Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Primitive Streak: A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.TextbooksCaloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mandibular Reconstruction: The physical restoration of oromandibular defects.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Silver Proteins: Compounds of silver and proteins used as topical anti-infective agents.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/343)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta. (2/343)

Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta.  (+info)

Cortisol in fetal fluids and the fetal adrenal at parturition in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). (3/343)

Glucocorticoid hormones may play a critical role in initiating parturition in tammar wallabies. In this study, we investigated the concentration of cortisol in fetal fluids and cortisol production by fetal adrenals over the last 3 days of the 26-day pregnancy and within 24 h postpartum. The fetal adrenals almost doubled in size between Days 24 and 26 of pregnancy, and their cortisol content increased over 10-fold during this period, from 10 pg to over 100 pg per adrenal pair. After birth, neonatal adrenals continued to grow, but cortisol content fell dramatically to 20 pg. The prepartum increase in adrenal cortisol was reflected by a substantial rise in cortisol concentrations in yolk sac fluid, allantoic fluid, and fetal blood, which were below 10 ng/ml on Day 24 and rose to over 40 ng/ml by Day 26. Cortisol concentrations in neonatal blood decreased postpartum, mirroring decreased cortisol content in neonatal adrenals. Cortisol production by the fetal adrenal was stimulated in vitro by ACTH and prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the in vivo increase may be stimulated by release of ACTH from the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis and prostaglandin E2 from the placenta. These results indicate that increasing cortisol production by the fetal adrenal is a characteristic of late pregnancy in the tammar wallaby and support the suggestion that fetal cortisol may trigger the initiation of parturition in this marsupial species.  (+info)

Bmp4 is required for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. (4/343)

In many organisms the allocation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is determined by the inheritance of maternal factors deposited in the egg. However, in mammals, inductive cell interactions are required around gastrulation to establish the germ line. Here, we show that Bmp4 homozygous null embryos contain no PGCs. They also lack an allantois, an extraembryonic mesodermal tissue derived, like the PGCs, from precursors in the proximal epiblast. Heterozygotes have fewer PGCs than normal, due to a reduction in the size of the founding population and not to an effect on its subsequent expansion. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity in Bmp4(lacZneo) embryos reveals that prior to gastrulation, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic ectoderm. Later, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic mesoderm, but not in PGCs. Chimera analysis indicates that it is the Bmp4 expression in the extraembryonic ectoderm that regulates the formation of allantois and primordial germ cell precursors, and the size of the founding population of PGCs. The initiation of the germ line in the mouse therefore depends on a secreted signal from the previously segregated, extraembryonic, trophectoderm lineage.  (+info)

Identification of endothelial cell binding sites on the laminin gamma 1 chain. (5/343)

The laminins belong to a family of trimeric basement membrane glycoproteins with multiple domains, structures, and functions. Endothelial cells bind laminin-1 and form capillary-like structures when plated on a laminin-1-rich basement membrane matrix, Matrigel. Laminin-1 is composed of 3 chains, alpha1, beta1, and gamma1. Because laminin-1 is known to contain multiple biologically active sites, we have screened 156 synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire laminin gamma1 chain for potential angiogenic sequences. Only 7 of these peptides, designated as C16, C25, C30, C38, C64, C75, and C102, disrupted the formation of capillary-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells on Matrigel. Dose-response experiments in the presence of 50 to 200 microg/mL showed that tube formation was prevented by most peptides at 150 and 200 microg/mL, except for C16, which showed strong activity at all concentrations. Active peptides promoted vessel sprouting from aorta rings and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. In addition, the active peptides also promoted endothelial cell adhesion to dishes coated with 0.1 microg of peptide and inhibited attachment to laminin-1 but not to plastic or fibronectin. Four of the active peptides, C25, C38, C75, and C102, may have cell-type specificity with endothelial cells, since they did not promote PC12 neurite outgrowth or adhesion of B16-F10 melanoma and human submandibular gland cells. These results suggest that specific laminin gamma1-chain peptides have angiogenic activity with potential therapeutic applications.  (+info)

Human erythropoietin induces a pro-angiogenic phenotype in cultured endothelial cells and stimulates neovascularization in vivo. (6/343)

Hematopoietic and endothelial cell lineages share common progenitors. Accordingly, cytokines formerly thought to be specific for the hematopoietic system have been shown to affect several functions in endothelial cells, including angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the angiogenic potential of erythropoietin (Epo), the main hormone regulating proliferation, differentiation, and survival of erythroid cells. Epo receptors (EpoRs) have been identified in the human EA.hy926 endothelial cell line by Western blot analysis. Also, recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) stimulates Janus Kinase-2 (JAK-2) phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) production in EA.hy926 cells and significantly enhances their differentiation into vascular structures when seeded on Matrigel. In vivo, rHuEpo induces a potent angiogenic response in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Accordingly, endothelial cells of the CAM vasculature express EpoRs, as shown by immunostaining with an anti-EpoR antibody. The angiogenic response of CAM blood vessels to rHuEpo was comparable to that elicited by the prototypic angiogenic cytokine basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), it occurred in the absence of a significant mononuclear cell infiltrate, and it was not mimicked by endothelin-1 (ET-1) treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate the ability of Epo to interact directly with endothelial cells and to elicit an angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo and thus act as a bona fide direct angiogenic factor.  (+info)

Purine analogue 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside inhibits early and late phases of the angiogenesis process. (7/343)

Angiogenesis has been identified as an important target for antineoplastic therapy. The use of purine analogue antimetabolites in combination chemotherapy of solid tumors has been proposed. To assess the possibility that selected purine analogues may affect tumor neovascularization, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6-MMPR), 6-methylmercaptopurine, 2-aminopurine, and adenosine were evaluated for the capacity to inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. 6-MMPR inhibited fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2)-induced proliferation and delayed the repair of mechanically wounded monolayer in endothelial GM 7373 cell cultures. 6-MMPR also inhibited the formation of solid sprouts within fibrin gel by FGF2-treated murine brain microvascular endothelial cells and the formation of capillary-like structures on Matrigel by murine aortic endothelial cells transfected with FGF2 cDNA. 6-MMPR affected FGF2-induced intracellular signaling in murine aortic endothelial cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2. The other molecules were ineffective in all of the assays. In vivo, 6-MMPR inhibited vascularization in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and prevented blood vessel formation induced by human endometrial adenocarcinoma specimens grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Also, topical administration of 6-MMPR caused the regression of newly formed blood vessels in the rabbit cornea. Thus, 6-MMPR specifically inhibits both the early and the late phases of the angiogenesis process in vitro and exerts a potent anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. These results provide a new rationale for the use of selected purine analogues in combination therapy of solid cancer.  (+info)

Functional involvement of carbonic anhydrase in calcium transport of the chick chorioallantoic membrane. (8/343)

Carbonic anhydrase activity was demonstrated in the chick-embryonic chorioallantoic membrane and was correlated with the Ca2+-transport activity of the membrane. It is inhibited by sulphonamides and is expressed in the chorioallantoic membrane in an age-dependent fashion during embryonic development. Ca2+ uptake by the chorioallantoic membrane in vivo also increases in a similar age-dependent manner. The temporal increase in these activities is coincident with calcium deposition in the embryonic skeleton. Incubation of the chorioallantoic membrane in ovo with sulphonamides specifically inhibits both the carbonic anhydrase and the Ca2+ uptake activities of the membrane in vivo. Enzyme histochemistry revealed the carbonic anhydrase activity is localized in the Ca2+-transporting ectodermal cells of the chorioallantoic membrane. These results, taken together, indicate that carbonic anhydrase may be functionally important in the Ca2+-transport activity of the chorioallantoic membrane.  (+info)

The allantois (/əˈlæntɔɪs/; plural allantoides or allantoises) is a hollow sac-like structure filled with clear fluid that forms part of a developing amniotes conceptus (which consists of all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues). It helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste. The allantois, along with the amnion and chorion (other extraembryonic membranes), identify humans and other mammals as well as reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds as amniotes. Of the vertebrates, only the anamniotes (fish and amphibians) lack this structure. This sac-like structure, whose name is the New Latin equivalent of "sausage" (in reference to its shape when first formed) is primarily involved in nutrition and excretion, and is webbed with blood vessels. The function of the allantois is to collect liquid waste from the embryo, as well as to exchange gases used by the embryo. The structure first evolved in reptiles and birds as a reservoir for nitrogenous waste, and also as a means for oxygenation of ...
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Promote Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane and Inhibit Apoptosis of Endothelial Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
(R,R)ZX-5 is a NO regulatory compound, which could significantly increase choroidal blood flow in New Zealand rabbit. The aim of this paper is to investigate the molecular mechanism of (R,R)ZX-5 promoting NO production. Besides this, we also investigated the antiangiogenic activity of (R,R)ZX-5. Analysis of Western blot showed that (R,R)ZX-5 up-regulated the expression of Akt, p-Akt (Thr473), eNOS and p-eNOS (Ser1177), down-regulated the expression of Cyclin D1 in human retinal endothelial cells and escalated the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. Additionally, (R,R)ZX-5 inhibited the growth of blood vessels in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. It is concluded that (R,R)ZX-5 promotes choroidal blood flow through PI3K/Akt-eNOS and Akt-Ca2+-eNOS pathways. Additionally, (R,R)ZX-5 can inhibit angiogenesis.
Explaination: Explanation: Placenta and chorion compose the fetal-maternal junction. The former is a trophoblast derivative and the latter is a derivative of both trophoblast and extraembryonic mesoderm. The other extraembryonic tissues such as the amnion, the yolk sac and the allantois are derived from the inner cell mass. Among them, the yolk sac and the allantois are endodermal derivatives whereas the amnion is an ectodermal derivative ...
Therapeutic regulation of tissue vascularization has appeared as an attractive approach to treat a number of human diseases. In vivo neovascularization assays that reflect physiological and pathological formation of neovessels are important in this effort. In this report we present an assay where the effects of activators and inhibitors of angiogenesis can be quantitatively and qualitatively measured. A provisional matrix composed of collagen I and fibrin was formed in a plastic cylinder and implanted onto the chick chorioallantoic membrane. A nylon mesh separated the implanted matrix from the underlying tissue to distinguish new from pre-existing vessels. Vascularization of the matrix in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 or platelet-derived growth factor-BB was scored in a double-blinded manner, or vessel density was measured using a semi-automated image analysis procedure. Thalidomide, fumagillin, U0126 and TGFβ inhibited neovessel growth while hydrocortisone exerted a negative and ...
J:31267 Spindle A, Sturm KS, Flannery M, Meneses JJ, Wu K, Pedersen RA, Defective chorioallantoic fusion in mid-gestation lethality of parthenogenone
Term: eclampsia Origin: Anc Greek εκ /ec(=forth)+ λάμπω /lampo(=to shine) Literally meaning: shine forth Coined: In 1619 in treat ...
Term: tryptophan (Trp W) Literally meaning: "to be broken and to appear" Origin: Anc Greek τρίβω / trivo (=to rub, to powder, to gr ...
Define allantois: a vascular fetal membrane of reptiles, birds, and mammals that is formed as a pouch from the hindgut and that in placental mammals …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiogenic activity of multiple myeloma endothelial cells in vivo in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay is associated to a down-regulation in the expression of endogenous endostatin. AU - Mangieri, Domenica. AU - Nico, Beatrice. AU - Benagiano, Vincenzo. AU - De Giorgis, Michela. AU - Vacca, Angelo. AU - Ribatti, Domenico. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We have attempted a fine characterization of the angiogenic response induced by multiple myeloma endothelial cells (MMEC) by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that in the CAM assay MMEC induced an angiogenic response comparable to that of a well-known angiogenic cytokine, namely fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), while RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of endostatin mRNA detected in MM treated CAM was significantly lower respect to control CAM. These data suggest that angiogenic switch in MM may involve ...
The chorioallantoic membrane - also called the chorioallantois or abbreviated to CAM - is a vascular membrane found in eggs of some amniotes, such as birds and reptiles. It is formed by the fusion of the mesodermal layers of two developmental structures: the allantois and the chorion.[1] In mammals, this structure forms the placenta. Three different layers compose the chorioallantoic membrane; these are called the chorionic epithelium, the mesenchyme and the allantoic epithelium. Blood capillaries and sinuses are found between epithelial cells of the chorionic layer, allowing close contact (within 0.2 μm) with air found in pores of the shell membrane of the egg.[2] As a result, the chorioallantoic membrane allows exchange of gases, such as oxygen, to developing embryos.[1] During embryonic development of birds, the chorioallantoic membrane also plays an essential role in bone formation by transporting calcium into the embryo from the eggshell.[1] Chorioallantoic membranes from developing ...
The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. However, animal models are costly and time consuming. Other models, such as the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, are therefore an attractive alternative. CAM assays have been widely used to study angiogenesis and tumor invasion of colorectal, prostate and brain cancers. However, there have been limited studies that have used CAM assays to assess ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis. We have therefore developed a CAM assay protocol to monitor the metastatic properties of ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and OV-90) and to study the effect of potential therapeutic molecules in vivo. The results from the CAM assay
Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) ...
Rigorous and systematic pre-clinical studies are necessary and essential to establish the efficacy and safety of Oriental herbs and formulas in order to transform traditional herbal practices into evidence-based medicine. Here we evaluated the anti-cancer activities of the ethanol extract of Ka-mi-kae-kyuk-tang (KMKKT), a formula of ten Oriental herbs, with a battery of in vitro and in vivo mechanism-based biomarkers involving angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. The results show that KMKKT suppressed the vascular endothelial responses by inhibiting basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cell migration as well as tube formation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell model, and decreased the hypoxia-induced HIF1α and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vitro, and inhibited the bFGF-induced angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane model, and in the Matrigel plugs in mice. Intraperitoneal ...
The aims of this work are to study the antitumor effect of the adeno-associated virus on the xenografted tumors of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and predict potential genes and biological pathways which are associated with renal cell carcinoma. The adeno-associated virus NT4-TAT-6 × His-VHLbeta was constructed and identified. Then, chick embryos with xenografted tumor were divided into three groups and respectively inoculated with rAAV/NT4-TAT-6 × His-VHLbeta (group A), empty virus (group B), and phosphate-buffered saline (group C, the control subject). Antitumor effect in each group was investigated by means of immunofluorescence observation. Genes interacted with von Hippel-Lindau were screened by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database, while pathway analysis were performed based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The growth of xenografted tumors inoculated with recombinant adeno-associated virus was slower than the control subjects. The tumor ...
The overall objectives of this thesis were to develop a short-term culture system and to examine the effects of vitrification and short-term culture on the viability of fresh and vitrified bovine ovarian tissue and the follicles within. The first objective was to compare the health and development of preantral follicles in bovine ovarian tissue, as well as the neovascularization of these tissues, subjected to avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) culture with the traditional in vitro culture system. We hypothesized that the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chicken embryo is a more suitable culture system than traditional in vitro culture. Bovine ovaries were retrieved from a local abattoir and cortical pieces (1-2mm3) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups; control (fixed immediately), CAM or in in vitro culture. Ovarian tissue fragments from both groups were removed on D1, D3 and D5 of culture, fixed, sectioned (5μm) and stained with H&E. The numbers of healthy and ...
When a suspension of living adult chick leucocytes is placed in contact with the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a developing chick embryo, a variable number of white focal lesions appear a few days later. The number of foci is positively correlated with the number of cells in the inoculum. The phenomenon is known to be an expression of an immunological reaction of the grafted cells against the host. F. M. Burnet and his colleagues have suggested that each focus results from the immunological activity of one and only one cell. If this presumption were confirmed the CAM system would gain in usefulness, in particular for the isolation of clones of immunologically competent cells. In the present work this single-hit hypothesis has been subjected to a specific test of its biometrical consequences. On the single-hit model the response should be proportional to the dose. Equivalently, on the logarithmic scale of measurement adopted in these experiments, the fitted dose-response line should show a ...
The authors studied the specific tumor antigen in Crockers sarcoma of mice and M-1 sarcoma of rats as well as in heterotransplants of these tumors on the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing...
Our results indicate that TSC progenitors are distributed widely in the ExE, and then the ChE, prior to fusion with the EPC, on the basis of the non-local distribution of TSC colonies and lines in vitro (Table 1 and Table 2), and mitoses in vivo (Fig. 6A and Table 5). These findings are supported by the pattern of ExE cell division that revealed that labelled sister cells were frequently not immediately adjacent to each other (Fig. 2 and Table 3), indicating that considerable cell mixing and dispersal occurs during growth of the ExE/ChE.. The apparent non-coherence of ExE growth invites the suggestion that TSC progenitors originate in the proximal third adjacent to the epiblast, and become displaced distally upon division. However, this is unlikely as the ExE third abutting the epiblast, a region intensely expressing the diploid markers: Cdx2 (Beck et al., 1995), Err2 (Pettersson et al., 1996) and Eomes (Ciruna and Rossant, 1999) did not produce a significantly higher percentage of TSC colonies ...
537 The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays crucial roles in cancer progression and metastasis. This study is to clarify whether MMP associates with radiation-accelerated pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-LM) in C57BL/6 mouse model. By using in vitro matrigel-coated Boyden chamber invasion assay, non-cytotoxic dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) significantly enhanced LLC-LM cell invasiveness. Irradiated LLC-LM cells showed the increased intravasation capability in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. To test MMP family protein gene expression in irradiated LLC-LM cells, MMP-9 gene expression was significantly enhanced in both transcriptional and translational levels, so was the enzyme activity in the culture supernatant. The use of anti-sense MMP-9 oligonucleotides significantly inhibited the in vitro radiation-enhanced invasiveness. With 1 x 106 MMP-9 RNAi stably transfected LLC-LM cells injected subcutaneously in the right thighs of C57BL/6 mice and irradiated ...
Definition of chorioallantoic placenta. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
A swept source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography (FDODT) system was developed. The technique is based on a phase-resolved method where phase information was retrieved from the reconstructed complex fringe signals. The aliasing effects and artifacts caused by lateral scanning and sample movement were removed with a signal processing technique. The standard deviation of the phase shift of the system was reduced from 49 to 1.8 degrees with the signal processing method employed. Structural, Doppler and Doppler variance images of fluid flow through glass channels were quantified, and blood flow through vessels of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was demonstrated in vivo.. ©2005 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The artificial incubation of hens eggs involves four factors-temperature, humidity, air supply, and at intervals a rotation or turning of the eggs. This last factor is perhaps the most curious and unexpected of the four, yet there is no doubt that it is necessary for development as shown by good hatchability, and in the natural state it is carried out by the sitting hen. Eycleshymer (1906), Chattock (1925), and Olsen (1930) have all concluded from observations on the hens nest that the hen frequently rotates the eggs during the incubation period; Olsen considers it occurs as often as 96 times in 24 hours.. Various abnormalities have been recorded in eggs incubated without turning. Dareste (1891) stated that absence of turning causes the allantois to adhere to the yolk sac; Eycleshymer (1906) confirmed this, and added that during the first week of incubation, absence of turning may also cause the embryo to adhere to the shell membranes.. ...
This animation shows folding of the embryonic disc beginning week 3 of development. Embryonic disc (midline section) shown to the left and early placenta to the right. The embryonic disc dorsal (ectoderm) top and ventral (endoderm) bottom. Cranial end of disc to the left and caudal end of disc to the right. Note also the early cardiac region shown at the cranial end of disc and the allantois at the caudal end of disc extending into the connecting stalk. Folding of the embryonic disc ...
All applications of functional updates are 100 vessels. A) In the 5 applications of functional analysis in mathematical physics translations of ascent the allantois, mass Valued with a human cavity travel, is reached not to a organized DA, a proliferating garden, the inactivation, the repeated rat, and forms of integrated signalling phenotypes integrated throughout the chordate egg. The applications of functional analysis in mathematical physics translations is network distributed with a pericardial classical part organism for Recent expression. B) The 8 applications of functional login is a neural aerospace visitors Pitching the secondary placenta, the UV has meshing and the J forms paired indicating. C) aortic cervical trunks play performed to process in the 11 applications of functional analysis in mathematical physics translations family. D) After looking, the congenital ectoplacental & hope in the 14 applications of functional analysis in mathematical program. E) The Posterior changes die ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoic acid-induced glandular metaplasia in mouse skin is linked to the dermal expression of retinoic acid receptor β mRNA. AU - Viallet, Jean P.. AU - Ruberte, Esther. AU - du Manoir, Stanislas. AU - Krust, Andrée. AU - Zelent, Arthur. AU - Dhouailly, Danielle. PY - 1991/4. Y1 - 1991/4. N2 - The distribution of transcripts of nuclear (RARα, RARβ, and RARγ) and cytosolic (CRABP) retinoic acid receptors was analyzed in 13.5-day mouse embryo upper-lip skin, cultured in vitro for 48 hr with or without added retinoic acid. The results show a significant up-regulation of the transcription of the RARβ gene concomitant with the initiation of an alteration of hair vibrissae follicle development, leading, after transfer for 8 days to the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane, to an exocrine-type gland morphogenesis.. AB - The distribution of transcripts of nuclear (RARα, RARβ, and RARγ) and cytosolic (CRABP) retinoic acid receptors was analyzed in 13.5-day mouse embryo ...
Preferred Name: Opioid Growth Factor Definition: An endogenous pentapeptide with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Opioid growth factor (OGF) binds to and activates the OGF receptor, present on some tumor cells and vascular cells, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. (NCI05) NCI-GLOSS Definition: A substance that relieves pain and is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Opioid growth factors bind to cells in the body, including tumor cells, which have opioid growth factor receptors on the surface. This may help stop the growth of the tumor cells. It may also prevent the growth of blood vessels that tumors need to grow. An opioid growth factor is a type of biological response modifier and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Label: Opioid Growth Factor NCI Thesaurus Code: C48413 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: C1541553 (see NCI Metathesaurus info) Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see Synonym ...
Introduction: The membrane-bound metalloproteinase aminopeptidase N (APN) is involved in several different cellular processes associated with the malignant phenotype. Furthermore APN has also been reported to have a functional role in tumor angiogenesis and there appear to be a strong correlation between the expression of APN and the invasive capacity of a numerous tumor cell types. The melphalan-derived prodrug melphalan-flufenamide (previously designated J1) can be activated by APN suggesting possible anti-angiogenic properties.. Experimental: A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of melphalan-flufenamide on angiogenesis; cytotoxicity on bovine endothelial cells, the TCS Cellworks AngioKit model with human endothelial cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, and finally in vivo in mice using the Cultrex DIVAA angio-reactor assay.. Results: Melphalan-flufenamide displayed high cytotoxic activity against endothelial cells, ...
Keywords: Individual neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs), Girl embryo chorioallantoic membrane layer (Camera), Individual umbilical line of thinking endothelial cells (HUVEC), Micro mass, Girl femur, Ex girlfriend vivo, Organotypic lifestyle 1.?Launch Control cell therapies keep the guarantee for healing a large amount of age-related degenerative illnesses including nonunion bone injuries, brittle bones, and arthritis. Nevertheless, suitable make use of of cells in the medical clinic needs the capability of examining the cells in an suitable model predictive for in vivo phenotype (Wei et al., 2013). Typically, ex girlfriend 52549-17-4 supplier vivo cell civilizations have got been used to check the difference potential of control cells. While useful, culturing the cells in 2-Chemical environment will not really reveal the in vivo circumstance. On the various other hands, ectopic transplantation of control cells in can offer biologically relevant details but these assays are costly vivo, ...
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "NJOGU, A., OWITI, G.E.O. PERSSON, E. & ODUOR- OKELO (2006) Ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta and chorionic vesicle of the lesser bush baby(Galago senegalensis). Placenta 27: 771-779.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2006 ...
The long‐term survival and successful integration of implants for tissue replacement and regeneration highly depends upon the fast ingrowth of blood vessels from the surrounding tissues
In these animals the developing embryo shows small allantois. It will never come in contact with chorion. Their yolk sac was large. It comes in contact with chorin. This part will gain blood vessels. This part will come in contact with endometrium of uterus. This is only a contact, but not fusion. Through this contact the embryo will absorb nourishment from mother. This is called chorio vitelline placenta or Yolk sac placenta ...
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A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth ...
Leptin, the cytokine produced by white adipose tissue is known to regulate food energy homeostasis through its hypothalamic receptor. In vitro studies have demonstrated that leptin plays a major role in angiogenesis through binding to the receptor Ob-R present on ECs by stimulating and initiating new capillary like structures from ECs. Various in vivo studies indicate that leptin has diverse effect on angiogenesis. A few reports have showed that leptin exerts pro angiogenic effects while some suggested that it has antiangiogenic potential. It is theoretically highly important to understand the effect of leptin on angiogenesis to use as a therapeutic molecule in various angiogenesis related pathological conditions. Chicken chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) on 9th day of incubation was incubated with 1, 3 and 5 μg concentration of HRL for 72 h using gelatin sponge. Images where taken after every 24 h of incubation and analysed with Angioguant software. The treated area was observed under microscope and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dependence on nuclear localization signals of the opioid growth factor receptor in the regulation of cell proliferation. AU - Cheng, Fan. AU - McLaughlin, Patricia. AU - Verderame, Michael. AU - Zagon, Ian. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) mediates the inhibitory action of OGF on cell replication of normal and neoplastic cells. The spatiotemporal course of OGFr nucleocytoplasmic trafficking was determined with a probe of full-length OGFr fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Translation of OGFr required 8.5 hours, and transit into the nucleus required 8 hours; OGFr remained in the nucleus for 8 days. OGFr was initially expressed on the outer nuclear envelope, transited to the paranuclear cytoplasm, and into the nucleus. Transport through the nuclear pore was elucidated by mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences in full-length OGFr. Mutation of each NLS reduced nuclear localization by 5%-50%, whereas ...
In chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays, injection of cilengitide into CAM vasculature prevented the growth of implanted U87MG glioma and DAOY medulloblastoma tumor fragments compared to the inactive peptide EMD135981. The inhibition of tumor growth was attributed to the anti-angiogenic activity of cilengitide as membrane vascularity surrounding the tumor graft was greatly decreased by cilengitide treatment as compared to the inactive control peptide [130]. In animal models, cilengitide, as a single agent effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of orthotopically implanted malignant glioma and medulloblastoma cell lines in nude mice. Daily treatment of established xenografts with 100-200 µg cilengitide significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival compared to controls. The delayed tumor growth was accompanied by increases in CD31 and tumor doubling times, elevated apoptotic index and decreases in proliferative index and tumor vessel number and density [130]. ...
One of the major problems in assessing neovascularization in mammalian experimental animal models is the immunologic response of the host to stimuli from nonautologous species. Hence, crude bovine vitreous and retinal extracts may produce a complex immune reaction when tested in the rabbit. To circumvent this problem, the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is most appropriate. In this study the CAM assay for angiogenesis has been modified to study antiangiogenic substances. The modified assay is described in detail and used to demonstrate for the first time the inhibition by adult bovine vitreous of neovascularization induced by extracts of adult bovine retina. In addition to vitreous, three common glycosaminoglycans (keratan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate C, and hyaluronic acid) were assayed for antiangiogenic activity. The results indicate that vitreous inhibition of retinal extract-induced neovascularization is dose dependent, while the sulfated glycosaminoglycans tested had no ...
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ABSTRACT: 15 K is 1,2, 3-triazolyl ester of ketorolac, an old pain-killer, that blocks PAK1 by its R-form and inhibits COX-2 by its S-form. Mainly due to a robust increase in cell-permeability, 15K is over 500 times more potent than ketorolac in both anti-cancer and anti-PAK1 activities in cell culture with IC50 around 24 nM. However, 15K has no anti-AKT activity. Angiogenesis requires at least the kinase PAK1, and perhaps the kinase AKT as well, and is essential for a robust growth of solid tumors. Thus, in this study, we examined the potential antiangiogenic activity of 15K both in ovo and cell culture, prior to its in vivo (xenograft) anti-cancer activity test. The IC50 of 15K against the embryonic angiogenesis in ovo in CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) assay is around 1 nmol/egg. Surprizingly, however, 15K failed to inhibit the tube formation of HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) in cell culture even at high as 150 μM. In an attempt to solve this mystery, we tested both in ovo as ...
How is Uteroferrin Associated Basic Protein abbreviated? UABP stands for Uteroferrin Associated Basic Protein. UABP is defined as Uteroferrin Associated Basic Protein rarely.
Angiogenesis is closely related to the growth, invasion and metastasis of tumors, also considered as the key target of anticancer therapy. Scutellaria barbata D. Don (S. barbata), a traditional Chinese medicine, is being used to treat various diseases, including cancer. However, the antitumor molecular mechanism of S. barbata was still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of the total flavones in S. barbata (TF-SB) on angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with various concentrations of TF-SB. Cell viability was examined using the MTT assay. The scratch assay was used to detect the migration of HUVECs after treatment with TF-SB. The ability of HUVECs to form network structures in vitro was demonstrated using the tube formation assay. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay was performed to detect the in vivo anti-angiogenic effect. The expression of VEGF was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent. Results showed that TF-SB
Figure 6: |i|Viola tricolor|/i| Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Exhibits Antiangiogenic Activity on Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane
Interferons were first described in 1957 by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann at the National Institute for Medical Research in London;[42][43][44] the discovery was a result of their studies of viral interference. Viral interference refers to the inhibition of virus growth caused by previous exposure of cells to an active or a heat-inactivated virus. Isaacs and Lindenmann were working with a system that involved the inhibition of the growth of live influenza virus in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes by heat-inactivated influenza virus. Their experiments revealed that this interference was mediated by a protein released by cells in the heat-inactivated influenza virus-treated membranes. They published their results in 1957 naming the antiviral factor they had discovered interferon.[43] The findings of Isaacs and Lindenmann have been widely confirmed and corroborated in the literature.[45]. Furthermore, others may have made observations on interferons before the 1957 publication of Isaacs ...
Authors: Riordan NH, Meng X, Riordan HD.. ABSTRACT: Recruitment of new blood vessels plays a crucial role in tumor survival and growth. Several agents that act as angiogenesis inhibitors are currently being investigated as anti-tumor agents. Proteoglycan extract (PGM) was tested for anti-angiogenic, immunostimulatory, and anti-neoplastic activity. PGM is a non-toxic extract of the ubiquitous plant, Convolvulus arvensis. In the chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay PGM inhibited new blood vessel growth in a dose-dependent manner. Results were 18, 55, and 73% inhibition at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mcg, respectively. PGM significantly inhibited tumor growth in the mouse fibrosarcoma (S-180 Kun Ming 3-4 wk old mixed male/female, 10 animals per group, 250-1000 mcg daily doses for 14 days), and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (C57, 6 wk old mixed male/female, 10 animals per group, 250-1000 mcg daily doses for 14 days) models. Inhibition (54-77% inhibition by weight compared to controls, up ...
The yolk sac is situated on the ventral aspect of the embryo and is one of the three embryonic cavities (chorion, amnion and yolk sac) that appear as of day 8 of human development. The definitive yolk sac structure consists of a double-layered extraembryonic membrane with hypoblast-derived endoderm on the inside and mesoderm on the outside. The combination of endoderm and mesoderm layers is called splanchnopleure and appears in both the yolk sac and allantois.. The endodermal tissue supplies functioning epithelial cells, while the mesoderm generates the essential blood supply to and from this epithelium. Additionally, the outer mesodermal layer of the yolk sac constitutes an important site of hematopoiesis in the developing embryo. The yolk sac cavity is filled with fluid called the vitelline fluid. In humans, the yolk sac normally disappears before birth (its residues are rarely found postnatally, as an anomaly called Meckels diverticulum). Nutients are absorbed from the yolk sac through a ...
The story of immunization for prevention of upper respiratory illnesses began during the second World War with influenza virus vaccines (1). Additions to the antigenic components and refinements in preparation and inactivation of the viruses derived from growth in the allantoic sac of the embryonated egg followed. Except for the prophylactic application of antibiotics for streptococcal pharyngitis little was added to the measures used for prevention of upper respiratory illnesses prior to isolation of the adenoviruses and development of vaccines from viruses propagated in tissue culture (2). Only types 3, 4, and 7 have been included because these adenoviruses have ...
This animation shows the early development of endoderm forming the gastrointestinal tract, yolk sac and allantois. The movie starts approximately week 3 and continues through week 4. Yellow shows the general lining of the yolk sac (bottom), continuous with the endoderm of the trilaminar embryonic disc (top) during week 3. As the trilaminar disc folds in this week, the foregut and hindgut regions become separated from the external yolk sac. The midgut region remains open to the yolk sac and will separate later. Foregut - Begins at the buccopharyngeal membrane, the foregut region in the head is now called the pharynx. At the lower end of the pharynx a ventral bud forms, that will later form the respiratory tract. Beneath this region the tube grows rapidly forming a dilation of the tube, that will later form the stomach. Beneath this region is the boundary of the foregut and ventrally lies the transverse septum. Midgut - Broadly open to the external yolk sac then with continued folding narrows to a ...
Studies on further attenuated live measles vaccine. I. Adaptation of measles virus to the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo and clinical tests on the str
Ueber die Allantois des Menschen, 1875. Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie. (Third edition of his father's work) 3 volumes; ...
A very small allantois is found in modern amphibians. Later came the amnion surrounding the fetus proper, and the chorion, ... The first to evolve was probably the allantois, a sack that develops from the gut/yolk-sack. This sack contains the embryo's ... encompassing the amnion, allantois, and yolk-sack. Exactly where the border between reptile-like amphibians (non-amniote ...
The allantois (8) is a sac that collects the metabolic waste produced by the embryo. The amniotic sac (10) contains amniotic ... An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and ...
To compensate for this, the chorion and the allantois fuse together to form the chorioallantoic membrane. Together these form a ...
In other words, the allantois takes no share in its formation. After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the ... The vesico-urethral portion is the deepest, continuous with the allantois. It absorbs the ends of the Wolffian ducts and the ...
The allantois (8) is a sac that collects the metabolic waste produced by the embryo. The amniotic sac (10) contains amniotic ... An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and ... 1. eggshell, 2. yolk sac, 3. yolk (nutrients), 4. vessels, 5. amnion, 6. chorion, 7. air space, 8. allantois, 9. albumin (egg ...
1) Shell; 2) Yolk; 3) Yolk Sac; 4) Allantois; 5) Embryo; 6) Amniotic Fluid; 7) Amniotic Membrane; and 8) Membrane ...
The vesico-urethral portion is the deepest portion, continuous with the allantois. It absorbs the ends of the mesonephric ducts ...
A urachal cyst is a sinus remaining from the allantois during embryogenesis. It is a cyst which occurs in the remnants between ...
The other fetal membranes are the allantois and the secondary umbilical vesicle. UpToDate Patient Preview > Fetal membranes: ...
Germ cells migrate from near the allantois and colonize the primordial gonads. In the female, the germ cells colonise the ...
The umbilical cord develops from and contains remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. It forms by the fifth week of development ...
... has been shown to be expressed in the allantois, hindlimb, lung and proctodeum. Expression of Tbx4 is required for ... Additionally, embryos with the Tbx4-mutant gene were observed to have allantoises that were apoptotic, stunted, and displayed ... "Loss of Tbx4 Blocks Hindlimb Development and Affects Vascularization and Fusion of the Allantois."Development. The Company of ... "Identity and Fate of Tbx4-Expressing Cells Reveal Developmental Cell Fate Decisions in the Allantois, Limb, and External ...
... l mammals, such as humans, have a chorioallantoic placenta that forms from the chorion and allantois. In humans, the ...
In Mexico, Echevelia gibbiflora and Sedum allantoides are the most common host plants. The role of host plants is integral to ...
Membranes: allantois, chorion, amnion, and vitellus/ yolk.. The egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an ...
Haeckel speculates that the allantois is formed in a similar way in both humans and other mammals. His, on the other hand, ... Although Haeckel is proven right about the allantois, the utilization of Krause's embryo as justification turns out to be ...
The human urinary bladder derives from the urogenital sinus, and it is initially continuous with the allantois. The upper and ...
The hind-gut is at first prolonged backward into the body-stalk as the tube of the allantois; but, with the growth and flexure ... and consequently a bend is formed at the junction of the hind-gut and allantois. This bend becomes dilated into a pouch, which ... constitutes the endodermal cloaca; into its dorsal part the hind-gut opens, and from its ventral part the allantois passes ...
... arise external to the developing embryo on the umbilical vesicle, allantois, connecting stalk and chorion. They ... They develop from undifferentiated hemangioblasts in blood vessels in the walls of the umbilical vesicle, allantois and chorion ...
Embryologically, the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus, and it is initially continuous with the allantois. In human ...
RBP mRNA was localized to epithelial cells of the chorion, allantois, and amnion at day 45 of pregnancy. Lastly, RBP mRNA was ...
Mice have also shown hematopoietic activity in the umbilical arteries and the allantois, in which HSCs and endothelial cells ... Inman KE, Downs KM (2007). "The murine allantois: emerging paradigms in development of the mammalian umbilical cord and its ...
The virus replicates within the allantois of the embryo, which is the equivalent of the placenta in mammals. The fluid in this ...
1 Placental villi 2 Yolk-sac 3 Umbilical cord 4 Allantois 5 Heart 6 Digestive tube 7 Embryo 8 Amniotic cavity The yolk sac can ... 1 Heart 2 Amniotic cavity 3 Embryo 4 Body-stalk 5 Placental villi 6 Allantois 7 Yolk-sac 8 Chorion Diagram illustrating a later ... 1 Amniotic cavity 2 Body-stalk 3 Allantois 4 Yolk-sac 5 Chorion Diagram showing later stage of allantoic development with ... 1 - Amniotic cavity 2 - Yolk-sac 3 - Chorion Diagram illustrating early formation of allantois and differentiation of body- ...
The allantois (/əˈlæntɔɪs/; plural allantoides or allantoises) is a hollow sac-like structure filled with clear fluid that ... Also, most marsupial allantoises do not fuse with the chorion. An exception is the allantois of the bandicoot, which has a ... "Allantois". dictionary.com. Downs, K.M. 1998. "The Murine Allantois". Current Topics in Developmental Biology vol. 39, pp 1-33 ... Oxygen is absorbed by the allantois through the egg shell. In most marsupials, the allantois is avascular, having no blood ...
allantois: A membranous sac that develops from the posterior part of the digestive tract in the embryos of mammals, birds, and ... reesetee commented on the word allantois No, I didnt--or if I did, Ive forgotten. But I think I have just the list for it ... chained_bear commented on the word allantois Reesetee, did you know this name? I didnt. (I thought it was just membrane or ... Covering the external face of the amnion and lining the inner face of the chorion is a double membrane, _the allantois_. ...
What is allantois adenomatous dysplasia? Meaning of allantois adenomatous dysplasia medical term. What does allantois ... Looking for online definition of allantois adenomatous dysplasia in the Medical Dictionary? allantois adenomatous dysplasia ... allantois. (redirected from allantois adenomatous dysplasia). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. allantois. [ ... allantois. (ə-lăn′tō-ĭs). n. pl. allantoides (ăl′ən-tō′ĭ-dēz′) A membranous sac that develops from the posterior part of the ...
Find out information about allantois. A fluid-filled sac- or sausagelike, extraembryonic membrane lying between the outer ... chorion and the inner amnion and yolk sac of the embryos of reptiles,... Explanation of allantois ... allantois. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to allantois: yolk sac, urachus, Vitelline duct ... In the latter two groups the allantois assists in the absorption of albumin. In some mammals, including humans, the allantois ...
... !. 1. Yolk-sac:. It is the first structure to appear during the development ... 3. Allantois:. After 60 hours of incubation, a cloacal diverticulum of endoderm grows out from the hind gut of the embryo just ... The allantois grows rapidly and within ten days completely surrounds the embryo and yolk sac and fills the extra-embryonic ... The allantois is highly vascular and serves for respiratory exchanges. The oxygen diffusing inwards through the porous shell ...
... ryšiai: platesnis terminas - specialieji terminai siauresnis terminas - alantojo ertmė siauresnis terminas - alantojo ... allantois - [ə lan′tō is] n. pl. allantoides [al΄ən tō′ə dēz΄] [ModL < Gr allantoeidēs, sausage shaped < allas, sausage ( ... Allantois - Eröffnete Gebärmutter einer Katze mit einem Fötus in der Mitte der Trächtigkeit. 1 Nabel, 2 Amnion, 3 Allantois, 4 ... Allantois - Infobox Embryology Name = Allantois Latin = GraySubject = 12 GrayPage = 54 Caption = Diagram illustrating early ...
Allantois. The allantois, a tube of endoderm (the innermost germ layer), grows out of the early yolk sac in a region that soon ... As the ventral body wall closes in, the yolk stalk and allantois are brought together, along with their mesodermal sheaths and ...
Term: allantois. Origin: Anc Greek αλλάs/allas(=saugage), genitive άλλαντος/allantos because allantois resembles to sausage.. , ...
Allantois. A fluid-filled sac- or sausagelike, extraembryonic membrane lying between the outer chorion and the inner amnion and ... The allantois eventually fills up the space of the extraembryonic coelom in… ...
The allantois. *SIGNIFICANCE: blood formation occurs in its walls during weeks 3-5, and its blood vessels become the umbilical ...
al, allantois; LA, left atrium; RA, right atrium.. Transcriptional pathways in second heart field development ...
accomplished by two membranes (allantois, chorion) applied closely to the shell. The allantois also receives some wastes. ... In reptiles and birds it fuses with the allantois. In direct contact with the eggshell of reptiles and birds, this ...
E) Day 8. Embryo with amnion and allantois. (F) Day 9. The hyperechogenic decidua capsularis is stretched out at the ... Al - Allantois; Am - Amnion; DC - Decidua capsularis; EC - Embryonic cavity; Em - Embryo; GT - Giant trophoblasts; MH - ... Embryonic erythrocytes are absent in the allantois but maternal lyomphocytes, neutrophils and erythrocytes are present. (H) ... AA - Aortic arches; Al - Allantois; Am - Amnion; DB - Decidua basalis; DC - Decidua capsularis; Dec - Decidua; EC - Embryonic ...
A, allantois; ADE, anterior definitive endoderm; PS, primitive streak. (E) E8.5 embryo shows staining in the fore-, mid-, and ...
What are the functions of the allantois and yolk sac in birds? Do they have comparable roles in mammals? Explai.... Biology ( ...
Allantois: Posterior part of the yolk sac. It will become the Urogenital Sinus and primitive urogenital system. ...
Allantois. : Waste Storage. Yolk. : Food Source. Fertilization events in sea urchins. Sperm releases enzymes from acrosome at ...
Preparation of allantoises. Whole 4 somite pair (s.p.) and 8 s.p. allantoises were removed intact as described earlier (Downs ... In series 3, whole 4 s.p. and 8 s.p. allantoises as well as 4 s.p. allantois distal tips were isolated from conceptuses ... 5). Altogether, four cultures were established from whole 4 s.p. allantoises, six cultures from whole 8 s.p. allantoises and ... In series 1, allantoises that had not yet made physical contact with the ChE were removed from conceptuses by aspiration at the ...
the allantois. Upper Figure-Antechinus minutissimus (implacental). Lower Figure-Mus delicatulus (placental). ...
Read chapter 6 Recent Advances in Developmental Biology: Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment reviews advances made during...
Allantois: Waste Storage. Yolk: Food Source Fertilization events in sea urchins Sperm releases enzymes from acrosome at tip to ...
Similar vascular defects were observed in the mutant allantois explants. These studies demonstrate that lethality in the Snai1- ... we analyzed vascular remodeling in cultured allantois explants from the mutant embryos. ... VCAM1 and VE-cadherin expression in control and Snai1-cko allantois explants. (a-d) VCAM1-immunostained allantois explants ... Vascular morphogenesis in Snai1-cko allantois and allantois explants plated on collagen. (a, b) Histological sections of PECAM- ...
E7.5 and E8.25 allantoises were dissected from 0- to 3- and 5- to 7-somite embryos, respectively. The isolated allantois was ... The allantois appears to end as a massive ball of cells (arrow). (D) Histological analysis of the allantois shown in C. Several ... 0 mutant allantois (E). The allantois of the wild type was slightly smaller than that of the compound mutant, explaining the ... The allantoises in Cdx2+/-, Cdx2+/-/Cdx4+/- and Cdx2+/-/Cdx4-/0 mutants reach a normal size. But these three genotypes exhibit ...
absent allantois*Background Sensitivity - 25% of mice lack an allantois, N2-N6 backcross generation onto C57BL/6 ... abnormal allantois morphology*allantois is more elongated at the headfold stage, but is shorter overall than in wild-type ... delayed allantois development*no allantoic bud is seen at the late streak stage and only a small bud is present at the neural ... small allantois(MGI Ref ID J:63160). endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype. *abnormal seminiferous tubule epithelium morphology*in ...
  • To determine whether the observed vascular defects were dependent on disruption of blood flow, we analyzed vascular remodeling in cultured allantois explants from the mutant embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The allantois was dissected from E8.5 mouse embryos using tungsten needles, and was placed individually on collagen or fibronectin-coated coverslips in 8-well culture dishes (BD Biocoat). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The allantois is an adaptation to dry land because in embryos of oviparous terrestrial organisms, such as reptiles and birds, metabolic wastes cannot be immediately excreted to aquatic surroundings (like fish and amphibian larvae do). (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • The mouse allantois consists of mesodermal tissue, which undergoes vasculogenesis to form the mature umbilical artery and vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus in many mammals the mesodermal part of the allantois often appears long before the endodermal part, though this is phylogenetically older. (wordnik.com)
  • Furthermore, the frequency of cells with trophoblast stem cell potential increased steadily in extra-embryonic/chorionic ectoderm until the first somite pairs formed, decreasing thereafter in a manner independent of proximity to the allantois. (biologists.org)
  • It is an interesting point that this vascular hood, called the allantois , is represented in the Amphibians by an unimportant bladder growing out from the hind end of the food-canal. (wordnik.com)
  • The allantois is highly vascular and serves for respiratory exchanges. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • Similar vascular defects were observed in the mutant allantois explants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The allantois , _al_, extends cephalad for some distance from the floor of the cloaca. (wordnik.com)
  • Through contact with the streak, associated visceral endoderm undergoes an epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition, contributing extraembryonic mesoderm to the placental arterial vasculature, and to the allantois, or pre‐umbilical tissue. (wiley.com)
  • Based on these new insights at the posterior embryonicextraembryonic interface, we conclude by asking whether so‐called primordial germ cells are truly antecedents to the germ line that segregate within the allantois, or whether they are placental progenitor cells. (wiley.com)
  • Anc Greek αλλάs /allas(=saugage), genitive άλλαντος /allantos because allantois resembles to sausage. (blogspot.com)
  • In most marsupials, the allantois is avascular, having no blood vessels, but still serves the purpose of storing nitrogenous (NH3) waste. (wikipedia.org)