Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase: A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Farnesyltranstransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.KetonesAcyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.EstersAmination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Benzene DerivativesAlcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.EthersGalactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.PeroxidasesCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedUTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Sparsomycin: An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedHypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Ethanolaminephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.SulfatasesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylgalactosamine: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (1/1483)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. cDNA cloning and expression. (2/1483)

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase (GGPPSase) catalyzes the synthesis of GGPP, which is an important molecule responsible for the C20-prenylated protein biosynthesis and for the regulation of a nuclear hormone receptor (LXR.RXR). The human GGPPSase cDNA encodes a protein of 300 amino acids which shows 16% sequence identity with the known human farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (FPPSase). The GGPPSase expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzes the GGPP formation (240 nmol/min/mg) from FPP and isopentenyl diphosphate. The human GGPPSase behaves as an oligomeric molecule with 280 kDa on a gel filtration column and cross-reacts with an antibody directed against bovine brain GGPPSase, which differs immunochemically from bovine brain FPPSase. Northern blot analysis indicates the presence of two forms of the mRNA.  (+info)

The geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 induces hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma and partner switching of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. A potential mechanism for GGTI-298 antitumor activity. (3/1483)

The geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 has recently been shown to arrest human tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice. In the present manuscript, we provide a possible mechanism by which GGTI-298 mediates its tumor growth arrest. Treatment of the human lung carcinoma cell line Calu-1 with GGTI-298 results in inhibition of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, a critical step for G1/S transition. The kinase activities of two G1/S cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK2 and CDK4, are inhibited in Calu-1 cells treated with GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 has little effect on the expression levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclins D1 and E, but decreases the levels of cyclin A. GGTI-298 increases the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p15 and had little effect on those of p27 and p16. Most interesting is the ability of GGTI-298 to induce partner switching for several CDK inhibitors. GGTI-298 promotes binding of p21 and p27 to CDK2 while decreasing their binding to CDK6. Reversal of partner switching and G1 block was observed after removal of GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 treatment results in an increased binding of p15 to CDK4, which is paralleled with decreased binding to p27. The results demonstrate that the GGTI-298-mediated G1 block in Calu-1 cells involves increased expression and partner switching of CDK inhibitors resulting in inhibition of CDK2 and CDK4, and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation.  (+info)

Reduced lung tumorigenesis in human methylguanine DNA--methyltransferase transgenic mice achieved by expression of transgene within the target cell. (4/1483)

Human methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) transgenic mice expressing high levels of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) in lung were crossbred to A/J mice that are susceptible to pulmonary adenoma to study the impact of O6-methylguanine (O6mG)-DNA adduct repair on NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. Expression of the chimeric human MGMT transgene in lung was identified by northern and western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry assay and enzymatic assay. AGT activity was 17.6 +/- 3.2 versus 1.2 +/- 0.4 fmol/microg DNA in lung of MGMT transgenic mice compared with non-transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human AGT antibody showed that human AGT was expressed throughout the lung. However, some epithelial cells of bronchi and alveoli did not stain for human AGT, suggesting that the human MGMT transgene expression was heterogeneous. After 100 mg/kg NNK i.p. injection in MGMT transgenic mice, lung AGT activity remained much higher and levels of lung O6mG-DNA adducts in MGMT transgenic mice were lower than those of non-transgenic mice. In the tumorigenesis study, mice received 100 mg/kg NNK at 6 weeks of age and were killed 44 weeks later. Ten of 17 MGMT transgenic mice compared with 16 of 17 non-transgenic mice had lung tumors, P < 0.05. MGMT transgenic mice had lower multiplicity and smaller sized lung tumors than non-transgenic mice. Moreover, a reduction in the frequency of K-ras mutations in lung tumors was found in MGMT transgenic mice (6.7 versus 50% in non-transgenic mice). These results indicate that high levels of AGT expressed in mouse lung reduce lung tissue susceptibility to NNK-induced tumorigenesis due to increased repair capacity for O6mG, subsequently, decreased mutational activation of K-ras oncogene. Heterogeneity in the level of AGT expressed in different lung cell populations or other forms of carcinogenic DNA damage caused by NNK may explain the residual incidence of lung tumors in MGMT transgenic mice.  (+info)

RAS and leukemia: from basic mechanisms to gene-directed therapy. (5/1483)

PURPOSE AND DESIGN: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature linking Ras signaling pathways and leukemia and to discuss the biologic and potential therapeutic implications of these observations. A search of MEDLINE from 1966 to October 1998 was performed. RESULTS: A wealth of data has been published on the role of Ras pathways in cancer. To be biologically active, Ras must move from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. Importantly, a posttranslational modification--addition of a farnesyl group to the Ras C-terminal cysteine--is a requisite for membrane localization of Ras. Farnesylation of Ras is catalyzed by an enzyme that is designated farnesyltransferase. Recently, several compounds have been developed that can inhibit farnesylation. Preclinical studies indicate that these molecules can suppress transformation and tumor growth in vitro and in animal models, with little toxicity to normal cells. CONCLUSION: An increasing body of data suggests that disruption of Ras signaling pathways, either directly through mutations or indirectly through other genetic aberrations, is important in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of cancers. Molecules such as farnesyl transferase inhibitors that interfere with the function of Ras may be exploitable in leukemia (as well as in solid tumors) as novel antitumor agents.  (+info)

Molecular forceps from combinatorial libraries prevent the farnesylation of Ras by binding to its carboxyl terminus. (6/1483)

INTRODUCTION: Ras is one of the major oncogenes. In order to function properly it has to undergo post-translational processing at its carboxyl terminus. It has been shown that inhibitors of farnesyl transferase, the first enzyme in the processing chain, can suppress the transforming activity of oncogenic Ras. RESULTS: We have identified molecular forceps, branched peptidic molecules, from combinatorial libraries that bind to the carboxyl terminus of Ras and interfere with its farnesylation without inhibiting the farnesyl transferase. The active molecules were selected by a screening against the carboxy-terminal octapeptide of Ras. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of our findings are twofold. First, we demonstrate that it is possible to prevent enzymatic transformations by blocking the enzyme's access to its substrate using a synthetic small molecule to mask the substrate. Second, we show that it is feasible to derive molecules from combinatorial libraries that bind a specific epitope on a protein by selecting these molecules with the isolated peptide epitope.  (+info)

Effect of the hypocholesterolemic agent YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis activity and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 and monkey liver. (7/1483)

YM-16638 ([[5-[[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)propyl]thio]-1,3,4-++ +thiadiazol-2-yl] thio] acetic acid) showed a strong hypocholesterolemic effect in humans and monkeys. To clarify the mechanism of this hypocholesterolemic effect, the action of YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis in the cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and cynomolgus monkey liver was examined. Cholesterol biosynthesis activity derived from [14C]acetic acid, [3H/14C]mevalonic acid or [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate substrates was significantly decreased, but not that from [3H]farnesyl pyrophosphate or [3H]squalene substrates in HepG2 cells treated with YM-16638. Simultaneously, treatment of these cells with YM-16638 changed neither the rate of apolipoprotein B synthesis from [35S]methionine nor its secretion. In addition, the activities of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes HMG-CoA reductase, mevalonate kinase (MK), isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase were measured in monkeys fed a diet supplemented with YM-16638. Among these enzymes, MK, IPPI and FPPS activities in the YM-16638-treated group significantly decreased by 38%, 56% and 30%, respectively, when compared to those from control animals receiving no drug treatment. These results indicate that YM-16638 has the characteristics of a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor.  (+info)

Leukocyte O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase from human donors is uniformly sensitive to O6-benzylguanine. (8/1483)

O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is the key DNA repair protein responsible for resistance to chloroethylating and methylating agents that attack at the O6 position of guanine. O6-Benzylguanine (BG), a potent inhibitor of AGT, has recently entered clinical trials. A number of point mutations and at least one human polymorphism within AGT are associated with AGT resistance to inactivation by BG. In this study, we evaluated AGT inhibition by BG in an in vitro assay of peripheral blood mononuclear cell AGT from 56 normal donors, 42 Caucasians, and 14 Japanese. AGT activity ranged from 2.7 to 21.9 fmol/microg DNA and was similar in Japanese and Caucasian donors. Depletion of AGT by BG was uniform in all donors with mean ED50s of 037 microM BG in Caucasians and 0.36 microM BG in Japanese. To determine whether the gly160arg AGT polymorphism described in the Japanese population, and recently shown to be BG resistant, could be detected by this assay, we mixed purified gly160arg AGT protein with blood mononuclear cell extract and measured in vitro BG inactivation. The ED50 for the mixture of the gly160arg AGT and mononuclear cell extract was 9 microM BG. On the basis of results in 56 donors, we conclude that BG-resistant AGT, defined as an ED50 in mononuclear cells of >1 microM BG, is present in 0 of 56 donors, (95% confidence interval, 0-6%), suggesting that polymorphisms producing AGT-resistant BG are unusual in humans.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor R115777 in advanced cancer. AU - Zujewski, J.. AU - Horak, I. D.. AU - Bol, C. J.. AU - Woestenborghs, R.. AU - Bowden, C.. AU - End, D. W.. AU - Piotrovsky, V. K.. AU - Chiao, J.. AU - Belly, R. T.. AU - Todd, A.. AU - Kopp, W. C.. AU - Kohler, D. R.. AU - Chow, C.. AU - Noone, M.. AU - Hakim, F. T.. AU - Larkin, G.. AU - Gress, R. E.. AU - Nussenblatt, R. B.. AU - Kremer, A. B.. AU - Cowan, K. H.. PY - 2000/2/1. Y1 - 2000/2/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose, toxicities, and pharmacokinetic profile of the farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor R115777 when administered orally bid for 5 days every 2 weeks. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with a median age of 58 years received 85 cycles of R115777 using an intrapatient and interpatient dose escalation schema. Drug was administered orally at escalating doses as a solution (25 to 850 mg bid) or as pellet capsules (500 to ...
This enzyme, along with protein farnesyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.58) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (EC 2.5.1.59), constitutes the protein prenyltransferase fa
Background-Statins have anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects that have been attributed to inhibition of RHO protein geranylgeranylation in inflammatory cells. The activity of protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) is widely believed to promote membrane association and activation of RHO family proteins. However, we recently showed that knockout of GGTase-I in macrophages activates RHO proteins and proinflammatory signaling pathways, leading to increased cytokine production and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we asked whether the increased inflammatory signaling of GGTase-I-deficient macrophages would influence the development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Methods and Results-Aortic lesions in mice lacking GGTase-I in macrophages (Pggt1bΔ/Δ) contained significantly more T lymphocytes than the lesions in controls. Surprisingly, however, mean atherosclerotic lesion area in Pggt1bΔ/Δ mice was reduced by ~60%. GGTase-I deficiency reduced the ...
In enzymology, an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and one product, ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. This enzyme participates in gibberellin biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically the class of intramolecular lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ent-copalyl-diphosphate lyase (decyclizing). Other names in common use include ent-kaurene synthase A, and ent-kaurene synthetase A. ent-Copalyl diphosphate synthases from fungi and mosses also have a distinct ent-kaurene synthase activity associated with the same protein molecule. The reaction catalyzed by ent-kaurene synthase is the next step in the biosynthetic pathway to gibberellins. The two types of enzymic activity are distinct, and site-directed mutagenesis to suppress the ent-kaurene synthase activity of the protein leads to build up of ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. ...
Rab Family GTPase; Involved In The ER-to-Golgi Step Of The Secretory Pathway; Complex Formation With The Rab Escort Protein Mrs6p Is Required For Prenylation Of Ypt1p By Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase Type II (Bet2p-Bet4p); Binds To Unspliced HAC1 MRNA; Regulates Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) By Promoting The Decay Of HAC1 RNA
The current evolutionary hypothesis and the previous phylogenetic tree (Bohlmannet al. 1998b) both affirm that plant terpene synthases involved in secondary metabolism have a common ancestral origin from a terpene synthase involved in primary metabolism. However, these models differ in the placement of the class III terpene synthases (Figures 6, A and B, and 7). The inferred phylogenetic tree in Figure 6A suggests that the class III types (angiosperm terpene synthases) involved in secondary metabolism are descendants (evolving by divergent evolution) of the class II types (gymnosperm monoterpene and/or sesquiterpene synthases) involved in secondary metabolism, whereas Figure 6B indicates that class III types are not direct descendants of class II types, yet share a common ancestor. The latter (including the gene architecture information as valid) infers that gymnosperm and angiosperm terpene synthases involved in secondary metabolism diverged prior to the three loss events illustrated in Figure ...
In molecular biology, this protein domain belongs to the terpene synthase family (TPS). Its role is to synthesize terpenes which are part of primary metabolism, such as sterols and carotene and also part of the secondary metabolism. This entry will focus on the N terminal domain of the TPS protein. Terpenes synthases have a role in producing important molecules in metabolism, these molecules are part of a large group called terpenoids . In particular, the N terminal domain has feature of the copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) active site. The N-terminal domain forms an alpha-barrel similar to that of the sesquiterpene cyclase epiaristolochene synthase. Sequences containing this protein domain belong to the terpene synthase family. It has been suggested that this gene family be designated tps (for terpene synthase). Sequence comparisons reveal similarities between the monoterpene (C10) synthases, sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and the diterpene (C20) synthases. It has been split into six subgroups ...
Essential subunit of both the farnesyltransferase and the geranylgeranyltransferase complex. Contributes to the transfer of a farnesyl or geranylgeranyl moiety from farnesyl or geranylgeranyl diphosphate to a cysteine at the fourth position from the C-terminus of several proteins having the C-terminal sequence Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-X. May positively regulate neuromuscular junction development downstream of MUSK via its function in RAC1 prenylation and activation (By similarity).
Essential subunit of both the farnesyltransferase and the geranylgeranyltransferase complex. Contributes to the transfer of a farnesyl or geranylgeranyl moiety from farnesyl or geranylgeranyl diphosphate to a cysteine at the fourth position from the C-terminus of several proteins having the C-terminal sequence Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-X. May positively regulate neuromuscular junction development downstream of MUSK via its function in RAC1 prenylation and activation.
GenBank) putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (ec 2.5.1.7) (enoylpyruvate transferase) (udp-n-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase) (ept ...
4LIX: Crystal structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana in complex with (S)-15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl thiolodiphosphate at 1.55 A resolution
Figure 9. Substrate-docking simulation of RdPT1. A to C, Putative substrate-binding cavities docked with FPP (A), GPP (B), and GGPP (C) in the presence of OSA and magnesium ions, which are shown in the closeup views. In each part, OSA is shown in yellow and prenyl diphosphate in light orange as a stick model. Magnesium ions are presented as dark gray spheres. Only selected amino acid residues that are predicted to participate in substrate binding are shown as white stick models, with nitrogen atoms colored blue and oxygen atoms colored red. Hydrogen bonds are shown as green dotted lines. The distance between OSA C-3 and prenyl diphosphate C-1 is indicated with a red dotted line, while that between each terminal carbon of prenyl diphosphate and Ala-149 is shown with a blue dotted line. D, Protein surface representation of the active site cavity docked with GGPP and OSA as in C. ...
Chemicals. The following were used at the concentrations and durations indicated within each figure or method described below: simvastatin, geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-2147, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA); dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and NaCl (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA); tryptic soy agar, saponin, cholesterol, mevalonate, geranylgeraniol, farnesyl pyrophosphate, lysostaphin, gentamicin, PIPES, EGTA, KCl, Triton X-100, Tween 20, bovine serum albumin, and LiCl (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO); LY294002 (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA); Mini-Tab (Roche, Indianapolis, IN); MgCl2 (VWR, West Chester, PA), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and Tris-HCl (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA); and secramine A (Xu et al., 2006).. Endothelial Cell Culture. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC; Cascade Biologics, Portland, OR) were grown in M200 medium supplemented with low serum growth supplement (Cascade Biologics; 5% CO2, 37°C, ...
Rheumatoid arthritis is a painful and debilitating inflammatory disorder with no known cure. It has been hypothesised that targeting the activity of RHO family proteins might be an effective therapeutic strategy, as these proteins are required for the function of macrophages, which contribute to immunopathology in arthritic joints. However, this notion is challenged in a recent paper by Khan et al. Unexpectedly, mice deficient for a key RHO-activating enzyme, geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I), specifically in macrophages were found to develop spontaneous and severe joint inflammation resembling erosive rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophage-specific deficiency in GGTase-I was sufficient to induce pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and initiate the disease owing to sustained activation of RHO family proteins in macrophages. These data indicate that GGTase-I is not essential for the activity of RHO family proteins, and that inhibition of this enzyme can worsen, rather than prevent, the ...
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Complete information for DHDDS gene (Protein Coding), Dehydrodolichyl Diphosphate Synthase Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The modified bacterial proteins contain a recognition code call the CaaX sequence, which is required for prenylation. Two host proteins catalyze most of the farnesyl and geranylgeranyl transfers in eukaryotes, and these proteins have been creatively named farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTaseI), respectively. The transferases add their prenyl substrate to a cysteine on the target protein (the C of CaaX). "X" represents the target proteins C-terminal residue, which confers some discrimination between FTase and GGTaseI, although there is some overlap in recognition. The "a" residues between the targets cysteine and C-terminal residues are quite variable. These are the same recognition requirement for prenylation of host proteins. In other words, theres nothing particularly special about the bacterial proteins; its just another way that pathogens co-opt the host system.. So this process is important for one particular type of bacteria. But how widespread is ...
1JCS: The crystal structure of human protein farnesyltransferase reveals the basis for inhibition by CaaX tetrapeptides and their mimetics.
has been defined as a significant reason behind periodontal disease and hypothesized to be engaged in extra-oral infections. proven to have various properties MK-1775 resulting in periodontal injury (invasiveness connected with motility and the capability to penetrate dense mass media and epithelial cell levels, high proteolytic activity, adherence to epithelial cells, and cytotoxicity), aswell as factors which might inhibit web host cell features (Lux can get away from the oral area and invade different sites of your body continues to be hypothesized in human beings (Riviere to flee the innate immune system response. The purpose of this research was to judge the impact of motility and cell size on uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages, phagocytosis by macrophages under anaerobic and aerobic circumstances. To further measure the relevance from the spirochetes cell and motility form through the relationship with phagocytes, we examined the capability of murine macrophages to uptake and eliminate ...
Aramini JM, Tubbs JL, Kanugula S, Rossi P, Ertekin A, Maglaqui M, Hamilton K, Ciccosanti CT, Jiang M, Xiao R, et al. Structural basis of O6-alkylguanine recognition by a bacterial alkyltransferase-like DNA repair protein. J Biol Chem. 2010 ;285(18):13736-41. ...
Aramini JM, Tubbs JL, Kanugula S, Rossi P, Ertekin A, Maglaqui M, Hamilton K, Ciccosanti CT, Jiang M, Xiao R, et al. Structural basis of O6-alkylguanine recognition by a bacterial alkyltransferase-like DNA repair protein. J Biol Chem. 2010 ;285(18):13736-41. ...
Mmab - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN310154G1|/strong|, Mmab gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
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MINISO, a Japan-based designer brand, updating products every seven days, pricing at a low level, and targeting at intelligent consumer product chains. It sets the trend of personalized intelligent consumption in the frontier market of household consumption.
NEW YORK - Stocks are little changed in the early going on Wall Street as trading quieted down at the end of a turbulent week.. The Dow Jones industrial average edged down a point to 15,175 in the first few minutes of trading Friday. The Dow had surged 180 points the day before. Its still down slightly for the week.. The Standard & Poors 500 index was up a point at 1,637. The Nasdaq composite was up two points at 3,447.. Caseys General Stores fell 2 percent after the convenience store operator reported earnings that fell short of what analysts were expecting.. Restoration Hardware jumped 17 percent after the home products chains raised its forecast for full-year earnings.. ...
Petco announced Tuesday that it will no longer sell electronic collars, aka shock collars, the first major pet products chain to pull the items from its stores and online.
CaAl2O4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pnma space group. The structure is three-dimensional. Ca2+ is bonded in a 8-coordinate geometry to eight O2- atoms. There are a spread of Ca-O bond distances ranging from 2.33-2.50 Å. There are two inequivalent Al3+ sites. In the first Al3+ site, Al3+ is bonded to six O2- atoms to form a mixture of edge and corner-sharing AlO6 octahedra. The corner-sharing octahedra tilt angles range from 49-56°. There are a spread of Al-O bond distances ranging from 1.93-2.01 Å. In the second Al3+ site, Al3+ is bonded to six O2- atoms to form a mixture of edge and corner-sharing AlO6 octahedra. The corner-sharing octahedra tilt angles range from 49-56°. There are a spread of Al-O bond distances ranging from 1.91-1.98 Å. There are four inequivalent O2- sites. In the first O2- site, O2- is bonded to two equivalent Ca2+ and three equivalent Al3+ atoms to form a mixture of distorted edge and corner-sharing OCa2Al3 trigonal bipyramids. In the second O2- site, O2- is
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وجود بقایای آنتی‌بیوتیکی در مواد غذایی و انتقال آن به بدن مصرف کنندگان باعث ایجاد عوارضی نظیر مقاومت‌های باکتریایی، واکنش‌های آلرژیک، مسمومیت، سرطان‌زایی و به‌هم زدن میکروفلور طبیعی روده می‌شود. روش چهار پلیتی یکی از روش‌های میکروبیولوژیکی جهت تأیید حضور بقایای آنتی‌بیوتیکی در مواد غذایی می‌باشد که در چهار محیط کشت با pH و باکتری‌های متفاوت انجام می-گیرد. در این مطالعه از 30 لاشه گاوهای کشتار شده در کشتارگاه تبریز نمونه-هایی از عضله کپل، دیافراگم و بافت کبد و کلیه به‌صورت تصادفی اخذ شد.از بین نمونه-های کلیه،30 مورد (100%)؛ از نمونه کبد، 28 مورد (33/93%)؛ از
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Methylation enhances the potency of isoprenoid triazole bisphosphonates as geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors. AU - Matthiesen, Robert A.. AU - Varney, Michelle L.. AU - Xu, Pauline C.. AU - Rier, Alex S.. AU - Wiemer, David F.. AU - Holstein, Sarah A. PY - 2018/1/15. Y1 - 2018/1/15. N2 - Disruption of protein geranylgeranylation via inhibition of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS) represents a novel therapeutic strategy for a variety of malignancies, especially those characterized by excessive protein secretion such as multiple myeloma. Our work has demonstrated that some isoprenoid triazole bisphosphonates are potent and selective inhibitors of GGDPS. Here we present the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of isoprenoid triazoles modified by incorporation of a methyl group at the α-carbon. These studies reveal that incorporation of an α-methyl substituent enhances the potency of these compounds as GGDPS inhibitors, and, in the case of ...
The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is targeted in the treatment of several diseases, including hypercholesteremia and bone related disorders. Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) are isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway intermediates that are utilized during post-translational modification of proteins termed farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, respectively, together known as prenylation. The Ras and Rho GTPase family members are examples of proteins that are prenylated. Prenylation is essential for proper membrane localization and function of these small GTPases. Activating mutations or over-expression of these proteins promote oncogenic events, such as increased proliferation and migration. Studies have demonstrated that farnesyl transferase inhibitors and geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors possess anti-cancer effects in humans and animal models of cancer, respectively. An alternative way to impair protein prenylation is through the depletion of FPP and GGPP. Statins and
en] Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) with an allylic acceptor, the first of which is dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)). The reactions leading to the production of geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)), which are the precursors of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes, respectively, are catalyzed by a group of highly conserved enzymes known as short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, or prenyltransferases. In recent years, the sequences of many new prenyltransferases have become available, including those of several plant and animal geranyl diphosphate synthases, revealing novel mechanisms of product chain-length selectivity and an intricate evolutionary path from a putative common ancestor. Finally, there is considerable interest in designing inhibitors specific to ...
MILLER, K., DUNSMORE, C. J., LEEDS, J. A., PATCHING, S. G., SACHDEVA, M., BLAKE, K. L., STUBBINGS, W. J., SIMMONS, K. J., HENDERSON, P. J. F., DE LOS ANGELES, J., FISHWICK, C. W. G. and CHOPRA, I. (2010). Benzothioxalone derivatives as novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferases (MurA and MurZ). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 65 (12), 2566-2573 ...
GGTI-2418 is a synthetic peptidomimetic inhibitor of geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase I) that appears to induce apoptosis by downregulating several pivotal oncogenic and tumor survival pathways. GGTase I catalyzes the lipid posttranslational modification which is required for the function of Rho GTPases (frequently found aberrantly activated in human cancer). GGTase I inhibitors block Rho function in cancer cells and induce a G1 phase cell cycle arrest by a mechanism involving induction of the CDK inhibitors p21waf and p27kip, CDK2 and CDK4 inhibition and hypophoshorylation of the tumor suppressor Rb. GGTase I inhibitors also induce apoptosis by a mechanism involving downregulation of the expression of survivin and suppression of the activation of PI3K/Akt.
Contrasting effects of nicotianamine synthase knockdown on zinc and nickel tolerance and accumulation in the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri ...
Red algae are rich in terpenes, but the terpene synthase genes in this group had not been analyzed comprehensively. Here, we identified three red algal terpene synthases after searching over 40 genomes and transcriptomes. The gene PpMTPSL from P. purpureum was demonstrated unambiguously to be of red algal origin and not from a contaminating microbe by analysis of the genome assembly and neighboring genes. Similarly, the two terpene synthase genes from E. australicus also are bona fide red algal genes based on their amplification from genomic DNA of E. australicus and the correlation between the in vitro activities of the expressed protein and the volatile terpenes emitted by E. australicus.. Given that these terpene synthase genes are of red algal origin, two major conclusions can be drawn. The first is that only one type of terpene synthase gene is present in this ancient photosynthetic group, which diverged over 1,000 million years ago from the eukaryotic tree of life (Yang et al., 2016). ...
Ras has a key role in relation to cell proliferation, survival and migration and requires farnesylation for full activity. The effects of a Ras farnesyl transferase inhibitor, FPT III on human atherosclerotic vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells proliferation and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAPK) activity was measured. In addition the ability of FPT III to modify the development of neointimal growth was tested in cultured human arteries and in a rabbit model of in-stent restenosis. In human VSM cells FPT III (25 μM) inhibited FCS-stimulated cell proliferation through a ras-dependent mechanism (after 18 h exposure) and also a novel ras-independent mechanism (following 15 min exposure). FPT III incubation (18 h) inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated p42/p44 MAPK activation and p21 Ras membrane localization, whereas 15 min incubation had no effect on the activation of p42/p44 MAPK in response to PDGF (added at 18 h) or on membrane p21 Ras localization ...
Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is vasoactive peptide that acts via ET-A receptors coupling inducing vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and contraction. ET-1 is involved in the development and maintenance of hypertension.. Aim of this study was to determine the contribution of Ras farnesyl transferase, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and cytochrome P¬450 (CYP450) metabolites to ET-1 induced hypertension.. ET-1 (5 pmol/kg per minute) was chronically infused into to the jugular vein by use of mini-osmotic pump for 9 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in ET-1-treated rats was 154±2 mm Hg (hypertensive rats) compared with 98±3 mm Hg in control (normotensive) rats. Infusion of Ras farnesyl transferase inhibitor FPTIII (138 ng/min), MAP kinase inhibitor PD-98059 (694 ng/min) and CYP450 inhibitor 17-ODYA (189 ng/min) significantly attenuated MABP to 115±2.5 mm Hg, 109±3 mm Hg and 118±1.5 mm Hg, respectively. These results suggest that CYP-450 ...
K. P. Ray, J. Lopez-Belmonte; Partial characterization of p21ras farnesyltransferase present in human placental tissue. Biochem Soc Trans 1 May 1992; 20 (2): 494-497. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0200494. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of potential markers of farnesyltransferase inhibition. AU - Adjei, Alex. AU - Davis, Jenny N.. AU - Erlichman, Charles. AU - Svingen, Phyllis A.. AU - Kaufmann, Scott H. PY - 2000/6. Y1 - 2000/6. N2 - Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) were developed to target abnormal signaling pathways that are commonly activated in neoplastic cells. Five FTIs have recently undergone Phase I testing; and two are currently in Phase II clinical trials. As part of the development of these agents, there has been interest in determining their cellular effects in the clinical setting. Several approaches have been proposed, including measurement of FT enzymatic activity, evaluation of the processing of FT polypeptide substrates, and assessment of the accumulation of p21(waf1). In the present study, a number of these assays have been compared in four cultured human neoplastic cell lines of different histology (A549, HCT116, BxPC-3, and MCF-7) after treatment with the nonpeptidomimetic ...
Buy aroA recombinant protein, 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (aroA) Recombinant Protein-YP_001088340.1 (MBS1290666) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
This enzyme, originally characterized from wild tomato, specifically forms (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate via neryl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. In wild tomato it is involved in the biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenes. See also EC 2.5.1.68 [(2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase] and EC 2.5.1.10 [(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase ...
FGTI-2734 mesylate FGTI-2734 mesylate is a RAS C-terminal mimetic dual farnesyl transferase (FT) and geranylgeranyl transferase-1 (GGT) inhibitor with IC50s of 250 nM and 520 nM for FT and GGT, respectively. FGTI-2734 mesylate can prevent membrane localization of KRAS, hence solving KRAS resistance problem and thwarting mutant KRAS patient-derived pancreatic tumors.. ...
Shop Trans,polycis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Trans,polycis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
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Farnesylation of the oncoprotein Ras is required for its cancer-causing activity. We have designed farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-276, a tet-rapeptide mimetic of the carboxyl terminus of K-Ras4B, as a highly potent and selective inhibitor of Ras farnesylation in vitro and in vivo. FTI-276 blocked the growth in nude mice of a human lung carcinoma that expresses the two most prevalent genetic alterations in human cancers (K-Ras oncogenic mutation and deletion in the tumor suppressor gene p53). In contrast, FTI-276 did not inhibit tumor growth of a human lung carcinoma that harbors no Ras mutations. Furthermore, FTI-276 inhibited oncogenic signaling and tumor growth of NIH 3T3 cells transformed with the ras but not the raf oncogene. Inhibition of tumor growth in vivo was dose dependent and correlated with inhibition of Ras processing in tumors in vivo. The work described here identifies FTI-276 as a highly selective suppressor of Ras-dependent oncogenicity and suggests that a broad spectrum of ...
Regulation and Cell signalingRegulation and Cell signaling - no subcategorySex pheromones in Enterococcus faecalis and other Firmicutes Heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase component I (EC 2.5.1.30) ...
The identification, isolation and functional characterization of two genes encoding two monoterpene synthases-γ-terpinene synthase (Tctps2) and α-terpineol synthase (Tctps5)-from three chemically distinct Thymus caespititius (Lamiaceae) genotypes were performed. Genomic exon-intron structure was also determined for both terpene synthase genes, revealing an organization with seven exons and six introns. The cDNA of Tctps2 was 2,308 bp long and had an open reading frame of 1,794 bp encoding for a protein with 598 amino acids. Tctps5 was longer, mainly due to intron sequences, and presented high intraspecific variability on the plants analyzed. It encoded for a protein of 602 amino acids from an open reading frame of 1,806 bp comprising a total of 2,507 bp genomic sequence. The amino acid sequence of these two active Tctps genes shared 74 % pairwise identity, ranging between 42 and 94 % similarity with about 50 known terpene synthases of other Lamiaceae species. Gene expression revealed a ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include: farnesyl-diphosphate synthase geranyl transferase I prenyltransferase farnesyl pyrophosphate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... tryptopharm dimethylallyl transferase, the first enzyme of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Claviceps. sp. SD 58". Arch. Biochem ... tryptophan dimethylallyl transferase, DMAT synthetase, and 4-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)tryptophan synthase. Lee SL, Floss HG, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase. Taya Y, Tanaka Y, Nishimura S (1978). "Cell-free biosynthesis of discadenine, a spore germination inhibitor of ... transferase. Other names in common use include discadenine synthetase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:6-N-(Delta2-isopentenyl)-adenine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include: nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase, 4-hydroxybenzoate transferase, p-hydroxybenzoate ... Kalen A, Appelkvist EL, Chojnacki T, Dallner G (1990). "Nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase, an enzyme involved in ... p-hydroxybenzoic-polyprenyl transferase, and 4-hydroxybenzoate nonaprenyltransferase Melzer M, Heide L (1994-04-14). " ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include glycerol phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase, geranylgeranyl-transferase, and ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate:L-arginine N2-(2-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl) transferase (2- ... and transferase (2-carboxyethyl-forming). This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. As of late 2007, two ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is O4-succinyl-L-homoserine:L-cysteine S-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)transferase. Other ... transferase. This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: methionine metabolism, cysteine metabolism, selenoamino acid ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA-uridine 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)transferase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:D-arabinose-5-phosphate C-(1-carboxyvinyl)transferase ( ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is O3-acetyl-L-serine:uracil 1-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)transferase. Other names in ... transferase. Ahmmad MAS; Maskall CS; Brown EG (1984). "Partial-purification and properties of willardiine and synthase activity ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... 4-polyisoprenyl transferase, cis-prenyl transferase, rubber polymerase, and rubber prenyltransferase. This enzyme participates ... Archer BL; Cockbain EG (1969). "Rubber transferase from Hevea brasiliensis latex". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 15: ... Other names in common use include rubber allyltransferase, rubber transferase, isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... "Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases". Biochem. J. 333 (Pt 3): 497-504. PMC 1219609 . ... and crystallization of the rab geranylgeranyl transferase:substrate complex". Protein. Expr. Purif. 25 (1): 23-30. doi:10.1006/ ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:N-acetyl-D-mannosamine C-(1-carboxyvinyl)transferase (phosphate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include MurA transferase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine ... pyruvate-UDP-acetylglucosamine transferase, pyruvate-uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine transferase, pyruvate-uridine ... II Purification and properties of pyruvate-uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine transferase and characterization of uridine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase, Delta2-isopentenyl pyrophosphate:transfer ribonucleic acid, and Delta2-isopentenyltransferase. As of late 2007, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase. Other names in common use include N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate lyase, N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate sialic ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is O3-acetyl-L-serine:pyrazole 1-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)transferase. Other names in ... transferase. Murakoshi I, Ikegami F, Hinuma Y & Hanma Y (1984). "Purification and characterization of beta-(pyrazol-1-yl)-L- ...
EC 2.5 currently only possesses one sub-class: Alkyl and aryl transferases. Cysteine synthase, for example, catalyzes the ... EC 2.5 relates to enzymes that transfer alkyl or aryl groups, but does not include methyl groups. This is in contrast to ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ... Terminal transferases are transferases that can be used to label DNA or to produce plasmid vectors. It accomplishes both of ...
Hatif SA, Younis LS., Effect of aryl alkyl amine-N-acetyl-transferase gene polymorphism on melatonin in non-seasonal ewes, Onl ... Effect of aryl alkyl amine-N-acetyl-transferase gene polymorphism on melatonin in non-seasonal ewes. ...
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases* * Blotting, Western * Carotenoids / biosynthesis* * Crosses, Genetic * Genes, Plant ...
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases * Farnesyltranstransferase * 7-cyano-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-3-(phenylmethyl ...
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / metabolism*. Animals. Caspase 3 / metabolism*. Caspase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Cell Survival ... Alkyl and Aryl Transferases; EC 2.5.1.-/geranylgeranyltransferase type-I; EC 2.5.1.29/Farnesyltranstransferase; EC 3.4.22.-/ ... Nifedipine prevents etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, prenyl transferase degradation and loss in cell viability in ... significant activation of caspase-3 and subsequent degradation of the common α-subunit of farnesyl/geranylgeranyl transferases ...
0/Biological Factors; EC 2.-/Transferases; EC 2.5.-/Alkyl and Aryl Transferases; EC 2.5.1.-/cis-prenyl transferase; EC 2.5.1.31 ... Alkyl and Aryl Transferases* / chemistry, genetics, metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Biological Factors / chemistry, metabolism ...
GO:0016765 transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups ...
EC 2.5 currently only possesses one sub-class: Alkyl and aryl transferases. Cysteine synthase, for example, catalyzes the ... EC 2.5 relates to enzymes that transfer alkyl or aryl groups, but does not include methyl groups. This is in contrast to ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ... Terminal transferases are transferases that can be used to label DNA or to produce plasmid vectors. It accomplishes both of ...
Transferases;. Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups;. Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than ...
Transferases: 4296*Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: 2*dimethylallyl diphosphate naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase ...
Transferases: 4296*Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: 2*delta-selinene synthase: 1. Related Diseases. 1. Wounds and Injuries (Trauma) ...
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups Source: InterPro ...
An EC 2.5.1.* (non-methyl-alkyl or aryl transferase) inhibitor that interferes with the action of a glutathione transferase (EC ... sulfasalazine (CHEBI:9334) has role EC 2.5.1.18 (glutathione transferase) inhibitor (CHEBI:76797) sulfasalazine (CHEBI:9334) ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase. Other names in common use include N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate lyase, N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate sialic ...
... transferases explanation free. What is transferases? Meaning of transferases medical term. What does transferases mean? ... Looking for online definition of transferases in the Medical Dictionary? ... Enzymes transferring one-carbon groups, acyl and glucosyl residues, alkyl or aryl groups, nitrogenous groups, phosphorus- ... transferases. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to transferases: Lyases, Ligases, Hydrolases, ...
S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent transferase that acts as a component of the wyosine derivatives biosynthesis pathway. ... transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p ... S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent transferase that acts as a component of the wyosine derivatives biosynthesis pathway. ...
transferase activity. IEA. --. GO:0016765. transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups. IEA. -- ... GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups. ...
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups. glutathione transferase activity. ... Involved in glutathione transferase activity. Specific Function. Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of ... Taylor JB, Oliver J, Sherrington R, Pemble SE: Structure of human glutathione S-transferase class Mu genes. Biochem J. 1991 Mar ... Showing Protein Glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 (HMDBP00819). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups. glutathione transferase activity. ... Involved in glutathione transferase activity. Specific Function. Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of ... Chow NW, Whang-Peng J, Kao-Shan CS, Tam MF, Lai HC, Tu CP: Human glutathione S-transferases. The Ha multigene family encodes ... Hayes JD, Kerr LA, Cronshaw AD: Evidence that glutathione S-transferases B1B1 and B2B2 are the products of separate genes and ...
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases/genetics. *Amino Acid Sequence. *Animals. *Conserved Sequence. *Gene Duplication ... This is catalysed by a complex of a catalytic heterodimer (Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase - RabGGTase) and an accessory protein ... This is catalysed by a complex of a catalytic heterodimer (Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase - RabGGTase) and an accessory protein ...
d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and ... e transferases transferring nitrogeneous groups (EC 2.6).. A most preferred type of transferase in the context of the invention ... a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1);. *b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... transferases (EC 2.-.-.-), hydrolases (EC 3.-.-.-), lyases (EC 4.-.-.-), isomerases (EC 5.-.-.-) and ligases (EC 6.-.-.-). ...
... transferase activity,IEA; GO:0016765,transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups,IDA; GO: ... transferase activity,IEA; GO:0016757,transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups,IEA. ... transferase activity,IEA; GO:0016757,transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups,IEA. ... transferase activity,IEA; GO:0030969,UFP-specific transcription factor mRNA processing during unfolded protein response,TAS. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include: farnesyl-diphosphate synthase geranyl transferase I prenyltransferase farnesyl pyrophosphate ...
Transferring Alkyl or Aryl Groups, Other than Methyl Groups. EC 2.5.1. See separate file for EC 2.5.1.51 to EC 2.5.1.100 and EC ... alkyl transferase; GST. Systematic name: RX:glutathione R-transferase. Comments: A group of enzymes of broad specificity. R may ... Other name(s): MurA transferase; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine ... Other name(s): rubber allyltransferase; rubber transferase; isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase; cis- ...
  • Indeed, cells defective in dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAP-AT) or alkyl-DHAP synthase express only the diacyl form of GPI-anchored proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Absence of the 1-alkyl-2-acyl form of GPI-anchored proteins might account for some of the complex phenotypes of these two major peroxisomal disorders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For decades, cysteine-based reactions with maleimides and alkyl halides are the primary methods for selectively tagging proteins with fluorescent dyes, affinity and radio labels, drug molecules, and polymers and nanocomposites. (mit.edu)
  • Here, we report that GPI lipid remodeling is defective in cells from patients with Zellweger syndrome having mutations in the peroxisomal biogenesis factors PEX5, PEX16, and PEX19 and in cells from patients with RCDP types 1, 2, and 3 caused by mutations in PEX7, DHAP-AT, and alkyl-DHAP synthase, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Systematic names of transferases are constructed in the form of "donor:acceptor grouptransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methylamine:L-glutamate N-methyltransferase would be the standard naming convention for the transferase methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase, where methylamine is the donor, L-glutamate is the acceptor, and methyltransferase is the EC category grouping. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicate that O 6 -benzylguanine inactivates the protein by acting as a substrate for alkyl transfer and by forming S-benzylcysteine at the acceptor site of the protein. (elsevier.com)
  • These enzymes could also be classified under transferases since hydrolysis can be viewed as a transfer of a functional group to water as an acceptor. (wikibooks.org)
  • pyridin-2-yl)oxazolidin-2-one were biosynthesized and isolated.Subsequent analysis by NMR showed that GSH had reacted withthe acetylene carbon atoms of these mGluR5 PAMs, suggestinga conjugate addition mechanism and implicating cytosolic andmicrosomal GSH S-transferases (GSTs) in catalysis. (vdocuments.site)
  • Phenotypes of five transgenic lines of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L] cv Merrit) stably transformed with the isopentenyl pyrophosphate transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens coupled to a flower-specific promoter (TP12) from Nicotiana tabacum [L.] are described. (edu.au)
  • Nifedipine prevents etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, prenyl transferase degradation and loss in cell viability in pancreatic β-cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Another example of historical significance relating to transferase is the discovery of the mechanism of catecholamine breakdown by catechol-O-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aryl and heteroaryl boronate esters are very important organic intermediates in organic synthesis that have been deployed in many useful transformations including the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, Cu-catalyzed C-O and C-N coupling reactions, and conjugate additions to carbonyl compounds. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Chemistry and Biology of Cylindrols: Novel Inhibitors of Ras Farnesyl-Protein Transferase from Cylindrocarpon lucidum. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The structures of these potent compounds included an oxazolidinonecore substituted at C-4 and C-5 with aryl groups. (vdocuments.site)
  • The conversion of diacyl PI to 1-alkyl-2-acyl PI occurs in the ER at the third intermediate in the GPI biosynthetic pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The predominant form of mammalian GPI contains 1-alkyl-2-acyl phosphatidylinositol (PI), which is generated by lipid remodeling from diacyl PI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In one form of the invention, the target fatty alcohol ester of α-hydroxy carboxylic acid is produced by converting a lower alkyl ester of α-hydroxy carboxylic acid into a fatty alcohol ester of α-hydroxy carboxylic acid via alcoholysis (i.e., transesterification). (freepatentsonline.com)