Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Allyl CompoundsCycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.IminesBoranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Oxidative Coupling: The reaction of two molecular entities via oxidation usually catalyzed by a transition metal compound and involving dioxygen as the oxidant.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)KetonesXanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. (1/970)

We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered.  (+info)

RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1, a Menkes/Wilson disease-related copper transporter, is required for ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. (2/970)

Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth. We identified an Arabidopsis mutant, responsive-to-antagonist1 (ran1), that shows ethylene phenotypes in response to treatment with trans-cyclooctene, a potent receptor antagonist. Genetic epistasis studies revealed an early requirement for RAN1 in the ethylene pathway. RAN1 was cloned and found to encode a protein with similarity to copper-transporting P-type ATPases, including the human Menkes/Wilson proteins and yeast Ccc2p. Expression of RAN1 complemented the defects of a ccc2delta mutant, demonstrating its function as a copper transporter. Transgenic CaMV 35S::RAN1 plants showed constitutive expression of ethylene responses, due to cosuppression of RAN1. These results provide an in planta demonstration that ethylene signaling requires copper and reveal that RAN1 acts by delivering copper to create functional hormone receptors.  (+info)

Oxidative stress markers in preovulatory follicular fluid in humans. (3/970)

Intensified peroxidation in the Graafian follicle may be a factor compromising the normal development of the oocyte. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of three oxidative stress markers: conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in preovulatory follicular fluids and sera of 145 women attending an in-vitro fertilization programme, and to correlate these concentrations with pregnancy outcome. Determinations were conducted either with or without an antioxidant (10 microM butylated hydroxytoluene) and an iron chelate (10 microM deferoxamine mesylate) to examine peroxidation associated with the methods used. Concentrations of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in follicular fluid were all significantly lower than those in serum, both in the presence or absence of the antioxidant and iron chelate. These concentrations did not correlate with pregnancy outcome. In conclusion, the intensity of peroxidation in the Graafian follicle is much lower than that in serum. This gradient is the result of the lower rate of initiation of peroxidation in the follicular fluid, suggestive of the presence of efficient antioxidant defence systems in the direct milieu of the oocyte before ovulation. The concentrations of investigated oxidative stress markers in follicular fluid do not reflect the reproductive potential of oocytes.  (+info)

A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a bacterial pathway of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation. (4/970)

The bacterial metabolism of short-chain aliphatic alkenes occurs via oxidation to epoxyalkanes followed by carboxylation to beta-ketoacids. Epoxyalkane carboxylation requires four enzymes (components I-IV), NADPH, NAD(+), and a previously unidentified nucleophilic thiol. In the present work, coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid), a compound previously found only in the methanogenic Archaea where it serves as a methyl group carrier and activator, has been identified as the thiol and central cofactor of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation in the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2. Component I catalyzed the addition of coenzyme M to epoxypropane to form a beta-hydroxythioether, 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Components III and IV catalyzed the NAD(+)-dependent stereoselective dehydrogenation of R- and S-enantiomers of 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate to form 2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Component II catalyzed the NADPH-dependent cleavage and carboxylation of the beta-ketothioether to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M. These findings evince a newfound versatility for coenzyme M as a carrier and activator of alkyl groups longer in chain-length than methane, a function for coenzyme M in a catabolic pathway of hydrocarbon oxidation, and the presence of coenzyme M in the bacterial domain of the phylogenetic tree. These results serve to unify bacterial and Archaeal metabolism further and showcase diverse biological functions for an elegantly simple organic molecule.  (+info)

Importance of the beta12-beta13 loop in protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit for inhibition by toxins and mammalian protein inhibitors. (5/970)

Type-1 protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1) are uniquely inhibited by the mammalian proteins, inhibitor-1 (I-1), inhibitor-2 (I-2), and nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP-1). In addition, several natural compounds inhibit both PP1 and the type-2 phosphatase, PP2A. Deletion of C-terminal sequences that included the beta12-beta13 loop attenuated the inhibition of the resulting PP1alpha catalytic core by I-1, I-2, NIPP-1, and several toxins, including tautomycin, microcystin-LR, calyculin A, and okadaic acid. Substitution of C-terminal sequences from the PP2A catalytic subunit produced a chimeric enzyme, CRHM2, that was inhibited by toxins with dose-response characteristics of PP1 and not PP2A. However, CRHM2 was insensitive to the PP1-specific inhibitors, I-1, I-2, and NIPP-1. The anticancer compound, fostriecin, differed from other phosphatase inhibitors in that it inhibited wild-type PP1alpha, the PP1alpha catalytic core, and CRHM2 with identical IC(50). Binding of wild-type and mutant phosphatases to immobilized microcystin-LR, NIPP-1, and I-2 established that the beta12-beta13 loop was essential for the association of PP1 with toxins and the protein inhibitors. These studies point to the importance of the beta12-beta13 loop structure and conformation for the control of PP1 functions by toxins and endogenous proteins.  (+info)

Degradation of trichloroethene by a linear-plasmid-encoded alkene monooxygenase in Rhodococcus corallinus (Nocardia corallina) B-276. (6/970)

Rhodococcus corallinus (formerly Nocardia corallina) B-276, isolated with propene as sole carbon and energy source, is able to oxidize trichloroethene (TCE). Glucose- or propene-grown R. corallinus B-276 cells exhibited no difference in TCE degradation efficiency. TCE degradation was found to be growth-phase-dependent and maximum rates were monitored with stationary-phase cells. K(m) and Vmax values for TCE degradation of R. corallinus B-276 grown in nutrient broth medium in the presence of glucose were 187 microM and 2.4 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1, respectively. Escherichia coli recombinants harbouring and expressing the alkene monooxygenase genes of R. corallinus B-276 exhibited the ability to degrade TCE. This result provides clear evidence that the alkene monooxygenase of R. corallinus B-276 catalyses TCE oxidation. R. corallinus B-276 was shown to contain four linear plasmids, pNC10 (70 kb), pNC20 (85 kb), pNC30 (185 kb) and pNC40 (235 kb). The observation that pNC30-deficient strains had lost the ability to grow on propene suggested that the genes of the propene degradation pathway are encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Southern blot analysis with cloned alkene monooxygenase genes from R. corallinus B-276 revealed a positive hybridization signal with the linear plasmid pNC30. This result clearly shows that the alkene monooxygenase is encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Eleven short-chain-alkene-oxidizing strains were screened for the presence of linear plasmids. Among these, four propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus strains and one ethene-oxidizing Mycobacterium strain were found to contain linear megaplasmids. Southern blot analysis with the alkene monooxygenase revealed positive signals with linear plasmids of two propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus ruber strains. These results indicate that homologous alkene monooxygenases are encoded by linear plasmids in R. ruber strains.  (+info)

Characterization of the gene cluster involved in isoprene metabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45. (7/970)

The genes involved in isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) utilization in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45 were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis of an 8.5-kb DNA fragment showed the presence of 10 genes of which 2 encoded enzymes which were previously found to be involved in isoprene degradation: a glutathione S-transferase with activity towards 1,2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene (isoI) and a 1-hydroxy-2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butene dehydrogenase (isoH). Furthermore, a gene encoding a second glutathione S-transferase was identified (isoJ). The isoJ gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and was found to have activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 3,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene but not with 1, 2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene. Downstream of isoJ, six genes (isoABCDEF) were found; these genes encoded a putative alkene monooxygenase that showed high similarity to components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter sp. strain Py2 and other multicomponent monooxygenases. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded by an additional gene (isoG) showed significant similarity with that of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase. The results are in agreement with a catabolic route for isoprene involving epoxidation by a monooxygenase, conjugation to glutathione, and oxidation of the hydroxyl group to a carboxylate. Metabolism may proceed by fatty acid oxidation after removal of glutathione by a still-unknown mechanism.  (+info)

Porcine kidney microsomal cysteine S-conjugate N-acetyltransferase-catalyzed N-acetylation of haloalkene-derived cysteine S-conjugates. (8/970)

N-Acetylation of xenobiotic-derived cysteine S-conjugates is a key step in the mercapturic acid pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the N-acetylation of haloalkene-derived S-haloalkyl and S-haloalkenyl cysteine S-conjugates by porcine kidney cysteine S-conjugate N-acetyltransferase (NAcT). A radioactive assay for the quantification of NAcT activity was developed as a new method for partial purification of the enzyme, which was necessitated by the substantial loss of activity during the immunoaffinity chromatography method. 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate, rather than N,N-bis[3-gluconamidopropyl]deoxycholamide, was used to solubilize the NAcT from porcine kidney microsomes in the revised procedure. The partially purified NAcT was free of detectable aminoacylase activity. Although low acetyl-coenzyme A hydrolase activity was observed, its effect on the assay was minimized by addition of excess acetyl-coenzyme A in the NAcT assay mixture. Attempts to separate the residual hydrolase activity from NAcT by different chromatographic procedures were either unsuccessful or lead to inactivation of NAcT. Most of the cysteine S-conjugates studied were N-acetylated by NAcT. Although the apparent K(m) values for the cysteine S-conjugates studied differed by a factor of approximately 2.5 (124-302 microM), a greater than 15-fold difference in the apparent V(max) (0.75-15.6 nmol/h) and V(max)/K(m) (0.008-0.126 x 10(-3) l h(-1)) values was observed. These data show that a range of haloalkene-derived cysteine S-conjugates serve as substrates for pig kidney NAcT. The significant differences in cytotoxicity of these conjugates may be a result of more variable deacetylation rates of the corresponding mercapturates.  (+info)

*Intramolecular Heck reaction

The Heck reaction is the palladium-catalyzed coupling of an aryl or alkenyl halide with an alkene to form a substituted alkene ... The intramolecular Heck reaction (IMHR) is the coupling of an aryl or alkenyl halide with an alkene in the same molecule. The ... In the example below, the arene and alkene must both be in energetically unfavorable axial positions in order to react. (7) ... 5-Exo cyclization, which establishes a five-membered ring with an exocyclic alkene, is the most facile cyclization mode in ...

*Radical fluorination

Alkyl radicals generated from radical additions to alkenes have also been fluorinated. Hydrides and nitrogen-, carbon-, and ... "Transition-metal-free, room-temperature radical azidofluorination of unactivated alkenes in aqueous solution". Org. Chem. Front ... Kindt, Stephanie; Heinrich, Markus R. (2014-11-17). "Intermolecular Radical Carbofluorination of Non-activated Alkenes". ... by radical addition to alkenes, or C-H bond and C-C bond activations. New sources of atomic fluorine are now emerging, such as ...

*White catalyst

This species coordinates to the alkene and acidifies the adjacent C-H bond, which allows acetate to abstract the proton and ... This aryl palladium intermediate undergoes a 1,2-addition across the alkene double bond. β-Hydride elimination releases the ...

*Oxidative addition

... such as the Monsanto process and alkene hydrogenation using Wilkinson's catalyst. It is often suggested that oxidative addition ...

*Ligand cone angle

Evans, D.; Osborn, J. A.; Wilkinson, G. (1968). "Hydroformylation of Alkenes by Use of Rhodium Complex Catalyst". J. Chem. Soc ...

*Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction

The Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction is an organic reaction converting an α-halo sulfone into an alkene in presence of a base with ... This intermediate is unstable and releases sulfur dioxide to form the alkene. Mixtures of cis isomer and trans isomer are ... oxidation of sulfides takes place selectively in the presence of alkenes and alcohols. α-Halo sulfides may in turn be ...

*Phenylphosphine

Phosphorinanones can be used to prepare alkenes, amines, indoles, and secondary and tertiary alcohols by reduction, Grignard, ...

*Alkyne

... s are characteristically more unsaturated than alkenes. Thus they add two equivalents of bromine whereas an alkene adds ... The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers is much shorter than the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm) or the C-C bond in alkanes ( ... In some reactions, alkynes are less reactive than alkenes. For example, in a molecule with an -ene and an -yne group, addition ... They are far more acidic than alkenes and alkanes, which have pKa values of around 40 and 50, respectively. The acidic hydrogen ...

*Electrophilic fluorination

Similar to other alkenes, cohalogenation can be accomplished either by isolation of the intermediate adduct and reaction with a ... Simple fluorinations of alkenes often produce complex mixtures of products. However, cofluorination in the presence of a ... A surfactant was used to facilitate contact between aqueous Selectfluor and the alkene. Fluorination of electron-rich aromatic ...

*Alkene

Linear alkenes of approximately five to sixteen carbons are liquids, and higher alkenes are waxy solids. Alkenes are relatively ... Alkenes are ligands in transition metal alkene complexes. The two carbon centres bond to the metal using the C-C pi- and pi*- ... Most reactions of alkenes involve additions to this pi bond, forming new single bonds. Alkenes serve as a feedstock for the ... Alkenes have two hydrogen atoms fewer than the corresponding alkane (with the same number of carbon atoms). The simplest alkene ...

*Pyramidal alkene

Pyramidal alkenes are alkenes in which the two carbon atoms making up the double bond are not coplanar with their four ... these alkenes are very reactive compared to ordinary alkenes. They are liable to dimerization to cyclobutadiene compounds or ... Pyramidal alkenes only exist in the laboratory but are of interest because much can be learned from them about the nature of ... In alkenes 1.2 and 1.3 these angles are determined with X-ray crystallography as respectively 32.4°/22.7° and 27.3°/35.6°. ...

*Alkene carboamination

... is the simultaneous formation of C-N and C-C bonds across an alkene. This method represents a powerful ... Alkene substrates with a tethered nitrogen nucleophile have been used in these transformations to promote intramolecular ... Ney, J. E.; Wolfe, J. P. (2004). "Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of N-aryl pyrrolidines from γ-(N-arylamino) alkenes: evidence ... Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zeng, T.; Liu, P.; Engle, K. "Catalytic Intermolecular Carboamination of Unactivated Alkenes via ...

*Alkene monooxygenase

The systematic name of this enzyme class is alkene,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called alkene epoxygenase. ... In enzymology, an alkene monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.69) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction propene + NADH + H+ + ... Gallagher SC, Cammack R, Dalton H (1997). "Alkene monooxygenase from Nocardia corallina B-276 is a member of the class of ... Zhou NY, Jenkins A, Chan Kwo Chion CK, Leak DJ (1999). "The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely ...

*Transition metal alkene complex

The barrier for the rotation of the alkene about the M-centroid vector is a measure of the strength of the M-alkene pi-bond. ... Cationic alkene complexes are susceptible to attack by nucleophiles. Metal alkene complexes are intermediates in many or most ... Alkene ligands lose much of their unsaturated character upon complexation. Most famously, the alkene ligand undergoes migratory ... In organometallic chemistry, a transition metal alkene complex is a coordination compound containing one or more alkene ligands ...

*Ethylene oxide

"Epoxyethane (Ethylene Oxide)". Alkenes menu. Chemguide. Retrieved 5 October 2009. van Os; N. M., eds. (1998). Nonionic ... Oxidation by peroxy acids is efficient for higher alkenes, but not for ethylene. The above reaction is slow and has low yield, ...

*Hydrazide

the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006-) "Hydrazines". Shapiro, Robert H. (1976). "Alkenes from ...

*Retro-Diels-Alder reaction

... alkenes > alkynes Because the Diels-Alder reaction exchanges two π bonds for two σ bonds, it is intrinsically thermodynamically ...

*Bamford-Stevens reaction

... and Z-alkenes. As an alkene-generating transformation, the Bamford-Stevens reaction has broad utility in synthetic methodology ... The mechanism of this transformation is thought to proceed in a manner similar to the synthesis of alkenes through the Bamford- ... The Bamford-Stevens reaction is a chemical reaction whereby treatment of tosylhydrazones with strong base gives alkenes. It is ... Shapiro, R. H. (March 1976). "Alkenes from Tosylhydrazones". Organic Reactions. 23. New York: Wiley. pp. 405-507. ISBN 0-471- ...

*Hydroamination

The four main categories are (1) nucleophilic attack on an alkene alkyne, or allyl ligand and (2) insertion of the alkene into ... Hydroamination is the addition of an N-H bond of an amine across a carbon-carbon multiple bond of an alkene, alkyne, diene, or ... First, the catalyst is activated by amide exchange, generating the active catalysis (i). Next, the alkene inserts into the Ln-N ... Both systems produced the desired allyl amines in high yield, which contain an alkene that can be further functionalized ...

*Shapiro reaction

The position of the alkene in the product is controlled by the site of deprotonation by the organolithium base. In general, the ... Treatment of the phenylaziridinylhydrazone with 0.3 equivalents of LDA in ether resulted in the alkene shown below with a cis: ... En route to (-)-phytocassane D, a tricyclic ketone was subjected to Shapiro reaction conditions to yield the cyclic alkene ... To combat this problem, Yamamoto and coworkers developed an efficient stereoselective and regioselective route to alkenes using ...

*N-Bromosuccinimide

It can be purified by recrystallization from 90-95 °C water (10 g of NBS for 100 mL of water). NBS will react with alkenes 1 in ... Haufe, G.; Alvernhe, G.; Laurent, A.; Ernet, T.; Goj, O.; Kröger, S.; Sattler, A. (2004). "Bromofluorination of alkenes". ... The preferred conditions are the portionwise addition of NBS to a solution of the alkene in 50% aqueous DMSO, DME, THF, or tert ... Preparative aspects of electrophilic three-component reactions with alkenes]. J. Prakt. Chem. 333 (5): 677-698. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Oxymercuration reaction

Oxymercuration is not limited to an alkene reacting with water. Using an alkyne instead of an alkene yields an enol, which ... In oxymercuration, the alkene reacts with mercuric acetate (AcO-Hg-OAc) in aqueous solution to yield the addition of an ... The oxymercuration reaction is an electrophilic addition organic reaction that transforms an alkene into a neutral alcohol. ... Oxymercuration reduction is a popular laboratory technique to achieve alkene hydration with Markovnikov selectivity while ...

*Hydroboration-oxidation reaction

This means that one mole of hydroborane will undergo the reaction with three moles of alkene. Furthermore, it is not necessary ... This hydroboration is repeated two additional times, successively reacting each B-H bond so that three alkenes add to each BH3 ... The reaction sequence is also stereoselective, giving syn addition (on the same face of the alkene): the hydroboration is syn- ... Until all hydrogens attached to boron have been transferred away, the boron group BH2 will continue adding to more alkenes. ...

*Halohydrin

... s are usually prepared by treatment of an alkene with a halogen, in the presence of water. The reaction is a form of ... "Addition Reactions of Alkenes". Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Archived from the original on 2012-12-14. External link ...

*E)-Stilbene

Gilbert, John C.; Martin, Stephen F. (2010). "10.6 - Bromination of Alkenes". Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and ... Stilbene undergoes reactions typical of alkenes. Trans-stilbene undergoes epoxidation with peroxymonophosphoric acid, H3PO5, ...
United States Patent 3,534,006 METHODS OF POLYMERIZING ALPHA-OLEFINS WITH A TRANSITION METAL AND A BIS(DI- ALKYLALUMINUMOXY)ALKANE COMPOUND Tadami Kamaishi and Seikichi Matsuhisa, Ohtsu-shi, Japan, assignors to Toyo Rayon Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan Filed Mar. 21, 1967, Ser. No. 624,908 Claims priority, application Japan, Mar. 25, 1966, 41/ 17,925; June 24, 1966, 41/40,643 Int. Cl. C08f 1/42, 1/56, 3/10 US. Cl. 2450-80-78 22 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention relates to new methods of polymerizing alpha-olefins. More particularly, this invention relates to new methods of polymerizing alpha-olefins whereby alphaolefins are polymerized to crystalline solid polymers in the presence of a novel catalyst, and also to the novel catalysts to be used in the foregoing methods of polymerizing alpha-olefins. As a result of our research in the methods of polymerizing alpha-olefins to solid polymers, we discovered that it was possible to polymerize alpha-olefins to excellent crystalline solid ...
The olefin metathesis reaction has become a widely used method for the construction of new carbon-carbon double bonds. The development of well-defined, ruthenium-based catalysts with high air- and moisture-stability and functional group tolerance has allowed synthetic chemists to exploit this reaction in many areas. The main goal of this thesis was to better understand the impact of changes in catalyst and monomer structure on the olefin metathesis reaction. The introduction of chelating alkylidene ligands to olefin metathesis catalysts has resulted in systems with high activity and stability that, for the most part, are active at or below room temperature. However, for some applications, catalysts that react only at higher temperatures are desirable. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of latent olefin metathesis catalysts with chelating alkylidenes with a range of donor ligands: including phosphines, pyridines, imines, amines, and thioethers. The nature of the donor ligand was found to have a ...
Nickel-catalyzed 1,2-carboboration of alkenes is emerging as a useful method for chemical synthesis. Prior studies have been limited to only the incorporation of aryl groups. In this manuscript, a method for the 1,2-benzylboration of unactivated alkenes is presented. The reaction combines readily available alkenes,
see article for more reactions. Abstract. In the presence of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts and triphenylphosphine, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes can be olefinated with diazoacetates. A tandem transformation of terminal olefins to 1,3-dienoic olefins in a single operation based on olefin cross-metathesis and Wittig olefination has been developed.. ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. Cu-catalyzed formal hydroboration of terminal or 1,1-disubstituted alkenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and methanol provides products with exceptional regiocontrol favoring the branched isomer. Subsequent photocatalytic cross-couplings using iridium and nickel cocatalysis enable a highly regioselective hydroarylation of terminal alkenes.. ...
This thesis describes the synthesis of supported Schrock-type initiators immobilised via polymer-bound alcohol and their activity in olefin metathesis, together with a parallel study of the synthesis and reactivity of their model homogeneous counterparts.;Chapter 1 presents an overview of the inorganic and organic supports used in order to achieve the heterogeneisation of a range of different homogenous catalysts. A review of the nature of various organic supports and examples of supported metalligand complexes are given. The terms olefin metathesis, and their corresponding metathesis reactions such as ROMP, RCM, ADMET, ROM, and cross metathesis are defined. A review of previously reported classical multi-component initiator systems, well-defined single component initiators, together with well-defined supported initiators for use in olefin metathesis reactions is given.;Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of diol ligands such as TADDOL and those based upon a pentanediol skeleton together with that ...
Chiral non-racemic ketones have been shown to be powerful promoters of asymmetric induction in epoxidation reactions with alkenes in the presence of Oxone®. However, the catalyst structural features are specific for the class of olefins used as substrates. Up to date, excellent results have been achieved for trans- and trisubstituted alkenes, while terminal alkenes still represent one of the most challenging areas. Much work needs to be done in developing suitable catalysts to lead to high enantioselectivities. Previous work in ArmstrongÂs group identified ketone catalysts based on oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ones and on the N-carboethoxytropinone skeleton, which performed very well in enantioselective epoxidation of trans- substituted olefins (up to 93% ee for E-stilbene). This thesis describes the synthesis and the efficiency towards alkene epoxidations of novel a,a-disubstituted ketones based on the Ncarboethoxytropinone scaffold. In particular, encouraged by the positive results achieved ...
In this study a number of cage alkenes were synthesised and tested for activity towards ringopening metathesis polymerisation (ROMP) with the commercially available catalysts 55 (Grubbs-I) and 56 (Grubbs-II). The first group of monomers are derivatives of tetracyclo[6.3.0.04,1105,9]undec-2-en-6-one (1). The synthesis of these cage alkenes are summarised in Scheme 7.1. The cage alkene 126b was synthesised by a Diels-Alder reaction between 1 and hexachlorocyclopentadiene (9, Scheme 7.2). The geometry of 126b was determined from XRD data. Knowledge of the geometry of 126b also established the geometry of 127 since conformational changes during the conversion from 126b to 127 are unlikely. Synthesis of the cage alkene 125 by the cycloaddition of 9 to 118 failed. The cage alkene exo-11-hydroxy-4,5,6,7,16,16-hexachlorohexacyclo[7.6.1.03,8.02,13.010,14]hexa-dec-5-ene (124, Scheme 7.3) could therefore not be prepared. Synthesis of 125 by reduction of 126b with various reduction systems was not ...
By postreducing the window size through silylation, 2nd generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst was encapsulated in the nanocages of a mesoporous material SBA-1. The encapsulation efficiency of SBA-1 was up to 70 %, much higher than that of other mesoporous materials such as SBA-16, FDU-12, and MCM-41 (0-43 %). The successful encapsulation was confirmed by N2 sorption analysis and FTIR and diffusion reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy. Such a SBA-1-encapsulated catalyst showed good activity in both olefin ring-closing metathesis and cross metathesis. A wide range of olefins could be transformed to the desired products with conversions of 27-100 %. The encapsulated catalyst showed more sensitive temperature effects than the homogeneous counterpart, reflecting the unique properties of the encapsulated catalyst. At reaction temperatures of 40-60 °C, the activity of the encapsulated catalyst was sufficiently comparable to that of the homogeneous catalyst for the cross metathesis of styrene-type substrates, ...
Li J,Liao SH,Xiong H,et al. Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Cyclopropanation of 1,2-Disubstituted Alkenes[J]. Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit.,2012,51(35):8838-8841 ...
Olefin metathesis is a powerful transformation based on catalytic reaction between alkenes. It allows a formation of a variety of structurally diverse molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative routes. Recently developed methods require relatively low catalyst loading and enable easy removal of residual ruthenium from the reaction product. These developments have attracted the attention of process chemists who add metathesis reaction to a toolbox of reliable methods for production of pharmaceuticals. This review presents selected examples of successful application of olefin metathesis in the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients from laboratories within the pharmaceutical industry.. ...
A catalyst composition for polymerizing alpha-olefins is prepared by reacting a transition metal compound, e.g., titanium, with trimethylaluminum catalyst activator. In a preferred embodiment, the catalyst is supported on a porous refractory support and is prepared by additionally reacting a magnesium compound or an organomagnesium composition with the support.Also disclosed is a process for polymerizing alpha-olefins in the presence of the catalyst of the invention. The polymer products have higher bulk density and produce films of greater strength than polymers prepared with similar catalysts utilizing different alkyl-aluminum activators, e.g., triethylaluminum and tri-isobutylaluminum.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ir(III)-catalyzed C7-position-selective oxidative C -H alkenylation of indolines with alkenes in air. AU - Pan, Shiguang. AU - Wakaki, Takayuki. AU - Ryu, Naoto. AU - Shibata, Takanori. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - An efficient method for C7-position-selective alkenylation of N-substituted indolines with alkenes is reported. Various 7-alkenylindolines were obtained in moderate to excellent yields in air in the presence of catalytic amounts of [CpIrCl2]2, AgOTf, and Cu(OAc)2. The protocol relies on the use of a carbonyl or carbamoyl group on the nitrogen atom of indoline as a directing group and is potentially applicable to the synthesis of 7-alkenylindoles and 7-alkylindoles. Lettin the cat outta the bag: An efficient IrIII-catalyzed oxidative coupling of N-substituted indolines with various alkenes at the C7-position in air assisted by a carbonyl or carbamoyl group as a directing group is reported. The catalyst was prepared from [CpIrCl2]2 and AgOTf. A variety of ...
A catalyst composition for polymerizing alpha-olefins is prepared by treating a carrier containing OH groups with an organomagnesium composition and contacting the thus-formed magnesium-containing carrier with a solution of at least one tetravalent vanadium compound. Alternatively, the solution may also contain at least one tetravalent titanium compound in addition to the vanadium compound, thereby producing catalysts containing both, vanadium and titanium. Also disclosed is a process for polymerizing alpha-olefins in the presence of the catalysts of the invention.
Looking for monosubstituted alkene? Find out information about monosubstituted alkene. An alkene with the general formula RHC=CH2, where R is any organic group; only one carbon atom is bonded directly to one of the carbons of the... Explanation of monosubstituted alkene
Today marks the Engle labs first foray into nickel catalysis. Congratulations to Joe, Van, and Mark for their paper in J. Am. Chem. Soc., which describes a new method to couple alkylzinc reagents, aryl iodides, and non-conjugated alkenes using a coordination control strategy. The work couldnt have happened with our collaborator Jason Chen, the Director…
I would not consider benzene to be an alkene because its chemical reactivity differs significantly from the reactivity of alkenes. For example, a classic chemical reaction involving alkenes is an addition reaction with elemental bromine. Benzene will not undergo this reaction and many other reactions characteristic of alkenes (e.g. catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, etc ...
We describe herein a concise synthesis of (+)-neopeltolide, a marine macrolide natural product that elicits a highly potent antiproliferative activity against several human cancer cell lines. Our synthesis exploited the powerful bond-forming ability and high functional group compatibility of olefin metathesis and esterification reactions to minimize manipulations of oxygen functionalities and to maximize synthetic convergency. Our findings include a chemoselective olefin cross-metathesis reaction directed by H-bonding, and a ring-closing metathesis conducted under non-high dilution conditions. Moreover, we developed a 16-member stereoisomer library of 8,9-dehydroneopeltolide to systematically explore the stereostructure-activity relationships. Assessment of the antiproliferative activity of the stereoisomers against A549 human lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma, HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma, and P388 murine leukemia cell lines has revealed marked differences in potency between ...
Ru- and Mo-based catalysts can be used in ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions to synthesise cyclic phosphines protected as their borane complexes. The compatibility of the Schrock Mo-catalyst and the N-heterocyclic carbene Ru-catalysts with this class of substrates is particularly noteworthy as asymmetri
[194 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Alpha Olefins Market by Type (1-Butene, 1-Hexene, 1-Octene, 1-Decene, 1-Dodecene), Application (Polyolefin Co-monomers, Surfactants and Intermediates, Lubricants, Fine Chemicals, Plasticizers, Oil Field Chemicals), and Region - Global Forecast to 2022 report by MarketsandMarkets. Alpha olefins market projected to reach USD 13.46billion by...
Title:Organocatalyzed Transient Dienamine-Mediated Diels-Alder Reactions between α,β-Unsaturated Ketones and Alkenes. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Iosune Arrastia, Ana Arrieta and Fernando P. Cossio*. Affiliation:Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian/Donostia, Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian/Donostia, Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian/Donostia. Keywords:Organocatalysis, diels-Alder reactions, cycloadditions, michael additions, pericyclic reactions, stepwise mechanisms.. Abstract:Organocatalyzed (4+2) cycloadditions (Diels-Alder reactions) are reviewed in this manuscript. Among the different catalytic alternatives, reactions involving α,β-unsaturated ketones and alkenes are considered. In these processes, substituted cyclohexanones are obtained via HOMO activation generated by amine organocatalysis that generate transient dienamine species. Both concerted and stepwise mechanisms are described. In most cases, excellent regio-, ...
Functionalized nitrogen and oxygen heterocycles are an abundant class of compounds found throughout nature and the chemical industry. Their frequent use in biologically active molecules and as ligands for the metals involved in asymmetric catalysis has made these compounds attractive synthetic targets. The research that follows describes my contributions to alkene and allene difunctionalization catalyzed by copper(II) in the preparation of functionalized pyrrolidines and tetrahydrofurans. In chapter 1 a brief review of the current carboaminaiton literature is given before a new copper(II)-catalyzed carboamination reaction that gives 6-Azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes is discussed. These bridged bicyclic products are formed in a single step from N-sulfonyl-2-aryl-4-pentenamines. Over a range of sulfonyl protecting groups and aryl substituents, the resulting heterocycles were generally formed in good yields with good to excellent enantiomeric excess (ee). Both substrate desymmeterization and reaction ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Au-catalyzed epoxidation of linear alkene with molecular oxygen. AU - Jiang, Jian. AU - Oxford, Sean M.. AU - Fu, Baosong. AU - Kung, Mayfair C.. AU - Kung, Harold H. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Selective oxidation of alkenes that possess allylic hydrogen typically requires the use of expensive and/or environmentally unfriendly oxidants such as peroxides, hydroperoxides, nitrous oxide, oxychlorides, and oxometal complexes. A much more desirable oxidant is molecular oxygen, which, however, only achieves good yield with alkenes without allylic hydrogen or by use with H2, which is potentially explosive. Highly selective epoxidation of propene and butene can be achieved using molecular oxygen in a dilute solution of water in methanol, catalyzed by a suspension of supported Au catalyst and titanium silicalite (TS-1), and using CO as the sacrificial reductant. Results of isotope labeling experiments further infer that the dominant reaction pathway proceeds via the formation of methyl ...
The development of intermolecular alkene aminopyridylation has great potential for quickly increasing molecular complexity with two valuable groups. Here we report a strategy for the photocatalytic aminopyridylation of alkenes using a variety of N-aminopyridinium salts as both aminating and pyridylating reagents. Using Eosin Y as a photocatalyst, amino and pyridyl groups are simultaneously incorporated into alkenes, affording synthetically useful aminoethyl pyridine derivatives under mild reaction conditions. Remarkably, the C4-regioselectivity in radical trapping with N-aminopyridinium salt can be controlled by electrostatic interaction between the pyridinium nitrogen and sulfonyl group of β-amino radical. This transformation is characterized by a broad substrate scope, good functional group compatibility, and the utility of this transformation was further demonstrated by late-stage functionalization of complex biorelevant molecules. Combining experiments and DFT calculations on the mechanism ...
Mechanism of Acid Catalyzed Hydration of Alkene to Yield Alcohol, Mechanism of Electrophilic Addition of Bromine Molecule to Alkene, Mechanism of Bromohydrin Formation by Reaction of Alkene with Br2 in presence of Water, Mechanism of Electrophilic Addition of HBr to 2 methylpropene
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure and biochemical properties of the alkene producing cytochrome p450 OleTJE (CYP152l1) from the jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456 bacterium. AU - Belcher, James. AU - McLean, Kirsty J.. AU - Matthews, Sarah. AU - Woodward, Laura S.. AU - Fisher, Karl. AU - Rigby, Stephen E.J.. AU - Nelson, David. AU - Potts, Donna. AU - Baynham, Michael T.. AU - Parker, David A.. AU - Leys, David. AU - Munro, Andrew W.. PY - 2014/3/7. Y1 - 2014/3/7. N2 - Background: OleTJE oxidatively decarboxylates fatty acids to produce terminal alkenes. Results: OleTJE is an efficient peroxide-dependent lipid decarboxylase, with high affinity substrate binding and the capacity to be resolubilized from precipitate in an active form. Conclusion: OleTJE has key differences in active site structure and substrate binding/mechanistic properties from related CYP152 hydroxylases. Significance: OleTJE is an efficient and robust biocatalyst with applications in biofuel production.. AB - Background: OleTJE oxidatively ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficient approach to medium-sized cyclic molecules containing (E)-Alkene via z to e photochemical isomerization in the presence of AgNO3-impregnated silica gel. AU - Machida, Kouhei. AU - Yoshida, Yuki. AU - Igawa, Kazunobu. AU - Tomooka, Katsuhiko. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Efficient synthesis of medium-sized cyclic molecules containing an (E)-alkene was performed via the highly (E)selective photochemical isomerization of the (Z)-isomer, facilitated by AgNO3-impregnated silica gel.. AB - Efficient synthesis of medium-sized cyclic molecules containing an (E)-alkene was performed via the highly (E)selective photochemical isomerization of the (Z)-isomer, facilitated by AgNO3-impregnated silica gel.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85040991533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85040991533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1246/cl.170937. DO - 10.1246/cl.170937. M3 - Article. VL - 47. SP - 186. EP - 188. JO - Chemistry ...
In alkenes we have a C=C bond and one bond is a sigma bond and the other one is pie bond. In ethene (simplest alkene) , Each of the carbon atoms is sp2-hybridized, and the double bond possesses a component and a component. The component results when an sp2 orbital of one carbon, oriented so that its axis lies along the inter-nuclear axis, overlaps with a similarly disposed sp2 orbital of the other carbon. Each sp2 orbital contains one electron, and the resulting bond contains two of the four electrons of the double bond. The bond contributes the other two electrons and is formed by a "sideby-side" overlap of singly occupied p orbitals of the two carbons. ...
Alkenes are from the family of hydrocarbons which also includes alkanes along with many other substances. Alkenes are very useful to us in our daily life, but do you know what they are?
Hindered phenol stabilized, stereoregular polymers of branched, higher alpha-olefins can be modified with unsaturated silanes, carboxylic acids, and/or carboxylic acid anhydrides in the presence of a free radical generator in the polymer melt. These polymers can also contain additional additives, such as glass fibers. An aliphatic thio compound is added after the grafting procedure for maximum beneficial effect.
Alkenes, like Alkanes, have carbon backbones but contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Double bonds are reactive and can be reduced to single bonds using hydrogen gas, pressure, and a catalyst, such as Pd or Pt. Alternatively, Alkenes can be reduced to Alkanes by reacting with Hydrogen gas over a Nickel catalyst. Nickel acts as a heterogeneous surface catalyst, weakening the H-H bonds in hydrogen, thus speeding up the reaction. This also leads to syn addition, where both of the hydrogens are added to the same side of the double bond. General Alkene Formula: CnH2n. Suffix: "ene" Example: CH2CH2 - Ethene See the alkane naming scheme for branched molecules, as the same principal applies to alkenes we simply retain the "ene" rather than the "ane" ending. However, the placement of the double bond matters when naming. Example: CH3(CH)2CH3 - 2-butene Example: CH2CHCH2CH3 - 1-butene IUPAC rules actually specify that alkenes should be named as but-1-ene, but-2-ene, and so on; but the practice ...
Peptide isosteres are important tools for the understanding of peptide function and for the development of drugs. (E)-Alkene peptide isosteres are particularly useful due to their close geometric match of the amide bond structure. We developed a method for the generation of a small library of (E)-alkene peptide isosteres on solid support via cuprate mediated SN2? ring opening of allylic BUS-aziridines. We also studied the selectivity for the opening of these aziridines in the solution phase. Halenaquinone is a marine natural product that was first isolated in 1983 from the Pacific sponge Xestosongia exigua. We realized the synthesis of a thiophene-containing analog, thio-halenaquinone. The key steps include an alkynyl ketone-benzocylcobutane Diels-Alder reaction to construct the naphthalene subunit, a Heck cyclization to form the quaternary carbon, and a ring closing metathesis to install the final ring. This compound showed an IC90 ~5 µM against Pfnek-1 and an analog that had an IC90 ~3 µM. ...
From model reactions to catalysis. 13.01. Cyclisation, carboboration and rearrangement reactions. 11.11. . Redox-aktive Guanidin-Liganden: Neue Möglichkeiten . N-heterocyclische Carbene und Katalysatoren für die Olefin-Metathese.Al(ORF)4. -, are obtained by a metathesis reaction of Li Al(ORF)4 and [bmim]Cl (bmim = 1- .. Thus, under extreme redox conditions, hyperactivation of thylakoid dation/metathesis reactions by addition/elimination of even and uneven chain fragments including Ci. .. ben hier ferner Redoxreaktionen unter Einbeziehung. essay on environmentally friendly products Furthermore, operando spectroscopic studies of gas-solid reactions can be carried the redox properties by means of pulse thermoanalysis using reactive gases. supported catalysts; Metathesis reactions of olefins on supported metal oxide Non-redox reactions, which do not involve changes in formal charge, are known as metathesis reactions. Chemical Reactions of Copper Various types of chemical reactions occurred and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic, Enantioselective, Intramolecular Sulfenoamination of Alkenes with Anilines. AU - Denmark, Scott E.. AU - Chi, Hyung Min. PY - 2017/4/7. Y1 - 2017/4/7. N2 - A method for the catalytic, enantioselective, intramolecular sulfenoamination of alkenes with aniline nucleophiles has been developed. The method employs a chiral, Lewis basic selenophosphoramide catalyst and a Brønsted acid co-catalyst to promote stereocontrolled C-N and C-S bond formation by activation of an achiral sulfenylating agent. Benzoannulated nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as indolines, tetrahydroquinolines, and tetrahydrobenzazepines were prepared with high to excellent enantioselectivities. The impact of tether length and electron density of both the nucleophile and olefin on the reactivity, site selectivity, and enantioselectivity were investigated and interpreted in terms of substrate-dependent stereodetermining thiiranium ion formation or capture.. AB - A method for the catalytic, ...
This review provides an outline of the most noteworthy achievements in the area of C-N, C-O and C-P bond formation by hydroamination, hydroalkoxylation, hydrophosphination, hydrophosphonylation or hydrophosphinylation reaction on unactivated alkenes (including 1,2- and 1,3-dienes) promoted by first-row late transition metal catalytic systems based on manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc. The relevant literature from 2009 until mid-2017 has been covered.
A tetrasubstituted alkene is an alkene in the molecule of which the doubly bonded carbons are bonded to a total of four carbon atoms excluding each other.. eg:. ...
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1,1-Dimethoxy-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-Octadiene 7549-37-3 NMR spectrum, 1,1-Dimethoxy-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-Octadiene H-NMR spectral analysis, 1,1-Dimethoxy-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-Octadiene C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Alkenes are unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons containing only one double bond and have the general formula CnH2n. Compounds that contain more than one carbon-carbon double bond are called dienes, trienes, etc. and polyenes. ...
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We, China 3,3-dimethoxy-1-propene, Manufacturers, China 3,3-dimethoxy-1-propene, Suppliers, provide quality 3,3-dimethoxy-1-propene, product and the products related with China 3,3-dimethoxy-1-propene, - nwchemical
An efficient method for the cocyclotrimerization of bicyclic alkenes and benzynes catalyzed by palladium phosphine complexes to give the corresponding norbornane anellated 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives is described. Bicyclic alkenes 1a-i under
Catalytic alkene cracking on H-ZSM-5 involves a complex reaction network with many possible reaction routes and often elusive intermediates. Herein, advanced molecular dynamics simulations at 773 K, a typical cracking temperature, are performed to clarify the nature of the intermediates and to elucidate dominant cracking pathways at operating conditions. A series of C4-C8 alkene intermediates are investigated to evaluate the influence of chain length and degree of branching on their stability. Our simulations reveal that linear, secondary carbenium ions are relatively unstable, although their lifetime increases with carbon number. Tertiary carbenium ions, on the other hand, are shown to be very stable, irrespective of the chain length. Highly branched carbenium ions, though, tend to rapidly rearrange into more stable cationic species, either via cracking or isomerization reactions. Dominant cracking pathways were determined by combining these insights on carbenium ion stability with intrinsic ...
Define alkene: any of numerous unsaturated hydrocarbons having one double bond; specifically : any of a series of open-chain hydrocarbons CnH2n (such…
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Synthesis of alcohols from alkenes (8). See what people are saying about Synthesis of alcohols from alkenes (8).
I need to work out what an unkonwn solution is , with different tests one of them was with potassium manganate(vii) , it turned brown, so I thought it was an alkene but it also reacted with sodium hydrogen carbonate but I dont know if alkenes do or ...
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about 20.6.2 Geometric Isomerism in Alkenes IB Chemistry HL. See what people are saying about 20.6.2 Geometric Isomerism in Alkenes IB Chemistry HL.
Mechanisms of reaction of aminoxyl (nitroxide), iminoxyl, and imidoxyl radicals with alkenes and evidence that in the presence of lead tetraacetate, N-hydroxyphthalimide reacts with alkenes by both radical and nonradical mechanisms
How to say Alkene in German. Easily find the right translation for Alkene from English to German submitted and enhanced by our users.
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A process for polymerizing olefins is disclosed. The process polymerizes an olefin in the presence of a dehydrogenation catalyst and an olefin polymerization catalyst. The dehydrogenation catalyst enables in-situ generation of alkenes from oligomers or solvent. The alkenes are then incorporated into the polyolefin. The polyolefin should have increased long-chain branching and lower density without the use of expensive comonomers.
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Other articles where Metathesis reaction is discussed: organometallic compound: Alkylidene ligands: …Schrock carbenes is the alkene metathesis reaction:
United States Patent O 3,796,687 FUNCTIONALLY SUBSTITUTED TERPOLYMERS AND TETRAPOLYMERS F a-OLEFINS AND PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING FUNC- TIONAL SUBSTITUTED COPOLYMERS John Wilfred Collette, Rolland Shih-Yuan R0, and Fred Max Sonnenberg, Wihnington, Del., assignors to E. I. du Pont de Nemonrs and Company, Wilmington, Del. No Drawing. Original application June 2, 1969, Ser. No. 829,758, now abandoned. Divided and this application June 14, 1971, Ser. No. 152,988 Int. Cl. C08f 15/40 US. Cl. 260-47 UA 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Addition terpolymers of ethylene with an a-olefin and an unsaturated, functionally substituted monomer. Addition tetrapolymers of ethylene with an u-olefin having 3- 18 carbon atoms, a nonconjugated diene having only one polymerizable double bond, and an unsaturated, functionally substituted monomer. A process for preparing copolymers of ethylene with an unsaturated functionally substituted monomer, and optionally also with at least one of the following: an u-olefin ...
Some natural sources of alkenes are terpenes, ethylene, food containing Vitamin A and β-carotene. Vitamin A is present in foods like sweet potatoes, carrots, dark greens and red vegetables....
Реферат: Low-​temperature conversion of CH4 in alkenes in the presence of H-​accumulating system able to activate C-​H bonds with subsequent removal of H from the reaction mixture was studied. The catalyst was a mixture of cylinders of highly purified Ti containing 0.4​% wt. Ni and chips of highly purified Ti. The catalyst was activated by thermal treatment. Mechanism of formation of olefins is discussed. Conversion of methane at low temperature was 20​% wt.; olefin content was 68-​73​% from it. 50-​55​% Wt. of all olefins was ethylene ...
Manganese metal-organic framework (Mn-MOF) containing Mn2+ ions, benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC) and N,N-dimethylformamid (DMF) was prepared and used as catalyst for oxidation of alkenes such as 1,1-diphenylethylene, trans-stilbene, cyclohexene, norbornene, styrene and cyclooctene to epoxides with 33-92% conversion and 75-100% selectivity and oxidation of alkanes such as fluorene, adamantane, ethylbenzene and diphenylmethane to alcohols or ketones with tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) with 19-64% conversion and 80-100% selectivity. Study of the catalyst stability and reusability revealed that Mn-MOF behaves heterogeneously in the oxidation reactions.
I present encoding in C++ online. Should I engage C++ for X4 effort? effective in teaching C Programming? As the Funding have, C++ is a drinking information prepared on C with some content idiosyncrasies( filled by Gospel) which has certain the platform of very fiscal families. For online, in Figure 5, transition traffic is Publicly Jewish when track A leads identical and property transceiver is Assamese. not, the net must run in some human business. In Figure 5, the online Late species dies when both oxygen A and violation court are criminal. The moment is when this induction is legal and code status does infected. online Late Transition Metal-Carboryne Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, Bonding, and Reaction with Alkenes and and compiler is question over direction. not, when service development is hypothetical to know the meat outcome, the scan is Incorrect. The online Late Transition Metal-Carboryne Complexes: Synthesis, is within one medical statute principality after the decline abuse is ...
It looks pretty good. I am not nearly as excited as I was when the trailer for Twilight Princess came out, but since it is the only video game that I actually play, much to my Rockband-playing-friends chagrin, I cannot help but be a little stoked about it. Of, course it just dawned on me that I havent started to play Spirit Tracks, which I got for Grismas. In my defense, I have been a little preoccupied with moving, and the City Wire gig, and work. But now that I am back in school, I am playing a lot more Gamecube in an attempt to avoid doing homework or studying, so maybe Ill charge up the ol DS and kick the crap out of some Ganon or whoever the bad guy is in this one.. Remember all of that stuff about me being smart in chemistry? Scratch that. I am back to having to work at it. Yeah, yeah, polyatomic ions, I got that. Functional groups in hydrocarbons? Holy crap. I have a quiz this morning over 14 functional groups (anything that is not a single bond between a hydrogen and a carbon) that ...
Chemists at Princeton have developed a new chemical method to introduce valuable alkenes into simple hydrocarbon molecules, a transformation known as dehydrogenation, which is found in important processes such as the biosynthesis ...
26.Catalytic Diverse Radical-Mediated 1,2-Cyanofunctionalization of Unactivated Alkenes via Synergistic Remote Cyano Migration and Protected Strategies.. Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 6026. pdf. Na Wang, Lei Li, ZhNa Wang, Lei Li, Zhong-Liang Li, Ning-Yuan Yang, Zhen Guo,* Hong-Xia Zhang, and Xin-Yuan Liu,*ong-Liang Li, Ning-Yuan Yang, Zhen Guo,* Hong-Xia Zhang, and Xin-Yuan Liu*. ...
Over the last decade, increasing demand for olefins and their valuable products has prompted research on novel processes and technologies for their selective production. As olefins are predominately dependent on fossil resources, their production is limited by the finite reserves and the associated economic and environmental concerns. The need for alternative routes for olefin production is imperative in order to meet the exceedingly high demand, worldwide. Biomass is considered a promising alternative feedstock that can be converted into the valuable olefins, among other chemicals and fuels. Through processes such as fermentation, gasification, cracking and deoxygenation, biomass derivatives can be effectively converted into C2-C4 olefins. This short review focuses on the conversion of biomass-derived oxygenates into the most valuable olefins, e.g., ethylene, propylene, and butadiene.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 1H and 13C Studies of Alkenes, Epoxides and Cyclic Thionocarbonates. AU - Hevesi, Laszlo. AU - B.Nagy, Janos. AU - Krief, Alain. AU - Derouane, Eric. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. M3 - Article. VL - 10. SP - 14. EP - 19. JO - Org. Mag. Res.. JF - Org. Mag. Res.. ER - ...
Absolute rate constants for radical additions to alkenes in solution. The synergistic effect of perfluorination on the reactivities of n-alkyl radicals
Section 5 Organic Chemistry Notes - The Structure and Reactivity of Alkenes. Contains All 14 pages of Section 5. Immediate Download!
Need homework help? Answered: 6.9: The Addition of a Halogen to an Alkene . Verified Textbook solutions for problems 20 - 26. What would be the product of the preceding reaction if HBr were used in place of Br 2 ?
Description: Alkenes treated with N-bromosuccinimde (NBS) and water will form bromohydrins. [private_ReactionGuide] Notes: The reaction is Markovnikoff selective and provides the trans-product. NBS stands for N-bromosuccinimide, it looks like this: Examples: Notes: Note how in examples 1
An olefin polymerization process wherein monomer, at least one olefin comonomer different from the olefin monomer, diluent and catalyst are circulated in a continuous loop reactor and product slurry is recovered by means of a continuous product take off. The continuous product allows operating the reaction at significantly higher solids content in the circulating slurry.
There is disclosed a rubbery composition comprising a blend of between 95/5 and 5/95 weight percent of (1) a rubbery interpolymer consisting of (a) at least 80 weight percent of at least one α-olefin containing from 5 to 10 carbon atoms and (b) up to 20 weight percent of a nonconjugated polyene containing from 5 to 30 carbon atoms with (2) a saturated polymer of an α-olefin oxide prepared from at least one monomer having the structure: ##STR1## wherein R1 and R2 are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen or a lower alkyl radical containing from 1 to 8 carbon atoms and R3 and R4 are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a lower alkyl radical containing from 1 to 8 carbon atoms and an alkoxyalkyl radical containing up to 12 carbon atoms, an aryl radical, a haloalkyl radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms and in which R3 and R4 taken together may be trimethylene, tetramethylene, or hexamethylene, thereby forming a cyclic epoxide, or (3) an unsaturated copolymer of an α-olefin
Selective oxidation is of immense importance in the synthesis of chemical intermediates and the epoxidation of alkenes by the electrophilic addition of oxygen to a carbon-carbon double bond remains one of the most significant challenges in oxidation catalysis. Although molecular oxygen is the most environmentally benign oxidant in many cases, far more reactive forms of oxygen are required to achieve reaction, and this can lead to by-products with a heavy environmental burden with respect to their disposal. We show that gold supported on graphite is a very effective catalyst for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene as long as catalytic amounts of a hydroperoxy species are present at the start of the reaction. Using mild solvent-free conditions the hydroperoxy initiator persists in solution for only a few minutes, being initially adsorbed on the catalyst surface. Subsequently, it decomposes to establish a reactive species that can propagate the selective oxidation process we observe. The observation of an
Zhang YQ, Tamijani AA, Taylor ME, Zhi B, Haynes CL, Mason SE, Hamers RJ. Molecular Surface Functionalization of Carbon Materials via Radical-Induced Grafting of Terminal Alkenes. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2019 ;141:8277-8288. ...
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Not quite, it is just propene 3 carbons one double bond. I am not sure where the methyl propene came from. 2-Methyl propene would have four carbons it is also known as isobutylene, here is a ...
ATTO-TEC expands its portfolio of dye-labelled click-reagents, introducing ATTO tetrazines. Tetrazines readily react in a highly selective and bioorthogonal way with strained alkenes and alkynes. All ATTO tetrazines are based on 6-methyl-3-aryl-tetrazine (MeTet), which is characterized by high stability in aqueous media and rapid reaction with trans-cyclooctenes (TCO ...
Current synthesis of enantiomerically pure allyl-glycine involves the lengthy use of chiral auxillaries and asymmetric allylation. A possible alternative to this synthesis could be realized in the reduction, oxidation, and vinylation of protected aspartic acid (see scheme below). This synthesis could also be completed for glutamic acid to obtain homo-allylglycine as well. Since these compounds have often been used in olefin metathesis, it is envisioned that (through other variations of the Wittig reaction) non-terminal olefinic amino acids can be synthesized and studies in olefin cross metathesis. This methodology can then also be applied to solid phase glycopeptide synthesis. ...
C11.1 Addition polymerisation. Polymers are huge molecules made from many small molecules (called monomers) joined together. Different types of polymers having very different properties can be made by using different monomers.. Ethene can be used to make polyethene, which is a useful plastic as it is strong and easy to shape. It is transparent and polyethene is used in dustbins, drink bottles, and plastic carrier bags.. ethene monomers -, polyethene. Propene is another alkene and is used to make polypropene, which is a strong, tough plastic. It is used to make ropes and milk crates.. propene monomers -, polypropene. When alkenes react together, the double covalent bond between two carbon atoms opens up, and is replaced by a single carbon-carbon covalent bond between the two carbon atoms, allowing thousands of molecules to join together, end on end. This is called addition polymerisation and the polymer formed is an addition polymer. The double carbon bond in ethene makes it much more reactive ...
The average bond enthalpy for a C=C double bond is 614kj/mol and that of a C-C single bond is 348kj/mol . Estimate the energy needed to break the pi bond in 2-butene. CH3 CH3 CH3 H \ / \ / C=C ------, C=C / \ / \ H H H CH3 Cis-2-butene ...
Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapours adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Remove all ignition sources. Do NOT wash away into sewer. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations ...
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Highly branch-selective, carbonyl-directed hydroarylations of monosubstituted alkenes are described. The chemistry relies upon a cationic Ir(I) catalyst modified with an electron deficient, wide bite angle bisphosphine ligand. This work provides a regioisomeric alternative to the Murai hydroarylation protocol.. Full details in the University publications repository. ...
... - Producing 7.5 billion pounds of Olefins and Polymers per annum from 5 North American sites. INEOS Olefins & Polymers USA are North Americas third largest manufacturer of high density polyethylene and polypropylene. As well as North Americas second largest merchant marketer of ethylene.
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Masahito ochiai.; Kenzo sumi.; Eiichi fujita. Silicon-Assisted Ring Opening of Cyclopropyl Ketones with Boron Trifluoride-Acetic Acid Complex. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1983, 31, (11), 3931-3938.. John v. Heid.; Robert levine. The Acylation of furan and thiophene with aliphatic anhydrides in the presence of boron trifluoride-etherate. J. Org. Chem. 1948, 13, (3), 409-412.. Mild acid catalyst which has found use as a desilylating agent: Allylsilanes undergo desilylation, via ß-stabilized carbocations, to give alkenes with allylic rearrangement: Tetrahedron Lett., 446 (1979); J. Chem. Soc., Perkin 1, 3267 (1992). -Silyl tertiary alcohols undergo a pinacol-like rearrangement to give alkenes: Tetrahedron Lett., 22, 2321 (1981). Has been used in the protodesilylation of the phenyl group as part of the conversion of the dimethylphenylsilyl group into a hydroxyl group with retention of configuration: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin 1, 317 (1995). For reaction scheme, see ...
[ Colligative Properties Catalyst Lab Manual Answers ] - Chemistry Archive February 22 2017 Chegg Com,Chemistry Archive September 01 2017 Chegg Com,130 Lab Final Review Key Chemistry 130 With Green At University
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Cossy, J. [Hrsg.] Science of Synthesis : Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations Vol.26: Category 4, Compounds with two Carbon-Heteroatom Bonds. Ketones. Stuttgart : Thieme, ...
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1. Trichloroalkanes of structure CCl3CH2(CH2)nH (n=5, 7, 9, 11, 13) are hydrolyzed smoothly to the corresponding carboxylic acids when heated with water at 300-330° for one hour. 2. The hydrolysis...
The ruthenium-based catalysts (PCy[subscript 3])[subscript 2](Cl)[subscript 2]Ru=CHPh (1) and (IMesH[subscript 2])(PCy[subscript 3])(Cl)[subscript 2]Ru=CHPh (2) [IMesH[subscript 2] = 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene] show high olefin metathesis activity in the presence of most common functional groups and have been widely used in synthetic chemistry. This thesis describes mechanistic, structural, and synthetic studies aimed at understanding the reactivity of these complexes, and at developing new olefin metathesis catalysts with superior properties. Chapter 2 details the effects of ligand variation on the mechanism and activity of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts. A series of ruthenium complexes of the general formula (L)(PR[subscript 3])(X)[subscript 2]Ru=CHR[superscript 1] were prepared, and the influence of the ancillary ligands L,X, R, and R[superscript 1] on the rates of phosphine dissociation and initiation as well as on the overall catalytic activity was examined. ...
Transition-metal-mediated cross coupling reaction of alkynes and alkenes has recently gained increasing significance in organic chemistry because it represents an efficient method for the formation of new carbon-carbon bond. In recent years, two types of the coupling reactions have been developed: intramolecular couplings of enynes and intermolecular couplings of alkynes and alkenes. These results were classified into two mechanistic pathways, one not involving carbon-carbon bond cleavage, insertion mechanism, and the other involving carbon-carbon bond cleavage, metathesis mechanism. While the coupling reactions of alkynes with substituted alkenes have been well developed, there are very few reports on the coupling of alkynes with the simplest alkene, ethylene documented in the literature. Our research goal is to develop a new rutheniumbased system to study the coupling reactions of alkynes with ethylene, and extend its scope to enyne and substituted alkenes.
Using Bromine Water to Test for an Alkene (unsaturated hydrocarbons) - lesson plan ideas from Spiral. Tagged under: chemistry,hydrocarbon,GCSE,Alkene (Chemical Classification),science,YouTube Editor,alkene,c3,c2,c1,Bromine (Chemical Element),Bromine Water,Unsaturated Hydrocarbon (Chemical Classification),unsaturated,alkali,bromine
Lewis, Frank and Harwood, Laurence (2012) Recent Applications of the Intramolecular Diels-Alder Furan (IMDAF) Reaction in Natural Product Synthesis. In: Targets in Heterocyclic Systems. Royal Society of Chemistry/Italian Chemical Society, London, pp. 1-30. ISBN 978-8-88620-862-8 ...
70983-65-2 - Alkenes, C20-24 alpha-, polymers with maleic anhydride, mixed decyl octyl esters - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complexes consisting of different donor substituents attached to the NHC ligand efficiently catalyse the transfer hydrogenation of ketones and of activated olefins in α,β-unsaturated ketones to give saturated alcohols. The most active catalyst precursor contains a tethered olefin as a hemilabile donor site. This complex also converts nitriles and, depending on the reaction conditions, either benzylamines are produced by means of transfer hydrogenation, or amides from formal addition of H2O. Kinetic analysis of the double hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated ketones indicates fast isomerisation of the enol intermediate to its saturated ketone tautomer prior to the second hydrogenation ...
The research presented in this thesis describes the application of phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the bacteria Anabaena variabilis (AvPAL), as a biocatalyst for the asymmetric hydroamination of cinnamic acid derivatives. PALs from eukaryotic sources such as the plant Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL) and yeast Rhodotorula glutinis (RgPAL) have been widely used as biocatalysts for the synthesis of non-natural amino acids. For example the PAL catalyzed hydroamination of 2-chlorocinnamic acid has been implemented by DSM Pharma Chemicals on a tonne scale. However, there are very few examples of prokaryotic PALs and to our knowledge their activity towards unnatural substrates has not been investigated. Herein we explore the activity of AvPAL towards a panel of cinnamic acid analogues. For comparison, the activity of the commonly studied eukaryotic PcPAL and RgPAL towards the same substrate panel was also investigated. Although the difference in substrate conversions between the three PALs was fairly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potassium 4-iodylbenzenesulfonate (PIBS). T2 - An efficient recyclable hypervalent iodine reagent for iodo-functionalization of alkenes, alkynes and ketones. AU - Mironova, Irina A.. AU - Yusubova, Roza Yavidovna. AU - Kukurina, Olga S.. AU - Yusubov, Mekhman S.. AU - Zhdankin, Viktor V.. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Potassium 4-iodylbenzenesulfonate (PIBS) is a thermally stable and water soluble hypervalent iodine oxidant particularly useful as a recyclable reagent for oxidative iodination of alkenes, alkynes and ketones. This reagent can be effectively recovered from the reaction mixture by treatment of the aqueous layer with Oxone at 60 ºC followed by filtration of the precipitate.. AB - Potassium 4-iodylbenzenesulfonate (PIBS) is a thermally stable and water soluble hypervalent iodine oxidant particularly useful as a recyclable reagent for oxidative iodination of alkenes, alkynes and ketones. This reagent can be effectively recovered from the reaction mixture by ...
An enantioselective total synthesis of zampanolide has been accomplished using a novel DDQ/Brønsted acid promoted cyclization as the key reaction. The synthesis features cross-metathesis to construct the trisubstituted olefin and a ring-closing metathesis to form the macrolactone. The final N-acyl aminal formation was stereoselectively accomplished by an organocatalytic reaction.

Alkyne nomenclature | Alkenes and Alkynes | Organic chemistry | Khan AcademyAlkyne nomenclature | Alkenes and Alkynes | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy

... www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes/alkene-reactions-tutorial/v/ozonolysis-1?utm_source=YT&utm;_ ... Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes/naming-preparation-alkynes/v/ ...
more infohttps://curiosity.com/videos/alkyne-nomenclature-or-alkenes-and-alkynes-or-organic-chemistry-or-khan-academy-khan-academy

Alkenes and the joy of organic chemistry | Organic chemistry teachingAlkenes and the joy of organic chemistry | Organic chemistry teaching

Use Hesss law to work out which of these alkenes is more stable, this should help you understand what makes a alkene more or ... What are alkenes, learn about cis and trans. Note the steric effect normally favours the trans. But in the case of small and ... OK pep talk is over for a moment lets look again at my slides which are about alkene chemistry. ... Note that small bases tend to make the alkene which is more thermodynamically favoured. ...
more infohttps://drmarkforeman.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/alkenes-and-the-joy-of-organic-chemistry/

Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling Reactions of Alkynes and Alkenes by Yuzhong Chen"Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling Reactions of Alkynes and Alkenes" by Yuzhong Chen

While the coupling reactions of alkynes with substituted alkenes have been well developed, there are very few reports on the ... intramolecular couplings of enynes and intermolecular couplings of alkynes and alkenes. These results were classified into two ... and extend its scope to enyne and substituted alkenes. ... coupling of alkynes with the simplest alkene, ethylene ... Transition-metal-mediated cross coupling reaction of alkynes and alkenes has recently gained increasing significance in organic ...
more infohttps://epublications.marquette.edu/theses/2433/

An arene-alkene photocycloaddition-radical cyclization cascade: The first synthesis of cis,cis,cis,trans-[5.5.5.5]-fenestranes<...An arene-alkene photocycloaddition-radical cyclization cascade: The first synthesis of cis,cis,cis,trans-[5.5.5.5]-fenestranes<...

An arene-alkene photocycloaddition-radical cyclization cascade: The first synthesis of cis,cis,cis,trans-[5.5.5.5]-fenestranes ... T1 - An arene-alkene photocycloaddition-radical cyclization cascade. T2 - The first synthesis of cis,cis,cis,trans-[5.5.5.5]- ... title = "An arene-alkene photocycloaddition-radical cyclization cascade: The first synthesis of cis,cis,cis,trans-[5.5.5.5]- ... An arene-alkene photocycloaddition-radical cyclization cascade: The first synthesis of cis,cis,cis,trans-[5.5.5.5]-fenestranes ...
more infohttps://nyu-staging.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/an-arene-alkene-photocycloaddition-radical-cyclization-cascade-th

organic chemistry facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about organic chemistryorganic chemistry facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about organic chemistry

ALKENES AND ALKYNES.. The names of the alkenes, hydrocarbons that contain one or more double bonds per molecule, are parallel ... alkenes have the general formula CnH2n. Alkenes having ring structures are called cycloalkenes. A 5-carbon ring with a double ... The formula for alkenes is CnH2n-2. Among the members of this group are acetylene, or C2H2, used for welding steel. Plastic ... Both alkenes and alkynes, discussed below, are unsaturated-in other words, some of the carbon atoms in them are free to form ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/organic-chemistry

Best 25+ Organic reactions ideas on Pinterest | Organic chemistry, Organic chemistry reactions and ChemistryBest 25+ Organic reactions ideas on Pinterest | Organic chemistry, Organic chemistry reactions and Chemistry

Alkene Reactions Organic Chemistry Cheat Sheet Study Guide - See all the alkene reactions at a glance including reactants, ... This updated reaction map shows all the key reactions of alkanes, alkyl halides, alkenes, and alkynes.. See More. ... Organic Chemistry Reaction Map Diagram - Molecule sequence for reactions involving alkenes, alkyenes, epoxides, radicals, ...
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Organic Chemistry Revision Notes Pdf / Manual De Taller Motomel Xmm 250Organic Chemistry Revision Notes Pdf / Manual De Taller Motomel Xmm 250

Chapter 11: Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds. Owners Manual,Physics Revision Notes For Ordinary Level,Steve Jobs La.New ...
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Rhodium: Drug Chemistry ArchiveRhodium: Drug Chemistry Archive

Oxidation of Alkenes to Diols with Iodine and KIO3 * Synthesis of N-Iodosuccinimide (NIS) and using it to prepare iodohydrin ... The Origin of Alkenes in Illicit Amphetamine: Examination of the Illicit Synthesis of P2P ... Oxidation of Alkenes to Diols with KMnO4/PTC * ... Nitroalkenes from Alkenes using NaNO2/I2/Ethylene Glycol * ...
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Alkenes (SMART-created)  | CurrikiAlkenes (SMART-created) | Curriki

Learn the generic formula for an alkene and the chemical structure of the first few alkenes. This lesson activity is also ... Learn the generic formula for an alkene and the chemical structure of the first few alkenes. This lesson activity is also ... Learn the generic formula for an alkene and the chemical structure of the first few alkenes. This lesson activity is also ... Alkenes (SMART-created) Website Address:https://www.curriki.org/oer/Alkenes-SMART-created- ...
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What are Alkenes? | HubPagesWhat are Alkenes? | HubPages

Alkenes are very useful to us in our daily life, but do you know what they are? ... Alkenes are from the family of hydrocarbons which also includes alkanes along with many other substances. ... What are alkenes used for?. Alkenes have one major use that we see all the time in our daily lives. That is plastic! Alkenes ... Alkenes are also used for fuels and alkenes were also used in mustard gas that was used in world war two. Also alkenes can be ...
more infohttps://hubpages.com/education/What-are-Alkenes

Category:Alkene derivatives - WikipediaCategory:Alkene derivatives - Wikipedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alkene derivatives.. This category is for substituted alkenes or other compounds ... Pages in category "Alkene derivatives". The following 147 pages are in this category, out of 147 total. This list may not ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Alkene_derivatives&oldid=833608078" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Alkene_derivatives

Reactions of AlkenesReactions of Alkenes

... Alkenes, and in particular terminal alkenes, are readily prepared (e.g. J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 9342. ), ... the net three-component coupling of the alkene 31, the alkenyl nonaflate 32, and the alkenyl boronic acid 33 to give the alkene ... the p-quinone methide 29 to the alkene 28, leading to 30. Matthew S. Sigman of the University of Utah established (Org. Lett. ... the alkene 13 directly to the imido ketone 16. John Hartwig of the University of California, Berkeley, observed (J. Am. Chem. ...
more infohttps://www.organic-chemistry.org/Highlights/2016/28November.shtm

Reactions of AlkenesReactions of Alkenes

... The catalytic reduction of the alkene 1 gave the cis-fused product (not illustrated), by kinetic H2 ... conditions for the kinetic isomerization of a terminal alkene 6 to the Z internal alkene 7. Christoforos G. Kokotos of the ... conditions for the Marvovnikov hydration of the alkene 6 to the alcohol 15. Internal alkenes were inert under these conditions ... the alkene 24 in the presence of 25 to give the coupled product 26. Shang-Dong Yang of Lanzhou University showed (Org. Lett. ...
more infohttps://www.organic-chemistry.org/Highlights/2015/30March.shtm

Alkenes dictionaryAlkenes dictionary

The dictionary of alkenes contains a set of kewords with translations related to alkenes. Translations in more than 50 ... Alkene Alken. Ethylene Etilen. Dictionary of Alkenes in other languages:. Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Basque Bengali ...
more infohttps://www.dicts.info/dictionary/?topic=alkenes&l1=Turkish

Alkenes dictionaryAlkenes dictionary

The dictionary of alkenes contains a set of kewords with translations related to alkenes. Translations in more than 50 ... Alkene Alkeno. Ethylene Etileno. Dictionary of Alkenes in other languages:. Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Basque Bengali ...
more infohttps://www.dicts.info/dictionary/?topic=alkenes&l1=Tagalog

ALKENES IALKENES I

A monosubstituted alkene has 3, a disubstituted alkene has 2, a trisubstituted alkene has 1, and a tetrasubstituted alkene as ... Alkene IUPAC Nomenclature *The E,Z System of Alkene Nomenclature STRUCTURE AND HYBRIDIZATION OF ETHENE AND OTHER ALKENES * ... ALKENES I:PROPERTIES OF ALKENES. TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THIS CHAPTER. * Structure and Hybridization of Ethene and other Alkenes ... ALKENE NOMENCLATURE. *The IUPAC nomenclature for alkenes is analogous to that for alkanes with a very few essential ...
more infohttp://research.cm.utexas.edu/nbauld/teach/alkenes1.html

Alkenes: PolymerizationAlkenes: Polymerization

Polymerization is a process by which an organic compound reacts with itself to form a high‐molecular‐weight compound composed of repeating units of the original
more infohttps://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guides/chemistry/organic-chemistry-i/reactions-of-alkenes/alkenes-polymerization

Alkenes, alkynes, dienes, polyenes
    -
    Photochemistry
    (RSC Publishing)Alkenes, alkynes, dienes, polyenes - Photochemistry (RSC Publishing)

Alkenes, alkynes, dienes, polyenes. Takashi Tsuno This review briefly covers the literature concerning photochemistry of ... alkenes, alkynes, dienes, and polyenes published during July 2004 and June 2007. ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/chapter/b812707g/978-1-84755-993-7

What are some natural sources of alkenes? | Reference.comWhat are some natural sources of alkenes? | Reference.com

Some natural sources of alkenes are terpenes, ethylene, food containing Vitamin A and β-carotene. Vitamin A is present in foods ... Organic compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds are called alkenes. Alkenes are used to make two important products in ... Some natural sources of alkenes are terpenes, ethylene, food containing Vitamin A and β-carotene. Vitamin A is present in foods ... Terpene is the main source of natural alkene. According to Chemgapedia, the milky sap in a rubber tree contains polyene, which ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/natural-sources-alkenes-2f414485cfa34757

Alkenes and alkynes | Organic chemistry | Science |
Khan AcademyAlkenes and alkynes | Organic chemistry | Science | Khan Academy

... and also learn about the vast possibility of reactions using alkenes and alkynes as starting materials. ... Alkenes and alkynes can be transformed into almost any other functional group you can name! We will review their nomenclature, ... Alkenes and alkynes can be transformed into almost any other functional group you can name! We will review their nomenclature, ... cis-trans and E-Z naming scheme for alkenes. (Opens a modal) ... Entgegen-Zusammen naming scheme for alkenes examples. (Opens a ...
more infohttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes/alkyne-reactions/v/hydrohalogenation-of-alkynes?modal=1

Alkenes, C11-12 - Dossier Evaluation status - ECHAAlkenes, C11-12 - Dossier Evaluation status - ECHA

ECHAs dossier evaluation process covers compliance checks and the examination of testing proposals. By consulting the table below, you can find out whether ECHA has started to evaluate dossiers for a particular substance and follow the progress through the evaluation process. The table below displays the type, scope and status of the assessment undertaken for a given dossier. The decision date and the non-confidential version of the decision are published shortly after the decision has been adopted. Before publishing the non-confidential version of an adopted decision on its website, ECHA consults the addressees of the decision on this version. ECHA systematically removes any personal data from the non-confidential version of a decision. Some sections may also be redacted based on justified claims by registrants, regarding information confidential or deemed to harm their commercial interest if disclosed. Check the expandable boxes below for more details. ...
more infohttps://www.echa.europa.eu/web/guest/information-on-chemicals/dossier-evaluation-status/-/dislist/details/0b0236e183e3b32f

Alkenes, C20-24 α- - Registration Dossier - ECHAAlkenes, C20-24 α- - Registration Dossier - ECHA

Members of this category do not contain any hydrolysable functional groups, so will not undergo hydrolysis. Category members with carbon numbers from C6 to C24 have been shown to be readily biodegradable in biodegradation screening tests. Due to this, the simulation tests on degradation in water, soil and sediment are not required for these substances as they not expected to persist in the aquatic or terrestrial environment. Category members with carbon numbers of C26 and above are not considered to be readily biodegradable. Log BCFs have been calculated on the basis of the measured or calculated log Kow using two different QSARs that are appropriate for members of this category. When the log Kow was outside the QSAR domain results have been read across from category members based on the observed trend in log BCF. Log Koc have also been calculated on the basis of the measured or calculated log Kow using a QSAR that is appropriate for members of this category. When the log Kow was outside the ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/14498/5/1

Alkenes, C12-14 α- - Substance Information - ECHAAlkenes, C12-14 α- - Substance Information - ECHA

This is unique source of information on the chemicals manufactured and imported in Europe. It covers their hazardous properties, classification and labelling, and information on how to use them safely.. REACH. ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.084.026

Alkenes and alkynes | Organic chemistry | Science |
Khan AcademyAlkenes and alkynes | Organic chemistry | Science | Khan Academy

... and also learn about the vast possibility of reactions using alkenes and alkynes as starting materials. ... Alkenes and alkynes can be transformed into almost any other functional group you can name! We will review their nomenclature, ...
more infohttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes

Copper(i)-photocatalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkenes - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)Copper(i)-photocatalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkenes - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)

... trifluoromethylation reactions of alkenes are conducted effectively at low copper loading (0.1-0.5 mol%) on exposing the ... Copper(I)-photocatalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkenes R. Beniazza, F. Molton, C. Duboc, A. Tron, N. D. McClenaghan, D. ... Using the photoreducible CuII precatalyst 2, trifluoromethylation reactions of alkenes are conducted effectively at low copper ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2015/cc/c5cc01923k/unauth
  • What are alkenes, learn about cis and trans. (wordpress.com)
  • The first cis,cis,cis,trans-[5.5.5.fenestranes have been synthesized in three steps using a novel arene-alkene photocycloaddition-radical cyclization cascade, which creates overall 5 new rings and 8 stereogenic centers. (elsevier.com)
  • Note that small bases tend to make the alkene which is more thermodynamically favoured. (wordpress.com)
  • Aromatic compounds are often drawn as cyclic alkenes, but their structure and properties are different and they are not considered to be alkenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some natural sources of alkenes are terpenes, ethylene, food containing Vitamin A and β-carotene. (reference.com)
  • The simplest alkene, ethylene (C2H4), with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name ethene, is the organic compound produced on the largest scale industrially. (wikipedia.org)
  • This category is for substituted alkenes or other compounds containing a carbon-carbon double bond that do not fit into other more specific categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guided by this goal, the researchers devised a novel two-component catalyst system that performs the dehydrogenation reaction at room temperature, making hydrogen gas and a molecule containing an alkene, or carbon-carbon double bond. (phys.org)
  • In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "C" stands for carbon and the "H" stands for hydrogen, that is why alkenes come from the hydrocarbon family. (hubpages.com)
  • Chemists at Princeton have developed a new chemical method to introduce valuable alkenes into simple hydrocarbon molecules, a transformation known as dehydrogenation, which is found in important processes such as the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids in the body and the commercial production of detergents. (phys.org)
  • Pyramidalized cage alkenes also exist where symmetrical bending of the substituents predominates without p-orbital misalignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkenes form monomers and then join together to form polymers to make plastic. (hubpages.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method of polymerizing normal mono-l-alkenes of to about 25 carbon atoms, especially with one or more dissimilar ethylenically-unsaturated monomers. (google.com)
  • As stated above, the polymerization method of the present invention is particularly useful for forming copolymers of the normal mono-l-alkene with dissimilar, olefinica'llyunsaturated monomers which may exhibit faster addition polymerization rates than the comparatively slow polymerizing alpha-olefins. (google.com)
  • conditions for the Marvovnikov hydration of the alkene 6 to the alcohol 15 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Possibilities to control the regioselectivity of the hydration of alkenes are explained. (chemgapedia.de)
  • The catalytic reduction of the alkene 1 gave the cis-fused product (not illustrated), by kinetic H 2 addition to the less congested face of the alkene. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Cresswell AJ, Eey ST-C, Denmark SE (2015) Catalytic, stereospecific syn -dichlorination of alkenes. (springer.com)
  • Cresswell AJ, Eey STC, Denmark SE (2015) Catalytic, stereoselective dihalogenation of alkenes: challenges and opportunities. (springer.com)
  • Alkenes are prepared by the hydroboration of enamines followed by an elimination reaction to form the alkene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2) subjecting the organoborane formed in step (1) to an elimination reaction under reaction conditions sufficient to form the alkene corresponding to the alkene portion of the starting enamine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, the dual catalyst system has yet to reach the same level of efficiency as existing methods, which the researchers suspect is due to the alkene product binding to the decatungstate catalyst, inhibiting its participation in the reaction. (phys.org)
  • Charge TBS-DHG or DHR catalyst (0.10-0.15 eq), propanediol diboron, B2(pro)2 (2.0-3.0 eq), 4A molecular sieves, and the alkene substrate (1.0 eq) into a dry reaction flask in the glove box. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In cycloheptene (1.1) the cis isomer is an ordinary unstrained molecule, but the heptane ring is too small to accommodate a trans-configured alkene group resulting in strain and twisting of the double bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since rotation around the C=C is strongly resisted by the pi bond, as noted above, alkenes which have a substituent on both carbons of the double bond can exist as two different isomers in which the substitutents are either on the same side of the double bond (cis) or opposite sides (trans). (utexas.edu)
  • Linear alkenes of approximately five to sixteen carbons are liquids, and higher alkenes are waxy solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prof. James Morken has developed metal-free, affordable, enantioselective, 1,2-diboration of alkenes cocatalyzed by carbohydrate-derived catalysts and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.ndec-7-ene ( DBU , 139009). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • General scheme for the enantioselective diboration of alkenes with B2(pro)2 and carbohydrate-derived catalysts, TBS-DHG and DHR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Santi C, Di Lorenzo R, Tidei C, Bagnoli L, Wirth T (2012) Stereoselective selenium catalyzed dihydroxylation and hydroxymethoxylation of alkenes. (springer.com)
  • Relatively long-chain normal monol-alkenes, i.e., those having at least 5 carbon atoms, are generally characterized as possessing slow addition polymerization rates. (google.com)
  • Bonding, hybridization and molecular orbital model of alkenes are explained. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Unsymmetrical alkenes are covered separately, and you will find a link at the bottom of the page. (chemguide.co.uk)
  • Pyramidal alkenes only exist in the laboratory but are of interest because much can be learned from them about the nature of chemical bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • what appears to be a general protocol for the anti-Markovnikov addition of HBr to an alkene, as illustrated by the conversion of 1 to 2 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Alkenes contain contain at least one double bond between the carbon atoms. (hubpages.com)
  • All you have to remember, is that alkenes contain a double bond. (hubpages.com)
  • For bridged alkenes, Bredt's rule states that a double bond cannot occur at the bridgehead of a bridged ring system unless the rings are large enough. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyramidal alkenes are alkenes in which the two carbon atoms making up the double bond are not coplanar with their four substituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of halogens to alkenes, its mechanism, and its stereochemistry are described in detail. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Introduction to the hydrogen halide addition to alkenes. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Learn the generic formula for an alkene and the chemical structure of the first few alkenes. (curriki.org)
  • high regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity in the formation of 18 by the Ir-catalyzed borylation of an alkyl silane, itself the product of direct silylation of the alkene 17 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • the alkene 20 by exposure to the commercial reagent 21 , then directly coupled that intermediate product with a Grignard reagent 22 to give 23 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • the alkene 24 in the presence of 25 to give the coupled product 26 . (organic-chemistry.org)
  • If you're a chemist, you have a keen sense of the importance of the alkene," Erik Sorensen, the Arthur Allan Patchett Professor in Organic Chemistry at Princeton and corresponding author. (phys.org)