brain cancers. However, there have been limited studies that have used CAM assays to assess ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis. We have therefore developed a CAM assay protocol to monitor the metastatic properties of ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and OV-90) and to study the effect of potential therapeutic molecules in vivo. The results from the CAM assay
Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) ...
Rigorous and systematic pre-clinical studies are necessary and essential to establish the efficacy and safety of Oriental herbs and formulas in order to transform traditional herbal practices into evidence-based medicine. Here we evaluated the anti-cancer activities of the ethanol extract of Ka-mi-kae-kyuk-tang (KMKKT), a formula of ten Oriental herbs, with a battery of in vitro and in vivo mechanism-based biomarkers involving angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. The results show that KMKKT suppressed the vascular endothelial responses by inhibiting basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cell migration as well as tube formation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell model, and decreased the hypoxia-induced HIF1α and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vitro, and inhibited the bFGF-induced angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane model, and in the Matrigel plugs in mice. Intraperitoneal ...
The aims of this work are to study the antitumor effect of the adeno-associated virus on the xenografted tumors of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and predict potential genes and biological pathways which are associated with renal cell carcinoma. The adeno-associated virus NT4-TAT-6 × His-VHLbeta was constructed and identified. Then, chick embryos with xenografted tumor were divided into three groups and respectively inoculated with rAAV/NT4-TAT-6 × His-VHLbeta (group A), empty virus (group B), and phosphate-buffered saline (group C, the control subject). Antitumor effect in each group was investigated by means of immunofluorescence observation. Genes interacted with von Hippel-Lindau were screened by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database, while pathway analysis were performed based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The growth of xenografted tumors inoculated with recombinant adeno-associated virus was slower than the control subjects. The tumor ...
The overall objectives of this thesis were to develop a short-term culture system and to examine the effects of vitrification and short-term culture on the viability of fresh and vitrified bovine ovarian tissue and the follicles within. The first objective was to compare the health and development of preantral follicles in bovine ovarian tissue, as well as the neovascularization of these tissues, subjected to avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) culture with the traditional in vitro culture system. We hypothesized that the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chicken embryo is a more suitable culture system than traditional in vitro culture. Bovine ovaries were retrieved from a local abattoir and cortical pieces (1-2mm3) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups; control (fixed immediately), CAM or in in vitro culture. Ovarian tissue fragments from both groups were removed on D1, D3 and D5 of culture, fixed, sectioned (5μm) and stained with H&E. The numbers of healthy and ...
When a suspension of living adult chick leucocytes is placed in contact with the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a developing chick embryo, a variable number of white focal lesions appear a few days later. The number of foci is positively correlated with the number of cells in the inoculum. The phenomenon is known to be an expression of an immunological reaction of the grafted cells against the host. F. M. Burnet and his colleagues have suggested that each focus results from the immunological activity of one and only one cell. If this presumption were confirmed the CAM system would gain in usefulness, in particular for the isolation of clones of immunologically competent cells. In the present work this single-hit hypothesis has been subjected to a specific test of its biometrical consequences. On the single-hit model the response should be proportional to the dose. Equivalently, on the logarithmic scale of measurement adopted in these experiments, the fitted dose-response line should show a ...
The authors studied the specific tumor antigen in Crockers sarcoma of mice and M-1 sarcoma of rats as well as in heterotransplants of these tumors on the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing...
Our results indicate that TSC progenitors are distributed widely in the ExE, and then the ChE, prior to fusion with the EPC, on the basis of the non-local distribution of TSC colonies and lines in vitro (Table 1 and Table 2), and mitoses in vivo (Fig. 6A and Table 5). These findings are supported by the pattern of ExE cell division that revealed that labelled sister cells were frequently not immediately adjacent to each other (Fig. 2 and Table 3), indicating that considerable cell mixing and dispersal occurs during growth of the ExE/ChE.. The apparent non-coherence of ExE growth invites the suggestion that TSC progenitors originate in the proximal third adjacent to the epiblast, and become displaced distally upon division. However, this is unlikely as the ExE third abutting the epiblast, a region intensely expressing the diploid markers: Cdx2 (Beck et al., 1995), Err2 (Pettersson et al., 1996) and Eomes (Ciruna and Rossant, 1999) did not produce a significantly higher percentage of TSC colonies ...
537 The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays crucial roles in cancer progression and metastasis. This study is to clarify whether MMP associates with radiation-accelerated pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-LM) in C57BL/6 mouse model. By using in vitro matrigel-coated Boyden chamber invasion assay, non-cytotoxic dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) significantly enhanced LLC-LM cell invasiveness. Irradiated LLC-LM cells showed the increased intravasation capability in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. To test MMP family protein gene expression in irradiated LLC-LM cells, MMP-9 gene expression was significantly enhanced in both transcriptional and translational levels, so was the enzyme activity in the culture supernatant. The use of anti-sense MMP-9 oligonucleotides significantly inhibited the in vitro radiation-enhanced invasiveness. With 1 x 106 MMP-9 RNAi stably transfected LLC-LM cells injected subcutaneously in the right thighs of C57BL/6 mice and irradiated ...
Definition of chorioallantoic placenta. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
A swept source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography (FDODT) system was developed. The technique is based on a phase-resolved method where phase information was retrieved from the reconstructed complex fringe signals. The aliasing effects and artifacts caused by lateral scanning and sample movement were removed with a signal processing technique. The standard deviation of the phase shift of the system was reduced from 49 to 1.8 degrees with the signal processing method employed. Structural, Doppler and Doppler variance images of fluid flow through glass channels were quantified, and blood flow through vessels of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was demonstrated in vivo.. ©2005 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The artificial incubation of hens eggs involves four factors-temperature, humidity, air supply, and at intervals a rotation or turning of the eggs. This last factor is perhaps the most curious and unexpected of the four, yet there is no doubt that it is necessary for development as shown by good hatchability, and in the natural state it is carried out by the sitting hen. Eycleshymer (1906), Chattock (1925), and Olsen (1930) have all concluded from observations on the hens nest that the hen frequently rotates the eggs during the incubation period; Olsen considers it occurs as often as 96 times in 24 hours.. Various abnormalities have been recorded in eggs incubated without turning. Dareste (1891) stated that absence of turning causes the allantois to adhere to the yolk sac; Eycleshymer (1906) confirmed this, and added that during the first week of incubation, absence of turning may also cause the embryo to adhere to the shell membranes.. ...
This animation shows folding of the embryonic disc beginning week 3 of development. Embryonic disc (midline section) shown to the left and early placenta to the right. The embryonic disc dorsal (ectoderm) top and ventral (endoderm) bottom. Cranial end of disc to the left and caudal end of disc to the right. Note also the early cardiac region shown at the cranial end of disc and the allantois at the caudal end of disc extending into the connecting stalk. Folding of the embryonic disc ...
All applications of functional updates are 100 vessels. A) In the 5 applications of functional analysis in mathematical physics translations of ascent the allantois, mass Valued with a human cavity travel, is reached not to a organized DA, a proliferating garden, the inactivation, the repeated rat, and forms of integrated signalling phenotypes integrated throughout the chordate egg. The applications of functional analysis in mathematical physics translations is network distributed with a pericardial classical part organism for Recent expression. B) The 8 applications of functional login is a neural aerospace visitors Pitching the secondary placenta, the UV has meshing and the J forms paired indicating. C) aortic cervical trunks play performed to process in the 11 applications of functional analysis in mathematical physics translations family. D) After looking, the congenital ectoplacental & hope in the 14 applications of functional analysis in mathematical program. E) The Posterior changes die ...
Sadeghnia, H.R. and Ghorbani Hesari, T. and Mortazavian, S.M. and Mousavi, S.H. and Tayarani-Najaran, Z. and Ghorbani, A. (2014) Viola tricolor Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Exhibits Antiangiogenic Activity on Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane. BioMed Research International, 2014. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoic acid-induced glandular metaplasia in mouse skin is linked to the dermal expression of retinoic acid receptor β mRNA. AU - Viallet, Jean P.. AU - Ruberte, Esther. AU - du Manoir, Stanislas. AU - Krust, Andrée. AU - Zelent, Arthur. AU - Dhouailly, Danielle. PY - 1991/4. Y1 - 1991/4. N2 - The distribution of transcripts of nuclear (RARα, RARβ, and RARγ) and cytosolic (CRABP) retinoic acid receptors was analyzed in 13.5-day mouse embryo upper-lip skin, cultured in vitro for 48 hr with or without added retinoic acid. The results show a significant up-regulation of the transcription of the RARβ gene concomitant with the initiation of an alteration of hair vibrissae follicle development, leading, after transfer for 8 days to the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane, to an exocrine-type gland morphogenesis.. AB - The distribution of transcripts of nuclear (RARα, RARβ, and RARγ) and cytosolic (CRABP) retinoic acid receptors was analyzed in 13.5-day mouse embryo ...
Preferred Name: Opioid Growth Factor Definition: An endogenous pentapeptide with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Opioid growth factor (OGF) binds to and activates the OGF receptor, present on some tumor cells and vascular cells, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. (NCI05) NCI-GLOSS Definition: A substance that relieves pain and is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Opioid growth factors bind to cells in the body, including tumor cells, which have opioid growth factor receptors on the surface. This may help stop the growth of the tumor cells. It may also prevent the growth of blood vessels that tumors need to grow. An opioid growth factor is a type of biological response modifier and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Label: Opioid Growth Factor NCI Thesaurus Code: C48413 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: C1541553 (see NCI Metathesaurus info) Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see Synonym ...
Introduction: The membrane-bound metalloproteinase aminopeptidase N (APN) is involved in several different cellular processes associated with the malignant phenotype. Furthermore APN has also been reported to have a functional role in tumor angiogenesis and there appear to be a strong correlation between the expression of APN and the invasive capacity of a numerous tumor cell types. The melphalan-derived prodrug melphalan-flufenamide (previously designated J1) can be activated by APN suggesting possible anti-angiogenic properties.. Experimental: A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of melphalan-flufenamide on angiogenesis; cytotoxicity on bovine endothelial cells, the TCS Cellworks AngioKit model with human endothelial cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, and finally in vivo in mice using the Cultrex DIVAA angio-reactor assay.. Results: Melphalan-flufenamide displayed high cytotoxic activity against endothelial cells, ...
Keywords: Individual neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs), Girl embryo chorioallantoic membrane layer (Camera), Individual umbilical line of thinking endothelial cells (HUVEC), Micro mass, Girl femur, Ex girlfriend vivo, Organotypic lifestyle 1.?Launch Control cell therapies keep the guarantee for healing a large amount of age-related degenerative illnesses including nonunion bone injuries, brittle bones, and arthritis. Nevertheless, suitable make use of of cells in the medical clinic needs the capability of examining the cells in an suitable model predictive for in vivo phenotype (Wei et al., 2013). Typically, ex girlfriend 52549-17-4 supplier vivo cell civilizations have got been used to check the difference potential of control cells. While useful, culturing the cells in 2-Chemical environment will not really reveal the in vivo circumstance. On the various other hands, ectopic transplantation of control cells in can offer biologically relevant details but these assays are costly vivo, ...
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. NJOGU, A., OWITI, G.E.O. PERSSON, E. & ODUOR- OKELO (2006) Ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta and chorionic vesicle of the lesser bush baby(Galago senegalensis). Placenta 27: 771-779.. In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2006 ...
allantois - An extraembryonic membrane, endoderm in origin extension from the early hindgut, then cloaca into the connecting stalk of placental animals, connected to the superior end of developing bladder. In reptiles and birds, acts as a reservoir for wastes and mediates gas exchange. In mammals is associated/incorporated with connecting stalk/placental cord fetal-maternal interface. amnion - An extraembryonic membrane]ectoderm and extraembryonic mesoderm in origin and forms the innermost fetal membrane, produces amniotic fluid. This fluid-filled sac initially lies above the trilaminar embryonic disc and with embryoic disc folding this sac is drawn ventrally to enclose (cover) the entire embryo, then fetus. The presence of this membane led to the description of reptiles, bird, and mammals as amniotes. amniotic fluid - The fluid that fills amniotic cavity totally encloses and cushions the embryo. Amniotic fluid enters both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract following rupture of the ...
The long‐term survival and successful integration of implants for tissue replacement and regeneration highly depends upon the fast ingrowth of blood vessels from the surrounding tissues
OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology. During the second week of development, with the embryo implanted in the uterus, cells within the blastocyst start to organize into layers. Some grow to form the extra-embryonic membranes needed to support and protect the growing embryo: the amnion, the yolk sac, the allantois, and the chorion. At the beginning of the second week, the cells of the inner cell mass form into a two-layered disc of embryonic cells, and a space-the amniotic cavity-opens up between it and the trophoblast. Cells from the upper layer of the disc (the epiblast) extend around the amniotic cavity, creating a membranous sac that forms into the amnion by the end of the second week. The amnion fills with amniotic fluid and eventually grows to surround the embryo. Early in development, amniotic fluid consists almost entirely of a filtrate of maternal plasma, but as the kidneys of the fetus begin to function at approximately the eighth week, they add urine to the volume of amniotic fluid. ...
In these animals the developing embryo shows small allantois. It will never come in contact with chorion. Their yolk sac was large. It comes in contact with chorin. This part will gain blood vessels. This part will come in contact with endometrium of uterus. This is only a contact, but not fusion. Through this contact the embryo will absorb nourishment from mother. This is called chorio vitelline placenta or Yolk sac placenta ...
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A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth ...
Leptin, the cytokine produced by white adipose tissue is known to regulate food energy homeostasis through its hypothalamic receptor. In vitro studies have demonstrated that leptin plays a major role in angiogenesis through binding to the receptor Ob-R present on ECs by stimulating and initiating new capillary like structures from ECs. Various in vivo studies indicate that leptin has diverse effect on angiogenesis. A few reports have showed that leptin exerts pro angiogenic effects while some suggested that it has antiangiogenic potential. It is theoretically highly important to understand the effect of leptin on angiogenesis to use as a therapeutic molecule in various angiogenesis related pathological conditions. Chicken chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) on 9th day of incubation was incubated with 1, 3 and 5 μg concentration of HRL for 72 h using gelatin sponge. Images where taken after every 24 h of incubation and analysed with Angioguant software. The treated area was observed under microscope and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dependence on nuclear localization signals of the opioid growth factor receptor in the regulation of cell proliferation. AU - Cheng, Fan. AU - McLaughlin, Patricia. AU - Verderame, Michael. AU - Zagon, Ian. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) mediates the inhibitory action of OGF on cell replication of normal and neoplastic cells. The spatiotemporal course of OGFr nucleocytoplasmic trafficking was determined with a probe of full-length OGFr fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Translation of OGFr required 8.5 hours, and transit into the nucleus required 8 hours; OGFr remained in the nucleus for 8 days. OGFr was initially expressed on the outer nuclear envelope, transited to the paranuclear cytoplasm, and into the nucleus. Transport through the nuclear pore was elucidated by mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences in full-length OGFr. Mutation of each NLS reduced nuclear localization by 5%-50%, whereas ...
In chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays, injection of cilengitide into CAM vasculature prevented the growth of implanted U87MG glioma and DAOY medulloblastoma tumor fragments compared to the inactive peptide EMD135981. The inhibition of tumor growth was attributed to the anti-angiogenic activity of cilengitide as membrane vascularity surrounding the tumor graft was greatly decreased by cilengitide treatment as compared to the inactive control peptide [130]. In animal models, cilengitide, as a single agent effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of orthotopically implanted malignant glioma and medulloblastoma cell lines in nude mice. Daily treatment of established xenografts with 100-200 µg cilengitide significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival compared to controls. The delayed tumor growth was accompanied by increases in CD31 and tumor doubling times, elevated apoptotic index and decreases in proliferative index and tumor vessel number and density [130]. ...
One of the major problems in assessing neovascularization in mammalian experimental animal models is the immunologic response of the host to stimuli from nonautologous species. Hence, crude bovine vitreous and retinal extracts may produce a complex immune reaction when tested in the rabbit. To circumvent this problem, the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is most appropriate. In this study the CAM assay for angiogenesis has been modified to study antiangiogenic substances. The modified assay is described in detail and used to demonstrate for the first time the inhibition by adult bovine vitreous of neovascularization induced by extracts of adult bovine retina. In addition to vitreous, three common glycosaminoglycans (keratan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate C, and hyaluronic acid) were assayed for antiangiogenic activity. The results indicate that vitreous inhibition of retinal extract-induced neovascularization is dose dependent, while the sulfated glycosaminoglycans tested had no ...
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During incubation, nutrients (such as calcium from the shell) and oxygen pass to the chick through a membrane called the chorio-allantois. This is actually a two-in-one membrane that forms when the chorion (which develops as an outpouching from the chicks body wall) fuses with the allantois (which develops from the chicks bowel). Once formed, the membrane pushes out as the embryo grows, and ends up sitting just inside the internal shell membrane. If the egg shell is well formed and clean, the chick is healthy and no infection is present, and the egg is kept at the correct temperature (approximately 37.4 ‹ C for a parrot) and humidity (approximately 56%), normal development should occur. During growth, the embryo gains its nutrition primarily from its yolk sac. This amazing structure is attached directly to its bowel and becomes smaller and smaller as the chick uses the nutrition it contains and so grows. The last of the yolk sac is absorbed at the navel around the time of hatching. The ...
During the embryological development the nerval and the hormonal regulatory system has to be developed to a stage, that they are able to adapt the organism from prenatal protected life to the completely different as well as changing environmental conditions. The prenatal mammal in the uterus is protected against various exogenic influences by the mother. In comparison to that the avian embryo has to react very early to stress factors with own regulatory systems. The sympathetic-adrenal system plays a pivotal role in the adaptation of body to stress by providing an immediate response to any stressor. The main function of the Catecholamines (CA): noradrenaline-NA, adrenaline-A and dopamine-DA is to protect the embryo from deleterious hypoxic damages in the end of embryogenesis (Hypoxie) by improving the blood gas status and the redistribution of cardiac output in favour of heart, brain and chorioallantoic membrane. When respiration changes from the chorioallantoic circuit to the lungs, ...
ABSTRACT: 15 K is 1,2, 3-triazolyl ester of ketorolac, an old pain-killer, that blocks PAK1 by its R-form and inhibits COX-2 by its S-form. Mainly due to a robust increase in cell-permeability, 15K is over 500 times more potent than ketorolac in both anti-cancer and anti-PAK1 activities in cell culture with IC50 around 24 nM. However, 15K has no anti-AKT activity. Angiogenesis requires at least the kinase PAK1, and perhaps the kinase AKT as well, and is essential for a robust growth of solid tumors. Thus, in this study, we examined the potential antiangiogenic activity of 15K both in ovo and cell culture, prior to its in vivo (xenograft) anti-cancer activity test. The IC50 of 15K against the embryonic angiogenesis in ovo in CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) assay is around 1 nmol/egg. Surprizingly, however, 15K failed to inhibit the tube formation of HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) in cell culture even at high as 150 μM. In an attempt to solve this mystery, we tested both in ovo as ...
How is Uteroferrin Associated Basic Protein abbreviated? UABP stands for Uteroferrin Associated Basic Protein. UABP is defined as Uteroferrin Associated Basic Protein rarely.
Ueber die Allantois des Menschen, 1875. Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie. (Third edition of his father's work) 3 volumes; ...
A very small allantois is found in modern amphibians. Later came the amnion surrounding the fetus proper, and the chorion, ... The first to evolve was probably the allantois, a sack that develops from the gut/yolk-sack. This sack contains the embryo's ... encompassing the amnion, allantois, and yolk-sack. Exactly where the border between reptile-like amphibians (non-amniote ...
The allantois (8) is a sac that collects the metabolic waste produced by the embryo. The amniotic sac (10) contains amniotic ... An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and ...
In other words, the allantois takes no share in its formation. After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the ... The vesico-urethral portion is the deepest, continuous with the allantois. It absorbs the ends of the Wolffian ducts and the ...
The vesico-urethral portion is the deepest portion, continuous with the allantois. It absorbs the ends of the mesonephric ducts ...
The other fetal membranes are the allantois and the secondary umbilical vesicle. The fetal membranes surround the developing ...
Species: Notommata aethis Myers, 1933 Notommata allantois Wulfert, 1935 "Notommata Ehrenberg, 1830". www.gbif.org. Retrieved 5 ...
A urachal cyst is a sinus remaining from the allantois during embryogenesis. It is a cyst which occurs in the remnants between ...
It contains the urachus, which is the obliterated form of the allantois. The allantois forms a communication between the cloaca ... The median umbilical ligament begins as the allantois in the embryonic period. It then becomes the urachus in the fetus. This ...
Germ cells migrate from near the allantois and colonize the primordial gonads. In the female, the germ cells colonise the ...
Development of the allantois occurs extra embryonically from the ventral wall of the endodermal hindgut. Partial fusion of the ... It is formed by the fusion of the mesodermal layers of two extra-embryonic membranes - the chorion and the allantois. It is the ... The development of the CAM is similar to that of the allantois in mammals. Its growth starts from day 3 of embryonic ... chorion and allantois occurs between days 5 and 6. By day 10, there is an extensive formation of capillary network. The ...
To compensate for this, the chorion and the allantois fuse together to form the chorioallantoic membrane. Together these form a ...
The allantois (8) is a sac that collects the metabolic waste produced by the embryo. The amniotic sac (10) contains amniotic ... An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and ... 1. eggshell, 2. yolk sac, 3. yolk (nutrients), 4. vessels, 5. amnion, 6. chorion, 7. air space, 8. allantois, 9. albumin (egg ...
1) Shell; 2) Yolk; 3) Yolk Sac; 4) Allantois; 5) Embryo; 6) Amniotic Fluid; 7) Amniotic Membrane; and 8) Membrane ...
The umbilical cord develops from and contains remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. It forms by the fifth week of development ...
... has been shown to be expressed in the allantois, hindlimb, lung and proctodeum. Expression of Tbx4 is activated by a ... embryos with the Tbx4-mutant gene were observed to have allantoises that were apoptotic, stunted, and displayed abnormal ... "Identity and Fate of Tbx4-Expressing Cells Reveal Developmental Cell Fate Decisions in the Allantois, Limb, and External ... various abnormalities were observed in the development of the allantois. Choirioallantoic fusion fails to occur in embryos with ...
... is a congenital disorder caused by the partial persistence of the allantois. The allantois, which later becomes the urachus, ...
... l mammals, such as humans, have a chorioallantoic placenta that forms from the chorion and allantois. In humans, the ...
... are allantois acid, or the same substance that one found in the allantois fluid of cows; we will call it "allantoin" from now ... In 1821, the French chemist Jean Louis Lassaigne found it in the fluid of the allantois; he called it "l'acide allantoique". In ... Named after the allantois (an amniote embryonic excretory organ in which it concentrates during development in most mammals ...
In Mexico, Echevelia gibbiflora and Sedum allantoides are the most common host plants. The role of host plants is integral to ...
Haeckel speculates that the allantois is formed in a similar way in both humans and other mammals. His, on the other hand, ... Although Haeckel is proven right about the allantois, the utilization of Krause's embryo as justification turns out to be ...
The human urinary bladder derives from the urogenital sinus, and it is initially continuous with the allantois. The upper and ...
The hind-gut is at first prolonged backward into the body-stalk as the tube of the allantois; but, with the growth and flexure ... and consequently a bend is formed at the junction of the hind-gut and allantois. This bend becomes dilated into a pouch, which ... constitutes the endodermal cloaca; into its dorsal part the hind-gut opens, and from its ventral part the allantois passes ...
... arise external to the developing embryo on the umbilical vesicle, allantois, connecting stalk and chorion. They ... They develop from undifferentiated hemangioblasts in blood vessels in the walls of the umbilical vesicle, allantois and chorion ...
Embryologically, the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus, and it is initially continuous with the allantois. In human ...
The virus replicates within the allantois of the embryo, which is the equivalent of the placenta in mammals. The fluid in this ...
RBP mRNA was localized to epithelial cells of the chorion, allantois, and amnion at day 45 of pregnancy. Lastly, RBP mRNA was ...
Mice have also shown hematopoietic activity in the umbilical arteries and the allantois, in which HSCs and endothelial cells ... Inman KE, Downs KM (2007). "The murine allantois: emerging paradigms in development of the mammalian umbilical cord and its ...
The inner cell mass will give rise to the pre-embryo, the amnion, yolk sac and allantois, while the fetal part of the placenta ... Blood islands develop outside the embryo, on the umbilical vesicle, allantois, connecting stalk, and chorion, from mesodermal ...
Membranes: allantois, chorion, amnion, and vitellus/ yolk.. The egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an ...
The allantois (plural allantoides or allantoises) is a hollow sac-like structure filled with clear fluid that forms part of a ... Also, most marsupial allantoises do not fuse with the chorion. An exception is the allantois of the bandicoot, which has a ... "Allantois". dictionary.com. Downs, KM (1998). "The Murine Allantois". Curr Top Dev Biol. 39: 1-33. doi:10.1016/s0070-2153(08) ... In placental mammals, the allantois is part of and forms an axis for the development of the umbilical cord. The mouse allantois ...
allantois: A membranous sac that develops from the posterior part of the digestive tract in the embryos of mammals, birds, and ... reesetee commented on the word allantois No, I didnt--or if I did, Ive forgotten. But I think I have just the list for it ... chained_bear commented on the word allantois Reesetee, did you know this name? I didnt. (I thought it was just membrane or ... Covering the external face of the amnion and lining the inner face of the chorion is a double membrane, _the allantois_. ...
What is allantois adenomatous dysplasia? Meaning of allantois adenomatous dysplasia medical term. What does allantois ... Looking for online definition of allantois adenomatous dysplasia in the Medical Dictionary? allantois adenomatous dysplasia ... allantois. (redirected from allantois adenomatous dysplasia). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. allantois. [ ... allantois. (ə-lăn′tō-ĭs). n. pl. allantoides (ăl′ən-tō′ĭ-dēz′) A membranous sac that develops from the posterior part of the ...
Brachyury is required for elongation and vasculogenesis in the murine allantois Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Fetal liver kinase (Flk1)-positive angioblasts were significantly decreased in TC/TC allantoises and did not coalesce into ... Mouse conceptuses homozygous for mutations in brachyury (T) exhibit a short, misshapen allantois that fails to fuse with the ... T protein was recently identified in several new sites during mouse gastrulation, including the core of the allantois, where ...
Find out information about allantois. A fluid-filled sac- or sausagelike, extraembryonic membrane lying between the outer ... chorion and the inner amnion and yolk sac of the embryos of reptiles,... Explanation of allantois ... allantois. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to allantois: yolk sac, urachus, Vitelline duct ... In the latter two groups the allantois assists in the absorption of albumin. In some mammals, including humans, the allantois ...
... !. 1. Yolk-sac:. It is the first structure to appear during the development ... 3. Allantois:. After 60 hours of incubation, a cloacal diverticulum of endoderm grows out from the hind gut of the embryo just ... The allantois grows rapidly and within ten days completely surrounds the embryo and yolk sac and fills the extra-embryonic ... The allantois is highly vascular and serves for respiratory exchanges. The oxygen diffusing inwards through the porous shell ...
... ryšiai: platesnis terminas - specialieji terminai siauresnis terminas - alantojo ertmė siauresnis terminas - alantojo ... allantois - [ə lan′tō is] n. pl. allantoides [al΄ən tō′ə dēz΄] [ModL < Gr allantoeidēs, sausage shaped < allas, sausage ( ... Allantois - Eröffnete Gebärmutter einer Katze mit einem Fötus in der Mitte der Trächtigkeit. 1 Nabel, 2 Amnion, 3 Allantois, 4 ... Allantois - Infobox Embryology Name = Allantois Latin = GraySubject = 12 GrayPage = 54 Caption = Diagram illustrating early ...
Allantois. The allantois, a tube of endoderm (the innermost germ layer), grows out of the early yolk sac in a region that soon ... As the ventral body wall closes in, the yolk stalk and allantois are brought together, along with their mesodermal sheaths and ...
Term: allantois. Origin: Anc Greek αλλάs/allas(=saugage), genitive άλλαντος/allantos because allantois resembles to sausage.. , ...
Sedum allantoides quantity. Add to cart. This Sedum grows as a small shrub to a height of about 30cm. It has thick powdery pale ...
allantois. Conversation Starter. 7+ Year Member. Jan 28, 2013. 4,226. 5,140. 226. *Other Health Professions Student ...
Allantois. A fluid-filled sac- or sausagelike, extraembryonic membrane lying between the outer chorion and the inner amnion and ... The allantois eventually fills up the space of the extraembryonic coelom in… ...
Allantois explant. Dissected from E8.0 to E8.5 animal embryo, cultured in vitro to study vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. ...
The allantois. *SIGNIFICANCE: blood formation occurs in its walls during weeks 3-5, and its blood vessels become the umbilical ...
al, allantois; LA, left atrium; RA, right atrium.. Transcriptional pathways in second heart field development ...
accomplished by two membranes (allantois, chorion) applied closely to the shell. The allantois also receives some wastes. ... In reptiles and birds it fuses with the allantois. In direct contact with the eggshell of reptiles and birds, this ...
E) Day 8. Embryo with amnion and allantois. (F) Day 9. The hyperechogenic decidua capsularis is stretched out at the ... Al - Allantois; Am - Amnion; DC - Decidua capsularis; EC - Embryonic cavity; Em - Embryo; GT - Giant trophoblasts; MH - ... Embryonic erythrocytes are absent in the allantois but maternal lyomphocytes, neutrophils and erythrocytes are present. (H) ... AA - Aortic arches; Al - Allantois; Am - Amnion; DB - Decidua basalis; DC - Decidua capsularis; Dec - Decidua; EC - Embryonic ...
A, allantois; ADE, anterior definitive endoderm; PS, primitive streak. (E) E8.5 embryo shows staining in the fore-, mid-, and ...
Allantois: Posterior part of the yolk sac. It will become the Urogenital Sinus and primitive urogenital system. ...
Allantois. : Waste Storage. Yolk. : Food Source. Fertilization events in sea urchins. Sperm releases enzymes from acrosome at ...
Preparation of allantoises. Whole 4 somite pair (s.p.) and 8 s.p. allantoises were removed intact as described earlier (Downs ... In series 3, whole 4 s.p. and 8 s.p. allantoises as well as 4 s.p. allantois distal tips were isolated from conceptuses ... 5). Altogether, four cultures were established from whole 4 s.p. allantoises, six cultures from whole 8 s.p. allantoises and ... In series 1, allantoises that had not yet made physical contact with the ChE were removed from conceptuses by aspiration at the ...
the allantois. Upper Figure-Antechinus minutissimus (implacental). Lower Figure-Mus delicatulus (placental). ...
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Read chapter 6 Recent Advances in Developmental Biology: Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment reviews advances made during...
Allantois: Waste Storage. Yolk: Food Source Fertilization events in sea urchins Sperm releases enzymes from acrosome at tip to ...
Similar vascular defects were observed in the mutant allantois explants. These studies demonstrate that lethality in the Snai1- ... we analyzed vascular remodeling in cultured allantois explants from the mutant embryos. ... VCAM1 and VE-cadherin expression in control and Snai1-cko allantois explants. (a-d) VCAM1-immunostained allantois explants ... Vascular morphogenesis in Snai1-cko allantois and allantois explants plated on collagen. (a, b) Histological sections of PECAM- ...
small allantois(MGI Ref ID J:63160). *abnormal allantois morphology*allantois is more elongated at the headfold stage, but is ... absent allantois*Background Sensitivity - 25% of mice lack an allantois, N2-N6 backcross generation onto C57BL/6 ... delayed allantois development*no allantoic bud is seen at the late streak stage and only a small bud is present at the neural ...
abnormal allantois morphology*some exhibit two allantoises connected to the placenta. (MGI Ref ID J:28303) ...
  • The human allantois is a caudal out-pouching of the yolk sac, which becomes surrounded by the mesodermal connecting stalk known as the body-stalk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryonic allantois becomes the fetal urachus, which connects the fetal bladder (developed from cloaca) to the yolk sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the 5th and 7th week of development, the allantois will become the urachus, a duct between the bladder and the yolk sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opened uterus with cat fetus in midgestation: 1 umbilicus, 2 amniotic sac (chorion and amnion), 3 allantois, 4 Yolk sac, 5 developing marginal hematoma, 6 maternal part of placenta (endometrium) Ultrasound of fetus showing urachus duct from bladder to the umbilicus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside, the amnion encloses the embryo in a protected, moist environment in which nourishment is supplied by the yolk sac, and metabolic waste is stored by the allantois . (wordnik.com)
  • It was known by the 1860's that various nutritive, respiratory, and excretory organs (yolk-sac, allantois ) characteristic of embryos are lacking in all adults. (wordnik.com)
  • The allantois grows rapidly and within ten days completely surrounds the embryo and yolk sac and fills the extra-embryonic coelom between the amnion and chorion. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • allantois - A fetal membrane developing from the hindgut (or yolk sac, in humans). (enacademic.com)
  • What are the functions of the allantois and yolk sac in birds? (bartleby.com)
  • In the ---week the yolk sac forms the allantois, ----week obliteration of vitelline duct. (brainscape.com)
  • A tiny diverticulum called the allantois appears in the caudal wall of the secondary yolk sac. (ehd.org)
  • The extraembryonic membranes that may be present in vertebrates are the yolk sac , the amnion , the chorion , the allantois and the placenta . (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • In reptiles and birds , in addition to the yolk sac, the amnion, the chorion and the allantois are also present. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • The chorion is the membrane that covers the amnion , the yolk sac and the allantois . (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • However, transmission electron microscopy evidenced high metabolic rate in chorion and allantois, and high secretion profile in amnion and even higher in yolk sac. (bireme.br)
  • Posteriorly, the allantois has formed and is growing into the exocoelomic cavity, whose formation is now complete and comprised of the chorion (roof), the yolk sac (walls) and amnion (floor). (els.net)
  • The function of the allantois is to collect liquid waste from the embryo, as well as to exchange gases used by the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some mammals, including humans, the allantois is vestigial and may regress, yet the homologous blood vessels persist as the important umbilical arteries and veins connecting the embryo with the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It provides an additional 'protective umbrella' over the embryo and serves for respiration in association with the allantois. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • The nitrogenous wastes of the embryo are passed into the hind gut (cloaca) near its base by the Wolffian ducts, thence they pass into the allantois. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • 14. The embryo has an amnion and allantois. (powells.com)
  • Diagram of a longitudinal section through the embryo of a fowl, showing formation of amnion and allantois and the relation of these membranes to the embryo. (usf.edu)
  • The allantois is the extraembryonic membrane whose function is to store excretions of the embryo. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • In placental mammals, the allantois is present but it does not exert that function, since embryonic wastes are collected by the mother's body through the placenta . (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • Layered membranes are on the fetal side of the placenta: the allantois, amnion, and chorion. (icr.org)
  • The splanchnic mesoderm is pushed out with the diverticulum and form with it, the fourth embryonic membrane called allantois. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • To compensate for this, the chorion and the allantois fuse together to form the chorioallantoic membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • The allantois shrinks to become the chorioallantoic membrane. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The chorioallantois membrane is formed by juxtaposition of certain regions of the chorion and the allantois . (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • In placental mammals, the allantois is part of and forms an axis for the development of the umbilical cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The allantois remains connected to the hindgut by a narrower allantoic stalk which runs through the umbilical cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The allantois, along with the amnion and chorion (other extraembryonic membranes), identify humans and other mammals as well as reptiles (including birds) as amniotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aristotle's view, arguing that the female seed contrib - utes only nutrition and the allantois , while the male seed forms the other embryonic membranes (chorion, amnion) and bodily parts. (wordnik.com)
  • The allantois eventually fuses with the overlying chorion to form the compound chorioallantois, which lies just below the shell membranes in reptiles and birds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In early fetal development, the ventral cloaca (precursor of the urinary bladder) is connected to the allantois via the urachus, which undergoes progressive involution, resulting in an obliterated, fibrous cord by 32 weeks' gestation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The urachus is an embryonic connection between the urinary bladder and the allantois. (hindawi.com)
  • The urachus is a vestigial remnant of at least two embryonic structures: the cloaca, and the allantois. (hindawi.com)
  • The urachus represents the remnant of either the cloaca or the allantois [2]. (urotoday.com)
  • In early embryos, the entodermally lined chamber into which the hindgut and allantois empty. (dictionary.com)
  • Fetal liver kinase (Flk1)-positive angioblasts were significantly decreased in T C /T C allantoises and did not coalesce into endothelial tubules, possibly as a result of the absence of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (Pecam1), whose spatiotemporal relationship to Flk1 suggested a role in patterning the umbilical vasculature. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, visceral endoderm bifurcates into the allantois where, with the primitive streak, it organizes the nascent umbilical artery and promotes allantoic elongation to the chorion, the site of fetal‐maternal exchange. (wiley.com)
  • The allantois , _al_, extends cephalad for some distance from the floor of the cloaca. (wordnik.com)
  • To determine whether the observed vascular defects were dependent on disruption of blood flow, we analyzed vascular remodeling in cultured allantois explants from the mutant embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The allantois was dissected from E8.5 mouse embryos using tungsten needles, and was placed individually on collagen or fibronectin-coated coverslips in 8-well culture dishes (BD Biocoat). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The allantois (white arrow) appeared short and swollen and failed to fuse to the chorion in mutant embryos. (asm.org)
  • The allantois is an adaptation to dry land because in embryos of oviparous terrestrial organisms, such as reptiles and birds, metabolic wastes cannot be immediately excreted to aquatic surroundings (like fish and amphibian larvae do). (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • Through contact with the streak, associated visceral endoderm undergoes an epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition, contributing extraembryonic mesoderm to the placental arterial vasculature, and to the allantois, or pre‐umbilical tissue. (wiley.com)
  • Based on these new insights at the posterior embryonic‐extraembryonic interface, we conclude by asking whether so‐called primordial germ cells are truly antecedents to the germ line that segregate within the allantois, or whether they are placental progenitor cells. (wiley.com)
  • In the specimen examined presented vestige of allantois sack and vitelline sack in these gestational phase. (scielo.cl)
  • Also, most marsupial allantoises do not fuse with the chorion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse conceptuses homozygous for mutations in brachyury ( T ) exhibit a short, misshapen allantois that fails to fuse with the chorion. (biologists.org)
  • Allantois - Infobox Embryology Name = Allantois Latin = GraySubject = 12 GrayPage = 54 Caption = Diagram illustrating early formation of allantois and differentiation of body stalk. (enacademic.com)
  • Diagram illustrating early formation of allantois and differentiation of body-stalk. (wikipedia.org)
  • F) Malformation of the allantois at E8.5. (asm.org)
  • The mouse allantois consists of mesodermal tissue, which undergoes vasculogenesis to form the mature umbilical artery and vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus in many mammals the mesodermal part of the allantois often appears long before the endodermal part, though this is phylogenetically older. (wordnik.com)
  • Growth of the allantois and increased vascularization of the vitellus. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The main purpose of allantois is to store nitrogenous wastes, thus functioning as embryonic urinary bladder. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • In birds and reptiles the allantois acts as a respiratory surface with the allantoic cavity (see Fig. 30 being used for the storage of excretory materials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In reptiles and birds it fuses with the allantois . (britannica.com)
  • It is an interesting point that this vascular hood, called the allantois , is represented in the Amphibians by an unimportant bladder growing out from the hind end of the food-canal. (wordnik.com)
  • The allantois is highly vascular and serves for respiratory exchanges. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • Similar vascular defects were observed in the mutant allantois explants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anc Greek αλλάs /allas(=saugage), genitive άλλαντος /allantos because allantois resembles to sausage. (blogspot.com)
  • Allantois - Al*lan to*is, Allantoid Al*lan toid, ] n. (enacademic.com)
  • The primordial germ cells (not shown) are forming near the base of the allantois. (els.net)
  • An exception is the allantois of the bandicoot, which has a vasculature, and fuses with the chorion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some other structures that we have associated with this, that aren't directly labeled on this diagram are the allantois. (sophia.org)
  • In most marsupials, the allantois is avascular, having no blood vessels, but still serves the purpose of storing nitrogenous (NH3) waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • T protein was recently identified in several new sites during mouse gastrulation, including the core of the allantois, where its function is not known. (biologists.org)
  • Oxygen is absorbed by the allantois through the egg shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the third week of development, the allantois protrudes into the area of the urogenital sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A very early condition of Man, with yelk-sac, allantois , and amnion (original). (wordnik.com)