Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Dimethylallyltranstransferase: An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Farnesyltranstransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Geranyltranstransferase: An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.SesquiterpenesSesquiterpenes, Eudesmane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Nuclear Export Signals: Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic: A myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disease characterized by monocytosis, increased monocytes in the bone marrow, variable degrees of dysplasia, but an absence of immature granulocytes in the blood.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Seed Storage Proteins: One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (1/1483)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. cDNA cloning and expression. (2/1483)

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase (GGPPSase) catalyzes the synthesis of GGPP, which is an important molecule responsible for the C20-prenylated protein biosynthesis and for the regulation of a nuclear hormone receptor (LXR.RXR). The human GGPPSase cDNA encodes a protein of 300 amino acids which shows 16% sequence identity with the known human farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (FPPSase). The GGPPSase expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzes the GGPP formation (240 nmol/min/mg) from FPP and isopentenyl diphosphate. The human GGPPSase behaves as an oligomeric molecule with 280 kDa on a gel filtration column and cross-reacts with an antibody directed against bovine brain GGPPSase, which differs immunochemically from bovine brain FPPSase. Northern blot analysis indicates the presence of two forms of the mRNA.  (+info)

The geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 induces hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma and partner switching of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. A potential mechanism for GGTI-298 antitumor activity. (3/1483)

The geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 has recently been shown to arrest human tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice. In the present manuscript, we provide a possible mechanism by which GGTI-298 mediates its tumor growth arrest. Treatment of the human lung carcinoma cell line Calu-1 with GGTI-298 results in inhibition of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, a critical step for G1/S transition. The kinase activities of two G1/S cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK2 and CDK4, are inhibited in Calu-1 cells treated with GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 has little effect on the expression levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclins D1 and E, but decreases the levels of cyclin A. GGTI-298 increases the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p15 and had little effect on those of p27 and p16. Most interesting is the ability of GGTI-298 to induce partner switching for several CDK inhibitors. GGTI-298 promotes binding of p21 and p27 to CDK2 while decreasing their binding to CDK6. Reversal of partner switching and G1 block was observed after removal of GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 treatment results in an increased binding of p15 to CDK4, which is paralleled with decreased binding to p27. The results demonstrate that the GGTI-298-mediated G1 block in Calu-1 cells involves increased expression and partner switching of CDK inhibitors resulting in inhibition of CDK2 and CDK4, and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation.  (+info)

Reduced lung tumorigenesis in human methylguanine DNA--methyltransferase transgenic mice achieved by expression of transgene within the target cell. (4/1483)

Human methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) transgenic mice expressing high levels of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) in lung were crossbred to A/J mice that are susceptible to pulmonary adenoma to study the impact of O6-methylguanine (O6mG)-DNA adduct repair on NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. Expression of the chimeric human MGMT transgene in lung was identified by northern and western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry assay and enzymatic assay. AGT activity was 17.6 +/- 3.2 versus 1.2 +/- 0.4 fmol/microg DNA in lung of MGMT transgenic mice compared with non-transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human AGT antibody showed that human AGT was expressed throughout the lung. However, some epithelial cells of bronchi and alveoli did not stain for human AGT, suggesting that the human MGMT transgene expression was heterogeneous. After 100 mg/kg NNK i.p. injection in MGMT transgenic mice, lung AGT activity remained much higher and levels of lung O6mG-DNA adducts in MGMT transgenic mice were lower than those of non-transgenic mice. In the tumorigenesis study, mice received 100 mg/kg NNK at 6 weeks of age and were killed 44 weeks later. Ten of 17 MGMT transgenic mice compared with 16 of 17 non-transgenic mice had lung tumors, P < 0.05. MGMT transgenic mice had lower multiplicity and smaller sized lung tumors than non-transgenic mice. Moreover, a reduction in the frequency of K-ras mutations in lung tumors was found in MGMT transgenic mice (6.7 versus 50% in non-transgenic mice). These results indicate that high levels of AGT expressed in mouse lung reduce lung tissue susceptibility to NNK-induced tumorigenesis due to increased repair capacity for O6mG, subsequently, decreased mutational activation of K-ras oncogene. Heterogeneity in the level of AGT expressed in different lung cell populations or other forms of carcinogenic DNA damage caused by NNK may explain the residual incidence of lung tumors in MGMT transgenic mice.  (+info)

RAS and leukemia: from basic mechanisms to gene-directed therapy. (5/1483)

PURPOSE AND DESIGN: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature linking Ras signaling pathways and leukemia and to discuss the biologic and potential therapeutic implications of these observations. A search of MEDLINE from 1966 to October 1998 was performed. RESULTS: A wealth of data has been published on the role of Ras pathways in cancer. To be biologically active, Ras must move from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. Importantly, a posttranslational modification--addition of a farnesyl group to the Ras C-terminal cysteine--is a requisite for membrane localization of Ras. Farnesylation of Ras is catalyzed by an enzyme that is designated farnesyltransferase. Recently, several compounds have been developed that can inhibit farnesylation. Preclinical studies indicate that these molecules can suppress transformation and tumor growth in vitro and in animal models, with little toxicity to normal cells. CONCLUSION: An increasing body of data suggests that disruption of Ras signaling pathways, either directly through mutations or indirectly through other genetic aberrations, is important in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of cancers. Molecules such as farnesyl transferase inhibitors that interfere with the function of Ras may be exploitable in leukemia (as well as in solid tumors) as novel antitumor agents.  (+info)

Molecular forceps from combinatorial libraries prevent the farnesylation of Ras by binding to its carboxyl terminus. (6/1483)

INTRODUCTION: Ras is one of the major oncogenes. In order to function properly it has to undergo post-translational processing at its carboxyl terminus. It has been shown that inhibitors of farnesyl transferase, the first enzyme in the processing chain, can suppress the transforming activity of oncogenic Ras. RESULTS: We have identified molecular forceps, branched peptidic molecules, from combinatorial libraries that bind to the carboxyl terminus of Ras and interfere with its farnesylation without inhibiting the farnesyl transferase. The active molecules were selected by a screening against the carboxy-terminal octapeptide of Ras. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of our findings are twofold. First, we demonstrate that it is possible to prevent enzymatic transformations by blocking the enzyme's access to its substrate using a synthetic small molecule to mask the substrate. Second, we show that it is feasible to derive molecules from combinatorial libraries that bind a specific epitope on a protein by selecting these molecules with the isolated peptide epitope.  (+info)

Effect of the hypocholesterolemic agent YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis activity and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 and monkey liver. (7/1483)

YM-16638 ([[5-[[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)propyl]thio]-1,3,4-++ +thiadiazol-2-yl] thio] acetic acid) showed a strong hypocholesterolemic effect in humans and monkeys. To clarify the mechanism of this hypocholesterolemic effect, the action of YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis in the cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and cynomolgus monkey liver was examined. Cholesterol biosynthesis activity derived from [14C]acetic acid, [3H/14C]mevalonic acid or [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate substrates was significantly decreased, but not that from [3H]farnesyl pyrophosphate or [3H]squalene substrates in HepG2 cells treated with YM-16638. Simultaneously, treatment of these cells with YM-16638 changed neither the rate of apolipoprotein B synthesis from [35S]methionine nor its secretion. In addition, the activities of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes HMG-CoA reductase, mevalonate kinase (MK), isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase were measured in monkeys fed a diet supplemented with YM-16638. Among these enzymes, MK, IPPI and FPPS activities in the YM-16638-treated group significantly decreased by 38%, 56% and 30%, respectively, when compared to those from control animals receiving no drug treatment. These results indicate that YM-16638 has the characteristics of a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor.  (+info)

Leukocyte O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase from human donors is uniformly sensitive to O6-benzylguanine. (8/1483)

O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is the key DNA repair protein responsible for resistance to chloroethylating and methylating agents that attack at the O6 position of guanine. O6-Benzylguanine (BG), a potent inhibitor of AGT, has recently entered clinical trials. A number of point mutations and at least one human polymorphism within AGT are associated with AGT resistance to inactivation by BG. In this study, we evaluated AGT inhibition by BG in an in vitro assay of peripheral blood mononuclear cell AGT from 56 normal donors, 42 Caucasians, and 14 Japanese. AGT activity ranged from 2.7 to 21.9 fmol/microg DNA and was similar in Japanese and Caucasian donors. Depletion of AGT by BG was uniform in all donors with mean ED50s of 037 microM BG in Caucasians and 0.36 microM BG in Japanese. To determine whether the gly160arg AGT polymorphism described in the Japanese population, and recently shown to be BG resistant, could be detected by this assay, we mixed purified gly160arg AGT protein with blood mononuclear cell extract and measured in vitro BG inactivation. The ED50 for the mixture of the gly160arg AGT and mononuclear cell extract was 9 microM BG. On the basis of results in 56 donors, we conclude that BG-resistant AGT, defined as an ED50 in mononuclear cells of >1 microM BG, is present in 0 of 56 donors, (95% confidence interval, 0-6%), suggesting that polymorphisms producing AGT-resistant BG are unusual in humans.  (+info)

*1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate polyprenyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the transferase family, specifically transferring alkyl or aryl groups other than methyl groups. Other ... "The Enzyme List Class 2 - Transferases". ExplorEnz: Enzyme Database. 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014. van Oostende, C.; ...

*Geranyltranstransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include: farnesyl-diphosphate synthase geranyl transferase I prenyltransferase farnesyl pyrophosphate ...

*Lavandulyl diphosphate synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*Tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... tryptopharm dimethylallyl transferase, the first enzyme of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Claviceps. sp. SD 58". Arch. Biochem ... tryptophan dimethylallyl transferase, DMAT synthetase, and 4-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)tryptophan synthase. Lee SL, Floss HG, ...

*Discadenine synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase. Taya Y, Tanaka Y, Nishimura S (1978). "Cell-free biosynthesis of discadenine, a spore germination inhibitor of ... transferase. Other names in common use include discadenine synthetase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:6-N-(Delta2-isopentenyl)-adenine ...

*Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*Di-trans,poly-cis-decaprenylcistransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*Adenylate dimethylallyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include: nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase, 4-hydroxybenzoate transferase, p-hydroxybenzoate ... Kalen A, Appelkvist EL, Chojnacki T, Dallner G (1990). "Nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase, an enzyme involved in ... p-hydroxybenzoic-polyprenyl transferase, and 4-hydroxybenzoate nonaprenyltransferase Melzer M, Heide L (1994-04-14). " ...

*Phosphoglycerol geranylgeranyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include glycerol phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase, geranylgeranyl-transferase, and ...

*O-phosphoserine sulfhydrylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*Zeatin 9-aminocarboxyethyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate:L-arginine N2-(2-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl) transferase (2- ... and transferase (2-carboxyethyl-forming). This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. As of late 2007, two ...

*Cystathionine gamma-synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is O4-succinyl-L-homoserine:L-cysteine S-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)transferase. Other ... transferase. This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: methionine metabolism, cysteine metabolism, selenoamino acid ...

*TRNA-uridine aminocarboxypropyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA-uridine 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)transferase. ...

*3-deoxy-8-phosphooctulonate synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:D-arabinose-5-phosphate C-(1-carboxyvinyl)transferase ( ...

*Uracilylalanine synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is O3-acetyl-L-serine:uracil 1-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)transferase. Other names in ... transferase. Ahmmad MAS; Maskall CS; Brown EG (1984). "Partial-purification and properties of willardiine and synthase activity ...

*Rubber cis-polyprenylcistransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... 4-polyisoprenyl transferase, cis-prenyl transferase, rubber polymerase, and rubber prenyltransferase. This enzyme participates ... Archer BL; Cockbain EG (1969). "Rubber transferase from Hevea brasiliensis latex". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 15: ... Other names in common use include rubber allyltransferase, rubber transferase, isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1, ...

*Thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type II

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... "Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases". Biochem. J. 333 (Pt 3): 497-504. PMC 1219609 . ... and crystallization of the rab geranylgeranyl transferase:substrate complex". Protein. Expr. Purif. 25 (1): 23-30. doi:10.1006/ ...

*N-acetylneuraminate synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:N-acetyl-D-mannosamine C-(1-carboxyvinyl)transferase (phosphate ...

*UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... Other names in common use include MurA transferase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine ... pyruvate-UDP-acetylglucosamine transferase, pyruvate-uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine transferase, pyruvate-uridine ... II Purification and properties of pyruvate-uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine transferase and characterization of uridine ...

*TRNA isopentenyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase, Delta2-isopentenyl pyrophosphate:transfer ribonucleic acid, and Delta2-isopentenyltransferase. As of late 2007, ...

*N-acylneuraminate-9-phosphate synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase. Other names in common use include N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate lyase, N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate sialic ...

*Homospermidine synthase (spermidine-specific)

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...

*Naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ...
This enzyme, along with protein farnesyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.58) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (EC 2.5.1.59), constitutes the protein prenyltransferase fa
The present invention comprises dipeptide analogs that inhibit the farnesylation of Ras. These farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitors are characterized by the inclusion of a cyclic amine in the backbone of the dipeptide. Further contained in this invention are chemotherapeutic compositions containing these farnesyl transferase inhibitors and methods for their production.
Background-Statins have anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects that have been attributed to inhibition of RHO protein geranylgeranylation in inflammatory cells. The activity of protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) is widely believed to promote membrane association and activation of RHO family proteins. However, we recently showed that knockout of GGTase-I in macrophages activates RHO proteins and proinflammatory signaling pathways, leading to increased cytokine production and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we asked whether the increased inflammatory signaling of GGTase-I-deficient macrophages would influence the development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Methods and Results-Aortic lesions in mice lacking GGTase-I in macrophages (Pggt1bΔ/Δ) contained significantly more T lymphocytes than the lesions in controls. Surprisingly, however, mean atherosclerotic lesion area in Pggt1bΔ/Δ mice was reduced by ~60%. GGTase-I deficiency reduced the ...
In enzymology, an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and one product, ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. This enzyme participates in gibberellin biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically the class of intramolecular lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ent-copalyl-diphosphate lyase (decyclizing). Other names in common use include ent-kaurene synthase A, and ent-kaurene synthetase A. ent-Copalyl diphosphate synthases from fungi and mosses also have a distinct ent-kaurene synthase activity associated with the same protein molecule. The reaction catalyzed by ent-kaurene synthase is the next step in the biosynthetic pathway to gibberellins. The two types of enzymic activity are distinct, and site-directed mutagenesis to suppress the ent-kaurene synthase activity of the protein leads to build up of ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. ...
Rab Family GTPase; Involved In The ER-to-Golgi Step Of The Secretory Pathway; Complex Formation With The Rab Escort Protein Mrs6p Is Required For Prenylation Of Ypt1p By Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase Type II (Bet2p-Bet4p); Binds To Unspliced HAC1 MRNA; Regulates Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) By Promoting The Decay Of HAC1 RNA
The current evolutionary hypothesis and the previous phylogenetic tree (Bohlmannet al. 1998b) both affirm that plant terpene synthases involved in secondary metabolism have a common ancestral origin from a terpene synthase involved in primary metabolism. However, these models differ in the placement of the class III terpene synthases (Figures 6, A and B, and 7). The inferred phylogenetic tree in Figure 6A suggests that the class III types (angiosperm terpene synthases) involved in secondary metabolism are descendants (evolving by divergent evolution) of the class II types (gymnosperm monoterpene and/or sesquiterpene synthases) involved in secondary metabolism, whereas Figure 6B indicates that class III types are not direct descendants of class II types, yet share a common ancestor. The latter (including the gene architecture information as valid) infers that gymnosperm and angiosperm terpene synthases involved in secondary metabolism diverged prior to the three loss events illustrated in Figure ...
In molecular biology, this protein domain belongs to the terpene synthase family (TPS). Its role is to synthesize terpenes which are part of primary metabolism, such as sterols and carotene and also part of the secondary metabolism. This entry will focus on the N terminal domain of the TPS protein. Terpenes synthases have a role in producing important molecules in metabolism, these molecules are part of a large group called terpenoids . In particular, the N terminal domain has feature of the copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) active site. The N-terminal domain forms an alpha-barrel similar to that of the sesquiterpene cyclase epiaristolochene synthase. Sequences containing this protein domain belong to the terpene synthase family. It has been suggested that this gene family be designated tps (for terpene synthase). Sequence comparisons reveal similarities between the monoterpene (C10) synthases, sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and the diterpene (C20) synthases. It has been split into six subgroups ...
Essential subunit of both the farnesyltransferase and the geranylgeranyltransferase complex. Contributes to the transfer of a farnesyl or geranylgeranyl moiety from farnesyl or geranylgeranyl diphosphate to a cysteine at the fourth position from the C-terminus of several proteins having the C-terminal sequence Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-X. May positively regulate neuromuscular junction development downstream of MUSK via its function in RAC1 prenylation and activation (By similarity).
Essential subunit of both the farnesyltransferase and the geranylgeranyltransferase complex. Contributes to the transfer of a farnesyl or geranylgeranyl moiety from farnesyl or geranylgeranyl diphosphate to a cysteine at the fourth position from the C-terminus of several proteins having the C-terminal sequence Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-X. May positively regulate neuromuscular junction development downstream of MUSK via its function in RAC1 prenylation and activation.
Background- Mitogenic stimuli present at the site of coronary arterial balloon injury contribute to the progression and development of a restenotic lesion, many signaling through a common pathway involving the small G protein p21ras. Our aim was to demonstrate in biochemical studies that farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor III (FPTIII) is an inhibitor of p21ras processing and that when it is given locally in vivo at the site of coronary balloon injury in a porcine model, it can inhibit neointima formation. Methods and Results- FPTIII (1 to 25 µmol/L) concentration-dependently reduced p21ras levels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cell membranes. FPTIII also prevented p42/p44 MAPK activation and DNA synthesis in response to platelet-derived growth factor in these cells at a concentration of 25 µmol/L. Application of 25 µmol/L FPTIII locally for 15 minutes to balloon-injured porcine coronary arteries in vivo prevented neointima formation assessed at 4 weeks, reduced proteoglycan ...
GenBank) putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (ec 2.5.1.7) (enoylpyruvate transferase) (udp-n-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase) (ept ...
4LIX: Crystal structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana in complex with (S)-15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl thiolodiphosphate at 1.55 A resolution
Novel Terpenes Generated by Heterologous Expression of Bacterial Terpene Synthase Genes in an Engineered Streptomyces HostNovel Terpenes Generated by Heterologous Expression of Bacterial Terpene Synthase Genes in an Engineered Streptomyces Host ...
Chemicals. The following were used at the concentrations and durations indicated within each figure or method described below: simvastatin, geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-2147, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA); dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and NaCl (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA); tryptic soy agar, saponin, cholesterol, mevalonate, geranylgeraniol, farnesyl pyrophosphate, lysostaphin, gentamicin, PIPES, EGTA, KCl, Triton X-100, Tween 20, bovine serum albumin, and LiCl (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO); LY294002 (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA); Mini-Tab (Roche, Indianapolis, IN); MgCl2 (VWR, West Chester, PA), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and Tris-HCl (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA); and secramine A (Xu et al., 2006).. Endothelial Cell Culture. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC; Cascade Biologics, Portland, OR) were grown in M200 medium supplemented with low serum growth supplement (Cascade Biologics; 5% CO2, 37°C, ...
Rheumatoid arthritis is a painful and debilitating inflammatory disorder with no known cure. It has been hypothesised that targeting the activity of RHO family proteins might be an effective therapeutic strategy, as these proteins are required for the function of macrophages, which contribute to immunopathology in arthritic joints. However, this notion is challenged in a recent paper by Khan et al. Unexpectedly, mice deficient for a key RHO-activating enzyme, geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I), specifically in macrophages were found to develop spontaneous and severe joint inflammation resembling erosive rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophage-specific deficiency in GGTase-I was sufficient to induce pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and initiate the disease owing to sustained activation of RHO family proteins in macrophages. These data indicate that GGTase-I is not essential for the activity of RHO family proteins, and that inhibition of this enzyme can worsen, rather than prevent, the ...
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Complete information for DHDDS gene (Protein Coding), Dehydrodolichyl Diphosphate Synthase Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The modified bacterial proteins contain a recognition code call the CaaX sequence, which is required for prenylation. Two host proteins catalyze most of the farnesyl and geranylgeranyl transfers in eukaryotes, and these proteins have been creatively named farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTaseI), respectively. The transferases add their prenyl substrate to a cysteine on the target protein (the C of CaaX). "X" represents the target proteins C-terminal residue, which confers some discrimination between FTase and GGTaseI, although there is some overlap in recognition. The "a" residues between the targets cysteine and C-terminal residues are quite variable. These are the same recognition requirement for prenylation of host proteins. In other words, theres nothing particularly special about the bacterial proteins; its just another way that pathogens co-opt the host system.. So this process is important for one particular type of bacteria. But how widespread is ...
1JCQ: The crystal structure of human protein farnesyltransferase reveals the basis for inhibition by CaaX tetrapeptides and their mimetics.
Catalysis of the reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + protein-cysteine = S-geranylgeranyl-protein + diphosphate. This reaction is the formation of a thioether linkage between the C-1 atom of the geranylgeranyl group and a cysteine residue fourth from th…
has been defined as a significant reason behind periodontal disease and hypothesized to be engaged in extra-oral infections. proven to have various properties MK-1775 resulting in periodontal injury (invasiveness connected with motility and the capability to penetrate dense mass media and epithelial cell levels, high proteolytic activity, adherence to epithelial cells, and cytotoxicity), aswell as factors which might inhibit web host cell features (Lux can get away from the oral area and invade different sites of your body continues to be hypothesized in human beings (Riviere to flee the innate immune system response. The purpose of this research was to judge the impact of motility and cell size on uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages, phagocytosis by macrophages under anaerobic and aerobic circumstances. To further measure the relevance from the spirochetes cell and motility form through the relationship with phagocytes, we examined the capability of murine macrophages to uptake and eliminate ...
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وجود بقایای آنتی‌بیوتیکی در مواد غذایی و انتقال آن به بدن مصرف کنندگان باعث ایجاد عوارضی نظیر مقاومت‌های باکتریایی، واکنش‌های آلرژیک، مسمومیت، سرطان‌زایی و به‌هم زدن میکروفلور طبیعی روده می‌شود. روش چهار پلیتی یکی از روش‌های میکروبیولوژیکی جهت تأیید حضور بقایای آنتی‌بیوتیکی در مواد غذایی می‌باشد که در چهار محیط کشت با pH و باکتری‌های متفاوت انجام می-گیرد. در این مطالعه از 30 لاشه گاوهای کشتار شده در کشتارگاه تبریز نمونه-هایی از عضله کپل، دیافراگم و بافت کبد و کلیه به‌صورت تصادفی اخذ شد.از بین نمونه-های کلیه،30 مورد (100%)؛ از نمونه کبد، 28 مورد (33/93%)؛ از
Before Its News). Publishers, "Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase (FPPS) Inhibitors-Pipeline Insights, 2016″, report provides in depth insights on the pipeline drugs and their development activities around the Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase (FPPS) Inhibitors. The Publishers Report covers the product profiles in various stages of development including Discovery, Pre-clinical, IND, Phase I, Phase II, Phase III and Preregistration. Report covers the product clinical trials information and other development activities including technology, licensing, collaborations, acquisitions, fundings, patent and USFDA & EMA designations details. Publishers Report also provides detailed information on the discontinued and dormant drugs that have gone inactive over the years for Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase (FPPS) Inhibitors. Publishers Report also assesses the Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase (FPPS) Inhibitors therapeutics by Monotherapy, Combination products, Molecule type and Route of Administration.. For more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Methylation enhances the potency of isoprenoid triazole bisphosphonates as geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors. AU - Matthiesen, Robert A.. AU - Varney, Michelle L.. AU - Xu, Pauline C.. AU - Rier, Alex S.. AU - Wiemer, David F.. AU - Holstein, Sarah A. PY - 2018/1/15. Y1 - 2018/1/15. N2 - Disruption of protein geranylgeranylation via inhibition of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS) represents a novel therapeutic strategy for a variety of malignancies, especially those characterized by excessive protein secretion such as multiple myeloma. Our work has demonstrated that some isoprenoid triazole bisphosphonates are potent and selective inhibitors of GGDPS. Here we present the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of isoprenoid triazoles modified by incorporation of a methyl group at the α-carbon. These studies reveal that incorporation of an α-methyl substituent enhances the potency of these compounds as GGDPS inhibitors, and, in the case of ...
The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is targeted in the treatment of several diseases, including hypercholesteremia and bone related disorders. Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) are isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway intermediates that are utilized during post-translational modification of proteins termed farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, respectively, together known as prenylation. The Ras and Rho GTPase family members are examples of proteins that are prenylated. Prenylation is essential for proper membrane localization and function of these small GTPases. Activating mutations or over-expression of these proteins promote oncogenic events, such as increased proliferation and migration. Studies have demonstrated that farnesyl transferase inhibitors and geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors possess anti-cancer effects in humans and animal models of cancer, respectively. An alternative way to impair protein prenylation is through the depletion of FPP and GGPP. Statins and
en] Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) with an allylic acceptor, the first of which is dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)). The reactions leading to the production of geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)), which are the precursors of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes, respectively, are catalyzed by a group of highly conserved enzymes known as short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, or prenyltransferases. In recent years, the sequences of many new prenyltransferases have become available, including those of several plant and animal geranyl diphosphate synthases, revealing novel mechanisms of product chain-length selectivity and an intricate evolutionary path from a putative common ancestor. Finally, there is considerable interest in designing inhibitors specific to ...
MILLER, K., DUNSMORE, C. J., LEEDS, J. A., PATCHING, S. G., SACHDEVA, M., BLAKE, K. L., STUBBINGS, W. J., SIMMONS, K. J., HENDERSON, P. J. F., DE LOS ANGELES, J., FISHWICK, C. W. G. and CHOPRA, I. (2010). Benzothioxalone derivatives as novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferases (MurA and MurZ). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 65 (12), 2566-2573 ...
GGTI-2418 is a synthetic peptidomimetic inhibitor of geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase I) that appears to induce apoptosis by downregulating several pivotal oncogenic and tumor survival pathways. GGTase I catalyzes the lipid posttranslational modification which is required for the function of Rho GTPases (frequently found aberrantly activated in human cancer). GGTase I inhibitors block Rho function in cancer cells and induce a G1 phase cell cycle arrest by a mechanism involving induction of the CDK inhibitors p21waf and p27kip, CDK2 and CDK4 inhibition and hypophoshorylation of the tumor suppressor Rb. GGTase I inhibitors also induce apoptosis by a mechanism involving downregulation of the expression of survivin and suppression of the activation of PI3K/Akt.
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Red algae are rich in terpenes, but the terpene synthase genes in this group had not been analyzed comprehensively. Here, we identified three red algal terpene synthases after searching over 40 genomes and transcriptomes. The gene PpMTPSL from P. purpureum was demonstrated unambiguously to be of red algal origin and not from a contaminating microbe by analysis of the genome assembly and neighboring genes. Similarly, the two terpene synthase genes from E. australicus also are bona fide red algal genes based on their amplification from genomic DNA of E. australicus and the correlation between the in vitro activities of the expressed protein and the volatile terpenes emitted by E. australicus.. Given that these terpene synthase genes are of red algal origin, two major conclusions can be drawn. The first is that only one type of terpene synthase gene is present in this ancient photosynthetic group, which diverged over 1,000 million years ago from the eukaryotic tree of life (Yang et al., 2016). ...
Gibberellic acid (GA) is a plant hormone that regulates various transition processes during plant development, including seed germination, the juvenile-to-adult phase transition, and flowering (Sun and Gubler, 2004). These GA-regulated processes are exemplified by the phenotypes seen in the GA-deficient mutant, ga1, which harbors a mutation in ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (Sun and Kamiya, 1994). Ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase is a GA biosynthetic enzyme responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to copalyl pyrophosphate, which is the first committed step in GA biosynthesis. The ga1 mutant shows defects in various developmental transition processes; it does not germinate unless GA is provided exogenously, and it shows delays in both the juvenile-to-adult phase transition and flowering (Koornneef and van der Veen, 1980; Dill and Sun, 2001; Tyler et al., 2004). In addition, the ga1 mutant displays other pleiotropic mutant phenotypes, including dwarfism, male sterility, increased ...
Ras has a key role in relation to cell proliferation, survival and migration and requires farnesylation for full activity. The effects of a Ras farnesyl transferase inhibitor, FPT III on human atherosclerotic vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells proliferation and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAPK) activity was measured. In addition the ability of FPT III to modify the development of neointimal growth was tested in cultured human arteries and in a rabbit model of in-stent restenosis. In human VSM cells FPT III (25 μM) inhibited FCS-stimulated cell proliferation through a ras-dependent mechanism (after 18 h exposure) and also a novel ras-independent mechanism (following 15 min exposure). FPT III incubation (18 h) inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated p42/p44 MAPK activation and p21 Ras membrane localization, whereas 15 min incubation had no effect on the activation of p42/p44 MAPK in response to PDGF (added at 18 h) or on membrane p21 Ras localization ...
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Haditsch U., Leone D. P., Farinelli M., Chrostek-Grashoff A., Brakebusch C., Mansuy I. M., McConnell S. K. and Palmer T. D. (2009) A central role for the small GTPase Rac1 in hippocampal plasticity and spatial learning and memory. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 41, 409-419 ...
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This enzyme, originally characterized from wild tomato, specifically forms (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate via neryl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. In wild tomato it is involved in the biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenes. See also EC 2.5.1.68 [(2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase] and EC 2.5.1.10 [(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase ...
SAN FRANCISCO-The investigational farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI), R115777 (tipifarmib, Zarnestra) causes robust clinical responses in some patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but these responses are not correlated with the drugs ability to inhibit farnesyl transferase, according to a study presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (abstract 4959). 1
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Farnesylation of the oncoprotein Ras is required for its cancer-causing activity. We have designed farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-276, a tet-rapeptide mimetic of the carboxyl terminus of K-Ras4B, as a highly potent and selective inhibitor of Ras farnesylation in vitro and in vivo. FTI-276 blocked the growth in nude mice of a human lung carcinoma that expresses the two most prevalent genetic alterations in human cancers (K-Ras oncogenic mutation and deletion in the tumor suppressor gene p53). In contrast, FTI-276 did not inhibit tumor growth of a human lung carcinoma that harbors no Ras mutations. Furthermore, FTI-276 inhibited oncogenic signaling and tumor growth of NIH 3T3 cells transformed with the ras but not the raf oncogene. Inhibition of tumor growth in vivo was dose dependent and correlated with inhibition of Ras processing in tumors in vivo. The work described here identifies FTI-276 as a highly selective suppressor of Ras-dependent oncogenicity and suggests that a broad spectrum of ...
This Commentary discusses the work of Dietrich et al. in this issue of the Biochemical Journal, which sheds new light on the biological roles of protein-bound prenyl groups by providing evidence that the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein transducin has a binding site for the geranylgeranyl group of the γ-subunit.. ...
Regulation and Cell signalingRegulation and Cell signaling - no subcategorySex pheromones in Enterococcus faecalis and other Firmicutes Heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase component I (EC 2.5.1.30) ...
Ikeda, C., Hayashi, Y., Itoh, N., Seto, H. and Dairi, T. (2007). "Functional analysis of eubacterial ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and pimara-9(11),15-diene synthase with unique primary sequences". J. Biochem. 141: 37-45. PMID 17148547. ...
Emerging evidence implicates novel roles for post-translational prenylation (i.e., farnesylation and geranylgeranylation) of various signaling proteins in a variety of cellular functions including hormone secretion, survival and apoptosis. In the con
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
60037-55-0 - IVLBHBFTRNVIAP-MEGGAXOGSA-N - Solanesyl pyrophosphate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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A 922500 is an inhibitor for human and mouse DGAT-1 with IC50 of 7 nM and 24 nM, respectively, good selectivity over related acyltransferases, hERG, a...Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations.
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LSD2011QA Chapters 17 18 Thalasemia Hemoglobinopati Review Article 3L Factores Biologia Molecular TopperSamplePaper3 Bio Sarkar Gen Adaptationism Gene Differential Gene Expression in a Marine Sponge tmpF3BB Seminariox4 Genomic Organization of Plants Terpene Synthases and Molecular Evolutionary Implications Emg Smart Tech....
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ddPCR™ probe assay designed for gene expression analysis. Probe assays consist of unlabeled PCR primers and a dual labeled fluorescent probe. Info: HEX; Same primer pair and probe as used in qPCR assay qRnoCEP0037715; exonic ...
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-benzyladenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate) (C17H21N5O10P2) from the PQR.
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Therapies against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are particularly needed, as this type of cancer is relatively insensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We recently identified GGTI compounds that are designed to block geranylgeranylation and membrane association of signaling proteins including the Rho family G-proteins. One of the GGTIs is P61A6 which inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells, causes cell cycle effects with G1 accumulation and exhibits tumor-suppressing effects with human pancreatic cancer xenografts. In this paper, we investigated effects of P61A6 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Three non-small cell lung cancer cell lines were used to test the ability of P61A6 to inhibit cell proliferation. Further characterization involved analyses of geranylgeranylation, membrane association and activation of RhoA, and anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, as well as cell cycle
Conifer diterpene synthases (diTPSs) catalyze the multi-step cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, or copalyl diphosphate, to a variety of diterpenes in general (i.e., primary) and specialized (i.e., secondary) metabolism. Despite their functional diversity, the known conifer diTPSs are structurally closely related, with variations in three conserved domains, α, β and γ. The catalytic specificity of conifer class I and class I/II diTPSs is predominantly determined by the protein environment of the C-terminal class I active site through stabilization of common and unique carbocation intermediates. Using the crystal structure of Taxus brevifolia taxadiene synthase as template, comparative modeling and mutagenesis of the class I diTPS ent-kaurene synthase from Picea glauca (PgKS) was performed to elucidate the catalytic specificity of PgKS relative to spruce diTPSs of specialized metabolism. N-terminal truncations demonstrated a role for the βγ domain in class I enzyme activity for PgKS,
Activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) by estrogens triggers both ER nuclear transcriptional activity and Src/Ras/Erks pathway-dependent mitogenic activity. The present study implicates prenylated proteins in both estrogenic actions. The farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors (FTI-277 and GGTI-298, respectively) antagonize estradiol-stimulated cell cycle progression, progesterone receptor, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression. In contrast, the inhibitors markedly stimulate transcription from two genes containing estrogen response elements, both in the absence and presence of estradiol. The pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 inhibits by more than 85% these effects on transcription. We demonstrate that both FTI-277 and GGTI-298 increase the association of steroid receptor coactivator-1 with ER alpha and FTI-277 decreases the association of ER alpha with the histone deacetylase 1, a known transcriptional repressor. In addition, FTI-277 has no marked effect on the association of the two
The subcellular localization of plant farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) was examined. Immunocytochemical staining using anti-FPPS1 antibody followed by electron microscopy showed that FPPS1 was localized to chloroplasts of rice mesophyll cells. Subcellular fractions from wheat leaves were examined by immunoblot analysis. FPPS was detected in the chloroplast fraction in wheat, and was protected from proteolysis following trypsin treatment of chloroplasts. FPPS was also detected in the chloroplast fraction of a dicot plant, tobacco. ...
0012]An aryl group is an aromatic radical which is bound to the molecule via a bond located at an aromatic ring carbon atom of the radical. In a preferred embodiment, aryl is an aromatic radical having 6 to 14 carbon atoms, especially phenyl, naphthyl, tetrahydronaphthyl, fluorenyl or phenanthrenyl, and is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more, preferably up to three, especially one or two substituents, especially selected from amino, mono- or disubstituted amino, halogen, lower alkyl, substituted lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, lower alkynyl, phenyl, hydroxy, etherified or esterified hydroxy, nitro, cyano, carboxy, esterified carboxy, alkanoyl, benzoyl, carbamoyl, N-mono- or N,N-disubstituted carbamoyl, amidino, guanidino, ureido, mercapto, sulfo, lower alkylthio, phenylthio, phenyl-lower alkylthio, lower alkylphenylthio, lower alkylsulfinyl, phenylsulfinyl, phenyl-lower alkylsulfinyl, lower alkylphenylsulfinyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, phenylsulfonyl, phenyl-lower alkylsulfonyl, lower ...
The diseased wood, agarwood, from the tropical tree taxa Aquilaria, is famed for its unique fragrance and medicinal values, mainly due to its richness in secondary metabolites such as the sesquiterpenes. The presence of sesquiterpenes in high numbers and amounts correlates with agarwood of high quality. To understand the synthesis of this important compound, we cloned two candidate genes in the terpenoid synthesis pathway from Aquilaria malaccensis Lam., a major agarwood tree species. The genes encoding sesquiterpene synthase (AmSesTPS1) and δ-guaiene synthase (AmGuaiS1) were successfully cloned from callus RNA, using specific primers derived from transcriptomic data, in a reverse transcription PCR reaction. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of AmSesTPS1 was 1632 bp encoding for 544 amino acids, and AmGuaiS1 was 1644 bp encoding for 547 amino acids. Sequence alignment analysis showed that AmSesTPS1 shared between 99 to 100 % identity with sesquiterpene synthase from Aquilaria sinensis
Isoprenoid Biosynthesis: Interconversions Octaprenyl diphosphate synthase (EC 2.5.1.90) / Dimethylallyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.1) / (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase (EC 2.5.1.10) / Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase (EC 2.5.1.29) ...
The progeria story is a beautiful cascade of discovery.. The work of the PRF led to finding mutations in the lamin A gene that cause progeria, and that revealed the mechanism, which in turn led to realization that a shelved pediatric cancer drug, lonafarnib, targeted the same pathway. Would it work against progeria? My second post, "From Rapid Aging to Common Heart Disease," chronicled that story.. The short version: A class of drugs called farnesyl transferase inhibitors would remove a small organic molecule, farnesyl, from one end of lamin A protein. The problem behind progeria is that farnesyl groups arent removed, as they should be, due to mutation affecting a splice site that would otherwise enable the group to be jettisoned. The result is a version of the protein called progerin.. Normally lamin A forms part of the scaffolding that hugs the inner face of the nuclear membrane, contacting the threads of DNA and their associated proteins (chromatin) in the nucleus. With the farnesyl groups ...
Frick, S., Nagel, R., Schmidt, A., Bodemann, R., Rahfeld, P., Pauls, G., Brandt, W., Gershenzon, J., Boland, W., Burse, A. (2013). Metal ions control product specificity of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in the insect terpenoid pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(11), 4194-4199. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221489110. [BOL553] ...
Frick, S., Nagel, R., Schmidt, A., Bodemann, R., Rahfeld, P., Pauls, G., Brandt, W., Gershenzon, J., Boland, W., Burse, A. (2013). Metal ions control product specificity of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in the insect terpenoid pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(11), 4194-4199. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221489110. [BOL553] ...
definition of GGTI, what does GGTI mean?, meaning of GGTI, Green Gram Trypsin Inhibitor, GGTI stands for Green Gram Trypsin Inhibitor
Wiley Online Library will be unavailable on Saturday 7th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 08.00 EDT / 13.00 BST / 17:30 IST / 20.00 SGT and Sunday 8th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 06.00 EDT / 11.00 BST / 15:30 IST / 18.00 SGT for essential maintenance. Apologies for the inconvenience caused ...
Complete information for FDPSP8 gene (Pseudogene), Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Pseudogene 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The sessile nature of plants forces them to cope directly with environmental stresses, which include insect herbivory, pathogen attack, UV light radiation, and drought. Secondary metabolites are believed to be an important mechanism that allows plants to respond to these environmental challenges. There are more than 100,000 known plant secondary metabolites, which probably represent less than 10% of the actual total in nature (Wink, 1988). A large fraction of this diversity is derived from differential modification of common backbone structures, which requires the evolution of numerous enzymes with different product specificities. There are several mechanisms by which this can occur. First, as is the case with terpene synthases, a single protein can produce numerous products from a single substrate (Steele et al., 1998). A few amino acid substitutions can alter the ratio of products generated by a terpene synthase (Back and Chappell, 1996). The second mechanism is the use of gene duplication. In ...
The farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) are a novel class of anticancer agents with promising activity in combination with the microtubule-stabilizing drug Taxol (TX), identified both in vitro and in vivo. Recent phase I and II oncology clinical trials with an FTI/TX combination have demonstrated a clinical benefit for a subset of patients previously refractory to taxane-treatment. However, the precise cellular machinery underlying the FTI/TX synergistic drug combination still needs to be better understood. To this end, we undertook an unbiased experimental/computational approach that combined (i) measurements of drug-mediated changes on tubulin acetylation and overall survival; (ii) whole-genome transcriptome analysis; (iii) utilization of interaction and functional databases to identify functional and pathway connections, (iv) computational modeling and prediction based on an in silico reverse engineering approach to systems analysis. Drug-induced transcriptome changes were examined using ...
Hans-Juergen Kneip, Friedrich Liebau; Feldspars with trivalent non-tetrahedral cations; experimental studies in the system NaAlSi 3 O 8 - CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 - LaAl 3 SiO 8. European Journal of Mineralogy ; 6 (1): 87-98. doi: Download citation file:. ...
The efficacy of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) was demonstrated by the results of the first-ever clinical drug trial for children with Progeria, a rare, fatal rapid-aging disease.
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Push Fit x FPT (Female Pipe Thread) Elbow. Fast, trouble-free installation of Copper, CPVC and PEX tubing. Removable and reusable. Full flow design. ...
delta-selinene synthase: a sesquiterpene synthase from Grand fir, Abies grandis; forms a total of 34 different sesquiterpenes, chiefly delta-selinene; MW 68 kDa; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank U92267
Breaking the regioselectivity of indole prenyltransferases: identification of regular C3-prenylated hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indoles as side products of the regular C2-prenyltransferase ...
Farm to Vape is releasing its terpene strain profiles today on 420! We will be releasing more terpene strain profiles each week in convenient 2ml kits that will retail for $20. Every Farm to Vape Terpene Profile Kit contains enough natural terpenes from certified organic plants to flavor over 100 grams of vape oil or distillate or CBD isolates. Farm to Vape Terpenes are non-cannabis derived so they are 50 state legal. Larger sizes will be available soon.
Categoría:Terpenos y terpenoides (es); Категория:Терпены и терпеноиды (ru); Kategorie:Terpenoid (de-ch); Category:Terpenes and terpenoids (en-gb); Категорија:Терпени и терпеноиди (sr-ec); Category:萜类化合物 (zh); Kategori:Terpener og terpenoider (da); Kategori:Terpenler ve terpenoidler (tr); Category:テルペノイド (ja); Kategori:Terpener och terpenoider (sv); Категорія:Терпени і терпеноїди (uk); श्रेणी:टरपीन और टरपेनोइड (hi); 분류:터펜류 (ko); Санат:Терпендер мен терпеноидтар (kk); Category:Terpenes and terpenoids (en-ca); Категорија:Терпени и терпеноиди (mk); Kategorija:Terpeni i terpenoidi (bs); Categoria:Terpeni e terpenoidi (it); Catégorie:Terpènes et terpénoïdes (fr); Катэгорыя:Тэрпэны і тэрпэноіды (be-tarask); Kategorija:Terpeni i terpenoidi (sr-el); ...
Terpenes from Shaanxi Huike Botanical Development Co., Ltd.. Search High Quality Terpenes Manufacturing and Exporting supplier on Alibaba.com.
Naidu A, Xu Q, Catalano R, Cordell B. Secretion of apolipoprotein E by brain glia requires protein prenylation and is suppressed by statins ...
article{76337ac6-36e6-4fff-b6e8-dfb8093c0fd5, abstract = {A clone encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) was obtained by PCR from a cDNA library made from young leaves of Artemisia annua. A cDNA clone encoding the tobacco epi-aristolochene synthase (eAS) was kindly supplied by J. Chappell (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA). Two fusions were constructed, i.e. FPPS/eAS and eAS/FPPS. The stop codon of the N-terminal enzyme was removed and replaced by a short peptide (Gly-Ser-Gly) to introduce a linker between the two ORFs. These two fusions and the two single cDNA clones were separately introduced into a bacterial expression vector (pET32). Escherichia coli was transformed with the expression vectors and enzymatically active soluble proteins were obtained after induction with isopropyl thio-beta-d-thiogalactoside. The recombinant enzymes were purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography on Co2+ columns. The fusion enzymes produced epi-aristolochene from isopentenyl ...
Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a
Heider, S., Peters-Wendisch, P., Beekwilder, J., & Wendisch, V. F. (2014). IdsA is the major geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase involved in carotenogenesis in *Corynebacterium glutamicum*. FEBS Journal, 281, 4906-4920. doi:10.1111/febs. ...
Chronic delta hepatitis is a serious form of chronic liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small RNA virus that requires farnesylation of its major structural protein (HDV antigen) for replication. We propose to treat between 12 and 14 patients with chronic delta hepatitis using the farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) lonafarnib for a duration of twenty-eight days. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors have not been used in the therapy of delta hepatitis. Patients with HBsAg and HDV RNA in serum, elevated aminotransferases, or moderate-to-severe chronic hepatitis and HDV antigen on liver biopsy will be enrolled. Before receiving therapy, patients will be monitored for at least three months with regular testing for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and will undergo Clinical Center admission for medical evaluation and percutaneous liver biopsy. Two dosing groups of lonafarnib will be assessed, with a placebo cohort in each group. At each clinic visit, patients will be ...
EC 5.5.1.8 Accepted name: (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase. Reaction: geranyl diphosphate = (+)-bornyl diphosphate. For diagram of reaction click here and mechanism click here.. Glossary: (+)-bornyl diphosphate = (1R,2S,4R)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl diphosphate. Other name(s): bornyl pyrophosphate synthase (ambiguous); bornyl pyrophosphate synthetase (ambiguous); (+)-bornylpyrophosphate cyclase; geranyl-diphosphate cyclase (ambiguous); (+)-bornyl-diphosphate lyase (decyclizing). Systematic name: (+)-bornyl-diphosphate lyase (ring-opening). Comments: Requires Mg2+. The enzyme from Salvia officinalis (sage) can also use (3R)-linalyl diphosphate or more slowly neryl diphosphate in vitro [3]. The reaction proceeds via isomeration of geranyl diphosphate to (3R)-linalyl diphosphate. The oxygen and phosphorus originally linked to C-1 of geranyl diphosphate end up linked to C-2 of (+)-bornyl diphosphate [3]. cf. EC 5.5.1.22 [( )-bornyl diphosphate synthase].. Links to other databases: ...
A cDNA clone encoding a sesquiterpene synthase, (+)-germacrene D synthase, has been isolated from ginger (Zingiber oYcinale). The full-length cDNA (AY860846) contains a 1650-bp open reading frame coding for 550 amino acids (63.8 kDa) with a theoretical pID5.59. The deduced amino acid sequence is 30-46% identical with sequences of other sesquiterpene synthases from angiosperms. The recombinant enzyme, produced in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the formation of a major product, (+)-germacrene D (50.2% of total sesquiterpenoids produced) and a co-product, germacrene B (17.1%) and a number of minor by-products. The optimal pH for the recombinant enzyme is around 7.5. Substantial (+)-germacrene D synthase activity is observed in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+ or Co2+, while the enzyme is inactive when Cu2+ or Zn2+ is used. The Km- and kcat-values are 0.88 M and 3.34£10¡3 s¡1, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving a double 1,2-hydride shift has been established using deuterium labeled ...
Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mediates the crucial effects of the thyroid hormone (T3) on cellular growth, development, and differentiation. Decreased expression or inactivating somatic mutations of TRs have been found in human cancers of the liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. The mechanisms of TR-associated carcinogenesis are still not clear. To establish the function of TRβ in thyroid cancer cell proliferation, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector, AdTRβ, which expresses human TRβ1 cDNA. Thyroid cancer cell lines in which TRβ protein levels were significantly decreased as compared to intact thyroid tissues were infected with AdTRβ and the function of TRβ on cell proliferation and migration was analyzed. Ligand-bound TRβ induced HDAC1 and HDAC3 dissociation from, and histone acetylation associated with the RhoB promoter and enhanced the expression of RhoB mRNA and protein. In AdTRβ-infected cells, T3 and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI)-treatment induced the distribution of RhoB on

Consequences of transforming narrow leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L.]) with an ipt gene under control of a flower...Consequences of transforming narrow leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L.]) with an ipt gene under control of a flower...

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases (MeSH) * Cotyledon (MeSH) * Cytokinins (MeSH) * Flowers (MeSH) * Fruit (MeSH) ... stably transformed with the isopentenyl pyrophosphate transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens coupled to a flower ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication141831

Effect of aryl alkyl amine-N-acetyl-transferase gene polymorphism on
melatonin in non-seasonal ewesEffect of aryl alkyl amine-N-acetyl-transferase gene polymorphism on melatonin in non-seasonal ewes

Hatif SA, Younis LS., Effect of aryl alkyl amine-N-acetyl-transferase gene polymorphism on melatonin in non-seasonal ewes, Onl ... Effect of aryl alkyl amine-N-acetyl-transferase gene polymorphism on melatonin in non-seasonal ewes. ...
more infohttp://onljvetres.com/arylabs2018.htm

Nifedipine prevents etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, prenyl transferase degradation and loss in cell viability in...Nifedipine prevents etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, prenyl transferase degradation and loss in cell viability in...

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / metabolism*. Animals. Caspase 3 / metabolism*. Caspase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Cell Survival ... Alkyl and Aryl Transferases; EC 2.5.1.-/geranylgeranyltransferase type-I; EC 2.5.1.29/Farnesyltranstransferase; EC 3.4.22.-/ ... Nifedipine prevents etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, prenyl transferase degradation and loss in cell viability in ... significant activation of caspase-3 and subsequent degradation of the common α-subunit of farnesyl/geranylgeranyl transferases ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Nifedipine-prevents-etoposide-induced-caspase/23054080.html

Defective lipid remodeling of GPI anchors in peroxisomal disorders, Zellweger syndrome, and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia...Defective lipid remodeling of GPI anchors in peroxisomal disorders, Zellweger syndrome, and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia...

The predominant form of mammalian GPI contains 1-alkyl-2-acyl phosphatidylinositol (PI), which is generated by lipid remodeling ... Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / genetics, metabolism. Animals. CHO Cells. Cell Line, Transformed. Chondrodysplasia Punctata, ... Alkyl and Aryl Transferases; EC 2.5.1.26/alkylglycerone-phosphate synthase ... and alkyl-DHAP synthase, respectively. Absence of the 1-alkyl-2-acyl form of GPI-anchored proteins might account for some of ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Defective-lipid-remodeling-GPI-anchors/22253471.html

delta-selinene synthase
     Summary Report | CureHunterdelta-selinene synthase Summary Report | CureHunter

Transferases: 4296*Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: 2*delta-selinene synthase: 1. Related Diseases. 1. Wounds and Injuries (Trauma) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC110538-delta-selinene-synthase.do

A) scheme illustrating the location of the sequence co | Open-iA) scheme illustrating the location of the sequence co | Open-i

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases/genetics. *Amino Acid Sequence. *Animals. *Conserved Sequence. *Gene Duplication ... This is catalysed by a complex of a catalytic heterodimer (Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase - RabGGTase) and an accessory protein ... This is catalysed by a complex of a catalytic heterodimer (Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase - RabGGTase) and an accessory protein ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC1994686_1471-2148-7-140-4&req=4

Gene structures and chromosomal locations of human prot | Open-iGene structures and chromosomal locations of human prot | Open-i

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases*/chemistry/genetics/physiology. Minor. *Amino Acid Motifs. *Amino Acid Sequence ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC154572_gb-2003-4-4-212-1&req=4

etacrynic acid (CHEBI:4876)etacrynic acid (CHEBI:4876)

An EC 2.5.1.* (non-methyl-alkyl or aryl transferase) inhibitor that interferes with the action of a glutathione transferase (EC ... etacrynic acid (CHEBI:4876) has role EC 2.5.1.18 (glutathione transferase) inhibitor (CHEBI:76797) etacrynic acid (CHEBI:4876) ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:4876

sulfasalazine (CHEBI:9334)sulfasalazine (CHEBI:9334)

An EC 2.5.1.* (non-methyl-alkyl or aryl transferase) inhibitor that interferes with the action of a glutathione transferase (EC ... sulfasalazine (CHEBI:9334) has role EC 2.5.1.18 (glutathione transferase) inhibitor (CHEBI:76797) sulfasalazine (CHEBI:9334) ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:9334

Detailed Information (TTD) -- BIDDDetailed Information (TTD) -- BIDD

Transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups EC Number. EC 2.5.1.-. EC 2.5.1.21. ... Chemistry and Biology of Cylindrols: Novel Inhibitors of Ras Farnesyl-Protein Transferase from Cylindrocarpon lucidum. J Org ...
more infohttp://bidd.nus.edu.sg/group/TTD/ZFTTDDetail.asp?ID=TTDR00716

EP2051590B1 - Enzyme granules for animal feed 
        - Google PatentsEP2051590B1 - Enzyme granules for animal feed - Google Patents

d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and ... e transferases transferring nitrogeneous groups (EC 2.6).. A most preferred type of transferase in the context of the invention ... a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1);. *b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... transferases (EC 2.-.-.-), hydrolases (EC 3.-.-.-), lyases (EC 4.-.-.-), isomerases (EC 5.-.-.-) and ligases (EC 6.-.-.-). ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/EP2051590B1/en

Author: Sakakibara, Hitoshi / Subject: cytokinins - PubAg Search ResultsAuthor: 'Sakakibara, Hitoshi' / Subject: cytokinins - PubAg Search Results

cytokinins; biochemical pathways; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Arabidopsis thaliana; Oryza sativa; alkyl (aryl) transferases; ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/?f%5Bsubject_term%5D%5B%5D=cytokinins&q=%22Sakakibara%2C+Hitoshi%22&search_field=author

DHDDS Gene - GeneCards | DHDDS Protein | DHDDS AntibodyDHDDS Gene - GeneCards | DHDDS Protein | DHDDS Antibody

transferase activity. IEA. --. GO:0016765. transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups. IEA. -- ... GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups. ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=DHDDS&ortholog_desc=all&rf=/home/genecards/current/website/carddisp.pl

The E. coli ogt gene.The E. coli ogt gene.

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases. dc.subject.mesh. Alkylating Agents. dc.subject.mesh. Amino Acid Sequence. ... Cloning of the genes coding for chorismate pyruvate-lyase and 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyl transferase from Escherichia coli. ...
more infohttps://christie.openrepository.com/handle/10541/109796?show=full

Neurosurgery - Fingerprint
     - Atlantic Health SystemNeurosurgery - Fingerprint - Atlantic Health System

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases Cell Biology Proteins Meningeal Neoplasms Neurocytoma Maximum Tolerated Dose ...
more infohttps://ahs.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/neurosurgery/fingerprints/

MEDICAMEDICA

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases;Anticholesteremic Agents;Astrocytes;Cells, Cultured;Cytokines;Enzyme Induction;Enzyme Inhibitors; ...
more infohttp://digital.library.musc.edu/cdm/search/searchterm/inhibit~on

MEDICAMEDICA

Alkyl and Aryl Transferases;Anticholesteremic Agents;Astrocytes;Cells, Cultured;Cytokines;Enzyme Induction;Enzyme Inhibitors; ... Alkyl and Aryl Transferases;Anticholesteremic Agents;Astrocytes;Cells, Cultured;Cytokines;Enzyme Induction;Enzyme Inhibitors; ...
more infohttp://digital.library.musc.edu/cdm/search/searchterm/interleukin-1

Recent questions in Transferases - lookformedical.comRecent questions in Transferases - lookformedical.com

Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally ... Transferases (3) * Acyltransferases (1) * Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases (0) * Alkyl and Aryl Transferases (1) ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/en/questions/chemicals-and-drugs/enzymes-and-coenzymes/enzymes/transferases
  • Phenotypes of five transgenic lines of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L] cv Merrit) stably transformed with the isopentenyl pyrophosphate transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens coupled to a flower-specific promoter (TP12) from Nicotiana tabacum [L.] are described. (edu.au)
  • Here, we report that GPI lipid remodeling is defective in cells from patients with Zellweger syndrome having mutations in the peroxisomal biogenesis factors PEX5, PEX16, and PEX19 and in cells from patients with RCDP types 1, 2, and 3 caused by mutations in PEX7, DHAP-AT, and alkyl-DHAP synthase, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases;Anticholesteremic Agents;Astrocytes;Cells, Cultured;Cytokines;Enzyme Induction;Enzyme Inhibitors;Interleukin-1;Interleukin-6;Lipopolysaccharides;Lovastatin;Macrophages;Mevalonic Acid;Microglia;Mitogens;NF-kappa B;Nitric. (musc.edu)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:N-acyl-D-mannosamine-6-phosphate 1-(2-carboxy-2-oxoethyl)transferase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nifedipine prevents etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, prenyl transferase degradation and loss in cell viability in pancreatic β-cells. (biomedsearch.com)