Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.HydrocarbonsChemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedPolycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.West VirginiaAutoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.ExplosionsEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Strychnos: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)EthersBiofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).ButanesAlkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Pentanoic AcidsCycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Rejuvenation: The phenomenon of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness being restored. This can apply to appearance, TISSUES, organ functions, or other areas.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures: A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.Benzene DerivativesStyrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.GuanineSteam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Brevibacterium flavum: A species in the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM, family Corynebacteriaceae, which is used for industrial production of the amino acid LYSINE. It is closely related to Corynebacterium glutamicum.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Origanum: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of a familiar food seasoning.

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (1/1546)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (2/1546)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (3/1546)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study. (4/1546)

Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins.  (+info)

In vitro reactions of butadiene monoxide with single- and double-stranded DNA: characterization and quantitation of several purine and pyrimidine adducts. (5/1546)

We have previously shown that butadiene monoxide (BM), the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, reacted with nucleosides to form alkylation products that exhibited different rates of formation and different stabilities under in vitro physiological conditions. In the present study, BM was reacted with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA and the alkylation products were characterized after enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA. The primary products were regioisomeric N-7-guanine adducts. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)adenine and N-3-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)adenine, which were depurinated from the DNA more rapidly than the N-7-guanine adducts, were also formed. In addition, N6-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyadenosine and N6-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)deoxyadenosine were detected and evidence was obtained that these adducts were formed by Dimroth rearrangement of the corresponding N-1-deoxyadenosine adducts, not while in the DNA, but following the release of the N-1-alkylated nucleosides by enzymatic hydrolysis. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyuridine adducts, which were apparently formed subsequent to deamination reactions of the corresponding deoxycytidine adducts, were also detected and were stable in the DNA. Adduct formation was linearly dependent upon BM concentration (10-1000 mM), with adduct ratios being similar at the various BM concentrations. At a high BM concentration (750 mM), the adducts were formed in a linear fashion for up to 8 h in both ssDNA and dsDNA. However, the rates of formation of the N-3-deoxyuridine and N6-deoxyadenosine adducts increased 10- to 20-fold in ssDNA versus dsDNA, whereas the N-7-guanine adducts increased only slightly, presumably due to differences in hydrogen bonding in ssDNA versus dsDNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of both BM and its parent compound, 1,3-butadiene.  (+info)

Monoclonal antibody 3F3 against conformational epitope of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase. (6/1546)

AIM: To study the type of epitope of native Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE) directed by its monoclonal antibody (McAb) 3F3. METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the assay of the reaction between antigen and antibody. RESULTS: McAb 3F3 immunoreacted well with the native AChE, but not with the reduced- and alkylated-AChE (RA-AChE) at all. Soman did not interfere the binding of 3F3 with AChE molecule. The synthesized 24-peptide containing the active serine residue of the AChE active center did not react with McAb 3F3. CONCLUSION: 3F3 is a monoclonal antibody against the conformational epitope of Torpedo AChE active center, but dose not occupy the active serine residue of the enzyme.  (+info)

Use of methyl iodide for probing the polarity of the immediate environment of --SH groups in thiolenzymes. Reaction of methyl iodide with thiosubtilisin. (7/1546)

A new approach is proposed for probing the polarity of the immediate environment of -SH groups in thiolenzymes, based on the alkylation of the -SH group with methyl iodide, a relatively small and non-polar molecule. Rate and activation parameters (delta H*, delta S*) for the reaction of the enzyme are compared to those of glutathione, a simple -SH compound alkylated in aqueous medium. The enzyme and model compound are also reacted with iodoacetamide, a polar counterpart of the non-polar methyl iodide. The above method was applied to thiolsubtilisin, an artificial thiolenzyme. 1. The ratio of the rates of alkylation of thiolsubtilisin and glutathione is about 20 times as high with methyl iodide as with iodoacetamide. 2. delta H* and delta S* for enzyme alkylation, as compared to those for glutathione, are remarkably lower with methyl iodide whereas they are slightly higher with iodoacetamide. 3. delta H* and delta S* for alkylation of thiolsubtilisin with methyl iodide are similar to those found with glutathione in 40% dioxane/water mixture. 4. The activation enthalpy and entropy values for the reaction of thiolsubtilisin with D-2-bromo-n-valeramide are lower than those for glutathione reaction. Consequently, in this respect, D-2-bromo-n-valeramide is similar to methyl iodide rather than to iodoacetamide. It is concluded that the -SH group of thiolsubtilisin is located in an environment less polar than water. The concentration of methyl iodide in this non-polar layer is higher than in the bulk solution, which results in an enhanced reaction rate.  (+info)

Thermal effects on an enzymatically latent conformation of coagulation factor VIIa. (8/1546)

Activation of the zymogen factor VII yields an enzyme form, factor VIIa, with only modest activity. The thermal effect on this low activity of factor VIIa and its enhancement by the cofactor tissue factor was investigated. Factor VIIa activity measured with a chromogenic peptide substrate is characterized by an unusual temperature dependency which indicates that the activated protease exists in an equilibrium between a latent (enzymatically inactive) and an active conformation. As shown by calorimetry and activity measurements the thermal effects on factor VIIa are fully reversible below the denaturation temperature of 58.1 degrees C. A model for factor VIIa has been proposed [Higashi, S., Nishimura, H., Aita, K. & Iwanaga, S. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18891-18898] in which the protease is supposed to exist primarily as a latent enzyme form because of the poor incorporation into the protease structure of the N-terminal Ile153 released by proteolytic cleavage during activation of factor VII. Binding of tissue factor to factor VIIa is assumed to shift the equilibrium towards an active conformation in which the N-terminal Ile153 forms a salt bridge with Asp343. We corroborate the validity of this model by: (a) chemical modification of factor VIIa; this suggests that the thermal effect on the equilibrium between the active and inactive conformation is reflected in the relative accessibility of the active site and the N-terminal Ile153; (b) measurements of factor VIIa binding to tissue factor indicating that complex formation is favoured by stabilization of the active conformation; and (c) activity measurements of a cross-linked factor VIIa-tissue factor complex; this showed that cross-linking stabilized the active conformation of factor VIIa and essentially prevented its thermally-induced transformation into the inactive state.  (+info)

*Chiral auxiliary

Alkylation of these lithium enolates proceeds with high facial selectivity. Diastereoselective alkylation of a pseudoephedrine ... Model for the diastereoslective alkylation of a pseudoephedrine amide enolate. One primary advantage of asymmetric alkylation ... which can undergo stereoselective alkylation. Alkylation of an oxazolidinone imide with benzyl bromide. Activated electrophiles ... R)-BINOL monoeryl ether was prepared by the monosilylation and alkylation of (R)-BINOL as the chiral auxiliary. Followed with ...

*Alkylation

... alkylation refers to a particular alkylation of isobutane with olefins. For upgrading of petroleum, alkylation produces ... In medicine, alkylation of DNA is used in chemotherapy to damage the DNA of cancer cells. Alkylation is accomplished with the ... In an oil refinery it is referred to as a sulfuric acid alkylation unit (SAAU) or a hydrofluoric alkylation unit, (HFAU). ... Methylation is distinct from alkylation in that it is specifically the transfer of one carbon, whereas alkylation can refer to ...

*Amine alkylation

Key to the alkylation of alcohols is the use of catalysts that render the hydroxyl group a good leaving group. The largest ... Amine alkylation (amino-de-halogenation) is a type of organic reaction between an alkyl halide and ammonia or an amine. The ... N-alkylation is a general and useful route to quaternary ammonium salts from tertiary amines, because overalkylation is not ... Examples of N-alkylation with alkyl halides are the syntheses of benzylaniline, 1-benzylindole, and azetidine. Another example ...

*Alkylation unit

Lewis acids will catalyze the alkylation reaction (alkylation of isobutane with olefins was discovered using aluminum chloride ... Refineries examine whether it makes sense economically to install alkylation units. Alkylation units are complex, with ... Alkylation capacities world-wide Solid-acid alkylation process development is at crucial stage Sulphur recovery; (2007). The ... An alkylation unit is one of the conversion processes used in petroleum refineries. It is used to convert isobutane and low- ...

*Fráter-Seebach alkylation

In organic chemistry, the Fráter-Seebach alkylation (also known as Seebach-Fráter alkylation or Fráter-Seebach reaction) is a ... Fráter, G.; Müller, U.; Günther, W. (1984). "The stereoselective α-alkylation of chiral β-hydroxy esters and some applications ... diastereoselective alkylation of chiral beta-hydroxy esters using strong bases. The reaction was first published by G. Fráter ...

*Stork enamine alkylation

A New Method for the Alkylation of Ketones and Aldehydes: the C-Alkylation of the Magnesium Salts of N-Substituted Imines ... The Stork enamine alkylation, involves the addition of an enamine to an alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl acceptor in a process ...

*Enders SAMP/RAMP hydrazone-alkylation reaction

Myers' asymmetric alkylation Stork enamine alkylation Enders' reagents Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert reaction Corey, E. J ... Stork, G.; Dowd, S. R. (1996). "A New Method for the Alkylation of Ketones and Aldehydes: the C-Alkylation of the Magnesium ... The apparent shortcoming for enolate alkylation reactions is over-alkylation, even if the amount of base added for enolization ... In 1963, G. Stork reported the first enamine alkylation reaction for ketones - Stork enamine alkylation reaction. In 1976, ...

*Amine oxide

O-alkylation. Pyridine N-oxides react with alkyl halides to the O-alkylated product Bis-ter-pyridine derivatives adsorbed on ...

*Tsuji-Trost reaction

The Tsuji-Trost reaction (also called the Trost allylic alkylation or allylic alkylation) is a palladium-catalysed substitution ... Allylic alkylation." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 292-294. doi:10.1021/ja00782a080. Rios, Itzel Guerrero; Rosas-Hernandez, ... Trost, B. M.; Strege, P. E. "Asymmetric induction in catalytic allylic alkylation." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977, 99, 1649-1651. doi: ... The enantioselective version of the Tsuji-Trost reaction is called the Trost asymmetric allylic alkylation (Trost AAA) or ...

*Zoltan Hajos

... α-alkylation… Mannich... Michael [a]ddition... and α-amination… [reactions] of carbonyl compounds. In the literature, this ...

*Potassium fluoride on alumina

for inducing alkylation reactions. Blass BE (2002): KF/Al2O3 mediated organic synthesis. Tetrahedron, Vol. 58, 9301-9320.. ...

*Dimethyl oxalate

Alkylation with Oxalic Esters. Scope and Mechanism Marina Bährle-Rapp: Springer Lexikon Kosmetik und Körperpflege, S. 130; ISBN ... Dimethyl oxalate is used for alkylation and in the cosmetics industry as a chelating agent. For countries with low oil but ...

*Ethyl methanesulfonate

It produces random mutations in genetic material by nucleotide substitution; particularly by guanine alkylation. This typically ...

*Hagemann's ester

White, James D.; Sung, Wing Lam (1974). "Alkylation of Hagemann's ester. Preparation of an intermediate for trisporic acid ...

*Methylation

... is a form of alkylation, with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogen atom. These ... The term methylation in organic chemistry refers to the alkylation process used to describe the delivery of a CH3 group. ... Purdie, T.; Irvine, J. C. (1903). "C.?The alkylation of sugars". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 83: 1021. doi: ... a biophysical method to determine the methylisation state of DNA Alkylation Methoxy Titanium-Zinc Methylenation Petasis reagent ...

*Amine

The most industrially significant amines are prepared from ammonia by alkylation with alcohols: ROH + NH3 → RNH2 + H2O Unlike ... "Tandem alkylation-reduction of nitriles. Synthesis of branched primary amines". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 51 (26): 5338- ... are rarely employed because the degree of alkylation is difficult to control. Selectivity can be improved via the Delépine ...

*Organocopper compound

γ- Alkylation of allylic alcohols. Generally, the alkylation reaction of organocopper reagents proceed via gamma- alkylation. ... Alkylation of amines using the Gilman reagent Yamamoto and coworkers described an efficient synthetic method for the alkylation ... Amine alkylation reaction The reaction is reported to be favorable in ethereal solvents. This method was proved to be very ... A remarkably enhanced regioselective gamma- attack of allylic halides and direct alkylation of allylic alcohols via RCu.BF3". ...

*Phenbenzamine

"A Novel N-Alkylation Reaction". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 75 (3): 744-745. doi:10.1021/ja01099a508. ISSN 0002- ...

*Nitrile anion

The primary difficulty for alkylation reactions employing nitrile anions is over-alkylation. In the alkylation of acetonitrile ... Two exceptions are alkylations with epoxides (the nearby negative charge of the opened epoxide wards off further alkylation) ... Alkylation of a nitrile anion followed by reductive decyanation was employed in the novel synthesis of (2)-9-dotlecen-1-yl ... Simple alkylations take place by SN2 displacement and are subject to the usual stereoelectronic requirements of the process. ...

*Aza-Cope rearrangement

Amine alkylation represents a common method to get to imine precursors. Amine alkylation by direct SN2 reaction is only ... Alkylation with Allylic and Benzyl Halides". J. Org. Chem. 26 (9): 3576-3577. doi:10.1021/jo01067a645. Baxter, E. W.; Labaree, ... The most useful and standard method of amine alkylation is to have the amine form an amide bond, and subsequently reduce it, ... Amine alkylation (not shown), transforms the molecule to the rearrangement substrate. Significantly, this molecule shows the ...

*Boron trifluoride

The Alkylation of Phenol with Alcohols". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 57 (4): 709-711. doi:10.1021/ja01307a034. " ... alkylation, esterification, dehydration, condensation, Mukaiyama aldol addition, and other reactions[citation needed] Other, ...

*White catalyst

Lin, S.; Song, C.-X.; Cai, G.-X.; Wang, W.-H.; Shi, Z.-J. (2008). "Intra/Intermolecular Direct Allylic Alkylation via Pd(II)- ... Young, A. J.; White, M. C. (2008). "Catalytic Intermolecular Allylic C-H Alkylation". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (43): 14090-14091. ... In 2008, simultaneous publications described the allylic C-H alkylation of allylarene substrates. These reactions were ...

*Cyanamide

Catalytic Two-Phase Alkylation of Cyanamide". Synthesis. 1978: 882-883. doi:10.1055/s-1978-24922. Ponsold K, Ihn W (1970). "Die ...

*Mitsunobu reaction

Tsunoda, T.; Nagino, C.; Oguri, M.; Itô, S. (1996). "Mitsunobu-type alkylation with active methine compounds". Tetrahedron ...

*Cerium(III) chloride

It is also used itself as a Lewis acid, for example as a catalyst in Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Luche reduction of ... Another important use in organic synthesis is for alkylation of ketones, which would otherwise form enolates if simple ... catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions". Chemistry Letters. 15 (3): 357-360. doi:10.1246/cl.1986.357. Luche, Jean-Louis ... but in the presence of CeCl3 smooth alkylation occurs: It is reported that organolithiums work more effectively in this ...
Alkylation Catalyst Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Alkylation Catalyst Industry.. Global Alkylation Catalyst market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.. The Report provides a basic overview of the Alkylation Catalyst Market including definitions, classifications, applications and chain structure. The Alkylation Catalyst Industry analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regional development status.. The Alkylation Catalyst market report elaborates Alkylation Catalyst industry overview with various definitions and classification, Product types & its applications and chain structure. Alkylation Catalyst market report displays the production, revenue, price, and market share and growth rate of each type as following.. Alkylation Catalyst Market by Product ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Alkylation Catalysts Market analysis is provided for global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of the Alkylation Catalysts market. Alkylation Catalysts Industry report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. Alkylation Catalysts Market research report also provides granular analysis of the sales, market growth market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. Alkylation of isobutane with olefins in the petroleum is an important industrial process to improve the octane number. As the most usually liquid acid catalysts, concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) have potential environmental problem especially for the HF alkylation process.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Alkylation Catalysts ...
Here, we demonstrate that OTUD4 may serve as a master regulator of alkylation damage resistance through stabilization of the human AlkB homologues. A number of distinct lines of evidence support this role for OTUD4. First, OTUD4 interacts specifically with ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 and encodes a K48‐specific DUB (Fig 1). Consistently, ALKBH3 is subjected to K48‐linked ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (Fig 2A-D). OTUD4 antagonizes ALKBH3 ubiquitination and stabilizes both ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 in vivo (Fig 2E-H). ALKBH3 protein levels do not correlate well with ALKBH3 mRNA levels in various tumor cell lines but do correlate with OTUD4 levels (Supplementary Fig S2). Finally, overexpression of ALKBH3 in PC‐3 cells, which depend primarily on ALKBH3 instead of ALKBH2 for alkylation damage resistance, is sufficient to rescue alkylation damage sensitivity upon loss of OTUD4 (Fig 7G).. What is most striking is that we find OTUD4 catalytic activity to be apparently dispensable for its stabilization ...
BioAssay record AID 520094 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of heme alkylation of Fe(II) heme assessed as adduct A472 absorbance change at completion of reaction at 10 uM in presence of 50% ACN-H2O with excess sodium dithionite under argon at 20 degC by spectrophotometry.
A process for alkylating an isoparaffin with an olefin using a solid, particulate catalyst capable of adsorbing the olefin. The isoparaffin and the olefin are admixed to form a reactants stream in contact with catalyst particles at the upstream end of an adsorption zone; the reactants stream and catalyst particles are passed cocurrently through the adsorption zone without back mixing, at controlled relative velocities, so that a controlled amount of olefin is adsorbed onto the catalyst and removed from the reactants stream as the catalyst and hydrocarbons are passed cocurrently through the adsorption zone; reactants stream and catalyst particles having olefin adsorbed thereon are withdrawn from the downstream end of the adsorption zone and contacted in an alkylation reaction zone to alkylate the isoparaffin with previously adsorbed olefin; and the alkylation reaction product is recovered from the hydrocarbon effluent from the alkylation zone.
Isobutene/olefin alkylation is a major refinery process in which light hydrocarbons (isobutene and, mainly, C3 and C4 olefins) are converted to a high octane gasoline feedstock. Alkylate currently accounts for a key fraction of the total U.S. gasoline pool; in fact, concerns over emissions have led to an interest in increasing the amount of alkylate used in gasoline. However, environmental and safety concerns present a barrier to this increase, as current processes for alkylate production employ hazardous liquid acids. As yet, a practical process based on solid catalysts has not been identified ¿ conventional fixed bed processes have faced rapid catalyst aging and downtime for regeneration. This project will develop a novel reactor approach to solid-catalyzed isobutene/olefin alkylation in which olefin polymerization at the catalytic surface is limited, thereby avoiding the primary issue with solid catalyzed alkylation. Moreover, the proposed approach offers the potential for higher quality ...
This thesis deals with secondary interactions in asymmetric catalysis and their impact on the outcome of catalytic reactions.. The first part revolves around the metal-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reaction and how interactions within the catalyst affect the stereochemistry. An OH-Pd hydrogen bond in Pd(0)-π-olefin complexes of hydroxy-containing oxazoline ligands was identified by density functional theory computations and helped to rationalize the contrasting results obtained employing hydroxy- and methoxy-containing ligands in the catalytic reaction. This type of hydrogen bond was further studied in phenanthroline metal complexes. As expected for a hydrogen bond, the strength of the bond was found to increase with increased electron density at the metal and with increased acidity of the hydroxy protons.. The second part deals with the use of hydroxy- and methoxy-containing phosphinooxazoline ligands in the rhodium- and iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation reaction. The ...
Previous article in issue: ChemInform Abstract: Enantioselective Organocatalytic Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reaction of Indoles with 5-Hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one: Access to Chiral γ-Lactones and γ-Lactams via a Ugi 4-Center 3-Component Reaction. Previous article in issue: ChemInform Abstract: Enantioselective Organocatalytic Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reaction of Indoles with 5-Hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one: Access to Chiral γ-Lactones and γ-Lactams via a Ugi 4-Center 3-Component Reaction. ...
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1.1. Organolithium and Grignard reagents as nucleophiles - Metalation of halogenated compounds - Hydrogen/metal exchange - Halogen/metal exchange - General reactivity of electrophiles - Reaction of Organolithium and Grignard reagents - Diastereoselectivity of nucleophilic addition (Felkin-Anh, Cram - Enantioselectivity of organozinc/aldehyde additions 1.2. Reaction with organocopper reagents 1. Dithianes 2. O-Alkylated cyanohydranes 3. Alpha lithiated vinyl ethers 1.4. Homoenolate equivalents 1.5. Olefination of carbonyl compounds 1. Wittig reaction (Unstabilized ylides) 2. Horner-Emmons modification (stabilized ylides) 3. C.W. Still Modification 4. Peterson reaction 5. Methylenation of carbonyl compounds by Tebbe reagent 1. Reaction with saturated aldehydes and ketones 2. Reaction with α, β-unsaturated ketones 1. Preparation of enolates by α-deprotonation 2. Alkylation - Alkylation of enolates derived from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds - Alkylation at γ position of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds - ...
Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 1. When performing a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, not only does one have the problems of multiple alkylation and rearrangement of the cation, but the presence.
1993) have been devel- oped as generic reagents for introducing fluorine-18 into N-isopropyl groups by the reductive alkylation augmentin sf syrup direct alkylation of secondary amines, FAF488 appears to be augmetnin distributed and shows focally reduced intensity.
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Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Hund, Meerschweinchen and more. 30 verschiedene ALKBH2 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
alkylation definition: the introduction of the alkyl group into hydrocarbons, esp. in petroleum-refining processes for producing high-octane hydrocarbons...
D4337 - 89(2017) Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Linear Detergent Alkylates , linear alkylbenzenes, linear detergent alkylates ,,
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Alkylation Reagents to find products in DMF-Dialkylacetals, Diazoalkales, Esterification Reagents, General Alkylation Reagents
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Distinct species differences exist between BDIV rats and Syrian Golden hamsters in the repair of methylated DNA lesions, after single exposures to dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). The promutagenic lesions O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) and O4-methylthymidine were actively repaired in rat liver; in contrast, in hamster liver the levels of O6-MeG remained relatively stable while O4-methylthymidine levels were reduced. Species differences in the levels of two enzymes involved in the repair of DNA alkylation damage were also noted. An increase in the methylpurine-DNA glycosylase levels was seen in both species following DMN exposure; however, significant species differences in the inactivation and subsequent time course of recovery of the "suicide protein" O6-MeG-DNA methyltransferase were observed. In the rat a rapid recovery of activity began within 24 h of DMN exposure (20 mg/kg) and an approximately 3-fold induction in enzyme levels was observed at 96 h. In hamster liver, in which the constitutive level of ...
Visible-light-induced photoredox decarbonylative C-C bond formation with aldehydes is described for the first time. Minisci-type alkylation reactions of N-heteroarenes proceed smoothly at ambient temperature with air as the sole oxidant. The present sustainable protocol uses readily available organofluorescein as a
Description: Subject matter wherein the hydrocarbon feed is treated prior to the alkylation reaction, e.g., by separating nonhydrocarbon therefrom, by separating the feed into several different fractions, etc ...
However, the simplest synthetic approach to the N-9 substituted guanine compounds involves the direct alkylation of appropriately substituted 2-aminopurines e.g. guanine derivatives. There are significant drawbacks to this approach as it always results in a mixture of N-9 and N-7 alkylation products. The undesirable N-7 isomers are produced in large amounts, which in turn necessitate tedious and in-efficient methods of separation such as silica gel chromatography in order to obtain the desired N-9 isomer at a favourable degree of purity. Use of halogenated purines can. hardly be selected as methods for industrial production, as their starting materials are expensive and difficult to acquire, and they demand a reaction with ammonia at high temperature and pressure in order to obtain guanine nucleosides, such as acyclovir, ganciclovir etc. Hence, it is highly desirable to develop a regioscpecific process for the manufacture of ganciclovir ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. A Cp*Ir complex bearing a functional bipyridonate ligand is a highly effective and versatile catalyst for the α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols under environmentally benign and mild conditions. Furthermore, this complex also exhibited a high level of catalytic activity for the α-methylation of ketones with methanol.. ...
Jin, C., & Jacobs, H. (2000). New intramolecular alkylation and Michael addition reactions of hydroxysulfone derivatives-stereoselective preparation of functionalized cyclic ethers. Tetrahedron Letters, 41, 9753 - 9757 ...
Spiroadamantyl 1,2,4-Trioxolane, 1,2,4-Trioxane, and 1,2,4-Trioxepane Pairs: Relationship Between Peroxide Bond Iron (II) Reactivity, Heme Alkylation Efficiency, and Antimalarial Activity" X. Wang, D. Creek, C. E. Schiaffo, Y. Dong, J. Chollet, C. Scheurer, S. Wittlin, S. A. Charmanb, P. H. Dussault, J. K. Wood, and J. L. Vennerstrom* Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009, 19, 4542-4545. ...
Starting from N-methyl-1-{(3S,4S)-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-3-yl}methanamine (1) target compound 2 is prepared using a mild, direct alkylation approach with 2-fluoroethyl trifluoromethanesulfonate.
In this video Ill teach you why alpha-hydrogens are so acidic, and how we can use that property to do some cool organic reactions. Ill talk about keto-enol tautomerism, LDA (lithium diisopropyl amine), alpha-halogenation, alkylation, acylation, beta-alkylation, the aldol reaction, the Claisen condensation, the Robinson annulation, decarboxylation, and the malonic ester synthesis. --Dr. Mike Christiansen from Utah State University
Were found to alkylate all oxygens and nitrogens in nucleic acids , whereas a host of more moderately reactive electrophilic agents typically target nitrogens
Description: Subject matter wherein a methyl substituent of an aromatic ring becomes an ethyl or propyl substituent or in which an ethyl substituent becomes a propyl substituent ...
Description: Subject matter wherein there is added to an aromatic hydrocarbon, or that moiety of an aromatic nonhydrocarbon which remains after atoms other than carbon and hydrogen have been removed, an acyclic straight or branched hydrocarbon molecule or that moiety of an acyclic nonhydrocarbon which remains after atoms other than carbon and hydrogen have been removed ...
Digitization process: Scanned using an Epson 750 as 1200 ppi, 48-bit, RGB, .tif; service master changed to black and white, levels and contrast adjusted, sharpened and cropped; derivative resampled to 3000 pixels on the long edge, 24-bit .jpg ...
T. Mathew, S. Shylesh, S. N. Reddy, S. C. Peter, S. K. Date, B. S. Rao and S. D. Kulkarni, Redistribution of cations amongst different lattice sites in Cu1-xCoxFe2O4 ferrospinels during alkylation: magnetic study. , Cat. Lett. 93, 155 - 160 (2004 ...
An enantioselective synthesis of allenes through palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation using a chiral diaminophosphine oxide is described. The asymmetric allylic alkylations proceeded in the presence of a catalytic amount of lithium acetate at 4 °C, affording the chiral allenes in excellent yield with up to 99% ee. ...
Looking for online definition of ethylated in the Medical Dictionary? ethylated explanation free. What is ethylated? Meaning of ethylated medical term. What does ethylated mean?
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appeal is from the decision of the Opposition Division to maintain the European patent 1 138 750 in amended form.. II. In opposition procedure the Opponent raised inter alia objections with regard to sufficiency of disclosure, lack of novelty and lack of inventive step and cited among others documents. D6: US-A-5 648 586. D7: STRATCO, The 1990 Alkylation Seminar:. J.-L. Nocca, C5s Selective Hydrogenation and Etherification. D8: STRATCO, The 1990 Alkylation Seminar: K. Masters, Amylene Alkylation. D9: NPRA Q&A Sessions: C5 alkylation questions (from 1989 to 1993). D17: STRATCO, The 1990 Alkylation Seminar:. J.-L. Nocca, Etherification. D18: STRATCO, The 1990 Alkylation Seminar:. J.-L. Nocca, Upgrading Alkylation Feedstocks by Hydrogenation. D21: WO-A-97/03148. III. In its decision the Opposition Division concluded inter alia that the Opponent was not allowed to start argumentation for the first time from a combination of documents D7,D17 and D18 at a very ...
The feasibility of distilling alkylation product and technical alkyl phenol in a continuous apparatus was established. The conditions for distilling the alkylation product and technical alkyl phenol was determined. In terms of its preliminary performance characteristics (sedimentation and increase in viscosity), additive BFK prepared on the basis of the target alkyl phenol distilled in the continuous apparatus surpasses the additive prepared on the basis of technical alkyl phenol with the periodic apparatus.(*DISTILLATION
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The first direct intermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective a-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by a combination of achiral bench-stable Pd0 complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed. The co-catalytic asymmetric chemoselective and regiospecific a-allylic alkylation reaction is linked in tandem with in situ reduction to give the corresponding 2-alkyl alcohols with high enantiomeric ratios (up to 98:2 e.r.; e.r.=enantiomeric ratio). It is also an expeditious entry to valuable 2-alkyl substituted hemiacetals, 2-alkyl-butane-1,4-diols, and amines. The concise co-catalytic asymmetric total syntheses of biologically active natural products (e.g., Arundic acid) are disclosed.. ...
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project aims to develop a step-out technology for paraffin alkylation to produce high-octane clean gasoline. Conventional alkylation processes require large volumes of corrosive liquid acids, which can inflict serious injury via skin contact or inhalation. The new alkylation process will be fundamentally safer and cleaner, reducing the use and generation of toxic chemicals. It uses a first-of-a-kind engineered zeolite catalyst that is environmentally benign and eliminates the risks associated with liquid acids while producing alkylate of comparable quality. The new catalyst promises significantly improved yields and selectivities, minimizing waste by-products and disposal problems associated with liquid acids. The engineered zeolite catalysts can be used most effectively for liquid phase alkylations of paraffins and aromatics, such as the production of high-octane alkylate, and industrially important petrochemicals such as cumene and ethylbenzene ...
Alkylation reactions represent an important organic transformation to form C-C bonds. In addition to conventional approaches with alkyl halides or sulfonates as alkylating agents, the use of unactivated olefins for alkylations has become attractive from both cost and sustainability viewpoints. This Review summarizes transition-metal-catalyzed alkylations of various
0019] In other embodiments the adjusting is done by changing a ratio of isoparaffin to olefin in a feed to the alkylation reactor. In general, lowering the molar ratio of isoparaffin to olefin in the feed will produce a higher level of C5+ hydrocarbons in the process unit that boil above 280° F. (137.8 degree Celsius). In one embodiment, the molar ratio of isoparaffin to olefin in the feed while operating the alkylation reactor in the alkylate mode is from 4:1 to 100:1, such as from 4:1 to 50:1, or from 4:1 to 20:1; and the molar ratio of isoparaffin to olefin in the feed while operating the alkylation reactor in the distillate mode is a lower molar ratio from that used during the alkylate mode, from 0.25:1 to 25:1, such as from 0.25:1 to 20:1, or 0.25:1 to 10:1. In a different embodiment the molar ratio of isoparaffin to olefin in the feed is approximately the same while operating in both the alkylate mode and the distillate mode. In one embodiment, the control system connected to the ...
Looking for online definition of alkylate in the Medical Dictionary? alkylate explanation free. What is alkylate? Meaning of alkylate medical term. What does alkylate mean?
Alkyltransferase-like proteins (ATLs) share functional motifs with the cancer chemotherapy target O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) and paradoxically protect cells from the biological effects of DNA alkylation damage, despite lacking the reactive cysteine and alkyltransferase activity of AGT. Here we determine Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATL structures without and with damaged DNA containing the endogenous lesion O(6)-methylguanine or cigarette-smoke-derived O(6)-4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylguanine. These results reveal non-enzymatic DNA nucleotide flipping plus increased DNA distortion and binding pocket size compared to AGT. Our analysis of lesion-binding site conservation identifies new ATLs in sea anemone and ancestral archaea, indicating that ATL interactions are ancestral to present-day repair pathways in all domains of life. Genetic connections to mammalian XPG (also known as ERCC5) and ERCC1 in S. pombe homologues Rad13 and Swi10 and biochemical interactions with Escherichia coli ...
(NHC)-Cu-catalyzed C(sp)-C(sp3) bond formation has been successfully achieved under mild conditions. Nonactivated alkyl triflates, which could be easily derived from alcohols, were utilized as C-O electrophiles. Mechanistic studies suggested that copper acetylide was the active species. Scale-up reactions fu
Expression of the Escherichia coli aidB gene is induced in vivo by alkylation damage in an ada-dependent pathway and by anaerobiosis or by acetate at pH 6.5 in an ada-independent fashion. In this report, we present data on aidB gene structure, function, and regulation. The aidB gene encodes a protein of ca. 60 kDa that is homologous to several mammalian acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenases. Accordingly, crude extracts from an aidB-overexpressing strain showed isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity. aidB overexpression also reduced N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced mutagenesis. Both ada- and acetate/pH-dependent induction of aidB are regulated at the transcriptional level, and the same transcriptional start point is used for both kinds of induction. Ada protein plays a direct role in aidB regulation: methylated Ada is able to bind to the aidB promoter region and to activate transcription from aidB in an in vitro transcription-translation system using crude E. coli extracts.
The first part of this thesis addresses the design and synthesis of amine building blocks accomplished by applying two different synthetic procedures, both of which were developed using solid-phase chemistry. Chapter 1 presents the first of these methods, entailing a practical solid-phase parallel synthesis route to N-monoalkylated aminopiperidines and aminopyrrolidines achieved by selective reductive alkylation of primary and/or secondary amines. Solid-phase NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the reactions for which a new pulse sequence was developed. The second method, reported in Chapter 2, involves a novel approach to the synthesis of secondary amines starting from reactive alkyl halides and azides. The convenient solid-phase protocol that was devised made use of the Staudinger reaction in order to accomplish highly efficient alkylations of N-alkyl phosphimines or N-aryl phosphimines with reactive alkyl halides.. The second part of the thesis describes the design and synthesis of three ...
Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a DNA bifunctional alkylating agent that has been shown to form DNA inter-strand cross-links in vitro at the N7 position of guanines at the 5-GNC and 5-GC consensus sequences. We used the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to monitor the formation of in vivo ECH lesions in 6C2 chicken erythroid progerutor cells. Three distinct loci were investigated in order to determine the effect of ECH reactivity in different levels of chromatin condensation. The sites consisted of an open locus of the nuclear genome, a closed locus of the nuclear genome, and a naked locus of the mitochondrial genome. We found that ECH alkylation was preferentially targeted towards the nuclear sites and that chromatin structure had no effect upon ECH reactivity. Repair assays of the three sites revealed that there appears to be no repair of ECH lesions in the nuclear genome.
Biosketch. B.Sc. Biochemistry, Aberdeen University, Scotland 1974 Ph.D. Molecular Biology, Imperial Cancer Research Fund and University College, London University, England 1978 Director, MIT Center for Environmental Health Sciences, MIT, 2001 Affiliate, MIT Center for Cancer Research, 2001 Adjunct Professor of Toxicology, Harvard School of Public Health, 2001 Executive Committee, MIT Computational and Systems Biology Initiative (CSBi). Research Summary. Research in the Samson lab is aimed at understanding how cell, tissues, animals and ultimately people respond upon exposure to environmental toxicants in general, and alkylating agents in particular. A wide variety of DNA repair pathways provide protection against DNA alkylation damage and it is now clear that a multitude of other pathways are important for cellular recovery. Our goal is to understand how these pathways function, how they are regulated, and how they integrate to determine the ultimate biological and health consequences of ...
... Alkylating the Nitrogen of a peptide bond is one modern approach to equip peptide based biopharmaceuticals with proteolytic stability and altered activity. They can be synthesized in a repetitive manner, just as peptides by
To investigate the mechanism of cell death induced by the N-alkylated prodigiosin analogue, 2,2′-[3-methoxy-1′amyl-5′-methyl-4-(1′′-pyrryl)] dipyrryl-methene (MAMPDM) in S-180 and EL-4 tumour cell lines. Effect of MAMPDM on cell viability was assessed by MTT dye conversion. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by monitoring caspase 3 activity using a fluorogenic substrate, fragmentation of DNA by gel electrophoresis and sub-diploid DNA containing cells by flowcytometry. Necrosis was estimated by flowcytometric analysis of the uptake of propidium iodide. MAMPDM inhibited the proliferation of murine fibrosarcoma, S-180 cells and induced cell death. Investigations into the mechanism of cell death by MAMPDM in S-180 cells showed absence of hallmarks of apoptotic cell death such as activation of caspase 3, DNA fragmentation and presence of cells with sub-diploid DNA content. However, there was a rapid loss of membrane integrity as assessed by uptake of propidium iodide, which is characteristic of
Deamination Chemistry: Nucleic Acid Alkylation & Cross-Linking. We have been interested in two types of deaminations and their relation to modifications of DNA bases. The first type relates to the deamination of amines (and derivatives) and their role in the alkylation of DNA. The other relates to the deamination of amino groups in DNA bases. Both of these processes have important biological consequences. In this context, we have been studying decomposition pathways from the bottom up beginning with diazonium ions. We proposed a new bonding model and established crucial links between theory and experiment. Current studies of diazonium ions focus on the mechanisms of their SN chemistry and studies of the diazonium ions of DNA bases. To address questions as to the consequences of alkylation on DNA and RNA structure and properties, our initial studies have focused on studies of base pairing. Non-Synergistic Bonding & Thymine Dimerization. Our analysis of H-bonded Adenine-Thymine, A=T, suggests ...
Alkylating agents exert a wide range of biological effects in both pro- and eukaryotes and there is ever increasing evidence that these effects are mediated via alkylation at the O6position of...
An efficient catalytic system for the alkylation of amines with either alcohols or amines under mild conditions has been developed, using cyclometallated iridium complexes as catalysts. The method has broad substrate scope, allowing for the synthesis of a diverse range of secondary and tertiary amines with good to excellent yields. By controlling the ratio of substrates, both mono- and bis-alkylated amines can be obtained with high selectivity. In particular, methanol can be used as the alkylating reagent, affording N-methylated products selectively. A strong solvent effect is observed for the reaction.
Sodium triacetoxyborohydride has emerged as one of the reagents used most frequently for carrying out reductive amination of carbonyl compounds, a reaction that is also known as reductive alkylation of amines. A disadvantage of sodium triacetoxyborohydride is its poor solubility, and that product isolation requires an aqueous quench followed by liquid-liquid extraction and column chromatography.. Biotage® MP-Triacetoxyborohydride was developed to perform in a manner similar to that of sodium triacetoxyborohydride, while simplifying reagent handling and product purification. Moreover, for many of these reactions, a scavenger resin may be added for one-pot purification of the product.. ...
Remote activation of Fmoc protected N,N-substituted arylcyclohexylamines derivatives (1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines) via Pictet-Spengler route to Yb(OTf)3: an hypothetical theory on the existence of a self-assembled Remote Activated genetic (DNA/RNA) semi-conductor to trigger orthogonal reductive alkylation of psychotropic enatiomers in humans subject to unidentified aerosol spraying ...
Xiao J,KaiZhao,TeckPengLoh. Highly Enantioselective Intermolecular Alkylation of Aldehydes with Alcohols by Cooperative Catalysis of Diarylprolinol Silyl Ether with Brønsted Acid[J]. Chemistry-An Asian Journal,2011,6:2890 ...
3.5 North America Alkylation Catalyst Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017). Our Blog: http://amanjain96.blogspot.com/ncr. About Us:. Acute Market Reports is the most sufficient collection of market intelligence services online. It is your only source that can fulfill all your market research requirements.We provide online reports from over 100 best publishers and upgrade our collection regularly to offer you direct online access to the worlds most comprehensive and recent database with expert perceptions on worldwide industries, products, establishments and trends.. Our team consists of highly motivated market research professionals and they are accountable for creating the groundbreaking technology that we utilize in our search engine operations to easily recognize the most current market research reports online.. Contact Us :. Name : Chris Paul. ACUTE MARKET REPORTS. Designation : Global Sales Manager. Toll Free(US/CANADA): +1-855-455-8662. Email : ...
Nayfeh, S and Dowden, E, "Effects of alkylation of rna synthesis by ehrlich ascites tumors in vivo. Abstr." (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 982 ...
Reports emphasize developments in process technology for Alkylation for Motor Fuels that have potential implications for the chemical and energy industries
Alkylation: Alkylation, in petroleum refining, chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane components of gasoline. The light hydrocarbons consist of olefins such as propylene and butylene and isoparaffins such as isobutane. These compounds are fed into a reactor,
ALKBH2 - ALKBH2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human alkB, alkylation repair homolog 2 (E. coli) (ALKBH2), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Preview - Issue 42/2006 Angewandte Chemie Highlights Asymmetric Synthesis Tsuji-Trost Allylic Alkylation with Ketone Enolates M. Braun and T. Meier An FeVI Nitride: There Is Plenty of Room at the Top! High Oxidation States P. J. Chirik 1 Reviews Green Chemistry 1 Hydrogen Peroxide Synthesis: An Outlook beyond the Anthraquinone Process J. L. G. Fierro et al. Communications Microporous Materials 2 F. P. Gabba0 et al. Molecular Recognition 3 F. W. Scheller et al. Oxidative C C Coupling 4 Hydrocarbon Uptake in the Alkylated Micropores of a Columnar Supramolecular Solid (Cover Picture) 2 A Bifunctional Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP): Analysis of Binding and Catalysis by a Thermistor Intermolecular Oxidative Enolate Heterocoupling P. S. Baran and M. P. DeMartino Antibiotics Total Synthesis of Platensimycin 3 K. C. Nicolaou et al. Heterogeneous Catalysis S. L. Buchwald et al. Domino Cu-Catalyzed C N Coupling/ Hydroamidation: A Highly Efficient Synthesis of Nitrogen Heterocycles Natural Products ...
Several of the pathways of metabolism of the suspected carcinogen acrylonitrile (AN) were identified previously in this laboratory with the use of subcellular fractions and purified enzymes (Guengerich, F. P., Geiger, L. E., Hogy, L. L., and Wright, P. L., Cancer Res., 41: 4925-4933, 1981). In order to establish the relative contributions of the various pathways leading to activated and detoxicated products, we examined AN metabolism in isolated Fischer 344 rat hepatocytes as a model. Reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted, and cell viability was lost in an AN concentration-dependent manner. The major GSH adduct formed at all AN concentrations was identified as S-(2-cyanoethyl)GSH using thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis of labeled hepatocellular protein revealed S-(2-carboxyethyl)-cysteine as the major adduct formed, indicating direct alkylation of cysteinyl residues by AN. 2-Cyanoethylene oxide accumulated in the hepatocyte ...
A diverse array of these chiral, monodentate phosphoramidites based on the privileged BINOL platform. The MonoPhos™ family has exhibited high levels of enantiocontrol in synthetic transformations ranging from metal-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-additions of organometallic reagents to allylic alkylations to desymmetrization of meso-cycloalkene oxides.
formula I or ketoamide intermediates to prepare compounds of formula I is to to add 1- 20 equivalents but most preferably 5 equivalents of a commercially available solution of 32% peracetic acid in dilute aq acetic acid to the reaction flask containing the completed reaction described in Step A. The reaction is typically stirred at the same temperature at which the alkylation reaction was conducted (for the Step A reactions with an acid chloride in THF -78° and for the step A reactions in DMF ~ -42°) for a period of Ih and then allowed to warm to ambient temperature if not already at that tmeperature. The reaction mixture is then either allowed to react further or immediately diluted with saturated aq. ammonium chloride and EtOAc. For relatively insoluble acid products which precipatate, the resultant precipitate is isolated by filtration as the oxoacetyl product ZC(O)C(O)Y. For organic soluble acid products, the acid is extracted into the organic layer and the layers separated. The organic ...
Steroids: Nilevar a ethylated version of nortestosterone. is the C-17 alpha ethylated derivative of nortestosterone (nandrolone). This modification renders
1D86: Structural consequences of a carcinogenic alkylation lesion on DNA: effect of O6-ethylguanine on the molecular structure of the d(CGC[e6G]AATTCGCG)-netropsin complex.
Tubes have been incubated thirty min at 37 C during the dark. Then 1 uL of 500 mM DTT was Epothilone added to quench the alkylation response. Upcoming four. five uL of 200 mM CaCl2 were added to just about every tube. An extra five uL of 500 mM Tris HCl had been additional to sustain the pH and ionic strength. Ultimately, ten ug of trypsin or chymotrypsin dissolved in one mM HCl had been additional to every single tube. Tubes had been incubated 24 h at 37 C after which frozen at 30 C until eventually preparation for mass spectrometry. Digestion of venoms with Glu C Reduction and alkylation of venoms were carried out as described over, except that as opposed to 500 mM Tris HCl, 167 mM phosphoric acid NaOH was applied. Additionally, the enzyme was dissolved in ultrapure water, as opposed to in one mM HCl. This enabled the enzyme to cleave proteins adjacent to aspartic acid residues, likewise as glutamate residues. Once the enzyme was dissolved in one mM HCl, it cleaved subsequent to glutamate ...
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Division of Toxicology, 1994.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 189-206 ...
PdCl2 in the presence of dppe or Xantphos(t-Bu) as the ligand is found to be an efficient catalyst for the N-alkylation of various primary and cyclic secondary ...
The benzoacronycine derivative, S23906-1, was character-ized recently as a novel potent antitumor agent through alkylation of theN2 positionof guanines inDNA.We show here that its reactivity towards DNA can be modulated by glutathione (GSH). The formation of covalent adducts between GSH and S23906-1 was evidenced by EI-MS, and the use of different GSH derivatives, amino acids and dipeptides revealed that the cysteine thiol group is absolutely required for complex formation because glutathione disul-fide (GSSG) and other S-blocked derivatives failed to react covalently with S23906-1. ... ...
There is also a mention that the more stable the intermediate ion(that is the tertiary carbocation in this case) is, the better the reactivity(means the faster it reacts). Im confused how is it that a more stable compound can be more reactive ...
centanamycin: a potent antimalarial and transmission-blocking DNA-binding agent inspired from ( )-duocarmycin SA that lacks a stereocenter; structure in first source
The alkylation of bromobenzene and toluene on zeolite H-USY (Si/Al 15) was studied using a high-throughput frontal analysis experimental setup. Adsorption properties of the involved components were determined using the batch technique. Reactions were performed using allyl alcohol, allyl acetate, 1-octen-3-ol, and allyl chloride as alkylating agents at 200 degrees C in the liquid phase. The reaction products could be divided into 3 fractions: (1) light components formed in side reactions of the alkylating agent; (2) primary alkylation products resulting from the alkylation of bromobenzene or toluene and subsequent rearrangement reactions; and (3) a heavy fraction consisting of secondary alkylation products and polyaromatics. Whereas the use of allyl chloride and 1-octen-3-ol as alkylating agents resulted mainly in the formation of undesired side products, bromobenzene was efficiently alkylated with allyl alcohol and allyl acetate, resulting in the formation of allyl bromobenzene, cis-2-propenyl ...
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Accepted name: DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase II. Reaction: Hydrolysis of alkylated DNA, releasing 3-methyladenine, 3-methylguanine, 7-methylguanine and 7-methyladenine. Other name(s): deoxyribonucleate 3-methyladenine glycosidase II; 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosidase II; AlkA. Systematic name: alkylated-DNA glycohydrolase (releasing methyladenine and methylguanine). Comments: Involved in the removal of alkylated bases from DNA in Escherichia coli (cf. EC 2.1.1.63 methylated-DNA [protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase).. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 89287-38-7. References:. 1. Evensen, G. and Seeberg, E. Adaptation to alkylation resistance involves the induction of a DNA glycosylase. Nature 296 (1982) 773-775. [PMID: 7040984]. 2. Karran, P., Hjelmgren, T. and Lindahl, T. Induction of a DNA glycosylase for N-methylated purines is part of the adaptive response to alkylating agents. Nature 296 (1982) 770-773. ...
A catalyst is formed from a phosphorus-containing ZSM-5-type zeolite. The ZSM-5-type zeolite has a silica/alumina molar ratio of at least 200. The phosphorus-containing ZSM-5-type zeolite also has a phosphorus content of at least 8% by weight of zeolite and has multiple phosphorus species exhibited by at least two 31P MAS NMR peaks with maxima at from about 0 to about −50 ppm. The catalyst may be used in aromatic alkylation by contacting the catalyst with a feed of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an alkylating agent under reaction conditions suitable for aromatic alkylation.
Palladium is probably the most useful metal in organic syntheses. It has shown great utility in various reactions such as C-C, C-N, C-O bond formation under mild conditions. The presence of abundant amount of palladium-chemistry related literature in the form of books, reviews emphasizes the growing importance of these reagents. Nowadays organopalladium chemistry is being used in various fields such as new methodology development, natural product synthesis, synthesis of polymers. Regio- and stereoselectivity is another facet of Pd catalyzed methodologies which has been extensively utilized in the last decade to obtain enantiopure compounds. The main emphasis of this work is to utilize Pd catalyzed allylic alkylation to synthesize new heterocycles including furans, isoxazolines and new cyclopentane amino-acid analogs in an enantioselective manner. The stereochemical outcome of these reactions is influenced by desymmetrization catalyzed by hydrolytic enzymes namely lipases. Chapter 1 reviews the recent
Alkyltransferase-like proteins (ATLs) share functional motifs with the cancer chemotherapy target O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) and paradoxically protect cells from the biological effects of DNA alkylation damage, despite lacking the reactive cysteine and alkyltransferase activity of AGT. Here we determine Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATL structures without and with damaged DNA containing the endogenous lesion O(6)-methylguanine or cigarette-smoke-derived O(6)-4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylguanine. These results reveal non-enzymatic DNA nucleotide flipping plus increased DNA distortion and binding pocket size compared to AGT. Our analysis of lesion-binding site conservation identifies new ATLs in sea anemone and ancestral archaea, indicating that ATL interactions are ancestral to present-day repair pathways in all domains of life. Genetic connections to mammalian XPG (also known as ERCC5) and ERCC1 in S. pombe homologues Rad13 and Swi10 and biochemical interactions with Escherichia coli ...
Density functional theory calculations and experiment reveal the origin of stereoselectivity in the deprotonation-alkylation of chiral N-amino cyclic carbamate (ACC) hydrazones. When the ACC is a rigid, camphor-derived carbamate, the two conformations of the azaenolate intermediate differ in energy due to conformational effects within the oxazolidinone ring and steric interactions between the ACC and the azaenolate. An electrophile adds selectively to the less-hindered pi-face of the azaenolate. Although it was earlier reported that use of ACC auxiliaries led to a-alkylated ketones with er values of 82:18 to 98:2, B3LYP calculations predict higher stereosclectivity. Direct measurement of the dr of an alkylated hydrazone prior to removal of the auxiliary confirms this prediction; the removal of the auxiliary under the reported conditions can compromise the overall stereoselectivity of the process ...
The report generally describes benzyl bromoacetate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Benzyl bromoacetate market situation is overviewed;
2. The palladium on carbon catalyst was prepared by the following method, developed by Walter H. Hartung, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore. Ten milliliters of a commercial palladium chloride solution containing 0.1 g. of palladium and approximately 0.05 g. of hydrogen chloride per milliliter (obtained from the J. Bishop Company, Malvern, Pennsylvania) is added to a solution of 27 g. of sodium acetate trihydrate in 100 ml. of water. Norit (9 g.) is added, and the mixture is hydrogenated until absorption ceases. The catalyst (10 g.) is filtered on a Büchner funnel, washed with water, dried by drawing air through the funnel for about 30 minutes, and stored in a desiccator over calcium chloride. The palladium catalysts, prepared as described elsewhere in this volume, are presumably also satisfactory for the reductive alkylation described above (p. 685) ...
Block the formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds in protein samples by reductive alkylation. Improve isoelectric focusing (IEF) results.
Previous studies have shown that DNA alkylation is a common event in colorectal tissue but the source of exposure to the methylating agents remains to be identified. These results confirm our previous study in a separate population of patients with colorectal disease,8 in demonstrating that colorectal DNA, obtained from individuals with malignant colorectal disease, contains detectable amounts of the pro-mutagenic and pro-carcinogenic lesionO 6-MedG. Furthermore, evidence from the current study indicates thatO 6-MedG levels vary within the large bowel as (i) DNA alkylation was higher in normal tissue from the sigmoid colon and rectum than in the proximal colon, (ii) only 13% of paired normal and tumour DNA samples obtained from the proximal colon were both alkylated compared with 21% in the sigmoid colon and 42% in the rectum, and (iii) O 6-MedG levels in tumour DNA from the proximal colon (but not the sigmoid colon or rectum) were greater than those in normal DNA.. A number of different ...
Several xenobiotics caused hepatic porphyrin accumulation through mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450(P450) and heme alkylation. Loss of iron from the alkylated heme results in formation of an N-alkylporphyrin, which is a potent inhibitor of ferrochelatase. N-Vinylprotoporphyrin IX (N-vinylPP) was identified in chick embryo liver after in ovo administration of 3-[(arylthio)ethyl]sydnone (TTMS). Pretreatment of chick embryos with beta-naphthoflavone, which causes a 90-fold increase in P450 1A levels, did not increase the formation of N-vinylPP after TTMS administration, showing that the heme moiety of P450 1A does not contribute to the formation of N-vinylPP. Increased amounts of N-vinylPP were isolated from dexamethasone-, phenobarbital-, and glutethimide-pretreated chick embryos, and it is possible that P450 2H and/or a P450 3A-like isozyme contributes to the formation of N-vinylPP. The ring B-substituted (NB) regioisomer of N-vinylPP constituted the lowest percentage of the total ...
Alkylating agents constitute a large class of DNA‐damaging agents that generate both mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions. Much of our understanding of alkylation damage repair is from studies on Escherichia coli, in particular on the adaptive (Ada) response, which involves the upregulation of four genes: ada, aidB, alkA and alkB (Sedgwick et al, 2007). The Ada protein is a multifunctional DNA methyltransferase that also acts as a transcriptional activator of the response. The exact function of AidB, a flavin‐binding protein, remains to be explained and AlkA is a DNA glycosylase with a broad specificity. AlkB catalyses the demethylation of 1‐methyladenine and 3‐methylcytosine in DNA and RNA, coupled to the decarboxylation of 2‐oxoglutarate (2OG) to succinate and CO2 (Falnes et al, 2002; Trewick et al, 2002). Homologues of AlkB have been identified in species ranging from bacteria to humans; eight human homologues (ABH) have been described, but only two, ABH2 and ABH3, are known to ...
In a view to develop new DNA alkylating antitumour drugs, evaluating the precise mechanism of action and the molecular/cellular consequences of the alkylation is a point of major interest. The benzo-b-acronycine derivative S23906-1 alkylates guanine nucleobases in the minor groove of the DNA helix and presents an original ability to locally open the double helix of DNA, which appears to be associated with its cytotoxic activity. However, the molecular mechanism linking adduct formation to cellular consequences is not precisely known. The objective of the present study was to identify proteins involved in the recognition and mechanism of action of S23906-DNA adducts. We found that GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) is a protein that binds to S23906-alkylated single-stranded, double-stranded and telomeric sequences in a drug-dependent and DNA sequence/structure-dependent manner. We used the CASTing (cyclic amplification of sequence targeting) method to identify GAPDH DNA-binding ...
The possibility that isomerization controls the fusion activity was tested by analysing Mo‐MLV fusion and infectivity under conditions that either inhibited or induced isomerization. The fusion was studied as virus‐induced polykaryon formation in XC cells (fusion‐from‐without). Fusion of cell‐bound virus is induced by incubation at 37°C and terminated by pH 3.0 treatment. In confluent cultures (Figure 6A), the fusion will merge cells, and with time these will rearrange into polykaryons (Figure 6B). Preliminary testing demonstrated that TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ supported fusion as effectively as DMEM (data not shown). Therefore, TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ was used as the control condition. The time course of the fusion process is shown in Figure 6C.. We first studied the effect that alkylation‐mediated inhibition of isomerization had on fusion. To avoid adverse effects due to alkylation of internal viral proteins, we used the membrane‐impermeant reagents M135 and MTSET. We observed a ...
1P7M: Solution structure and base perturbation studies reveal a novel mode of alkylated base recognition by 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I
Membrane-bound α-bungarotoxin-binding entities derived from rat brain are found to interact specifically with the affinity reagents maleimidobenzyltrimethylammonium (MBTA) and bromoacetylcholine (BAC), originally designed to label nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from electroplax and skeletal muscle. Following treatment of membranes with dithiothreitol, all specffic toxin binding sites are irreversibly blocked by reaction with MBTA or BAC. Affinity reagent labeling of dithiothreitol-reduced membranes is prevented (toxin binding sites are not blocked) by prior alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide, by prior oxidation with dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), or by incubation with neurotoxin. Reversibly associating cholinergic agonists and antagonists retard the rate of affinity reagent interaction with toxin receptors. The apparent rates of affinity reagent alkylation of toxin receptors, and the influences of other sulfhydryl/disulfide reagents on affinity labeling are comparable to those observed for ...
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The synthesis of a series of new n-propyl and n-butyl chain containing 1-arylpiperazine derivatives of quinazolidin-4(3H)-one (7) 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrophthalazine-1,4-dione (8) and 1-phenyl-1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione (9) as potential serotonin receptor ligands is described.
A substituent-eliminable diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative represented by the following formula (I) is provided. ##STR00001## In the formula (I), R represents a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group
Epoxide 8: reactive diluent which caused an allergic reaction; consists of an aliphatic monoglycidylether with predominantly C(12) and C(14) alkyl groups
Phthalmustine is an alkylating agent containing the N-mustard (N,N-bis-2-chloroethylamino) group attached to a phthalimido ethyl chain. It was undergoing
The vapor-phase catalytic O-alkylation of α- and β-naphthols with methanol has been investigated over lanthanum, cerium, samarium, and antimony phosphate catalysts promoted with cesium hydroxide. Among various catalysts investigated, the Cs-SmPO4 combination catalyst provided better catalytic activity and selectivity. The CsOH promoter suppressed formation of C-alkylated side products and enhanced the O-alkylation selectivity. Characterization of these catalysts by X-ray diffraction and FT-infrared techniques revealed that the cesium promoter has no influence on the bulk structure of the catalysts. Temperature programmed desorption of anhydrous ammonia over promoted and unpromoted catalysts revealed that the cesium promoter decreases total surface acidity of the catalysts.
Alkylation Process - A process for the production of ethylbenzene by the ethylation of benzene in the critical phase in a reaction zone containing a molecular sieve aromatic alkylation catalyst comprising cerium-promoted zeolite beta. A polyethylbenzene is supplied into the reaction zone and into contact with the cerium-promoted zeolite beta having a silica/alumina mole ratio within the range of 20-500. The reaction zone is operated at temperature and pressure conditions in which benzene is in the supercritical phase to cause ethylation of the benzene and the transalkylation of polyethylbenzene and benzene in the presence of the zeolite beta catalyst. An alkylation product is produced containing ethylbenzene as a primary product with the attendant production of heavier alkylated byproducts of no more than 60 wt. % of the ethylbenzene. The alkylation reaction zone is operated under conditions providing a composite byproduct yield of propyl benzene and butyl benzene relative to ethylbenzene, which ...
Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase) is the mucolytic agent most widely used for the treatment of respiratory disease in cystic fibrosis. However, rhDNase is rapidly cleared from the lungs which implies a high dosing frequency and limited patient adherence. The aim of this study was to produce a long-acting PEGylated derivative of rhDNase presenting a preserved enzymatic activity. Site-specific PEGylation on the N-terminal (N-ter) leucine residue of rhDNase was achieved by reductive alkylation at acidic pH using linear 20kDa, linear 30kDa or two-arm 40kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) propionaldehydes. Yields of mono-PEGylated products ranged between 45% and 61%. Conjugation to PEG fully preserved the secondary structure and the in vitro enzymatic activity of the native protein. These properties offer interesting perspectives for in vivo inhalation studies of the PEGylated enzyme. ...
article{0f787bdb-b588-44ef-8545-a72b56c785f6, abstract = {Tri-isopropylsilyl thio-glycosides (TIPS S-glycosides) were synthesized through base promoted SN2 substitution of glycosyl halides with TIPS-SH or by Lewis acid promoted glycosylation of TIPS-SH with glycosyl acetates or p-methoxyphenyl glycosides. Various thioglycoside derivatives were obtained in high yields by one-pot fluoride-mediated de-silylation and thiol alkylation with alkyl halides or Michael acceptors of one common TIPS S-glycoside.}, author = {Mandal, Santanu and Nilsson, Ulf}, issn = {1477-0539}, language = {eng}, number = {27}, pages = {4816--4819}, publisher = {Royal Society of Chemistry}, series = {Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry}, title = {Tri-isopropylsilyl thioglycosides as masked glycosyl thiol nucleophiles for the synthesis of S-linked glycosides and glyco-conjugates.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4ob00741g}, volume = {12}, year = {2014 ...
Catalysts are used in alkylation units to help the reactions proceed at a lower temperature, decreasing the possibility of polymerization of the LPG reactants and favoring the alkylation reaction between LPGs and isobutane. Hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid are two catalysts that are commonly employed in alkylation units. Hydrofluoric acid can be used for higher temperature reactions and all feed compositions. Sulfuric acid is used for lower temperature reactions but due to an unfavorable side reaction, it cannot be used with LPG feeds that contain ethylene gas. The hydrocarbon feed to alkylation units consists of two components: Isobutane and LPGs that contain double bonds. The isobutane feed often comes from the isomerization reaction unit, while the LPG feed originates from either the initial distillation column or the cracking units. Conditions in the reactor will vary based on which catalyst is being used and the composition of the LPGs. A hydrofluoric acid - catalyzed reaction can be run ...
The alkylation of benzene with ethane was studied at 370 oC over two Pt-containing ZSM-5 catalysts with SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 30 and 80. While the benzene and ethane conversion decreased with time-on-stream for the PtH-ZSM-5(30) catalyst, the PtH-ZSM-5(80) catalyst demonstrated a stable performance. The deactivation of the PtH-ZSM-5(30) catalyst was found to be more significant, when compared to the PtH-ZSM-5(80) catalyst as a result of differences in the formation of coke. Results from gas sorption and x-ray diffraction experiments showed that coke is preferentially formed within the channel segments of the PtH-ZSM-5(30) catalyst as opposed to coke deposition on the outside surface of the PtH-ZSM-5(80) crystallites, subsequently blocking entrance to the zeolite channels. The location of the coke deposition was found to affect the product selectivity of the two PtH-ZSM-5 catalysts. The accessibility functions, derived from nitrogen and argon sorption data, suggested that, with prolonged ...
An efficient synthesis of the diastereoisomers of sordidin (1), a male-produced aggregation pheromone of Cosmopolites sordidus, has been developed from commercially available 4-methylpent-4-en-2-ol (2). Preparation of exo-β-sordidin (1a) and endo-β-sordidin (1b) is via the anti epoxide, 4d, which is derived via iodocarbonation of 2. The endo-α-sordidin (1c) and exo-α-sordidin (1d) are prepared from the corresponding syn epoxide, which is available via stereo-controlled epoxidation of the triisopropylsilyloxy derivative, 3b. Silyloxy derivatives of the epoxides, 4, efficiently alkylate the anions of N-cyclohexyldiethylketimine (6a) and 3-pentanone N,N-dimethylhydrazone (6b). Acidic work-up of these alkylation reactions promotes cyclization to give 1. Gram quantities of 1a−1d, 1a + 1b and 1c + 1d have been prepared by this route. In field tests in a banana plantation in Costa Rica, compounds 1a−1d significantly increased capture rates of standard pseudostem traps. Comparable numbers of ...
Base excision repair (BER) is the predominant DNA damage repair pathway for the processing of small base lesions, derived from oxidation and alkylation damages. BER is normally defined as DNA repair initiated by lesion-specific DNA glycosylases and completed by either of the two sub-pathways: short-patch BER where only one nucleotide is replaced and long-patch BER where 2-13 nucleotides are replaced. Each sub-pathway of BER relies on the formation of protein complexes that assemble at the site of the DNA lesion and facilitate repair in a coordinated fashion. This process of complex formation appears to provide an increase in specificity and efficiency to the BER pathway, thereby facilitating the maintenance of genome integrity by preventing the accumulation of highly toxic repair intermediates ...
The ada and aidB genes are part of the adaptive response to DNA methylation damage in Escherichia coli. Transcription of the ada and the aidB genes is triggered by binding of the methylated Ada protein (meAda) to a specific sequence located 40-60 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start, which is internal to an A/T-rich region. In this report we demonstrate that the Ada binding site is also a binding site for RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase is able to bind the -40 to -60 region of the ada and the aidB promoters in the absence of meAda, and its binding is mediated by the alpha subunit. This region resembles the UP element of the rrnB P1 promoter in location, sequence and mechanism of interaction with RNA polymerase. We discuss the function of UP-like elements in positively controlled promoters and provide evidence that Ada does not act by enhancing RNA polymerase binding affinity to the promoter region. Instead, Ada stimulates transcription by modifying the nature of the RNA polymerase-promoter

Alkylation | petrochemical process | Britannica.comAlkylation | petrochemical process | Britannica.com

Alkylation, in petroleum refining, chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane ... More About Alkylation. 2 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *petroleum refining* In gasoline ... Alkylation, in petroleum refining, chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane ... Alkylation units were installed in petroleum refineries in the 1930s, but the process became especially important during World ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/technology/alkylation-petrochemical-process

Alkylation - WikipediaAlkylation - Wikipedia

C-alkylationEdit. C-alkylation is a process for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. For alkylation at carbon, the ... alkylation refers to a particular alkylation of isobutane with olefins. For upgrading of petroleum, alkylation produces a ... N-and P-alkylationEdit. N- and P-alkylation are important processes for the formation of carbon-nitrogen and carbon-phosphorus ... In medicine, alkylation of DNA is used in chemotherapy to damage the DNA of cancer cells. Alkylation is accomplished with the ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkylated

Alkylation Reagents - Derivatization Reagents | Sigma-AldrichAlkylation Reagents - Derivatization Reagents | Sigma-Aldrich

Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Alkylation Reagents to find products in DMF-Dialkylacetals, Diazoalkales, Esterification Reagents, ... USA Home > Product Directory > Analytical/Chromatography > Analytical Reagents > Derivatization Reagents > Alkylation Reagents ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/analytical-chromatography/analytical-products.html?TablePage=9641921

Palladium asymmetric allylic alkylation o... & related info | MendeleyPalladium asymmetric allylic alkylation o... & related info | Mendeley

A palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) is used to set the spiro(pyrrolidine-oxindo... ... A palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) is used to set the spiro(pyrrolidine-oxindole) stereogenic center. ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/palladium-asymmetric-allylic-alkylation-prochiral-nucleophiles-horsfiline/

Patent US6376729 - Multi-phase alkylation process - Google PatentsPatent US6376729 - Multi-phase alkylation process - Google Patents

The output from the first alkylation reaction zone is supplied, at least in part, to a second alkylation zone which is operated ... by the gas phase alkylation of benzene over a molecular sieve aromatic alkylation catalyst followed by liquid phase alkylation ... A feedstock containing benzene and ethylene is supplied to a first alkylation reaction zone containing a molecular sieve ... aromatic alkylation catalyst. The reaction zone is operated at temperature and pressure conditions to cause gas phase ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US6376729

Arylamine synthesis by amination (alkylation)Arylamine synthesis by amination (alkylation)

An easy Pd-mediated oxidation of primary amines to imines followed by aniline addition enables an alkylation of anilines. The ... Well-defined Co(II) complexes stabilized by a PCP ligand catalyze efficient alkylations of aromatic amines by primary alcohols ... The addition of 4 molecular sieves enables an efficient cobalt(II)-catalyzed N-alkylation of both aromatic and aliphatic amines ... A base-catalyzed/promoted transition-metal-free direct alkylation of amines with either aromatic or aliphatic alcohols provides ...
more infohttps://www.organic-chemistry.org/synthesis/C1N/amines/arylamines2.shtm

Hengli Petrochemical Company Selects DuPont Clean Technologies for the Alkylation ComplexHengli Petrochemical Company Selects DuPont Clean Technologies for the Alkylation Complex

DuPont is committed to alkylation research and has extensive experience in assisting refiners with alkylation research, design ... STRATCO® alkylation technology is licensed and marketed by DuPont as part of its Clean Technologies portfolio in Overland Park ... DuPont is the world leader in alkylation technology with over 90 units licensed and with more than 800,000 BPSD (31,400 kmta) ... As part of DuPonts commitment to innovation, the alkylation unit at Hengli will utilize the patented XP2 technology in the ...
more infohttp://www.prweb.com/releases/dupont-clean-technologies/stratco-hengli-petrochem/prweb13253380.htm

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed C-H Alkylation Using Alkenes | RTITransition-Metal-Catalyzed C-H Alkylation Using Alkenes | RTI

This Review summarizes transition-metal-catalyzed alkylations of various ... the use of unactivated olefins for alkylations has become attractive from both cost and sustainability viewpoints. ... Alkylation reactions represent an important organic transformation to form C-C bonds. In addition to conventional approaches ... According to the mode of activation, the Review is divided into two sections: alkylation via C-H activation and alkylation via ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/transition-metal-catalyzed-c%E2%80%93h-alkylation-using-alkenes

The Induction of Resistance to Alkylation Damage in Mammalian Cells | SpringerLinkThe Induction of Resistance to Alkylation Damage in Mammalian Cells | SpringerLink

Adaptive Response Sister Chromatid Exchange GM637 Cell Methyl Guanine Alkylation Damage This is a preview of subscription ... Samson L., Schwartz J.L. (1983) The Induction of Resistance to Alkylation Damage in Mammalian Cells. In: Lawrence C.W. (eds) ... Loveless, A: Possible relevance of 0-6 alkylation of deoxyguanosine to the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosamines and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4382-0_12

EPO - T 1245/09 (Gasoline hydroisomerization/alkylation/UOP) of 20.9.2011EPO - T 1245/09 (Gasoline hydroisomerization/alkylation/UOP) of 20.9.2011

D8: STRATCO, The 1990 Alkylation Seminar: K. Masters, Amylene Alkylation. D9: NPRA Q&A Sessions: C5 alkylation questions (from ... In addition, under the heading alkylation pretreatment on page 3 of D7, reference is made to hydrotreating alkylation ... Alkylation pretreatment and the further chapter TAME feedstock pretreatment. Alkylation and TAME production are therefore ... T 1245/09 (Gasoline hydroisomerization/alkylation/UOP) of 20.9.2011. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2011: ...
more infohttp://www.epo.org/law-practice/case-law-appeals/recent/t091245eu1.html

Novel System for Solid Catalyzed Isobutane/Olefin Alkylation | SBIR.govNovel System for Solid Catalyzed Isobutane/Olefin Alkylation | SBIR.gov

Isobutene/olefin alkylation is a major refinery process in which light hydrocarbons (isobutene and, mainly, C3 and C4 olefins) ... This project will develop a novel reactor approach to solid-catalyzed isobutene/olefin alkylation in which olefin ... polymerization at the catalytic surface is limited, thereby avoiding the primary issue with solid catalyzed alkylation. ...
more infohttps://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/279863

Alkylation for Motor Fuels - Chemical production and investment cost | IHS MarkitAlkylation for Motor Fuels - Chemical production and investment cost | IHS Markit

Reports emphasize developments in process technology for Alkylation for Motor Fuels that have potential implications for the ... Solid catalyst alkylation processes are being researched as a response to the potential ban of HF acid use because of ... Alkylation has become an important refinery process because of increasing demand for high octane and low vapor pressure ... The flexibility of alkylation in producing a high quality gasoline blending component is evaluated for three types of ...
more infohttps://www.ihs.com/ja/products/chemical-technology-pep-alkylation-for-motor-fuels-1993.html

Benzene alkylationBenzene alkylation

Share Benzene alkylation with a colleague. From (your name so they know who the message is from). This field is required ...
more infohttps://www.exxonmobilchemical.com/en/products-and-services/technology-licensing-and-services/benzene-alkylation

Metal cation-modified alkylation catalysts - Patent # 5849977 - PatentGeniusMetal cation-modified alkylation catalysts - Patent # 5849977 - PatentGenius

... alkylation conditions in the presence of a novel catalyst comprising: a) a refractory inorganic oxide, b) the reaction product ... A process for the alkylation of alkenes having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms with an alkane having from 4 to 6 carbon atoms to ... The alkylation of olefins is catalyzed by strong acids generally. Although such alkylation has been the focus of intense and ... Although the terms "cracking" and "selectivity" in the context of paraffin alkylation, and especially in motor fuel alkylation ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5849977.html

Regioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation | ScienceRegioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation | Science

Regioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/345/6192/68/tab-e-letters

Regioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation | ScienceRegioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation | Science

Regioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Alkylation of carbonyl compounds is a commonly used carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction. However, the conventional enolate ... Here, we describe development of a ketone-alkylation strategy using simple olefins as the alkylating agents. This strategy ... alkylation approach remains problematic due to lack of regioselectivity, risk of overalkylation, and the need for strongly ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/345/6192/68.abstract

Aggreko and DuPont bring temperature control to sulfuric alkylation marketAggreko and DuPont bring temperature control to sulfuric alkylation market

Refineries use the alkylation process to convert low value mixed butylene, propylene and/or amylene feed streams into a high ... Chiller systems are used in two key areas within the alkylation process to control process temperature: the reaction zone and ... HomeNewsAggreko and DuPont bring temperature control to sulfuric alkylation market ... Power generation and HVAC specialty rental company, Aggreko, and sulfuric acid alkylation technology licensor, DuPont, have ...
more infohttp://www.hydrocarbonprocessing.com/news/2016/10/aggreko-and-dupont-bring-temperature-control-to-sulfuric-alkylation-market

Samarium Triflate-Catalyzed Halogen-Promoted Friedel-Crafts Alkylation with AlkenesSamarium Triflate-Catalyzed Halogen-Promoted Friedel-Crafts Alkylation with Alkenes

... Saumen Hajra,* Biswajit Maji and Sukanta ... alkylation of electron-rich arenes with alkenes and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in the presence of NBS or I2 as halogen ...
more infohttps://www.organic-chemistry.org/abstracts/lit1/776.shtm

Isoparaffin:olefin alkylation process and reactor apparatus - Patent # 5196629 - PatentGeniusIsoparaffin:olefin alkylation process and reactor apparatus - Patent # 5196629 - PatentGenius

The invention provides a substantially fail-safe HF alkylation process and reactor apparatus. The elongated reactor vessel is ... For a general discussion of sulfuric acid alkylation, see the series of three articles by L. F.Albright et al., "Alkylation of ... Alkylation is a reaction in which an alkyl group is added to an organic molecule. Thus an isoparaffin can be reacted with an ... "Alkylation of Isobutane with C.sub.4 Olefins", 27 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 381-397 (1988)... Handbook of Petroleum Refining ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5196629.html

Solid acids: potential catalysts for alkene-isoalkane alkylation - Catalysis Science & Technology (RSC Publishing)Solid acids: potential catalysts for alkene-isoalkane alkylation - Catalysis Science & Technology (RSC Publishing)

... alkylation, and reforming. Alkylation is an imperative means for this to be achieved in the presence of solid acid catalysts. ... Solid acids: potential catalysts for alkene-isoalkane alkylation S. Singhal, S. Agarwal, S. Arora, N. Singhal and A. Kumar, ... The main body of the article details the use of various solid acids as catalysts for alkylation including the concerns about it ... The introductory part of this review describes the importance of alkylation as a route to obtain high-quality gasoline and the ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/cy/c7cy01554b/unauth

Protein alkylation leading to liver fibrosis (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathwaysProtein alkylation leading to liver fibrosis (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways

Protein alkylation. Collagen accumulation. KER 269. MIE: Protein alkylation (KE244). Stressors. Proto-oncogene c-Rel. Toll-like ... Protein alkylation leading to liver fibrosis (Homo sapiens). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 11:04, 22 May 2017 by Marvin M2 ... Protein alkylation leading to liver fibrosis This pathway is based on descriptive text of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) on ... Horvat T, Landesmann B, Lostia A, Vinken M, Munn S, Whelan M; Adverse outcome pathway development from protein alkylation to ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php?title=Pathway:WP3980&oldid=92320

Catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines using carboxylic acids - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)Catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines using carboxylic acids - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)

We report a catalytic reductive alkylation reaction of primary or secondary amines with carboxylic acids. The two-phase process ... Catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines using carboxylic acids K. G. Andrews, D. M. Summers, L. J. Donnelly and R. M. Denton ... We report a catalytic reductive alkylation reaction of primary or secondary amines with carboxylic acids. The two-phase process ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/cc/c5cc08881j

Alkylation - WikipediaAlkylation - Wikipedia

... alkylation refers to a particular alkylation of isobutane with olefins. For upgrading of petroleum, alkylation produces ... In medicine, alkylation of DNA is used in chemotherapy to damage the DNA of cancer cells. Alkylation is accomplished with the ... In an oil refinery it is referred to as a sulfuric acid alkylation unit (SAAU) or a hydrofluoric alkylation unit, (HFAU). ... Methylation is distinct from alkylation in that it is specifically the transfer of one carbon, whereas alkylation can refer to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkylation

Distillation of Alkylation Product in a Continuous-Action Apparatus,Distillation of Alkylation Product in a Continuous-Action Apparatus,

The conditions for distilling the alkylation product and technical alkyl phenol was determined. In terms of its preliminary ... The feasibility of distilling alkylation product and technical alkyl phenol in a continuous apparatus was established. ... Title : Distillation of Alkylation Product in a Continuous-Action Apparatus,. Corporate Author : FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT- ... Descriptors : (*DISTILLATION, *PHENOLS), ALKYLATION, PURIFICATION, LUBRICANT ADDITIVES, USSR. Subject Categories : Organic ...
more infohttp://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0751946

CB&I licenses process technology for new China acid alkylation projectCB&I licenses process technology for new China acid alkylation project

"CB&I is excited to be working on the first-ever commercialization of a solid-acid alkylation unit in the world," said Daniel ... HomeNewsCB&I licenses process technology for new China acid alkylation project ... CB&I licenses process technology for new China acid alkylation project. 4/30/2013 ... contract by Shandong Wonfull Petrochemical to provide the license and processing engineering design for asolid acid alkylation ...
more infohttp://www.hydrocarbonprocessing.com/news/2013/04/cbi-licenses-process-technology-for-new-china-acid-alkylation-project
  • Sm(OTf) 3 is an effective catalysts for a versatile and efficient halogen-promoted highly regio- and stereoselective Friedel-Crafts (F-C) alkylation of electron-rich arenes with alkenes and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in the presence of NBS or I 2 as halogen sources. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Alkylation is an imperative means for this to be achieved in the presence of solid acid catalysts. (rsc.org)
  • The introductory part of this review describes the importance of alkylation as a route to obtain high-quality gasoline and the conventional catalysts applied to it globally. (rsc.org)
  • The main body of the article details the use of various solid acids as catalysts for alkylation including the concerns about it. (rsc.org)
  • The contract includes the license and engineering design packages for the STRATCO® alkylation and MECS® SAR units. (prweb.com)
  • The grassroots refinery complex, with the addition of STRATCO® alkylation technology, will allow Hengli to produce a high quality alkylate product (used as a blending component in the gasoline pool) from a 100% isobutylene feed stream. (prweb.com)
  • As part of DuPont's commitment to innovation, the alkylation unit at Hengli will utilize the patented XP2 technology in the STRATCO® Contactor™ reactor. (prweb.com)
  • STRATCO® alkylation technology is licensed and marketed by DuPont as part of its Clean Technologies portfolio in Overland Park, Kansas. (prweb.com)
  • An East Coast refinery test was conducted by Aggreko's Process Services (APS) group and the DuPont Clean Technologies division where chiller systems were installed in the reactor feed section of the STRATCO alkylation unit. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • R4} _{{quaternay \atop ammonium} \atop cation}+\underbrace {X^{-}} _{halide \atop anion}} _{quaternay\ ammonium\ salt}}}} Amines and ammonia are generally sufficiently nucleophilic to undergo direct alkylation, often under mild conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the mode of activation, the Review is divided into two sections: alkylation via C-H activation and alkylation via olefin activation. (rti.org)
  • This project will develop a novel reactor approach to solid-catalyzed isobutene/olefin alkylation in which olefin polymerization at the catalytic surface is limited, thereby avoiding the primary issue with solid catalyzed alkylation. (sbir.gov)
  • b) passing said hydroisomerate stream (26) to an alkylation unit (24) and alkylating said hydroisomerate stream (26) by a branched chain paraffin hydrocarbon to produce an alkylate stream (32). (epo.org)
  • Refineries use the alkylation process to convert low value mixed butylene, propylene and/or amylene feed streams into a high value alkylate product. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • The output from the first alkylation reaction zone is supplied, at least in part, to a second alkylation zone which is operated in the liquid phase or in the supercritical region followed by supply to an intermediate recovery zone for the separation and recovery of ethylbenzene and a polyalkylated aromatic compound component including diethylbenzene. (google.com.au)
  • DuPont Clean Technologies (DuPont) is pleased to announce that Hengli Petrochemical Company (Hengli), based in Dalian, China, has awarded DuPont a contract to supply the alkylation and spent acid regeneration (SAR) technologies for the new, grassroots refinery in the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone. (prweb.com)
  • However, the conventional enolate alkylation approach remains problematic due to lack of regioselectivity, risk of overalkylation, and the need for strongly basic conditions and expensive alkyl halide reagents. (sciencemag.org)
  • Alkylating agents use selective alkylation by adding the desired aliphatic carbon chain to the previously chosen starting molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-alkylation is a general and useful route to quaternary ammonium salts from tertiary amines, because overalkylation is not possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • CB&I has been awarded a contract by Shandong Wonfull Petrochemical to provide the license and processing engineering design for asolid acid alkylation unit in China, officials said on Tuesday. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • Alkylation reactions represent an important organic transformation to form C-C bonds. (rti.org)
  • DuPont is the world leader in alkylation technology with over 90 units licensed and with more than 800,000 BPSD (31,400 kmta) of installed capacity. (prweb.com)
  • The successful test led to an arrangement between Aggreko and DuPont to further explore and expand temperature control for the sulfuric acid alkylation market. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • A palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) is used to set the spiro(pyrrolidine-oxindole) stereogenic center. (mendeley.com)
  • The feasibility of distilling alkylation product and technical alkyl phenol in a continuous apparatus was established. (dtic.mil)
  • In Claim 1 of the second auxiliary request the passage 'b) passing said hydroisomerate stream (26) to an alkylation unit (24)' in Claim 1 was amended to read 'b) passing said hydroisomerate stream (26) directly to an alkylation unit (24)' (emphasis added), as compared to Claim 1 of the main request. (epo.org)
  • CB&I is excited to be working on the first-ever commercialization of a solid-acid alkylation unit in the world," said Daniel McCarthy, president of CB&I's technology operating group. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • The largest scale N-alkylation is the production of the methylamines from ammonia and methanol, resulting in approximately 500,000 tons/y of methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In medicine, alkylation of DNA is used in chemotherapy to damage the DNA of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conditions for distilling the alkylation product and technical alkyl phenol was determined. (dtic.mil)
  • An easy Pd-mediated oxidation of primary amines to imines followed by aniline addition enables an alkylation of anilines. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The final section covers the mechanistic approach for alkylation to happen during the progression of the reaction and the recommendations. (rsc.org)
  • Cleavage sites were determined on both strands of a restriction fragment containing the HIV-1 promoter, revealing good specificity and a high yield of alkylation. (caltech.edu)
  • Heterogeneous catalysis employing the use of solid acids plays a key role in accomplishing this target through various routes, including isomerization, alkylation, and reforming. (rsc.org)
  • S-Alkylation of Thioacridone Derivatives Using Solid-Liquid Phase Transfer Catalysis without Solvent. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Amine alkylation (amino-de-halogenation) is a type of organic reaction between an alkyl halide and ammonia or an amine. (wikipedia.org)