Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
The reaction of two molecular entities via oxidation usually catalyzed by a transition metal compound and involving dioxygen as the oxidant.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. Some cultivars are sweet and edible whereas bitter varieties are a source of SAPONINS. This sweet potato is sometimes referred to as a yam (DIOSCOREA).
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain fredelin type TRITERPENES, mallorepine (a cyano-pyridone), and hydrolyzable TANNINS.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. (1/970)

We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered.  (+info)

RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1, a Menkes/Wilson disease-related copper transporter, is required for ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. (2/970)

Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth. We identified an Arabidopsis mutant, responsive-to-antagonist1 (ran1), that shows ethylene phenotypes in response to treatment with trans-cyclooctene, a potent receptor antagonist. Genetic epistasis studies revealed an early requirement for RAN1 in the ethylene pathway. RAN1 was cloned and found to encode a protein with similarity to copper-transporting P-type ATPases, including the human Menkes/Wilson proteins and yeast Ccc2p. Expression of RAN1 complemented the defects of a ccc2delta mutant, demonstrating its function as a copper transporter. Transgenic CaMV 35S::RAN1 plants showed constitutive expression of ethylene responses, due to cosuppression of RAN1. These results provide an in planta demonstration that ethylene signaling requires copper and reveal that RAN1 acts by delivering copper to create functional hormone receptors.  (+info)

Oxidative stress markers in preovulatory follicular fluid in humans. (3/970)

Intensified peroxidation in the Graafian follicle may be a factor compromising the normal development of the oocyte. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of three oxidative stress markers: conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in preovulatory follicular fluids and sera of 145 women attending an in-vitro fertilization programme, and to correlate these concentrations with pregnancy outcome. Determinations were conducted either with or without an antioxidant (10 microM butylated hydroxytoluene) and an iron chelate (10 microM deferoxamine mesylate) to examine peroxidation associated with the methods used. Concentrations of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in follicular fluid were all significantly lower than those in serum, both in the presence or absence of the antioxidant and iron chelate. These concentrations did not correlate with pregnancy outcome. In conclusion, the intensity of peroxidation in the Graafian follicle is much lower than that in serum. This gradient is the result of the lower rate of initiation of peroxidation in the follicular fluid, suggestive of the presence of efficient antioxidant defence systems in the direct milieu of the oocyte before ovulation. The concentrations of investigated oxidative stress markers in follicular fluid do not reflect the reproductive potential of oocytes.  (+info)

A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a bacterial pathway of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation. (4/970)

The bacterial metabolism of short-chain aliphatic alkenes occurs via oxidation to epoxyalkanes followed by carboxylation to beta-ketoacids. Epoxyalkane carboxylation requires four enzymes (components I-IV), NADPH, NAD(+), and a previously unidentified nucleophilic thiol. In the present work, coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid), a compound previously found only in the methanogenic Archaea where it serves as a methyl group carrier and activator, has been identified as the thiol and central cofactor of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation in the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2. Component I catalyzed the addition of coenzyme M to epoxypropane to form a beta-hydroxythioether, 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Components III and IV catalyzed the NAD(+)-dependent stereoselective dehydrogenation of R- and S-enantiomers of 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate to form 2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Component II catalyzed the NADPH-dependent cleavage and carboxylation of the beta-ketothioether to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M. These findings evince a newfound versatility for coenzyme M as a carrier and activator of alkyl groups longer in chain-length than methane, a function for coenzyme M in a catabolic pathway of hydrocarbon oxidation, and the presence of coenzyme M in the bacterial domain of the phylogenetic tree. These results serve to unify bacterial and Archaeal metabolism further and showcase diverse biological functions for an elegantly simple organic molecule.  (+info)

Importance of the beta12-beta13 loop in protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit for inhibition by toxins and mammalian protein inhibitors. (5/970)

Type-1 protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1) are uniquely inhibited by the mammalian proteins, inhibitor-1 (I-1), inhibitor-2 (I-2), and nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP-1). In addition, several natural compounds inhibit both PP1 and the type-2 phosphatase, PP2A. Deletion of C-terminal sequences that included the beta12-beta13 loop attenuated the inhibition of the resulting PP1alpha catalytic core by I-1, I-2, NIPP-1, and several toxins, including tautomycin, microcystin-LR, calyculin A, and okadaic acid. Substitution of C-terminal sequences from the PP2A catalytic subunit produced a chimeric enzyme, CRHM2, that was inhibited by toxins with dose-response characteristics of PP1 and not PP2A. However, CRHM2 was insensitive to the PP1-specific inhibitors, I-1, I-2, and NIPP-1. The anticancer compound, fostriecin, differed from other phosphatase inhibitors in that it inhibited wild-type PP1alpha, the PP1alpha catalytic core, and CRHM2 with identical IC(50). Binding of wild-type and mutant phosphatases to immobilized microcystin-LR, NIPP-1, and I-2 established that the beta12-beta13 loop was essential for the association of PP1 with toxins and the protein inhibitors. These studies point to the importance of the beta12-beta13 loop structure and conformation for the control of PP1 functions by toxins and endogenous proteins.  (+info)

Degradation of trichloroethene by a linear-plasmid-encoded alkene monooxygenase in Rhodococcus corallinus (Nocardia corallina) B-276. (6/970)

Rhodococcus corallinus (formerly Nocardia corallina) B-276, isolated with propene as sole carbon and energy source, is able to oxidize trichloroethene (TCE). Glucose- or propene-grown R. corallinus B-276 cells exhibited no difference in TCE degradation efficiency. TCE degradation was found to be growth-phase-dependent and maximum rates were monitored with stationary-phase cells. K(m) and Vmax values for TCE degradation of R. corallinus B-276 grown in nutrient broth medium in the presence of glucose were 187 microM and 2.4 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1, respectively. Escherichia coli recombinants harbouring and expressing the alkene monooxygenase genes of R. corallinus B-276 exhibited the ability to degrade TCE. This result provides clear evidence that the alkene monooxygenase of R. corallinus B-276 catalyses TCE oxidation. R. corallinus B-276 was shown to contain four linear plasmids, pNC10 (70 kb), pNC20 (85 kb), pNC30 (185 kb) and pNC40 (235 kb). The observation that pNC30-deficient strains had lost the ability to grow on propene suggested that the genes of the propene degradation pathway are encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Southern blot analysis with cloned alkene monooxygenase genes from R. corallinus B-276 revealed a positive hybridization signal with the linear plasmid pNC30. This result clearly shows that the alkene monooxygenase is encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Eleven short-chain-alkene-oxidizing strains were screened for the presence of linear plasmids. Among these, four propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus strains and one ethene-oxidizing Mycobacterium strain were found to contain linear megaplasmids. Southern blot analysis with the alkene monooxygenase revealed positive signals with linear plasmids of two propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus ruber strains. These results indicate that homologous alkene monooxygenases are encoded by linear plasmids in R. ruber strains.  (+info)

Characterization of the gene cluster involved in isoprene metabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45. (7/970)

The genes involved in isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) utilization in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45 were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis of an 8.5-kb DNA fragment showed the presence of 10 genes of which 2 encoded enzymes which were previously found to be involved in isoprene degradation: a glutathione S-transferase with activity towards 1,2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene (isoI) and a 1-hydroxy-2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butene dehydrogenase (isoH). Furthermore, a gene encoding a second glutathione S-transferase was identified (isoJ). The isoJ gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and was found to have activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 3,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene but not with 1, 2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene. Downstream of isoJ, six genes (isoABCDEF) were found; these genes encoded a putative alkene monooxygenase that showed high similarity to components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter sp. strain Py2 and other multicomponent monooxygenases. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded by an additional gene (isoG) showed significant similarity with that of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase. The results are in agreement with a catabolic route for isoprene involving epoxidation by a monooxygenase, conjugation to glutathione, and oxidation of the hydroxyl group to a carboxylate. Metabolism may proceed by fatty acid oxidation after removal of glutathione by a still-unknown mechanism.  (+info)

Porcine kidney microsomal cysteine S-conjugate N-acetyltransferase-catalyzed N-acetylation of haloalkene-derived cysteine S-conjugates. (8/970)

N-Acetylation of xenobiotic-derived cysteine S-conjugates is a key step in the mercapturic acid pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the N-acetylation of haloalkene-derived S-haloalkyl and S-haloalkenyl cysteine S-conjugates by porcine kidney cysteine S-conjugate N-acetyltransferase (NAcT). A radioactive assay for the quantification of NAcT activity was developed as a new method for partial purification of the enzyme, which was necessitated by the substantial loss of activity during the immunoaffinity chromatography method. 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate, rather than N,N-bis[3-gluconamidopropyl]deoxycholamide, was used to solubilize the NAcT from porcine kidney microsomes in the revised procedure. The partially purified NAcT was free of detectable aminoacylase activity. Although low acetyl-coenzyme A hydrolase activity was observed, its effect on the assay was minimized by addition of excess acetyl-coenzyme A in the NAcT assay mixture. Attempts to separate the residual hydrolase activity from NAcT by different chromatographic procedures were either unsuccessful or lead to inactivation of NAcT. Most of the cysteine S-conjugates studied were N-acetylated by NAcT. Although the apparent K(m) values for the cysteine S-conjugates studied differed by a factor of approximately 2.5 (124-302 microM), a greater than 15-fold difference in the apparent V(max) (0.75-15.6 nmol/h) and V(max)/K(m) (0.008-0.126 x 10(-3) l h(-1)) values was observed. These data show that a range of haloalkene-derived cysteine S-conjugates serve as substrates for pig kidney NAcT. The significant differences in cytotoxicity of these conjugates may be a result of more variable deacetylation rates of the corresponding mercapturates.  (+info)

The olefin metathesis reaction has become a widely used method for the construction of new carbon-carbon double bonds. The development of well-defined, ruthenium-based catalysts with high air- and moisture-stability and functional group tolerance has allowed synthetic chemists to exploit this reaction in many areas. The main goal of this thesis was to better understand the impact of changes in catalyst and monomer structure on the olefin metathesis reaction. The introduction of chelating alkylidene ligands to olefin metathesis catalysts has resulted in systems with high activity and stability that, for the most part, are active at or below room temperature. However, for some applications, catalysts that react only at higher temperatures are desirable. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of latent olefin metathesis catalysts with chelating alkylidenes with a range of donor ligands: including phosphines, pyridines, imines, amines, and thioethers. The nature of the donor ligand was found to have a ...
2020 American Chemical Society. Reported herein is a modular, NiH-catalyzed system capable of proximal-selective hydroamination of unactivated alkenes with diverse amine sources. The key to the successful implementation of this approach is the promotion of NiH insertion into even highly substituted olefins via coordination of the bidentate directing group to the nickel complex. A wide range of primary and secondary amines can be installed in both internal and terminal unactivated alkenes with excellent regiocontrol under the optimized reaction conditions. This protocol is flexible and general for the preparation of a variety of valuable β- and γ-amino acid building blocks that would otherwise be difficult to synthesize. The utility of this transformation was further demonstrated by the site-selective late-stage modification of complex and medicinally relevant molecules. Combined experimental and computational studies illuminate the detailed reaction ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanistic Model for Enantioselective Intramolecular Alkene Cyanoamidation via Palladium-Catalyzed C-CN Bond Activation. AU - Frost, Grant B.. AU - Serratore, Nicholas A.. AU - Ogilvie, Jodi M.. AU - Douglas, Christopher J.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank National Institutes of Health for funding this work (R01 GM095559). We thank Prof. Steve Kass (UMN) for constructive feedback.. PY - 2017/4/7. Y1 - 2017/4/7. N2 - We studied key aspects of the mechanism of Pd-catalyzed C-CN bond activation and intramolecular enantioselective alkene cyanoamidation. An Abboud-Abraham-Kamlet-Taft (AAKT) linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model for enantioselectivity was established. We investigated the impact of Lewis acid (BPh3), Lewis base (DMPU), and no additives. BPh3 additive led to diminished enantioselectivity and differing results in 13CN crossover experiments, initial rate kinetics, and natural abundance 12C/13C kinetic isotope effect measurements. We propose two catalytic ...
Qilei Zhu, David E. Graff, Robert R. Knowles:. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.7b11144. ABSTRACT: Here we report a catalytic method for the intermolecular anti-Markovnikov hydroamination of unactivated alkenes using primary and secondary sulfonamides. These reactions occur at room temperature under visible light irradiation and are jointly catalyzed by an iridium(III) photocatalyst, a dialkyl phosphate base, and a thiol hydrogen atom donor. Reaction outcomes are consistent with the intermediacy of an N-centered sulfonamidyl radical generated via proton-coupled electron transfer activation of the sulfonamide N-H bond. Studies outlining the synthetic scope (,60 examples) and mechanistic features of the reaction are presented.. ...
Nickel-catalyzed 1,2-carboboration of alkenes is emerging as a useful method for chemical synthesis. Prior studies have been limited to only the incorporation of aryl groups. In this manuscript, a method for the 1,2-benzylboration of unactivated alkenes is presented. The reaction combines readily available alkenes,
see article for more reactions. Abstract. In the presence of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts and triphenylphosphine, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes can be olefinated with diazoacetates. A tandem transformation of terminal olefins to 1,3-dienoic olefins in a single operation based on olefin cross-metathesis and Wittig olefination has been developed.. ...
We can use the alkenes as fuel in aerospace, industry and so on, which not does only protect the natural environment, but it is also economic. In biological and curatorial fields, they can make much more contribution. Therefore people is trying to make alkenes in different ways, and trying their best to find the easiest and the most economic methods. 1 Making the alkene There are so many ways can make an alkene, usually we make the alkenes by elimination reactions. ,1,. i?? elimination reaction: Ethylene and propene are prepared on an industrial scale by the high temperature dehydrogenation of ethane and propane.. Both reactions involve i?? elimination of H2. Many reactions classified as dehydrogenations occur within the cells of living systems at 25 ?. (The enzyme indicated is a special kind, known as flavoprotein in reaction) Dehydrogenation of alkanes is not a practical laboratory synthesis for the vast majority of alkenes. The principal methods by which alkenes are prepared in the laboratory ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. Cu-catalyzed formal hydroboration of terminal or 1,1-disubstituted alkenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and methanol provides products with exceptional regiocontrol favoring the branched isomer. Subsequent photocatalytic cross-couplings using iridium and nickel cocatalysis enable a highly regioselective hydroarylation of terminal alkenes.. ...
The regioselective hydroboration of aliphatic internal alkenes remains a great challenge. Reported herein is an iridium-catalyzed hydroboration of aliphatic internal alkenes, providing distal-borylated products in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity (up to 99:1). We also demonstrate that the C-B bond of the distal-borylated product can be readily converted into other functional groups. DFT calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through an unexpected IrIII /IrV cycle. ...
This thesis describes the synthesis of supported Schrock-type initiators immobilised via polymer-bound alcohol and their activity in olefin metathesis, together with a parallel study of the synthesis and reactivity of their model homogeneous counterparts.;Chapter 1 presents an overview of the inorganic and organic supports used in order to achieve the heterogeneisation of a range of different homogenous catalysts. A review of the nature of various organic supports and examples of supported metalligand complexes are given. The terms olefin metathesis, and their corresponding metathesis reactions such as ROMP, RCM, ADMET, ROM, and cross metathesis are defined. A review of previously reported classical multi-component initiator systems, well-defined single component initiators, together with well-defined supported initiators for use in olefin metathesis reactions is given.;Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of diol ligands such as TADDOL and those based upon a pentanediol skeleton together with that ...
All alkenes undergo addition reactions with the hydrogen halides. For example, with ethene and hydrogen chloride, you get chloroethane: With but-2-ene you get 2-chlorobutane: Addition of HCl to Alkenes to Give Alkyl Chlorides by JAMES Description: Treatment of alkenes with hydrochloric acid (HCl) will result in the formation of alkyl chlorides. Addition to symmetrical alkenes. However, in … A hydrogen atom joins to one of the carbon atoms originally in the double bond, and a halogen atom to the other. Hydrogen halide addition to alkenes is a highly regioselective reactionbecause addition of the hydrogen halide across the double bond gives only one of the two possible con- stitutionally isomeric addition … For example, with ethene and hydrogen chloride, you get chloroethane: With but-2-ene you get 2-chlorobutane: Electrophilic addition of HCl to alkenes The carbenium ion, which is formed by protonation of an alkene by HCl, is subsequently attacked by the chloride anion resulting in a ...
Olefin cross-metathesis has been demonstrated to be a modular pathway for synthesis of a series of functionalized cellulose esters. As a proof of concept, cellulose acetate was acylated with two terminally olefinic acid chlorides, pent-4-enoyl chloride and undec-10-enoyl chloride, providing olefin-terminated cellulose esters with different side-chain lengths. These ω-unsaturated cellulose esters were then reacted with a variety of cross-metathesis partners, including acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, and allyl alcohols, using Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst. Complete conversion to cross-metathesis products was achieved in reactions with acrylic acid or acrylates using 3-5 mol% catalyst at 40 °C within 1 h. We further demonstrate successful hydrogenation of these α,β-unsaturated esters and acids, thereby eliminating the potential for radical-induced crosslinking during storage ...
In this study a number of cage alkenes were synthesised and tested for activity towards ringopening metathesis polymerisation (ROMP) with the commercially available catalysts 55 (Grubbs-I) and 56 (Grubbs-II). The first group of monomers are derivatives of tetracyclo[6.3.0.04,1105,9]undec-2-en-6-one (1). The synthesis of these cage alkenes are summarised in Scheme 7.1. The cage alkene 126b was synthesised by a Diels-Alder reaction between 1 and hexachlorocyclopentadiene (9, Scheme 7.2). The geometry of 126b was determined from XRD data. Knowledge of the geometry of 126b also established the geometry of 127 since conformational changes during the conversion from 126b to 127 are unlikely. Synthesis of the cage alkene 125 by the cycloaddition of 9 to 118 failed. The cage alkene exo-11-hydroxy-4,5,6,7,16,16-hexachlorohexacyclo[7.6.1.03,8.02,13.010,14]hexa-dec-5-ene (124, Scheme 7.3) could therefore not be prepared. Synthesis of 125 by reduction of 126b with various reduction systems was not ...
Stimulated by the strong interest in replacing fossil raw materials by renewable feedstocks in chemical industry, alkene metathesis of unsaturated bio-sourced olefins has been recently investigated with the objective of producing high-value molecules using green and atom economic strategies. It is due time to review what has been achieved in this field using terpenes and terpenoids as olefin metathesis partners. These substrates, derived from the isoprene structure, present different types of carbon-carbon double bonds that can be involved in self metathesis, ring closing metathesis, cross metathesis including ethenolysis, and ring opening metathesis. The successful achievements and remaining bottlenecks in this field will be discussed.
By postreducing the window size through silylation, 2nd generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst was encapsulated in the nanocages of a mesoporous material SBA-1. The encapsulation efficiency of SBA-1 was up to 70 %, much higher than that of other mesoporous materials such as SBA-16, FDU-12, and MCM-41 (0-43 %). The successful encapsulation was confirmed by N2 sorption analysis and FTIR and diffusion reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy. Such a SBA-1-encapsulated catalyst showed good activity in both olefin ring-closing metathesis and cross metathesis. A wide range of olefins could be transformed to the desired products with conversions of 27-100 %. The encapsulated catalyst showed more sensitive temperature effects than the homogeneous counterpart, reflecting the unique properties of the encapsulated catalyst. At reaction temperatures of 40-60 °C, the activity of the encapsulated catalyst was sufficiently comparable to that of the homogeneous catalyst for the cross metathesis of styrene-type substrates, ...
Li J,Liao SH,Xiong H,et al. Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Cyclopropanation of 1,2-Disubstituted Alkenes[J]. Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit.,2012,51(35):8838-8841 ...
Olefin metathesis is a powerful transformation based on catalytic reaction between alkenes. It allows a formation of a variety of structurally diverse molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative routes. Recently developed methods require relatively low catalyst loading and enable easy removal of residual ruthenium from the reaction product. These developments have attracted the attention of process chemists who add metathesis reaction to a toolbox of reliable methods for production of pharmaceuticals. This review presents selected examples of successful application of olefin metathesis in the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients from laboratories within the pharmaceutical industry.. ...
A catalyst composition for polymerizing alpha-olefins is prepared by reacting a transition metal compound, e.g., titanium, with trimethylaluminum catalyst activator. In a preferred embodiment, the catalyst is supported on a porous refractory support and is prepared by additionally reacting a magnesium compound or an organomagnesium composition with the support.Also disclosed is a process for polymerizing alpha-olefins in the presence of the catalyst of the invention. The polymer products have higher bulk density and produce films of greater strength than polymers prepared with similar catalysts utilizing different alkyl-aluminum activators, e.g., triethylaluminum and tri-isobutylaluminum.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ir(III)-catalyzed C7-position-selective oxidative C -H alkenylation of indolines with alkenes in air. AU - Pan, Shiguang. AU - Wakaki, Takayuki. AU - Ryu, Naoto. AU - Shibata, Takanori. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - An efficient method for C7-position-selective alkenylation of N-substituted indolines with alkenes is reported. Various 7-alkenylindolines were obtained in moderate to excellent yields in air in the presence of catalytic amounts of [CpIrCl2]2, AgOTf, and Cu(OAc)2. The protocol relies on the use of a carbonyl or carbamoyl group on the nitrogen atom of indoline as a directing group and is potentially applicable to the synthesis of 7-alkenylindoles and 7-alkylindoles. Lettin the cat outta the bag: An efficient IrIII-catalyzed oxidative coupling of N-substituted indolines with various alkenes at the C7-position in air assisted by a carbonyl or carbamoyl group as a directing group is reported. The catalyst was prepared from [CpIrCl2]2 and AgOTf. A variety of ...
Looking for monosubstituted alkene? Find out information about monosubstituted alkene. An alkene with the general formula RHC=CH2, where R is any organic group; only one carbon atom is bonded directly to one of the carbons of the... Explanation of monosubstituted alkene
What are the products of this alkene addition reaction? Solution 70P:Here, we are going to find out the products formed from the alkene addition reaction.Step 1: The molecules add across the double bond of alkene when addition reaction takes place. The addition of chlorine gas to the alkene molecule forms
|p| Direct and indirect roles of alkenes cannot be ignored, and this book will aim to include new findings in the alkenes (olefins) area, focusing on the industrial aspects of alkenes (olefins) production, separation, purification, kinetic, mechanism, wastewater treatment, etc. New simulation, modeling and mathematical (analytical, numerical and statistical) techniques are encouraged. Economical criteria in the production process, the downstream industries, and the industrial plans design for alkenes production/purification are also of interest. Therefore, all new research in this area (without any limitation) is welcome.|/p|
Today marks the Engle labs first foray into nickel catalysis. Congratulations to Joe, Van, and Mark for their paper in J. Am. Chem. Soc., which describes a new method to couple alkylzinc reagents, aryl iodides, and non-conjugated alkenes using a coordination control strategy. The work couldnt have happened with our collaborator Jason Chen, the Director…
I would not consider benzene to be an alkene because its chemical reactivity differs significantly from the reactivity of alkenes. For example, a classic chemical reaction involving alkenes is an addition reaction with elemental bromine. Benzene will not undergo this reaction and many other reactions characteristic of alkenes (e.g. catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, etc ...
This double bond is referred to, in the functional group terminology, as an alkene. You can locate carbonyl groups, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics in the IR (infrared) spectrum, based on their shapes and relative locations. Hydrocarbons (compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen) that contain only carbon-carbon single bonds are called alkanes. A C2H5 group is named as ethyl and a C3H7 group is called a propyl group. They are named using a prefix that designates the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and the suffix -ane (see below). You are doing the same thing when ypu have an alkyne. Chemistry Chemical Laws Basics Molecules Periodic Table Projects & Experiments Scientific Method Biochemistry Physical Chemistry You are numbering the C atoms starting with those that have priority functional groups as substituent. Ben Mills Science. In this case, the word methyl- would be put in front of the name of the parent alkene. The alcohol functional group takes precedence over the alkene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adducts of Phenoxathiin and Thianthrene Cation Radicals with Alkenes and Cycloalkenes. AU - Shine, Henry J.. AU - Zhao, Bingjun. AU - Qian, Ding Quan. AU - Marx, John N.. AU - Guzman-Jimenez, Ilse Y.. AU - Thurston, John H.. AU - Ould-Ely, T.. AU - Whitmire, Kenton H.. PY - 2003/11/14. Y1 - 2003/11/14. N2 - Phenoxathiin cation radical perchlorate (PO.+ClO 4-) added stereospecifically to cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cycloheptene, and 1,5-cyclooctadiene to give 1,2-bis(5-phenoxathiiniumyl)cycloalkane diperchlorates (4-7) in good yield. The diaxial configuration of the PO+ groups was confirmed with X-ray crystallography. Unlike additions of thianthrene cation radical perchlorate (Th.+ClO4-) to these cycloalkenes, no evidence for formation of monoadducts was found in the reactions of PO .+ClO4-. This difference is discussed. Addition of Th.+ClO4- to five trans alkenes (2-butene, 2-pentene, 4-methyl-2-pentene, 3-octene, 5-decene) and four cis alkenes (2-pentene, 2-hexene, 2-heptene, ...
We describe herein a concise synthesis of (+)-neopeltolide, a marine macrolide natural product that elicits a highly potent antiproliferative activity against several human cancer cell lines. Our synthesis exploited the powerful bond-forming ability and high functional group compatibility of olefin metathesis and esterification reactions to minimize manipulations of oxygen functionalities and to maximize synthetic convergency. Our findings include a chemoselective olefin cross-metathesis reaction directed by H-bonding, and a ring-closing metathesis conducted under non-high dilution conditions. Moreover, we developed a 16-member stereoisomer library of 8,9-dehydroneopeltolide to systematically explore the stereostructure-activity relationships. Assessment of the antiproliferative activity of the stereoisomers against A549 human lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma, HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma, and P388 murine leukemia cell lines has revealed marked differences in potency between ...
Catalytic cracking of alkenes takes place at elevated temperatures in the order of 773-833 K. In this work, the nature of the reactive intermediates at typical reaction conditions is studied in H-ZSM-5 using a complementary set of modeling tools. Ab initio static and molecular dynamics simulations are performed on different C4single bond C5 alkene cracking intermediates to identify the reactive species in terms of temperature. At 323 K, the prevalent intermediates are linear alkoxides, alkene π-complexes and tertiary carbenium ions. At a typical cracking temperature of 773 K, however, both secondary and tertiary alkoxides are unlikely to exist in the zeolite channels. Instead, more stable carbenium ion intermediates are found. Branched tertiary carbenium ions are very stable, while linear carbenium ions are predicted to be metastable at high temperature. Our findings confirm that carbenium ions, rather than alkoxides, are reactive intermediates in catalytic alkene cracking at 773 K. ...
[194 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Alpha Olefins Market by Type (1-Butene, 1-Hexene, 1-Octene, 1-Decene, 1-Dodecene), Application (Polyolefin Co-monomers, Surfactants and Intermediates, Lubricants, Fine Chemicals, Plasticizers, Oil Field Chemicals), and Region - Global Forecast to 2022 report by MarketsandMarkets. Alpha olefins market projected to reach USD 13.46billion by...
Title:Organocatalyzed Transient Dienamine-Mediated Diels-Alder Reactions between α,β-Unsaturated Ketones and Alkenes. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Iosune Arrastia, Ana Arrieta and Fernando P. Cossio*. Affiliation:Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian/Donostia, Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian/Donostia, Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian/Donostia. Keywords:Organocatalysis, diels-Alder reactions, cycloadditions, michael additions, pericyclic reactions, stepwise mechanisms.. Abstract:Organocatalyzed (4+2) cycloadditions (Diels-Alder reactions) are reviewed in this manuscript. Among the different catalytic alternatives, reactions involving α,β-unsaturated ketones and alkenes are considered. In these processes, substituted cyclohexanones are obtained via HOMO activation generated by amine organocatalysis that generate transient dienamine species. Both concerted and stepwise mechanisms are described. In most cases, excellent regio-, ...
Functionalized nitrogen and oxygen heterocycles are an abundant class of compounds found throughout nature and the chemical industry. Their frequent use in biologically active molecules and as ligands for the metals involved in asymmetric catalysis has made these compounds attractive synthetic targets. The research that follows describes my contributions to alkene and allene difunctionalization catalyzed by copper(II) in the preparation of functionalized pyrrolidines and tetrahydrofurans. In chapter 1 a brief review of the current carboaminaiton literature is given before a new copper(II)-catalyzed carboamination reaction that gives 6-Azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes is discussed. These bridged bicyclic products are formed in a single step from N-sulfonyl-2-aryl-4-pentenamines. Over a range of sulfonyl protecting groups and aryl substituents, the resulting heterocycles were generally formed in good yields with good to excellent enantiomeric excess (ee). Both substrate desymmeterization and reaction ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Au-catalyzed epoxidation of linear alkene with molecular oxygen. AU - Jiang, Jian. AU - Oxford, Sean M.. AU - Fu, Baosong. AU - Kung, Mayfair C.. AU - Kung, Harold H. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Selective oxidation of alkenes that possess allylic hydrogen typically requires the use of expensive and/or environmentally unfriendly oxidants such as peroxides, hydroperoxides, nitrous oxide, oxychlorides, and oxometal complexes. A much more desirable oxidant is molecular oxygen, which, however, only achieves good yield with alkenes without allylic hydrogen or by use with H2, which is potentially explosive. Highly selective epoxidation of propene and butene can be achieved using molecular oxygen in a dilute solution of water in methanol, catalyzed by a suspension of supported Au catalyst and titanium silicalite (TS-1), and using CO as the sacrificial reductant. Results of isotope labeling experiments further infer that the dominant reaction pathway proceeds via the formation of methyl ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comprehensive study of olefin metathesis catalyzed by Ru-based catalysts. AU - Poater, Albert. AU - Cavallo, Luigi. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01. PY - 2015/9/29. Y1 - 2015/9/29. N2 - During a Ru-catalyzed reaction of an olefin with an alkylidene moiety that leads to a metallacycle intermediate, the cis insertion of the olefin can occur from two different directions, namely side and bottom with respect to the phosphine or N-heterocyclic ligand (NHC), depending on the first or second generation Grubbs catalyst. Here, DFT calculations unravel to which extent the bottom coordination of olefins with respect is favored over the side coordination through screening a wide range of catalysts, including first and second generation Grubbs catalysts as well as the subsequent Hoveyda derivatives. The equilibrium between bottom and side coordination is influenced by sterics, electronics, and polarity of the solvent. The side attack is favored for sterically less ...
Anderson, Donde R. and OLeary, Daniel J. and Grubbs, Robert H. (2008) Ruthenium-Olefin Complexes: Effect of Ligand Variation upon Geometry. Chemistry: a European Journal, 14 (25). pp. 7536-7544. ISSN 0947-6539. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:ANDcaej08 Anderson, D. R. and Kane, S. R. (2008) WASP-5b: a dense, very hot Jupiter transiting a 12th-mag Southern-hemisphere star. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 387 (1). L4-L7. ISSN 0035-8711. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150304-112857372 Anderson, Donde R. and Ung, Thay and Mkrtumyan, Garik et al. (2008) Kinetic Selectivity of Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Bearing Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbenes. Organometallics, 27 (4). pp. 563-566. ISSN 0276-7333. PMCID PMC2440574. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150311-104435790 Anderson, Donde R. and Lavallo, Vincent and OLeary, Daniel J. et al. (2007) Synthesis and reactivity of olefin metathesis catalysts bearing cyclic (alkyl) (amino) carbenes. ...
Although the [2 + 2] cycloaddition of alkenes and ketenes to form cyclobutanones is one of the few general methods for the construction of four-membered rings, the intramolecular version of this reaction had been little explored when we started work in this area in the early 1980s.109 These reactions differ from most other pericyclic reactions in that the ketene is a reactive intermediate, which will either rapidly form a cyclobutanone or decompose. The yield is determined by the relative rate of these two processes. Alkenyloxyketenes were chosen for the initial exploratory work because the alkenyloxy carboxylic acids were easily prepared by alkylation of unsaturated alcohols with α-bromo carboxylic acids. The electronic effects of the alkyl substituents on the alkene control the regiochemistry of the cycloaddition and the yield depends on the balance between the nucleophilicity of the alkene and steric hindrance.83,90,109 Leading bond formation occurs between the electrophilic carbonyl carbon ...
Tutorial covering the alkene hydroboration/oxidation reaction, which converts an alkene into an alcohol with anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity and syn stereoselectivity.
The development of intermolecular alkene aminopyridylation has great potential for quickly increasing molecular complexity with two valuable groups. Here we report a strategy for the photocatalytic aminopyridylation of alkenes using a variety of N-aminopyridinium salts as both aminating and pyridylating reagents. Using Eosin Y as a photocatalyst, amino and pyridyl groups are simultaneously incorporated into alkenes, affording synthetically useful aminoethyl pyridine derivatives under mild reaction conditions. Remarkably, the C4-regioselectivity in radical trapping with N-aminopyridinium salt can be controlled by electrostatic interaction between the pyridinium nitrogen and sulfonyl group of β-amino radical. This transformation is characterized by a broad substrate scope, good functional group compatibility, and the utility of this transformation was further demonstrated by late-stage functionalization of complex biorelevant molecules. Combining experiments and DFT calculations on the mechanism ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure and biochemical properties of the alkene producing cytochrome p450 OleTJE (CYP152l1) from the jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456 bacterium. AU - Belcher, James. AU - McLean, Kirsty J.. AU - Matthews, Sarah. AU - Woodward, Laura S.. AU - Fisher, Karl. AU - Rigby, Stephen E.J.. AU - Nelson, David. AU - Potts, Donna. AU - Baynham, Michael T.. AU - Parker, David A.. AU - Leys, David. AU - Munro, Andrew W.. PY - 2014/3/7. Y1 - 2014/3/7. N2 - Background: OleTJE oxidatively decarboxylates fatty acids to produce terminal alkenes. Results: OleTJE is an efficient peroxide-dependent lipid decarboxylase, with high affinity substrate binding and the capacity to be resolubilized from precipitate in an active form. Conclusion: OleTJE has key differences in active site structure and substrate binding/mechanistic properties from related CYP152 hydroxylases. Significance: OleTJE is an efficient and robust biocatalyst with applications in biofuel production.. AB - Background: OleTJE oxidatively ...
Commonly, researchers must use rare, toxic metals and harsh reaction conditions to complete this transformation. Using a more sustainable catalyst for the reaction could solve such problems. Previous research has attempted to do so, yet with only limited success.. In a study recently published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, researchers from Osaka University synthesized vicinal diamines from unactivated alkenes, using iodine as the catalyst. The synthetic protocol, appropriate for both anti- and syn-addition, is realistic, useful, and environmentally friendly.. We synthesized all diastereomers of vicinal diamines by anti-addition-adding two substituents to opposite sides of the double bond, says Satoshi Minakata, lead and senior author. In the presence of a molecular iodine catalyst, unactivated alkenes reacted with commercially available nosylamide and sodium hypochlorite, to yield the intended products in a stereospecific manner.. The reactions were complete within 12 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficient approach to medium-sized cyclic molecules containing (E)-Alkene via z to e photochemical isomerization in the presence of AgNO3-impregnated silica gel. AU - Machida, Kouhei. AU - Yoshida, Yuki. AU - Igawa, Kazunobu. AU - Tomooka, Katsuhiko. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Efficient synthesis of medium-sized cyclic molecules containing an (E)-alkene was performed via the highly (E)selective photochemical isomerization of the (Z)-isomer, facilitated by AgNO3-impregnated silica gel.. AB - Efficient synthesis of medium-sized cyclic molecules containing an (E)-alkene was performed via the highly (E)selective photochemical isomerization of the (Z)-isomer, facilitated by AgNO3-impregnated silica gel.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85040991533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85040991533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1246/cl.170937. DO - 10.1246/cl.170937. M3 - Article. VL - 47. SP - 186. EP - 188. JO - Chemistry ...
In alkenes we have a C=C bond and one bond is a sigma bond and the other one is pie bond. In ethene (simplest alkene) , Each of the carbon atoms is sp2-hybridized, and the double bond possesses a component and a component. The component results when an sp2 orbital of one carbon, oriented so that its axis lies along the inter-nuclear axis, overlaps with a similarly disposed sp2 orbital of the other carbon. Each sp2 orbital contains one electron, and the resulting bond contains two of the four electrons of the double bond. The bond contributes the other two electrons and is formed by a sideby-side overlap of singly occupied p orbitals of the two carbons. ...
Alkenes are from the family of hydrocarbons which also includes alkanes along with many other substances. Alkenes are very useful to us in our daily life, but do you know what they are?
Hindered phenol stabilized, stereoregular polymers of branched, higher alpha-olefins can be modified with unsaturated silanes, carboxylic acids, and/or carboxylic acid anhydrides in the presence of a free radical generator in the polymer melt. These polymers can also contain additional additives, such as glass fibers. An aliphatic thio compound is added after the grafting procedure for maximum beneficial effect.
Oxidation is an important route for the activation of chemical feedstocks for the synthesis of chemical intermediates. Alkene epoxidation by the electrophilic addition of oxygen to a carbon-carbon double bond is a major challenge in oxidation catalysis. In particular it is important to use molecular oxygen as the oxidant to avoid the formation of reagent by-products. We report the oxidation with air using graphite-supported gold-palladium catalysts of two alkenes, cis-cyclooctene, which gives mainly the epoxide, and crotyl alcohol (trans-but-2-en-1-ol). With cyclooctene, the reaction requires catalytic amounts of t-butyl hydroperoxide. The Au-Pd ratio has a major effect on the conversion with very low activities being associated with Au:Pd ratios of ca. 4:1 and 1:4 by weight. The selectivity to the epoxide is not affected by the Au:Pd ratio. With crotyl alcohol, t-butyl hydroperoxide was not required for activity. In the absence of Pd, crotonaldehyde was formed, but the introduction of Pd leads ...
A general strategy for visible-light-enabled site-selective trifluoromethylative pyridylation of unactivated alkenes has been developed using pyridines and triflic anhydride (Tf2O). Intriguingly, the N-triflylpyridinium salts, generated in situ from pyridines and Tf2O, serve as effective modular bifunctional reagents to install both CF3 and pyridyl groups to various olefins while controlling C4-selectivity in radical addition to the pyridine core. This synthetic route exhibited broad substrate scope under metal-free and mild photocatalytic conditions, granting efficient access to valuable C4-alkylated pyridines and quinolines without requiring prefunctionalization of the reaction site ...
Alkenes, like Alkanes, have carbon backbones but contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Double bonds are reactive and can be reduced to single bonds using hydrogen gas, pressure, and a catalyst, such as Pd or Pt. Alternatively, Alkenes can be reduced to Alkanes by reacting with Hydrogen gas over a Nickel catalyst. Nickel acts as a heterogeneous surface catalyst, weakening the H-H bonds in hydrogen, thus speeding up the reaction. This also leads to syn addition, where both of the hydrogens are added to the same side of the double bond. General Alkene Formula: CnH2n. Suffix: ene Example: CH2CH2 - Ethene See the alkane naming scheme for branched molecules, as the same principal applies to alkenes we simply retain the ene rather than the ane ending. However, the placement of the double bond matters when naming. Example: CH3(CH)2CH3 - 2-butene Example: CH2CHCH2CH3 - 1-butene IUPAC rules actually specify that alkenes should be named as but-1-ene, but-2-ene, and so on; but the practice ...
Alkyl bromides are key intermediates in many multi-step organic syntheses and are commonly synthesized from the hydrobromination of alkenes. While both the Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov product can theoretically be produced from either the electrophilic addition mechanism or the radical mechanism, the electrophilic addition mechanism produces predominately the Markovnikov product while the radical mechanism mainly produces the anti-Markovnikov product. The regiochemistry of this reaction is controlled by the absence or presence of radicals. The addition of UV radiation or peroxide results in radical formation which yields predominately the anti-Markovnikov product. To improve the synthesis of the anti-Markovnikov product, conditions need to be modified to favor the production of radicals over carbocations. The objective of this research is to develop an efficient synthesis of the anti-Markovnikov alkyl bromides by generating hydrobromic acid from the in situ hydrolysis of phosphorous ...
A nitroalkene, or nitro olefin, is a functional group combining the functionality of its constituent parts, an alkene and nitro group, while displaying its own chemical properties through alkene activation, making the functional group useful in specialty reactions such as the Michael reaction or Diels-Alder additions. Nitroalkenes are synthesized by various means, notable examples include: Nitroaldol reactions such as the Henry reaction: Nitration of an alkene with nitryl iodide generated in-situ from silver nitrite and elemental iodine: Direct nitration of alkenes with nitric oxide and an aluminum oxide catalyst in acidic conditions: Direct nitration of alkenes with Clayfen (Iron(III) nitrate supported on Montmorillonite clay): Dehydration of nitro-alcohols: Nitroalkenes are useful intermediates for various chemical functionalities. A nitroalkene behaving as a Michael acceptor in the synthesis of Lycoricidine: Nitroalkene acting as an activated dienophile toward butadiene in an Diels-Alder ...
Bromine water test for alkenes. When an alkene is added to a solution of bromine water (left) the solution is de-colourised (right). Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. The number of hydrogen atoms in an alkene is double the number of carbon atoms. Alkenes can de-colourise bromine water, while alkanes cannot. - Stock Image C029/0955
Olefin metathesis is an organic reaction that entails the redistribution of fragments of alkenes (olefins) by the scission and regeneration of carbon-carbon double bonds. Because of the relative simplicity of olefin metathesis, it often creates fewer undesired by-products and hazardous wastes than alternative organic reactions. For their elucidation of the reaction mechanism and their discovery of a variety of highly active catalysts, Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs, and Richard R. Schrock were collectively awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The reaction requires metal catalysts. Most commercially important processes employ heterogeneous catalysts, but well-defined homogeneous catalysts are also active. The heterogeneous catalysts are often prepared by in-situ activation of a metal halide using organoaluminium or organotin compounds, e.g. combining WCl6-EtOH-EtAlCl2. A typical catalyst support is alumina. Commercial catalysts are often based on molybdenum and ruthenium. Well-defined ...
Arnab Kumar Chatterjee was born in Calcutta, India in 1975. After completing a Bachelor of Arts in Chemistry and minor in Business from Northwestern University in 1997, he proceeded on to the California Institute of Technology in October 1998 to conduct his doctoral thesis research in the laboratory of Professor Robert H. Grubbs in the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. His doctoral research focused on understanding the reactivity and selectivity patterns of olefin cross-metathesis reactions using catalytic ruthenium alkylidenes. He also discovered previously unprecedented formation of trisubstituted olefins andunsaturated olefins by intermolecular olefin metathesis chemistry, greatly expanding the olefin cross-metathesis methodology. Subsequently, Professor Robert H. Grubbs was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2005 for his work in the area olefin metathesis. Upon completion of his doctoral research in September 2002, Arnab joined the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research
In a previous post we went through the key reactions of the carbocation pathway. Its a family of reactions which proceed through 1) attack of an alkene upon an acid, forming a free carbocation, and 2) attack of a nucleophile upon the carbocation.. Although we saw that several key reactions of alkenes were consistent with this mechanism, it isnt the case for all. Take the bromination of alkenes, for instance.. Treatment of an alkene with bromine (Br2) in a chlorinated solvent (CHCl3, and CH2Cl2 are popular choices; CCl4 is often cited in textbooks*) leads to the formation of products containing two bromine atoms.. Observation #1: Bromination Proceeds with anti stereochemistry. Possibly the most interesting feature of this reaction is that the products follow a very predictable stereochemical pattern. For instance, in the reaction of cyclohexene with Br2, the two bromine atoms add to opposite faces of the alkene (anti stereochemistry). No syn products are observed.. ...
Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as drop-in biofuels. Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level is extremely low. Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks and possible solutions to accomplish industrial level production of these chemicals by microbial fermentation ...
Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as drop-in biofuels. Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level is extremely low. Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks and possible solutions to accomplish industrial level production of these chemicals by microbial fermentation.
Alkenes - Organic Chemistry 2 Chemistry Coach | The alkenes are studied in this chapter: the naming and properties of alkenes, the pi bond in chemistry, the preparation of alkenes with the Saytzev and the Hofmann rules, the degree of unsaturation of a chemical compound.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rhodium-catalyzed anti-markovnikov addition of secondary amines to arylacetylenes at room temperature. AU - Sakai, Kazunori. AU - Kochi, Takuya. AU - Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi. PY - 2011/8/5. Y1 - 2011/8/5. N2 - An efficient method for synthesis of E-enamines by the anti-Markovnikov addition of secondary amines to terminal alkynes is described. The reaction of a variety of aryl- and heteroarylacetylenes proceeded at room temperature using a combination of a 8-quinolinolato rhodium complex and P(p-MeOC6H 4)3 as a catalyst. The products were obtained as enamines by simple bulb-to-bulb distillation.. AB - An efficient method for synthesis of E-enamines by the anti-Markovnikov addition of secondary amines to terminal alkynes is described. The reaction of a variety of aryl- and heteroarylacetylenes proceeded at room temperature using a combination of a 8-quinolinolato rhodium complex and P(p-MeOC6H 4)3 as a catalyst. The products were obtained as enamines by simple bulb-to-bulb ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Hydroamination of alkenes. AU - Reznichenko, Alexander L.. AU - Hultzsch, Kai C.. N1 - Funding Information: Generous financial support by the National Science Foundation through a NSF CAREER Award (CHE 0956021) and the ACS Petroleum Research Fund (PRF #49109-ND1) is gratefully acknowledged. Publisher Copyright: © 2016 Organic Reactions, Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The addition of an amine NH-functionality to alkenes (including vinyl arenes, conjugated dienes, allenes or ring-strained alkenes), the so-called hydroamination, represents a simple and highly atom-economical approach for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing products. A large variety of catalyst systems are available, ranging from alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth, Group 4 and Group 5 metals, to late transition metal catalysts, and, less prominent, Brønsted and Lewis acid-based catalyst systems. The mode of operation of these catalyst systems can vary ...
Peili Teo and Robert H. Grubbs of California Institute of Technology are reporting the preparation of ruthenium olefin cross-metathesis catalysts that improve selectivity for making Z (cis) alkenes, which are common in natural products and thus important to synthetic organic chemistry (Organometallics, DOI: 10.1021/om1007924). In the past, nearly all ring-opening and cross-metathesis reactions catalyzed by Grubbss ruthenium catalysts or by molybdenum catalysts such as those prepared by Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Richard R. Schrock predominantly yielded E (trans) alkenes. Schrock, Amir H. Hovedya of Boston College, and coworkers recently developed molybdenum monoalkoxide-pyrrolide catalysts that are successful in selectively making Z alkenes (C&EN, Sept. 13, page 33). Teo and Grubbs have followed suit with ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts that contain bulky sulfonate and phosphate ligands. For example, the sulfonate catalyst shown is easy to prepare, air-stable, and has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New oxidative transformations of alkenes and alkynes under the action of diacetoxyiodobenzene. AU - Yusubov, M. S.. AU - Zholobova, G. A.. AU - Filimonova, I. L.. AU - Chi, Ki Whan. PY - 2004/8/1. Y1 - 2004/8/1. N2 - Treatment of alkenes and alkynes with diacetoxyiodobenzene activated by mineral and organic acids predominantly results in oxidative rearrangement. 1,4-Diphenylbutadiene in MeOH gives 3,4-dimethoxy-1,4-diphenylbut-1-ene.. AB - Treatment of alkenes and alkynes with diacetoxyiodobenzene activated by mineral and organic acids predominantly results in oxidative rearrangement. 1,4-Diphenylbutadiene in MeOH gives 3,4-dimethoxy-1,4-diphenylbut-1-ene.. KW - Alkenes. KW - Alkynes. KW - Diacetoxyiodobenzene. KW - Oxidative rearrangement. KW - Polyvalent iodine compounds. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=14944340734&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=14944340734&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s11172-005-0027-8. DO - ...
TY - GEN. T1 - A new sinthetic application of (dichloroiodo)benzene in reactions with alkenes and alkynes. AU - Yusubova, R. J.. AU - Filimonov, V. D.. AU - Yusubov, M. S.. AU - Chi, Ki Whan. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - A convenient synthesis of vicinal methoxychlorides, methoxyiodides from alkenes and alkynes using PhICl2/CH3OH, I 2/PhICl2/CH3OH is described.. AB - A convenient synthesis of vicinal methoxychlorides, methoxyiodides from alkenes and alkynes using PhICl2/CH3OH, I 2/PhICl2/CH3OH is described.. KW - (dichloroiodo)Benzene. KW - Alkenes. KW - Alkynes. KW - Chloromethoxylation. KW - Iodomethoxylation. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=29144459782&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=29144459782&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:29144459782. SN - 0780383834. SN - 9780780383838. VL - 2. SP - 97. EP - 98. BT - 8th Korea-Russia International Symposium on Science and Technology - Proceedings: KORUS 2004. ER - ...
Inhibitors of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts. Inhibitors of Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to a catalytic system comprising a precatalyst, a precatalyst activator and the relationship between an inhibitor. Further, the invention relates to essay about education in south the use of the relationship and disposable income that this catalytic system in ring-opening metathesis polymerisation reactions. Background of the Invention. Polydicyclopentadiene (poly-DCPD) is obtained through Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerisation (ROMP) of essay be free in south dicyclopentadiene (DCPD). ROMP reaction is a metal carbene catalysed reaction using strained cyclic olefins to the relationship consumption and disposable income that produce a wide range of polymers. Poly-DCPD has excellent impact performance, superior chemical resistance, very low water absorption, very low dielectric constant and a high electrical strength. Todays commercial ...
A Modified System for the Synthesis of Enantioenriched N-Arylamines through Copper-Catalyzed Hydroamination Despite significant recent progress in copper-catalyzed enantioselective hydroamination chemistry, the synthesis of chiral N-arylamines, which are frequently found in natural products and pharmaceuticals, has not been realized. Initial experiments with N-arylhydroxylamine ester electrophiles were unsuccessful and instead, their reduction, in the presence of copper hydride (CuH) catalysts, was observed. We detail key modifications of our previously reported hydroamination protocols that led to broadly applicable conditions for the enantioselective net addition of secondary anilines across the double bond of styrenes, 1,1 -disubstituted alkenes, and terminal alkenes. NMR studies suggest that suppression of the undesired reduction pathway is the basis for the dramatic improvements in yield under this new protocol. Chapter 2 ...
Markovnikov vs Anti-Markovnikov in Alkene Addition Reactions Tutorial for Organic Chemistry Students -Step by step how to decide which products will form! Mark or AntiMark? Markovnikovs rule is less about memorizing what goes where and more about understanding that if theres a carbocation intermediate it will form on the most substituted carbon atom.
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Tool for Para-selective Olefination of Aniline: A DFT Supported Mechanism.
Alkenes are known to react with hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces to produce robust organic monolayers that are attached to the surface via covalent Si-C bonds. In this report we investigate the dependence of the rate of alkylation of porous silicon samples on the reaction time using photochemical initiation. The kinetics of the photochemical alkylation of hydrogen-terminated porous silicon by undec-1-ene in toluene were observed to be pseudo first order, however the apparent rate constant decreased as the concentration of undec-1-ene increased. This behaviour is opposite to what would be expected if the rate-limiting process was an elementary chemical reaction step involving the alkene. Instead, it suggests that transport of the alkene to reactive sites and in the correct orientation is the rate-limiting step. Comparison of the rates of alkylation of porous silicon by undec-1-ene and dimethoxytrityl (DMT)-undecenol is consistent with such an interpretation as the bulky DMT headgroup gives a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methyltrioxorhenium supported on silica tethered with polyethers as catalyst for the epoxidation of alkenes with hydrogen peroxide. AU - Neumann, Ronny. AU - Wang, Tie Jun. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Methyltrioxorhenium has been supported on silica functionalized with polyether tethers; in the absence of an organic solvent, this catalytic assembly catalysed the epoxidation of alkenes with 30% aqueous H2O2 in high selectivity compared to the ring opening products observed in homogeneous media.. AB - Methyltrioxorhenium has been supported on silica functionalized with polyether tethers; in the absence of an organic solvent, this catalytic assembly catalysed the epoxidation of alkenes with 30% aqueous H2O2 in high selectivity compared to the ring opening products observed in homogeneous media.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0001882561&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
A method is described for the gas chromatographic-electron-capture detection determination of alkenes via on-column bromination reactions. Pyridinium bromide perbromide (PBPB) was used as the Br2 source, and a cholesterol-glass beads mixture, treated with methanol, was used to remove excess Br2. The optimum ratio of cholesterol to glass beads was found to be 1:10, at which 93% of the bromine released from PBPB can be removed, without removal of the derivitized analytes. The conversion efficiency of alkene to the brominated derivative is extremely low (less than 2%) for ethene, whereas for propene and 1-butene it is 41 and 79%, respectively. For C3---C5 alkenes, this method is 200-300 times more sensitive than analysis of the underivitized analytes by using conventional flame ionization detection.. ...
This highlight discusses developments in transition metal-catalysed alkene and alkyne hydroacylation reactions over the past three years. The discussion summarizes the development of new catalyst systems for alkene and alkyne hydroacylation and applications to the synthesis of important ketone building blocks. The highlight captures transition metal-catalysed alkene and alkyne hydroacylation at a time of impressive growth when cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, and iridium catalysts are emerging as complements or replacements for traditional rhodium catalysts.
The domino three-component coupling reaction of arynes with DMF and active methylenes or methines was studied as a highly efficient method for preparing heterocycles. Coumarin derivative 5 was formed when diethyl malonate (2) or α-bromomalonate (3) were used as a C2-unit. In contrast, dihydrobenzofurans 7a and 7b were obtained by using α-chloroenolates generated from α-chloromalonates 4a and 4b and Et2Zn. The benzofuran 15a could be obtained by using ethyl iodoacetate (14) as a C1-unit. The one-pot conversion of dihydrobenzofurans 7a, 7b and 8a into benzofurans 15a and 15b was also studied. The direct synthesis of benzofuran 15b was achieved by using the active methine 18 having ketone and ester groups.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enantioselective Hydroamination of Alkenes with Sulfonamides Enabled by Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer. AU - Roos, Casey B.. AU - Demaerel, Joachim. AU - Graff, David E.. AU - Knowles, Robert R.. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - An enantioselective, radical-based method for the intramolecular hydroamination of alkenes with sulfonamides is reported. These reactions are proposed to proceed via N-centered radicals formed by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) activation of sulfonamide N-H bonds. Noncovalent interactions between the neutral sulfonamidyl radical and a chiral phosphoric acid generated in the PCET event are hypothesized to serve as the basis for asymmetric induction in a subsequent C-N bond forming step, achieving selectivities of up to 98:2 er. These results offer further support for the ability of noncovalent interactions to enforce stereoselectivity in reactions of transient and highly reactive open-shell intermediates.. AB - An enantioselective, ...
The use of olefin cross metathesis in preparing functional polymers, through either pre-functionalisation of monomers or post-polymerisation functionalisation is growing in both scope and breadth. The broad functional group tolerance of olefin metathesis offers a wealth of opportunities for introducing a bro
TY - JOUR. T1 - Binding energy of d10 transition metals to alkenes by wave function theory and density functional theory. AU - Averkiev, Boris B.. AU - Zhao, Yan. AU - Truhlar, Donald G.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - It is shown that new density functionals provide accurate binding energies for conjugated alkenes in Pd and Pt complexes.. AB - It is shown that new density functionals provide accurate binding energies for conjugated alkenes in Pd and Pt complexes.. KW - Binding energy. KW - Brueckner coupled cluster calculations. KW - Conjugated pi systems. KW - Density functionals. KW - Pd and Pt complexes. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954175093&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77954175093&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.molcata.2010.03.016. DO - 10.1016/j.molcata.2010.03.016. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:77954175093. VL - 324. SP - 80. EP - 88. JO - Journal of Molecular ...
Organometallic compound - Organometallic compound - Alkene and alkyne ligands: An alkene ligand contains a π bond between carbon atoms, C=C, which can serve as an electron pair donor in a metal complex, as in the case of Zeises salt (see above Historical developments). This complex may be prepared by bubbling ethylene, C2H4, through an aqueous solution of [PtCl4]2− in the presence of divalent tin, Sn(II), which aids in the removal of the chloride ion (Cl−) from the coordination sphere of the divalent platinum, Pt(II). The alkene ligand bonds to the metal centre by both electron donation and acceptance, similar to the situation with carbon monoxide. Electron donor-and-acceptor character between
cis-trans and E-Z naming scheme for alkenes | Alkenes and Alkynes | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy - lesson plan ideas from Spiral.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium p-toluenesulfinate/copper(II) acetate in free radical reactions of 5-aryl substituted alkenes. AU - Wang, Sheow Fong. AU - Chuang, Che Ping. AU - Lee, Jia Han. AU - Liu, Shui Te. PY - 1999/2/19. Y1 - 1999/2/19. N2 - p-Toluenesulfonyl radical can be generated from sodium p- toluenesulfinate in aqueous acetic acid or formic acid. Sulfonyl radical mediating reaction of 5-aryl substituted alkenes with sodium p- toluenesulfinate/copper(II) acetate gave p-toluenesulfonylmethyl substituted naphthalene and isoquinoline derivatives. This reaction proceeded much faster in aqueous formic acid than in aqueous acetic acid. The cyclization mode (Ar2-6 vs Ar1-5) of the 5-phenyl-1-butyl radical is strongly dependent on the geometry of the tether of the radical intermediate.. AB - p-Toluenesulfonyl radical can be generated from sodium p- toluenesulfinate in aqueous acetic acid or formic acid. Sulfonyl radical mediating reaction of 5-aryl substituted alkenes with sodium p- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-Markovnikov terminal and gem-olefin hydrosilylation using a κ 4 -diimine nickel catalyst. T2 - selectivity for alkene hydrosilylation over ether C-O bond cleavage. AU - Rock, Christopher L.. AU - Trovitch, Ryan. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The phosphine-substituted α-diimine Ni precursor, ( Ph 2 PPr DI)Ni, has been found to catalyze alkene hydrosilylation in the presence of Ph 2 SiH 2 with turnover frequencies of up to 124 h −1 at 25 °C (990 h −1 at 60 °C). Moreover, the selective hydrosilylation of allylic and vinylic ethers has been demonstrated, even though ( Ph 2 PPr DI)Ni is known to catalyze allyl ester C-O bond hydrosilylation. At 70 °C, this catalyst has been found to mediate the hydrosilylation of ten different gem-olefins, with turnover numbers of up to 740 under neat conditions. Prior and current mechanistic observations suggest that alkene hydrosilylation takes place though a Chalk-Harrod mechanism following phosphine donor dissociation. AB - The ...
Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen); Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides ...
Alkene Reactions Organic Chemistry Cheat Sheet Study Guide - See all the alkene reactions at a glance including reactants, reagents, products, regioselectivity and stereoselectivity showing Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov, syn/anti additions and more
Author(s): Shen, Xiao; Nguyen, Thach T; Koh, Ming Joo; Xu, Dongmin; Speed, Alexander WH; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H | Abstract: Macrocyclic compounds are central to the development of new drugs, but preparing them can be challenging because of the energy barrier that must be surmounted in order to bring together and fuse the two ends of an acyclic precursor such as an alkene (also known as an olefin). To this end, the catalytic process known as ring-closing metathesis (RCM) has allowed access to countless biologically active macrocyclic organic molecules, even for large-scale production. Stereoselectivity is often critical in such cases: the potency of a macrocyclic compound can depend on the stereochemistry of its alkene; alternatively, one isomer of the compound can be subjected to stereoselective modification (such as dihydroxylation). Kinetically controlled Z-selective RCM reactions have been reported, but the only available metathesis approach for accessing macrocyclic E-olefins entails
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transition-Metal-Free Catalysts for the Sustainable Epoxidation of Alkenes. T2 - From Discovery to Optimisation by Means of High Throughput Experimentation. AU - Lueangchaichaweng, Warunee. AU - Geukens, Inge. AU - Peeters, Annelies. AU - Jarry, Benjamin. AU - Launay, Franck. AU - Bonardet, Jean-Luc. AU - Jacobs, Pierre A.. AU - Pescarmona, Paolo P.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Transition-metal-free oxides were studied as heterogeneous catalysts for the sustainable epoxidation of alkenes with aqueous H2O2 by means of high throughput experimentation (HTE) techniques. A full-factorial HTE approach was applied in the various stages of the development of the catalysts: the synthesis of the materials, their screening as heterogeneous catalysts in liquid-phase epoxidation and the optimisation of the reaction conditions. Initially, the chemical composition of transition-metal-free oxides was screened, leading to the discovery of gallium oxide as a novel, active and selective ...
Alkenes are oxidized rapidly in the atmosphere by addition of OH and subsequently O2 leading to the formation of β-hydroxy peroxy radicals. These peroxy radicals react with NO to form β-hydroxy nitrates with a branching ratio α. We quantify α for C2 -C8 alkenes at 295 K ± 3 and 993 hPa. The branching ratio can be expressed as α = (0.045 ± 0.016) × N −(0.11 ± 0.05) where N is the number of heavy atoms (excluding the peroxy moiety), and listed errors are 2σ . These branching ratios are larger than previously reported and are similar to those for peroxy radicals formed from H abstraction from alkanes. We find the isomer distributions of β-hydroxy nitrates formed under NO-dominated peroxy radical chemistry to be different than the isomer distribution of hydroxy hydroperoxides produced under HO2 dominated peroxy radical chemistry. Assuming unity yield for the hydroperoxides implies that the branching ratio to form β-hydroxy nitrates increases with substitution of RO2 . Deuterium ...
Three stereoisomeric inhibitors of Pin1: (2R,5S)-, (2S,5R)- and (2S,5S)-Ac-pSer-Ψ[(Z)CH = C]-pipecolyl(Pip)-2-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine 1, that mimic L-pSer-D-Pro, D-pSer-L-Pro, and D-pSer-D-Pro amides respectively, were synthesized by a 13-step route. The newly formed stereogenic centers in the pipecolyl ring were introduced by Luche reduction, followed by stereospecific [2,3]-Still-Wittig rearrangement. The (Z)- to (E)-alkene ratio in the rearrangements were consistently 5.5 to 1. The stereochemistry at the original Ser α-carbon controlled the stereochemistry of the Luche reduction, but it did not affect the stereochemical outcome of the rearrangement, which consistently gave the (Z)-alkene. The epimerized by-product, (2S,5S)-10, resulting from the work-up after Na/NH3 debenzylation of (2S,5R)-9, was carried on to the (2S,5S)-1 isomer. Compound (2S,5S)-10 was resynthesized from the Luche reduction by-product, (2R,3R)-3, and the stereochemistry was confirmed by comparison of the optical ...
Advances in fossil fuel exploration have continued to drive availability of lower alkane feedstocks for the chemical industry. Lower alkanes are potential precursors to the plethora of basic organic chemicals. However, conversion of lower alkanes to valuable chemicals often involves indirect or multi-step reaction routes. Developing direct routes to obtain key organic chemicals from lower alkanes would benefit industry. Dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes are particularly of interest as alternatives to steam cracking and fluid catalytic cracking for obtaining C2 and C3 alkenes. This review highlights developments in non-oxidative, autothermal and oxidative dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes.We examine reaction routes to dehydrogenation of lower alkenes, and analyze the C-H activation mechanismof commercial catalysts in order to gain insight into rational design of improved catalysts for C2 and C3 alkane dehydrogenation at lower temperatures.. ...
Alkanes, Alkenes vs Alkynes Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are all hydrocarbons with different structures and thus different physical and chemical properties.
Alkenes[edit]. *Tricycle: amitriptyline, melitracen, cyclobenzaprine, tianeptine, amineptine, clopenthixol, chlorprothixene, ...
Alkenes[edit]. Alkenes often produce stronger molecular ion peaks than alkanes due to the lower ionization energy of a pi ... Similar to alkenes, alkynes often show strong molecular ion peak. Propargylic cleavage is a most significant fragmentation mode ... Cycloalkanes have relatively intense molecular ion peaks (two bonds have to break). Alkene fragmentation peaks are often most ...
Oxidation of alkenes[edit]. Alkenes add to OsO4 to give diolate species that hydrolyze to cis-diols. The net process is called ... In organic synthesis OsO4 is widely used to oxidise alkenes to the vicinal diols, adding two hydroxyl groups at the same side ( ... This "ligand-acceleration" arises via the formation of adduct OsO4L, which adds more rapidly to the alkene. If the amine is ... In combination with sodium periodate, OsO4 is used for the oxidative cleavage of alkenes (Lemieux-Johnson oxidation) when the ...
Alkene and tetrazine inverse-demand Diels-Alder[edit]. A Tetrazine-Alkene reaction between a generalized tetrazine and a ... Reactions of strained alkenes[edit]. Strained alkenes also utilize strain-relief as a driving force that allows for their ... Alkene and tetrazole photoclick reaction[edit]. The tetrazole-alkene "photoclick" reaction is another dipolar addition that ... Alkene and azide [3+2] cycloaddition[edit]. Oxanorbornadiene (or another activated alkene) reacts with azides, giving triazoles ...
Electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes[edit]. Alcohols add to electrophilically activated alkenes. ... Ethers are more polar than alkenes but not as polar as alcohols, esters, or amides of comparable structure. The presence of two ... Epoxides are typically prepared by oxidation of alkenes. The most important epoxide in terms of industrial scale is ethylene ... By the oxidation of alkenes with a peroxyacid such as m-CPBA. ... Alkene (Allyl, Vinyl). *Alkyl (Methyl, Ethyl, Propyl, Butyl, ...
Ozonolysis of alkenes using a work up in the presence of hydrochloric acid and various alcohols.[19] ... Addition of carboxylic acids to alkenes and alkynes[edit]. In the presence of palladium-based catalysts, ethylene, acetic acid ... Alkenes undergo "hydroesterification" in the presence of metal carbonyl catalysts. Esters of propionic acid are produced ... Esters with β-hydrogen atoms can be converted to alkenes in ester pyrolysis. ...
"Alkenes from Tosylhydrazones". Org. React. 23 (3): 405-507. doi:10.1002/0471264180.or023.03. ISBN 0471264180. CS1 maint: ...
... alkenes > alkynes Because the Diels-Alder reaction exchanges two π bonds for two σ bonds, it is intrinsically thermodynamically ...
... and Z-alkenes. As an alkene-generating transformation, the Bamford-Stevens reaction has broad utility in synthetic methodology ... The mechanism of this transformation is thought to proceed in a manner similar to the synthesis of alkenes through the Bamford- ... The Bamford-Stevens reaction is a chemical reaction whereby treatment of tosylhydrazones with strong base gives alkenes. It is ... Shapiro, R. H. (March 1976). "Alkenes from Tosylhydrazones". Organic Reactions. 23. New York: Wiley. pp. 405-507. ISBN 0-471- ...
This reaction is relevant to the catalytic production of butenes and related alkenes. Early examples of metallacyclopentanes ... In the evolution of heterogeneous alkene metathesis catalysts, metallacyclopentanes are invoked as intermediates in the ... Thus, metallacyclopentane intermediates are proposed to isomerize to metallacyclobutanes, which can eliminate alkene giving the ... hdl:1721.1/115114.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Lindner, Ekkehard (1986). "Metallacycloalkanes and -alkenes". ...
The four main categories are (1) nucleophilic attack on an alkene alkyne, or allyl ligand and (2) insertion of the alkene into ... Hydroamination is the addition of an N-H bond of an amine across a carbon-carbon multiple bond of an alkene, alkyne, diene, or ... First, the catalyst is activated by amide exchange, generating the active catalyst (i). Next, the alkene inserts into the Ln-N ... Both systems produced the desired allyl amines in high yield, which contain an alkene that can be further functionalized ...
Treatment of the phenylaziridinylhydrazone with 0.3 equivalents of LDA in ether resulted in the alkene shown below with a cis: ... On the way to (-)-phytocassane D, a tricyclic ketone was subjected to Shapiro reaction conditions to yield the cyclic alkene ... To combat this problem, Yamamoto and coworkers developed an efficient stereoselective and regioselective route to alkenes using ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)75263-4. Shapiro, Robert H. (1976). "Alkenes from Tosylhydrazones". Organic Reactions. Org. React. 23 ...
It can be purified by recrystallization from 90-95 °C water (10 g of NBS for 100 mL of water). NBS will react with alkenes 1 in ... Haufe, G.; Alvernhe, G.; Laurent, A.; Ernet, T.; Goj, O.; Kröger, S.; Sattler, A. (2004). "Bromofluorination of alkenes". ... The preferred conditions are the portionwise addition of NBS to a solution of the alkene in 50% aqueous DMSO, DME, THF, or tert ... Preparative aspects of electrophilic three-component reactions with alkenes]. J. Prakt. Chem. 333 (5): 677-698. doi:10.1002/ ...
Singlet carbenes add stereospecifically to alkenes, and alkene stereochemistry is retained in the cyclopropane product.[1] The ... It is also favorable to mix the carbene empty p orbital with the filled alkene π orbital. Favorable mixing occurs through a non ... One of the most synthetically important cheletropic reactions is the addition of a singlet carbene to an alkene to make a ... Interaction of the filled carbene orbital with the alkene π system creates a four-electron system and favors a non-linear ...
Oxymercuration is not limited to an alkene reacting with water. Using an alkyne instead of an alkene yields an enol, which ... In oxymercuration, the alkene reacts with mercuric acetate (AcO-Hg-OAc) in aqueous solution to yield the addition of an ... The oxymercuration reaction is an electrophilic addition organic reaction that transforms an alkene into a neutral alcohol. ... Oxymercuration reduction is a popular laboratory technique to achieve alkene hydration with Markovnikov selectivity while ...
... but give carboxylic acids instead of aldehydes for terminal alkenes. Loudon, Marc G. (2002). "Addition Reactions of Alkenes.". ... This means that one mole of hydroborane will undergo the reaction with three moles of alkene. Furthermore, it is not necessary ... This hydroboration is repeated two additional times, successively reacting each B-H bond so that three alkenes add to each BH3 ... The reaction sequence is also stereospecific, giving syn addition (on the same face of the alkene): the hydroboration is syn- ...
The cis alkenes, due to their U-bending shape, cannot arrange themselves as closely as the trans ones, so they will have lower ... In alkene ligand, the bonding structure can be described by Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model. In this case, the π electron density ... An example of this is NBS bromination reaction with alkene. The N−Br bond in NBS is weak so that much Br free radical will form ... Alkenes are more affected by number of electrons and have lower boiling points than alkanes. The boiling and melting points ...
... s are usually prepared by treatment of an alkene with a halogen, in the presence of water. The reaction is a form of ... "Addition Reactions of Alkenes". Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Archived from the original on 2012-12-14. External link ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gilbert, John C.; Martin, Stephen F. (2010). "10.6 - Bromination of Alkenes". ... Stilbene undergoes reactions typical of alkenes. Trans-stilbene undergoes epoxidation with peroxymonophosphoric acid, H3PO5, ...
Semihydrogenation affords cis alkenes. Metal-alkyne complexes are also intermediates in the metal-catalyzed trimerization and ... Metal alkyne complexes are intermediates in the semihydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes: C2R2 + H2 → cis-C2R2H2 This ... MgCl2 The coordination of alkynes to transition metals is similar to that of alkenes. The bonding is described by the Dewar- ... "Catalytic Stereoselective Semihydrogenation of Alkynes to E-Alkenes". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52: 806-808. doi:10.1002/anie. ...
Alkene dihydroxylation by osmium tetroxide is an old and extremely useful method for the functionalization of olefins. However ... In his original report Sharpless suggested the reaction proceeded via a [2+2] cycloaddition of OsO4 onto the alkene to give an ... It is often difficult to obtain high diastereoselectivity on cis-alkenes when both sides of the olefin have similar steric ... In general Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation favors oxidation of the more electron-rich alkene (scheme 1). In this example ...
Efficient generation of radicals capable of attacking the alkene double bond of vinyl monomers. Adequate solubility in the ... A variety of organic molecules including alkenes, alkynes, and alkanes undergo polymerization to high molecular weight products ... "The Polymerization of Alkenes". ChemGuide. Retrieved 1 April 2010. Alfrey, Turner; Price, Charles C. (1947). "Relative ... Chain Transfer Free Radical Vinyl Polymerization The Polymerization of Alkenes Polymer Synthesis Radical Reaction Chemistry ...
Vinyl derivatives are alkenes. If activated by an adjacent group, the increased polarization of the bond gives rise to ...
This is because the bond angle for an alkene, C-C=C, is 122°C, while the bond angle for an alkane, C-C-C, is 112°C. When these ... A cycloalkene or cycloolefin is a type of alkene hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms and either one or ... "3.4: Alkenes, Cycloalkenes, and Alkadienes". Chemistry LibreTexts. 2014-11-26. Retrieved 2021-03-20. "12.7: Cycloalkenes and ... 5-Cyclooctadiene cis-cyclooctene trans-cyclooctene Cycloalkenes follow a similar nomenclature system to alkenes, but the ...
When alkenes and alkynes are subjected to hydrogenation reaction by treating them with hydrogen in the presence of palladium or ... To do so, the best-known methods are hydrogenation of alkenes: RCH=CH2 + H2 → RCH2CH3 (R = alkyl) Alkanes or alkyl groups can ... Alkene Alkyne Cycloalkane Higher alkanes IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online ... The reaction is exothermic because the product alkane is stable as it has more sigma bonds than the reactant alkenes and ...
... s are used to polymerize terminal alkenes (ethylene and alkenes with the vinyl double bond): n CH2=CHR ... A polymer molecule grows by numerous insertion reactions of C=C bonds of 1-alkene molecules into the Zr-C bond in the ion: Many ... Stereoregular poly(1-alkene) can be isotactic or syndiotactic depending on the relative orientation of the alkyl groups in ... It is unreactive toward alkenes. The dihalide reacts with MAO and is transformed into a metallocenium ion Cp2+ZrCH3, which is ...
Chamberlin, A. R.; Sall, D. J. (1991). Reduction of Ketones to Alkenes. Compr. Org. Synth. 8. pp. 927-929. doi:10.1016/B978-0- ... with the most common being reaction of the corresponding alkene with hydrogen peroxide or m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The ...
Alkenes. CnH2n. Linear alkenes. *Ethene. *Propene. *Butene. *Pentene ...
... s are characteristically more unsaturated than alkenes. Thus they add two equivalents of bromine whereas an alkene adds ... The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers is much shorter than the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm) or the C-C bond in alkanes ( ... They are far more acidic than alkenes and alkanes, which have pKa values of around 40 and 50, respectively. The acidic hydrogen ... In some reactions, alkynes are less reactive than alkenes. For example, in a molecule with an -ene and an -yne group, addition ...
Alkenes. CnH2n. Linear alkenes. *Ethene. *Propene. *Butene. *Pentene ...
alkene ăl´kēn [key], any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds ( ... Two alkenes, 1-butene and 2-butene, are related to butane; these two compounds, which differ in the location of the double bond ... The alkenes as a group are sometimes called the ethylene series. Since the carbon-carbon double bond is sometimes called an ... The IUPAC name of the simplest alkene, H2C=CH2, is ethene, which is derived from ethane. Propene is related to propane. ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alkene derivatives.. This category is for substituted alkenes or other compounds ... Pages in category "Alkene derivatives". The following 147 pages are in this category, out of 147 total. This list may not ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Alkene_derivatives&oldid=833608078" ...
Ethane is not an Alkene. Ethane is an Alkane and Ethene is an AlkeneAlkene always end in eneWhilst alkane always end in ... Is ethene a alkene?. Yes it is an alkene. It is in fact the smallest alkene molecule. Its chemical formula is C2 H4. Hope this ... C4H8 - alkene or alkane?. C4H8 is an alkene because the general formula of an alkene (CnH2n) applies to it but not he formula ... Is C6H12 an alkene?. This could be the molecular formula for an alkene, but it is also the molecular formula of cyclohexane, ...
Alkenes are very useful to us in our daily life, but do you know what they are? ... Alkenes are from the family of hydrocarbons which also includes alkanes along with many other substances. ... What are alkenes used for?. Alkenes have one major use that we see all the time in our daily lives. That is plastic! Alkenes ... Alkenes are also used for fuels and alkenes were also used in mustard gas that was used in world war two. Also alkenes can be ...
Learn the generic formula for an alkene and the chemical structure of the first few alkenes. This lesson activity is also ... Learn the generic formula for an alkene and the chemical structure of the first few alkenes. This lesson activity is also ... Learn the generic formula for an alkene and the chemical structure of the first few alkenes. This lesson activity is also ... Alkenes (SMART-created) Website Address:https://www.curriki.org/oer/Alkenes-SMART-created- ...
Alkenes and Aromatics examines the reaction mechanisms associated with carbon-carbon double bonds, and then goes on to look at ... Alkenes and Aromatics examines the reaction mechanisms associated with carbon-carbon double bonds, and then goes on to look at ...
Alkenes are ligands in transition metal alkene complexes. The two carbon centres bond to the metal using the C-C pi- and pi*- ... Most reactions of alkenes involve additions to this pi bond, forming new single bonds. Alkenes serve as a feedstock for the ... Linear alkenes of approximately five to sixteen carbons are liquids, and higher alkenes are waxy solids. The melting point of ... Some pyramidal alkenes are stable. For example, trans-cyclooctene is a stable strained alkene and the orbital misalignment is ...
Alkene and alkyne ligands: An alkene ligand contains a π bond between carbon atoms, C=C, which can serve as an electron pair ... The alkene ligand bonds to the metal centre by both electron donation and acceptance, similar to the situation with carbon ... Alkene and alkyne ligands. An alkene ligand contains a π bond between carbon atoms, C=C, which can serve as an electron pair ... The alkene ligand bonds to the metal centre by both electron donation and acceptance, similar to the situation with carbon ...
Alkene carboamination is the simultaneous formation of C-N and C-C bonds across an alkene. This method represents a powerful ... Alkene substrates with a tethered nitrogen nucleophile have been used in these transformations to promote intramolecular ... Ney, J. E.; Wolfe, J. P. (2004). "Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of N-aryl pyrrolidines from γ-(N-arylamino) alkenes: evidence ... Generally, there are four categories of reaction modes for alkene carboamination. The first class is cyclization reactions, ...
Addition of Halogens to Alkenes. Addition of \(HBr\) to alkenes. In this reaction the pi bond of alkene and σbond of halo acid ... Alkene Reactions Practice Problems. Ch08 Reacns of Alkenes (landscape) Page 1 Reactions of Alkenes Since bonds are stronger ... Addition Reactions of Alkenes Alkenes Alkenes are a homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula ... 8.0 Naming Alkenes; 8.1 Introduction to Alkene Addition Reactions; 8.2 Hydrohalogenation; 8.3 Hydration of Alkenes; 8.4 ...
A method for preparing normally-liquid polymers of about 95 to 15 mol percent of normal mono-l-alkene of about 12 to 20 carbon ... 1. A method for preparing normally-liquid polymers of about 100 to mol percent of normal mono-l-alkene of about 12 to carbon ... The normal mono-l-alkenes to be polymerized by the method of the present invention have 5 to about 25 carbon atoms, preferably ... The present invention relates to a method of polymerizing normal mono-l-alkenes of to about 25 carbon atoms, especially with ...
Some natural sources of alkenes are terpenes, ethylene, food containing Vitamin A and β-carotene. Vitamin A is present in foods ... Organic compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds are called alkenes. Alkenes are used to make two important products in ... Some natural sources of alkenes are terpenes, ethylene, food containing Vitamin A and β-carotene. Vitamin A is present in foods ... Terpene is the main source of natural alkene. According to Chemgapedia, the milky sap in a rubber tree contains polyene, which ...
Alkenes are oxidized with a large number of oxidizing agents. *In the presence of oxygen, alkenes burn with a bright flame to ... Alkenes scramble in an olefin metathesis.. *Alkenes can be generated from carbonyl compounds, such as an aldehyde or ketone, by ... Alkenes can be generated by the selective reduction of alkynes.. *Alkenes rearrange in the Diels-Alder reaction and an Ene ... Linear alkenes of approximately five to 16 carbons are liquids, and higher alkenes are waxy solids. ...
Alkenes are prepared by the hydroboration of enamines followed by an elimination reaction to form the alkene. This process has ... Examples of alkenes produced include cyclic and acyclic alkenes, heterocyclic alkenes, terminal alkenes and dienes. When dienes ... acyclic alkenes, terminal alkenes, dienes and heterocyclic alkenes in which the heteroatom is oxygen, sulfur or substituted ... heterocyclic alkenes, acyclic alkenes, terminal alkenes and dienes with a hydroborating agent selected from the group ...
What alkenes might be formed by the dehydration of the following alcohols? If more thanone product is possible, write them all ... 4. What alkenes might be formed by the dehydration of the following alcohols? If more than one product is possible, write them ... 4. What alkenes might be formed by the dehydration of the following alcohols? If more thanone product is possible, write them ... ChemistryQ&A Library4. What alkenes might be formed by the dehydration of the following alcohols? If more thanone product is ...
... trifluoromethylation reactions of alkenes are conducted effectively at low copper loading (0.1-0.5 mol%) on exposing the ... Copper(I)-photocatalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkenes R. Beniazza, F. Molton, C. Duboc, A. Tron, N. D. McClenaghan, D. ... Using the photoreducible CuII precatalyst 2, trifluoromethylation reactions of alkenes are conducted effectively at low copper ...
... Alkenes, and in particular terminal alkenes, are readily prepared (e.g. J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 9342. ), ... the net three-component coupling of the alkene 31, the alkenyl nonaflate 32, and the alkenyl boronic acid 33 to give the alkene ... the p-quinone methide 29 to the alkene 28, leading to 30. Matthew S. Sigman of the University of Utah established (Org. Lett. ... the alkene 13 directly to the imido ketone 16. John Hartwig of the University of California, Berkeley, observed (J. Am. Chem. ...
... The catalytic reduction of the alkene 1 gave the cis-fused product (not illustrated), by kinetic H2 ... conditions for the kinetic isomerization of a terminal alkene 6 to the Z internal alkene 7. Christoforos G. Kokotos of the ... conditions for the Marvovnikov hydration of the alkene 6 to the alcohol 15. Internal alkenes were inert under these conditions ... the alkene 24 in the presence of 25 to give the coupled product 26. Shang-Dong Yang of Lanzhou University showed (Org. Lett. ...
... and also learn about the vast possibility of reactions using alkenes and alkynes as starting materials. ... Alkenes and alkynes can be transformed into almost any other functional group you can name! We will review their nomenclature, ... Alkenes and alkynes can be transformed into almost any other functional group you can name! We will review their nomenclature, ... cis-trans and E-Z naming scheme for alkenes. (Opens a modal) ... Entgegen-Zusammen naming scheme for alkenes examples. (Opens a ...
Hand Protection: Where hand contact with the product may occur the use of gloves approved to relevant standards (e.g. Europe: EN374, US: F739, AS/NZS:2161) made from the following materials may provide suitable chemical protection: Incidental contact/Splash protection: PVC, neoprene or nitrile rubber gloves Suitability and durability of a glove is dependent on usage, e.g. frequency and duration of contact, chemical resistance of glove material, glove thickness, dexterity. Always seek advice from glove suppliers. Contaminated gloves should be replaced. Personal hygiene is a key element of effective hand care. Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non-perfumed moisturizer is recommended ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Alkenes, C15-18 EC Number:. 297-797-2. EC Name:. Alkenes, C15-18. CAS Number:. 93762-80-2 Molecular formula:. Not applicable ... Alkenes, C15-18Alkenes, C15-18. CAS Number:. 93762-80-2. Molecular formula:. Not ... Alkenes, C15-18Alkenes, C15-18. CAS Number:. 93762-80-2. Molecular formula:. Not ... Alkenes, C15-18 - Registration boundary conditions Type:. boundary composition of the substance. State Form:. liquid. ...
A new method for the syn-dichlorination of alkenes at room temperature has been proposed by Denmark et al. The method uses ... A new method for the syn-dichlorination of alkenes at room temperature has been proposed by Denmark et al. The method uses ... Cresswell AJ, Eey ST-C, Denmark SE (2015) Catalytic, stereospecific syn-dichlorination of alkenes. Nat Chem 7:146-152Google ... This approach has achieved exquisite diastereocontrol on a number of alkene substrates. In this paper, we report the results of ...
Interpretation: The given alkenes are to be named.. Concept introduction: Rules given by IUPAC should be followed to name an ... Interpretation: The given alkenes are to be named.. Concept introduction: Rules given by IUPAC should be followed to name an ... Interpretation: The given alkenes are to be named.. Concept introduction: Rules given by IUPAC should be followed to name an ...
Dong, Z., Ren, Z., Thompson, S. J., Xu, Y., & Dong, G. (2017). Transition-Metal-Catalyzed C-H Alkylation Using Alkenes. ...
Pd-catalyzed allylic C-H trifluoroacetoxylation of substituted alkenes was performed using PhI(OCOCF3)(2) as the oxidant and ... This thesis is focused on two main areas of organic synthesis, palladium-catalyzed functionalization of alkenes and allylic ... Stereoselective intermolecular allylic C-H trifluoroacetoxylation of functionalized alkenes. Alam, Rauful Stockholms ...
A monosubstituted alkene has 3, a disubstituted alkene has 2, a trisubstituted alkene has 1, and a tetrasubstituted alkene as ... Alkene IUPAC Nomenclature *The E,Z System of Alkene Nomenclature STRUCTURE AND HYBRIDIZATION OF ETHENE AND OTHER ALKENES * ... ALKENES I:PROPERTIES OF ALKENES. TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THIS CHAPTER. * Structure and Hybridization of Ethene and other Alkenes ... ALKENE NOMENCLATURE. *The IUPAC nomenclature for alkenes is analogous to that for alkanes with a very few essential ...
Polymerization is a process by which an organic compound reacts with itself to form a high‐molecular‐weight compound composed of repeating units of the original
The dictionary of alkenes contains a set of kewords with translations related to alkenes. Translations in more than 50 ... Alkene Alken. Ethylene Etilen. Dictionary of Alkenes in other languages:. Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Basque Bengali ...
  • This review briefly covers the literature concerning photochemistry of alkenes, alkynes, dienes, and polyenes published during July 2004 and June 2007. (rsc.org)
  • Alkenes can be generated by the selective reduction of alkynes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Alkenes and alkynes can be transformed into almost any other functional group you can name! (khanacademy.org)
  • We will review their nomenclature, and also learn about the vast possibility of reactions using alkenes and alkynes as starting materials. (khanacademy.org)
  • By hydrogenation, alkynes form alkenes and alkenes form alkanes but I need the reverse process i.e preparation of alkenes from alkanes and alkynes from alkenes. (physicsforums.com)
  • Then the addition of HX to alkynes in comparison with the HX addition to alkenes and the halogenation of alkynes are described. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are all hydrocarbons with different structures and thus different physical and chemical properties. (differencebetween.net)
  • saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes, unsaturated hydrocarbons or alkenes and alkynes, cycloalkanes, and aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes. (differencebetween.net)
  • Alkenes have the pi bond between the carbon atoms, and during a lot of reactions the pi bond ruptures in order to form a single bond thus they are more reactive than alkanes but relatively stable as compared to alkynes. (differencebetween.net)
  • general formula for alkenes in the case of a non-cyclic compound is CnH2n while the general formula for alkynes in the case of a non-cyclic compound is CnH2n-2. (differencebetween.net)
  • How do the boiling points of comparable alkanes, alkenes and alkynes vary? (studentdoctor.net)
  • When comparing alkynes, alkenes, and alkanes of similar molecular weight and structure(unbranched), I am pretty sure alkynes will have the highest boiling point due to the fact of increased electron density from your pi orbitals. (studentdoctor.net)
  • 5. Alkynes will have a higher BP than alkenes or alkanes. (studentdoctor.net)
  • In this alkenes and alkynes instructional activity, students name six structures using the IUPAC naming systems and they draw three organic molecules. (lessonplanet.com)
  • What is the difference in alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes? (lessonplanet.com)
  • We present all type of solution for problems related to the Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Alcohols. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Assignmenthelp.net not only provide help for assignment, project, and homework but also support student for learning the Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Alcohols in very effective way. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Online tutorial facility is also available for those students who wish to learn the Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Alcohols. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • This video explains preparation of alkene by partial reduction of alkynes. (topperlearning.com)
  • Ozonolysis is a method of oxidatively cleaving alkenes or alkynes using ozone (\(O_3\)), a reactive allotrope of oxygen. (libretexts.org)
  • alkene ăl´kēn [ key ] , any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (see chemical bond ). (infoplease.com)
  • Acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups (also known as mono-enes) form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n with n being 2 or more (which is two hydrogens less than the corresponding alkane). (wikipedia.org)
  • A Knowledge organiser on for 11th and 12th grade (A-Level) organic chemistry, the hydrocarbons (Alkanes and alkenes) including: naming, intermolecular forces, general formulae, structual & Geometric isomers, reactions of alkanes: oxidation and free radical substitution (with chlorine). (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which mean they are compounds with one or more double bonds or one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms. (differencebetween.net)
  • Alkenes specifically are those unsaturated hydrocarbons which have at least one double bond. (differencebetween.net)
  • EN] The invention relates to a heterogeneous method for oligomerising alkenes in order to produce hydrocarbons within a diesel fraction in the presence of a catalyst based on the ITQ-39 zeolite. (csic.es)
  • Like other hydrocarbons, the alkenes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. (libretexts.org)
  • Light hydrocarbons, with relatively low fuel value, are abundant from several sources, including mixed alkane/alkene refinery byproduct streams. (caltech.edu)
  • The physical properties of alkenes are comparable with alkanes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This learning unit gives an overview over physical properties of alkenes. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Its probably good to know the physical properties of alkenes because questions about solubility, boiling point, stability, etc. are not uncommon. (studentdoctor.net)
  • To identify the physical properties of alkenes and describe trends in these properties. (libretexts.org)
  • The physical properties of alkenes are similar to those of the alkanes. (libretexts.org)
  • Briefly describe the physical properties of alkenes. (libretexts.org)
  • The physical properties of alkenes are much like those of the alkanes: their boiling points increase with increasing molar mass, and they are insoluble in water. (libretexts.org)
  • To submit Physical Properties of Alkenes assignment click here . (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Alkenes decolourise bromine water . (hubpages.com)
  • As was demonstrated by the test for alkenes using bromine water, all alkenes can be characterised by their addition reactions. (flypmedia.com)
  • When an alkene is added to a solution of bromine water (left) the solution is de-colourised (right). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Alkenes can de-colourise bromine water, while alkanes cannot. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The bromine water has been used to test the gas jar for the presence of an alkene. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The decolourized bromine water seen at the base of the gas jar indicates that the gas is an alkene. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Alkenes decolourize bromine water because they react with the bromine that it contains. (sciencephoto.com)
  • What do alkenes do to bromine water? (brainscape.com)
  • Why do alkenes turn bromine water from orange to colourless? (brainscape.com)
  • The most common industrial synthesis path for alkenes is cracking of petroleum . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Catalytic synthesis of higher α-alkenes can be achieved by a reaction of ethylene with the organometallic compound triethylaluminium in the presence of nickel , cobalt , or platinum . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Stereospecific Synthesis of Pure[Z]-and [E]-Alkenes from Enamines via Hydroboration," Presented to National American Chemical Society Meeting, Toronto, Canada (Jun. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Internal alkenes were inert under these conditions, but Yoshikazo Kitano of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology effected ( Synthesis 2014 , 46 , 1455. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Deng Z, Wei J, Liao L, Huang H, Zhao X (2015) Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio-and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols. (springer.com)
  • This thesis is focused on two main areas of organic synthesis, palladium-catalyzed functionalization of alkenes and allylic alcohols, as well as development of new allylboration reactions. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this learning unit the synthesis of alcohols by addition of water to alkenes is described. (chemgapedia.de)
  • This learning unit gives an overview over reactions of alkenes and their synthesis. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Copper-Catalyzed Regioselective Borocarbonylative Coupling of Unactivated Alkenes with Alkyl Halides: Synthesis of ß-Boryl Ketones. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this communication, a Cu-catalyzed borocarbonylative coupling of unactivated alkenes with alkyl halides for the synthesis of ß-boryl ketones has been developed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here we present a set of models that describe selectivity and activity, enabling the rational design and synthesis of alkene isomerization catalysts. (uva.nl)
  • The result is the efficient synthesis of a host of alkene-bearing cyclic carbamates and ureas and lactams. (nih.gov)
  • Nickel/NHC-Catalyzed Asymmetric C-H Alkylation of Fluoroarenes with Alkenes: Synthesis of Enantioenriched Fluorotetralins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, this chapter is focused on the reactions of alkenes with organometallic compounds as the effective routes for the synthesis of numerous classes of organic compounds. (intechopen.com)
  • A versatile synthesis of azidolactones through azidation and cyclization of carboxylic acids onto alkenes has been developed. (epfl.ch)
  • Generally, there are four categories of reaction modes for alkene carboamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkenes and Aromatics examines the reaction mechanisms associated with carbon-carbon double bonds, and then goes on to look at aromatic substitution (nitration, halogenation, sulfonation and Friedel Crafts reactions). (rsc.org)
  • An elimination reaction from an alkyl amine occurs in the Hofmann elimination and the Cope reaction to produce alkenes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Alkenes are prepared by the hydroboration of enamines followed by an elimination reaction to form the alkene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2) subjecting the organoborane formed in step (1) to an elimination reaction under reaction conditions sufficient to form the alkene corresponding to the alkene portion of the starting enamine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Carbohydrate-derived catalysts, TBS-DHG and DHR , offer not only greener means but also promote highly enantioselective 1,2-diboration of both terminal and internal alkenes at a modest temperature and a shorter reaction time. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Charge TBS-DHG or DHR catalyst (0.10-0.15 eq), propanediol diboron, B2(pro)2 (2.0-3.0 eq), 4A molecular sieves, and the alkene substrate (1.0 eq) into a dry reaction flask in the glove box. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Guided by this goal, the researchers devised a novel two-component catalyst system that performs the dehydrogenation reaction at room temperature, making hydrogen gas and a molecule containing an alkene, or carbon-carbon double bond. (phys.org)
  • However, the dual catalyst system has yet to reach the same level of efficiency as existing methods, which the researchers suspect is due to the alkene product binding to the decatungstate catalyst, inhibiting its participation in the reaction. (phys.org)
  • The simplest addition reaction is the electrophilic addition reaction of HX to an alkene. (coursehero.com)
  • X can be bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), or iodine (I). In this reaction the double bond of the alkene will act as a nucleophile and attack the hydrogen of HX to break the double bond. (coursehero.com)
  • reaction of an alkene with HBr/HOOH is a radical addition that gives an anti-Markovnikov product, which is where the more-electronegative atom of the reagent bonds to the less-substituted carbon of the alkene. (coursehero.com)
  • In a dihalide addition reaction, the halides are added to the alkene of a carbon chain. (coursehero.com)
  • Intermolecular Reductive Heck Reaction of Unactivated Aliphatic Alkenes with Organohalides. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A general intermolecular reductive Heck reaction of organohalides with both terminal and internal unactivated aliphatic alkenes has been first realized in high yield with complete anti-Markovnikov selectivity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • You get two different products (an alcohol in the first reaction when the OH- behaves as a base) and an alkene in the second (where the OH- behaves as base). (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • The chapter focuses on the modern concepts of the alkene hydro‐, carbo‐ and cycloalumination mechanisms, that is, the experimental and theoretical data on the intermediate structures involved in the product formation, the effects of the catalyst and organoaluminum compound structure, reaction conditions on the activity and selectivity of the bimetallic systems. (intechopen.com)
  • The ZnCl2 catalyzed reaction of p-methoxybenzyl chloride with alkenes yields the 1:1 addition products 3, which are converted into the γ-lactones 4 via Ru(VIII) catalyzed oxidative degradation of the aromatic ring. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This video explains reaction mechanism of preparation of alkene from acidic. (topperlearning.com)
  • This reaction is often used to identify the structure of unknown alkenes. (libretexts.org)
  • For example, a classic chemical reaction involving alkenes is an addition reaction with elemental bromine. (physicsforums.com)
  • Benzene will not undergo this reaction and many other reactions characteristic of alkenes (e.g. catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, etc. (physicsforums.com)
  • The most significant discovery resulted from the norbornene reaction, which gave platinaoxetane [(COD)2Pt2(OC7H10)Cl]BF4 (4), the first metallaoxetane obtained from the direct reaction of an oxo complex and an alkene. (umsystem.edu)
  • A facile alkene-exchange reaction was observed between platinaoxetane 4 and norbornene-derivative 5 giving a new platinaoxetane and free norbornene. (umsystem.edu)
  • Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction is catalyzed by possibly more than one electrophilic catalyst.We describe two probable mechanisms for the reaction.Cationic Pt(II) complexes (COD)Pt(OTf)2 and [(COD)Pt(THF)(OTf)]OTf were found to readily react with alkenes such as norbornenes, cyclopentene, propylene and ethylene.Two common features of these reactions were alkene C-H bond cleavage and triflic acid elimination. (umsystem.edu)
  • The Wohl-Ziegler reaction involves allylic bromination of alkenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic reduction of the alkene 1 gave the cis-fused product (not illustrated), by kinetic H 2 addition to the less congested face of the alkene. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Cresswell AJ, Eey ST-C, Denmark SE (2015) Catalytic, stereospecific syn -dichlorination of alkenes. (springer.com)
  • Cresswell AJ, Eey STC, Denmark SE (2015) Catalytic, stereoselective dihalogenation of alkenes: challenges and opportunities. (springer.com)
  • Catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes produces the corresponding alkanes . (wikidoc.org)
  • Coupling such oxidative additions to reductive eliminations, provides a low-energy catalytic path for addition of H2 to an alkene. (merlot.org)
  • The goal of research in the Engle lab is to develop a general catalytic platform for alkene and alkyne difunctionalization to introduce a diverse array of functional groups at each of the two carbon atoms in a programmable fashion. (berkeley.edu)
  • The introduction of this approach into the chemistry of organoaluminum compounds leads to the development of chemo‐, regio‐ and stereoselective catalytic methods of alkene and olefin functionalization. (intechopen.com)
  • The prospects of the development of enantioselective methods using these catalytic systems for the alkene and olefin transformations are considered. (intechopen.com)
  • This doctoral work describes catalytic asymmetric reactions between alkenes and aldehydes, enabled by the development of chiral Brønsted acids. (uni-koeln.de)
  • One is a general asymmetric catalytic Prins cyclization of aldehydes with homoallylic alcohols, in which the oxocarbenium ion is attacked intramolecularly by a pendent alkene. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Catalytic anti-Markovnikov oxidation of alkene feedstocks could simplify synthetic routes to many important molecules and solve a long-standing challenge in chemistry. (sciencemag.org)
  • B ) Comparison of proposed catalytic cycles for P450-catalyzed alkene epoxidation and anti-Markovnikov oxidation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Many of the reactions in which alkenes take part involve the cleavage of half the carbon-carbon double bond and subsequent formation of two single bonds, one to each of the adjacent carbon atoms. (infoplease.com)
  • Alkenes having four or more carbon atoms can form diverse structural isomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkenes contain contain at least one double bond between the carbon atoms. (hubpages.com)
  • All that this formula is showing us, is how many carbon atoms there are and how many hydrogen atoms there are in a certain alkenes. (hubpages.com)
  • How many hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms are there in alkenes? (hubpages.com)
  • An alkene ligand contains a π bond between carbon atoms, C=C, which can serve as an electron pair donor in a metal complex , as in the case of Zeise's salt ( see above Historical developments ). (britannica.com)
  • Alkenes mainly undergo addition reactions in which atoms of a simple molecule add across the C=C double bond. (flypmedia.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method of polymerizing normal mono-l-alkenes of to about 25 carbon atoms, especially with one or more dissimilar ethylenically-unsaturated monomers. (google.com)
  • Relatively long-chain normal monol-alkenes, i.e., those having at least 5 carbon atoms, are generally characterized as possessing slow addition polymerization rates. (google.com)
  • The normal mono-l-alkenes to be polymerized by the method of the present invention have 5 to about 25 carbon atoms, preferably about 12 to 20- carbon atoms. (google.com)
  • The alkene was generated using a pair of catalysts to separately remove two hydrogen atoms from neighboring carbons atoms. (phys.org)
  • Adding a dihalide, Br 2 , to an alkene results in both bromine atoms adding in the place of the double bond. (coursehero.com)
  • The number of hydrogen atoms in an alkene is double the number of carbon atoms. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Product mixures will be formed from alkenes that are similarly substituted at both sp2 carbon atoms. (scribd.com)
  • Name the affixes from 1-4 that tell you how many carbon atoms are in an alkene/alkane, and what comes after? (brainscape.com)
  • An Alkene is a Hydrocarbon which means that it is a molecule made up entirely of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms. (green-planet-solar-energy.com)
  • We can now see that Alkene molecules have the general formula CnH2n where n is the number of Carbon atoms in the molecule. (green-planet-solar-energy.com)
  • The IUPAC name of the simplest alkene, H 2 C=CH 2 , is ethene, which is derived from ethane. (infoplease.com)
  • In addition to these IUPAC names, many of the alkenes have common names, e.g., ethene is called ethylene and propene propylene. (infoplease.com)
  • Ethene has a double bond and is an alkene whereas ethane has no double bond and is an alkane. (answers.com)
  • Is ethene a alkene? (answers.com)
  • The simplest alkene, ethylene (C2H4) (or "ethene" in the IUPAC nomenclature) is the organic compound produced on the largest scale industrially. (wikipedia.org)
  • This page guides you through the mechanism for the electrophilic addition of bromine to symmetrical alkenes like ethene or cyclohexene. (chemguide.co.uk)
  • Ethene is the simple alkene used here. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Without consulting tables, arrange the following alkenes in order of increasing boiling point: 1-butene, ethene, 1-hexene, and propene. (libretexts.org)
  • The alkenes as a group are sometimes called the ethylene series. (infoplease.com)
  • ethane is CH3-CH3, an alkane ethylene is CH2=CH2, an alkene. (answers.com)
  • Electron donor-and-acceptor character between the metal and the alkene ligand appear to be fairly evenly balanced in most ethylene complexes of the d metals. (britannica.com)
  • Some natural sources of alkenes are terpenes, ethylene, food containing Vitamin A and β-carotene. (reference.com)
  • The chemical structure of ethylene , the simplest alkene. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Please note that Alkenes (Ethylene, Propylene, Butylene, Butadiene) Market in Chile: Business Report 2017 is a half ready publication. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Below is the list of Alkenes (Ethylene, Propylene, Butylene, Butadiene) Market Business Reports available for other countries. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Tetranuclear Pt(II) oxo-complex [(COD)4Pt4([mu]3-O)2Cl2](BF4)2 (1) (COD = 1,5- cyclooctadiene) was found to readily react with a variety of alkenes (ethylene, norbornene, propylene and cyclopentene). (umsystem.edu)
  • Norbornenes, cyclopentene and ethylene gave alkene-coupled products, while propylene resulted in a simple allyl complex. (umsystem.edu)
  • Alkenes can be synthesized from alcohols via dehydration that eliminates water. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 4. What alkenes might be formed by the dehydration of the following alcohols? (bartleby.com)
  • This activity provides students with some basic information about alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols (e.g., boiling point, molecular mass, density) and asks a series of simple questions and later some questions inviting larger reflection on those answers with an eye toward synthesizing new information about overall trends in boiling point, -OH effects (polarity) and more. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • acid, most commonly H 2 SO 4 , alkenes form alcohols. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Prof. James Morken has developed metal-free, affordable, enantioselective, 1,2-diboration of alkenes cocatalyzed by carbohydrate-derived catalysts and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene ( DBU , 139009). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • General scheme for the enantioselective diboration of alkenes with B2(pro)2 and carbohydrate-derived catalysts, TBS-DHG and DHR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Metal catalysts provide orbitals that allow simultaneous formation of two bonds from metal to alkene or H2. (merlot.org)
  • Beyond the application of these catalysts in various asymmetric reactions between simple alkenes and aldehydes, mechanistic investigations are also disclosed in this doctoral work. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We report the first Ni MOF catalysts for anti-Markovnikov hydrosilylation of alkenes. (epfl.ch)
  • Secondary interactions are demonstrated to direct the stability of well-defined Ru-NHC-based heterogeneous alkene metathesis catalysts. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We report the oxidation with air using graphite-supported gold-palladium catalysts of two alkenes, cis-cyclooctene, which gives mainly the epoxide, and crotyl alcohol (trans-but-2-en-1-ol). (edu.au)
  • Their alkene and alkyne equivalents are too. (answers.com)
  • although the alkene is planar its dipole wont be as strong as that of the alkyne. (studentdoctor.net)
  • several years ago that alkene epoxidation was also easily carried out with DMDO generated in situ from acetone and oxone. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Homogeneous linear poly(tartrate ester) ligands provide high chemical yields and enantiomeric excesses in the epoxidation of trans -hex-2-en-1-ol using Ti(OPr i ) 4 - tert -butyl hydroperoxide. (mdpi.com)
  • Branched poly(tartrate ester) can be use as heterogeneous ligands in the epoxidation of trans -hex-2-en-1-ol using Ti(OPr i ) 4 - tert -butyl hydroperoxide. (mdpi.com)
  • This catalyst was employed with a commercial surfactant (CTABr) leading to a nanoreactor for the enantioselective epoxidation of some selected alkenes in water, using NaClO as oxidant. (mdpi.com)
  • This is the first example of a nanoreactor for enantioselective epoxidation of non-functionalized alkenes in water. (mdpi.com)
  • Ballistreri FP, Toscano RM, Amato ME, Pappalardo A, Gangemi CMA, Spidalieri S, Puglisi R, Trusso Sfrazzetto G. A New Mn-Salen Micellar Nanoreactor for Enantioselective Epoxidation of Alkenes in Water. (mdpi.com)
  • The enzyme uses dioxygen as the terminal oxidant and achieves selectivity for anti-Markovnikov oxidation over the kinetically favored alkene epoxidation by trapping high-energy intermediates and catalyzing an oxo transfer, including an enantioselective 1,2-hydride migration. (sciencemag.org)
  • however, because alkene oxidations with high-valent metal-oxo complexes follow concerted epoxidation pathways with low energy barriers, oxo transfer has not been practical for direct anti-Markovnikov oxidation ( Fig. 1A , bottom) ( 5 , 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Alkene epoxidation by the electrophilic addition of oxygen to a carbon-carbon double bond is a major challenge in oxidation catalysis. (edu.au)
  • More complex alkenes may be named with the E-Z notation for molecules with three or four different substituents (side groups). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemists at Princeton have developed a new chemical method to introduce valuable alkenes into simple hydrocarbon molecules, a transformation known as dehydrogenation, which is found in important processes such as the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids in the body and the commercial production of detergents. (phys.org)
  • WHY do alkene molecules join together in polymerisation? (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • I know how polymerisation works but i dont know why alkene molecules are able to join together. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • Alkenes are molecules that have a carbon-carbon double bond. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Alkene and olefin functionalization via addition of electro‐ or nucleophilic reagents is one of the convenient synthetic methods for the insertion of heteroatoms into organic molecules. (intechopen.com)
  • Halogen molecules also act as electrophiles with alkenes giving vicinal dihalides. (scribd.com)
  • In chemistry, an alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "C" stands for carbon and the "H" stands for hydrogen, that is why alkenes come from the hydrocarbon family. (hubpages.com)
  • 2. Identify the following hydrocarbon compounds by name and whether they are a saturated hydrocarbon or an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and classify them as an alkane or alkene. (docbrown.info)
  • One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as 'drop-in' biofuels. (dtu.dk)
  • In the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) system of chemical nomenclature, the name of an alkene is derived from the name of the corresponding alkane by replacing the - ane alkane suffix with - ene and, if necessary, adding a prefix to indicate the location of the double bond in the molecule. (infoplease.com)
  • In organic chemistry , an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon -to-carbon double bond. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • If you're a chemist, you have a keen sense of the importance of the alkene," Erik Sorensen, the Arthur Allan Patchett Professor in Organic Chemistry at Princeton and corresponding author. (phys.org)
  • As a consequence, substituted alkenes may exist as one of two isomers, called cis or trans isomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This video disscuss about the cis and trans isomers of alkene. (topperlearning.com)
  • Exercises 1( a ) and 1( b ), above, indicate that it is not possible to distinguish between cis and trans isomers of alkenes using oxidative cleavage. (libretexts.org)
  • Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level is extremely low. (dtu.dk)
  • Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. (dtu.dk)
  • Most alkenes are also isomers of cycloalkanes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since rotation around the C=C is strongly resisted by the pi bond, as noted above, alkenes which have a substituent on both carbons of the double bond can exist as two different isomers in which the substitutents are either on the same side of the double bond (cis) or opposite sides (trans). (utexas.edu)
  • Since the carbon-carbon double bond is sometimes called an olefinic linkage, the alkenes are sometimes called the olefins. (infoplease.com)
  • This category is for substituted alkenes or other compounds containing a carbon-carbon double bond that do not fit into other more specific categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alkene ligand bonds to the metal centre by both electron donation and acceptance, similar to the situation with carbon monoxide . (britannica.com)
  • Organic compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds are called alkenes. (reference.com)
  • As predicted by the VSEPR model of electron pair repulsion, the molecular geometry of alkenes includes bond angles about each carbon in a double bond of about 120 degrees. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Alkenes are relatively stable compounds, but are more reactive than alkanes due to their double carbon-carbon bond. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although stronger than the single carbon-carbon bond in alkanes, the majority of the reactions of alkenes involve the rupture of this double bond, forming two new single bonds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One carbon of the alkene will add the hydrogen, and the other side will form a carbocation. (coursehero.com)
  • Markovnikov's rule states that in an addition of an asymmetric reagent to an alkene, the more-electronegative atom of the reagent will bond to the more-substituted carbon of the alkene. (coursehero.com)
  • Addition of X 2 will add an X to each carbon of an alkene. (coursehero.com)
  • Hydration of an alkene results in an alcohol being formed with the addition of a hydroxide ion to the carbon chain and a loss of the double bond. (coursehero.com)
  • The Alkene series is similar to the Alkane series except that each carbon chain has one, and only one, double bond in it. (green-planet-solar-energy.com)
  • Trenner J, Depken C, Weber T, Breder A (2013) Direct oxidative allylic and vinylic amination of alkenes through selenium catalysis. (springer.com)
  • Oxidative cleavage of alkenes is a widely employed process allowing oxyfunctionalization to corresponding carbonyl compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, a novel biocatalytic oxidative alkene cleavage activity on styrene derivatives was identified in TM1459 from Thermotoga maritima . (frontiersin.org)
  • Aldehydes and ketones are accessible by many synthetic routes, one important tool being the oxidative cleavage of alkenes. (frontiersin.org)
  • predict the products from the oxidative cleavage of a given alkene by potassium permanganate. (libretexts.org)
  • identify the reagents that should be used in the oxidative cleavage of an alkene to obtain a given product or products. (libretexts.org)
  • Polymers are made by the double bonds in the alkene breaking open. (hubpages.com)
  • It is a common error, among materials science teachers especially, to group the molecule Benzene (C6H6) with the alkenes due to its "double" bonds. (wikidoc.org)
  • This is because alkenes have double bonds which makes them more reactive than alkanes that are saturated with single bonds. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In this regard, alkene and olefin double bonds are often considered as possible reactive centers for the construction of C‐heteroatom fragments. (intechopen.com)
  • the allylic amine 12 by reacting the alkene 11 with 1-azidoadamantane in the presence of an iron catalyst. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Pd-catalyzed allylic C-H trifluoroacetoxylation of substituted alkenes was performed using PhI(OCOCF3)(2) as the oxidant and acyloxy source. (diva-portal.org)
  • Herein, we report a Ni/Ti-cocatalyzed reductive allylic defluorinative cross-coupling between trifluoromethyl alkenes and unactivated alkyl chlorides and bromides, enabling the efficient preparation of diverse functional-group-rich -difluoroalkenes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alkenes can be generated from carbonyl compounds, such as an aldehyde or ketone , by a variety of reactions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • An important challenge in aerobic oxidation is the direct transformation of alkenes to the corresponding anti-Markovnikov carbonyl compounds ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Fig. 1 Anti-Markovnikov oxidation of alkenes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Selective oxidation of alkenes using graphite-supported gold-palladium" by Salem Bawaked, Qian He et al. (edu.au)
  • It is in fact the smallest alkene molecule. (answers.com)
  • This could be the molecular formula for an alkene, but it is also the molecular formula of cyclohexane, which is not an alkene. (answers.com)
  • Bonding, hybridization and molecular orbital model of alkenes are explained. (chemgapedia.de)
  • The different macroscopic adsorption behaviors of alkenes in the four zeolites were elucidated and related to their structures with the microscopic information obtained from the molecular simulations providing useful information for further rational design of such zeolites with tailored properties. (berkeley.edu)
  • As a result, the electrons which extend above and below the molecular plane of the alkene, can act as a nucleophile in a manner similar to that of more typical Lewis bases. (scribd.com)
  • As noted by queenofbabes, this difference in chemical reactivity is due to the fact that benzen's electronic structure (i.e. it's molecular orbitals) is very much different than the electronic structure of typical alkenes. (physicsforums.com)
  • The table at the start of the chapter shows that the boiling points of straight-chain alkenes increase with increasing molar mass, just as with alkanes. (libretexts.org)
  • The branched chain alkenes have lower boiling points than the corresponding straight chain alkenes. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Alkenes form monomers and then join together to form polymers to make plastic. (hubpages.com)
  • As stated above, the polymerization method of the present invention is particularly useful for forming copolymers of the normal mono-l-alkene with dissimilar, olefinica'llyunsaturated monomers which may exhibit faster addition polymerization rates than the comparatively slow polymerizing alpha-olefins. (google.com)
  • Alkenes are unsaturated , as they have spare bonds that they can use. (hubpages.com)
  • Alkene carboamination is the simultaneous formation of C-N and C-C bonds across an alkene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactions of alkenes with organometallic reagents run with high substrate conversion and selectivity due to the generation of active intermediates with C‐metal bonds ( Table 1 ), further modification of which provides a wide range of products. (intechopen.com)
  • How can alkenes make more bonds? (brainscape.com)
  • Aromatic compounds are often drawn as cyclic alkenes, but their structure and properties are sufficiently distinct that they are not classified as alkenes or olefins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkenes are also called olefins (an archaic synonym, widely used in the petrochemical industry) or vinyl compounds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Direct and indirect roles of alkenes cannot be ignored, and this book will aim to include new findings in the alkenes (olefins) area, focusing on the industrial aspects of alkenes (olefins) production, separation, purification, kinetic, mechanism, wastewater treatment, etc. (intechopen.com)
  • An unprecedented enantioselective C-H alkylation of polyfluoroarenes with alkenes is described. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alkenes can be generated from coupling reactions of vinyl halides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The borocarbonylative coupling of unactivated alkenes with alkyl halides remains a challenge. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Iron-catalyzed hydrogen atom transfer-mediated intermolecular C-C coupling reactions between alkenes and tosylhydrazones, followed by in situ cleavage of the tosylhydrazine intermediates using EtN, are described. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Directed Copper-Catalyzed Intermolecular Aminative Difunctionalization of Unactivated Alkenes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A diverse collection of copper-catalyzed intermolecular aminative difunctionalizations of unactivated alkenes with N-halodialkylamines as the terminal dialkylamino source is reported. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Photosensitized intermolecular carboimination of alkenes through persistent radical effect. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The 'Stackability' of cis alkenes makes this difference close to negligible (remember trans fatty acids increase membrane fluidity and LDL, for the same reason: less compact = more gaps = less intermolecular forces). (studentdoctor.net)
  • conditions for the Marvovnikov hydration of the alkene 6 to the alcohol 15 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Hydration is the process of adding water to an alkene. (coursehero.com)
  • Hydration , the addition of a hydrogen and a hydroxyl group to an alkene, is accomplished using H 3 O + (Markovnikov with rearrangements possible), alkoxymercuration-demercuration (Markovnikov without rearrangements), or hydroboration-oxidation (Anti-Markovnikov and syn addition). (coursehero.com)
  • Possibilities to control the regioselectivity of the hydration of alkenes are explained. (chemgapedia.de)
  • The catalyst can be applied for the hydrosilylation of a wide range of alkenes, achieving good synthetic utility and functional group tolerance. (epfl.ch)
  • with an olefin dimerization catalyst could effect the coupling of an alkane and alkene to produce a heavier, more valuable fuel mol. (caltech.edu)
  • Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks and possible solutions to accomplish industrial level production of these chemicals by microbial fermentation. (dtu.dk)
  • decolourises/turns colourless in the presence of alkenes. (flypmedia.com)
  • The addition of halogens to alkenes, its mechanism, and its stereochemistry are described in detail. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Introduction to the hydrogen halide addition to alkenes. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Are you having problems understanding the learning unit Hydrogenation of Alkenes? (chemgapedia.de)
  • Short introduction to the hydrogenation of alkenes. (chemgapedia.de)
  • The iridium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of alkenes using 1,4-dioxane as a hydrogen donor is described. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alkene substrates with a tethered nitrogen nucleophile have been used in these transformations to promote intramolecular aminocyclization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach has achieved exquisite diastereocontrol on a number of alkene substrates. (springer.com)
  • A bidentate auxiliary tethered on the alkene substrates is crucial, which can promote the migratory insertion of nonactivated alkenes into the aminyl radical-metal complex and stabilize the resultant high-valent copper intermediate to allow for further transformations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This learning unit gives an overview over alkenes, their occurence, importance and nomenclature. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Alkenes scramble in an olefin metathesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One of the most exciting chemical reactions developed over the past twenty years is the process of alkene metathesis. (blogswow.com)
  • According to Chemgapedia, the milky sap in a rubber tree contains polyene, which is practically an alkene. (reference.com)
  • Hydroaminoalkylation of sterically hindered alkenes with N,N-dimethyl anilines using a scandium catalyst. (americanelements.com)
  • Su J, Zhou Y, Xu X. Hydroaminoalkylation of sterically hindered alkenes with N,N-dimethyl anilines using a scandium catalyst. (americanelements.com)
  • The hydrophosphanation of alkenes, an atom-economy process typically promoted by radicals or metal species, has been shown to take place in the absence of a catalyst, under solvent-free conditions and in a regioselective manner. (ua.es)
  • An efficient catalyst for this conversion could dramatically simplify synthetic routes from readily available alkenes to important commodity and fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Consider the electrophilic addition of H-Br to but-2-ene: The alkene abstracts a protonfrom the HBr, and a carbocation and bromide ion are generated. (flypmedia.com)
  • Most addition reactions to alkenes follow the mechanism of electrophilic addition . (wikidoc.org)
  • The electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes can be both regioselective and stereospecific. (scribd.com)
  • The name of the given alkene. (bartleby.com)
  • predict the products formed from the ozonolysis-reduction of a given alkene. (libretexts.org)
  • conditions for the kinetic isomerization of a terminal alkene 6 to the Z internal alkene 7 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • efficient conditions for the Wacker oxidation of a terminal alkene 6 to the methyl ketone 13 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • I kinda thought so, but after looking for 2 hours on the net, no good answers, so I graphed alkane vs terminal alkene and other stuff. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Like alkanes, alkenes are generally non-polar, but certain alkenes are weakly polar. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • The challenging vinyl bromides, aryl chlorides, and polysubstituted internal alkenes were first applied. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Purification and characterization of a four-component system central to the bacterial metabolism of aliphatic alkenes. (uniprot.org)
  • Alkene and olefin functionalization via addition reactions. (intechopen.com)
  • If it follows the general formula CnH2n, then it is an alkene. (answers.com)
  • write an equation to describe the cleavage of an alkene by ozone, followed by reduction of the ozonide so formed with either sodium borohydride or zinc and acetic acid. (libretexts.org)
  • write an equation to describe the cleavage of an alkene by potassium permanganate. (libretexts.org)
  • use the results of ozonolysis-reduction, or cleavage with permanganate, to deduce the structure of an unknown alkene. (libretexts.org)
  • use the results of hydroxylation/1,2-diol cleavage to deduce the structure of an unknown alkene. (libretexts.org)
  • Alkenes are generally colorless apolar compounds, somewhat similar to alkanes but more reactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence the pi bond is weaker than the sigma bond, easier to break, making alkenes much more reactive than alkanes . (utexas.edu)
  • Ozonolysis , or ozonolysis-reduction, refers to the treatment of an alkene with ozone followed by a suitable reducing agent to break down complex double-bond-containing compounds into smaller, more easily identified products. (libretexts.org)
  • high regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity in the formation of 18 by the Ir-catalyzed borylation of an alkyl silane, itself the product of direct silylation of the alkene 17 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Our central hypothesis is that is that Lewis basic directing groups can be used to: (1) control the regioselectivity of Heck- and Wacker-type alkene addition, (2) stabilize the resultant alkylmetal intermediate to allow to allow efficient downstream trapping, and (3) enhance selectivity for three-component coupling over competitive two-component coupling. (berkeley.edu)